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  • 1. Hardware Overview of the CPU and its parts, memory, binary codes, peripheral devices, other system components
  • 2. Schematic model of a computer system
  • 3. COMPUTATION CYCLE
    • I-cycle
    • E-cycle
  • 4. CPU
    • ALU
    • control unit
    • registers
    • data buses
    • Moore’s law: transistor density doubles every 18 months (today >100 M/chip)
  • 5. HOW ARE THEY INTERCONNECTED?
    • Through the system bus
  • 6. Memory
    • Main memory
    • RAM
      • EDO RAM (Extended Data Out RAM)
      • DRAM (Dynamic RAM – faster)
      • SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM – even faster)
    • ROM
    • PROM (WORM)
    • EPROM
    • PCMCIA cards (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
    • Flash memory – non-volatile chip – memory sticks
  • 7. Memory types
  • 8. Cache memory Easily accessible fast memory for frequently used data; located near the CPU
  • 9. BINARY NUMBERS vs. BINARY CODES
    • Binary numbers
    • Standard binary codes
        • ASCII (American Std. Code for Information Interchange)
        • EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
  • 10. Abbreviations & numbers of bytes they represent
  • 11. SPEED OF COMPUTERS
    • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing)
      • Using ALL instructions in the CPU (many PC’s)
    • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing)
      • Using only the necessary instructions in the CPU (faster than CISC)
    • VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word)
      • Including more words per instructions. (faster than RISC)
    • Parallel processing (more processors)
  • 12. Classes of computer systems
  • 13. Types of storage devices
    • Magnetic disks (random access)
        • hard discs
        • flexible disks
    • Memory sticks (random)
    • Optical disks (random)
    • Magnetic tapes (sequential)
  • 14. Hard disks
    • track/surface/cylinder concept
    • read-write head column
    • head-surface clearance
    • removable hard disks
    • data access times
      • seek time
      • rotation time
      • transfer time
  • 15. Hard disks (cont’d)
    • physical sizes of hard disks
    • storage capacities of hard disks
    • will a disk twice the size store twice the data?
  • 16. Flexible disks
    • Sizes
    • Storage capacities
      • HD diskettes – 1.44 MB
      • ZIP disks – 100, 250, 750 MB
      • Memory sticks – >512 MB
    • Formatting
    • Access times for some types of disks:
      • large DASD 1-10 msec
      • winchester 10-20 msec
      • floppy 175-300 msec
      • optical 100-500 msec
  • 17. Other disk technologies
    • Floptical disks (optical seek/magnetic store)
      • write & erase!
    • Cache disk (not a disk – it is a fast memory)
    • RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks)
    • Expandable storage devices
      • Disk cartridges
      • ZIP
      • Memory sticks
  • 18. Other disk technologies (cont’d)
    • Optical disks, CD’s (3-650 MB)
    • WORM optical disks
    • MO (Magneto-Optical) disks:
      • Magnetic/CDROM technologies combined
      • write & erase!!
    • DVD (17 gig: a larger capacity CD-ROM)
    • Indexed organization of disks for storage and retrieval
    • SAN (Storage Area Networks) – networked storage devices
  • 19. Tapes
    • Sequential access
    • Method of storage and parity
    • Tape cartridges Purpose and utility of tape storage
    • Blocking and density
    • Capacity: about 10 GB
  • 20. Some features of some secondary storage devices
  • 21. Input devices
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Bar code scanner
    • RFID receivers
    • Voice recognition
    • MICR reader
    • OCR
    • Pen input
    • Touch screen
    • Iris scanners
    • Magnetic card scanners
    • Image scanners
    • ATM (I/O)
  • 22. MICR on checks
  • 23. Output devices
    • Monitors
      • CRT
      • LCD
    • Printers
    • Plotters
    • Sound
      • Speakers
      • MP3
  • 24. Standards which ensure seamless operation & interfacing
    • Musical instruments digital standards
    • Multimedia standards
    • Plug and play standards
    • Small Computer System Interface standards (SCSI)
    • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) standards
  • 25. End Hardware