Flash Memory Presented By:  Rob Douglas, Alex Alexandrov
Points of Discussion <ul><li>Flash Memory Generalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction & Properties </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Flash Memory <ul><li>A type of EEPROM (Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-volatile...
Flash Memory <ul><li>Packaged inside a memory card: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can...
Flash Memory Cell
History of Flash Memory <ul><li>Invented by Fujio Masuoka while he was working for Toshiba in the early 1980s  </li></ul><...
Manufacturers of Flash
NOR Flash Memory <ul><li>Developed to replace read only memory </li></ul><ul><li>Full address and data buses allow random ...
NAND Flash Memory <ul><li>Developed to replace hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential-accessed command and data registers...
Optimizations <ul><li>Wear levelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counting writes & dynamically remapping blocks </li></ul></ul><...
Standardization <ul><li>Part of the reason for the success of Flash memory </li></ul><ul><li>Open NAND Flash Interface Wor...
New Developments <ul><li>AND Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit line replaced with embedded diffusion line to reduce cell siz...
Future of Flash Memory <ul><li>Continues to be among the most aggressively scaled electronic technologies </li></ul><ul><l...
In Closing… <ul><li>One of the most popular alternatives for portable device storage </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive advances...
References Wikipedia - Flash Memory How Stuff Works - Flash Memory http:// smithsonianchips.si.edu
Questions?
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Flash memory - Brock Computer Science | Your Education -- Our ...

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Flash memory - Brock Computer Science | Your Education -- Our ...

  1. 1. Flash Memory Presented By: Rob Douglas, Alex Alexandrov
  2. 2. Points of Discussion <ul><li>Flash Memory Generalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction & Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History of Flash Memory </li></ul><ul><li>NOR & NAND Architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Optimizations </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>New Developments & Future of Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Statements </li></ul>
  3. 3. Flash Memory <ul><li>A type of EEPROM (Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-volatile, solid state technology </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively limited lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>Information is stored in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate (FG) transistors </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flash Memory <ul><li>Packaged inside a memory card: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can withstand intense pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion in water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>Average power requirements range from 5V-12V </li></ul>
  5. 5. Flash Memory Cell
  6. 6. History of Flash Memory <ul><li>Invented by Fujio Masuoka while he was working for Toshiba in the early 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>First introduced at the 1984 International Electron Devices Meeting in San Francisco </li></ul>
  7. 7. Manufacturers of Flash
  8. 8. NOR Flash Memory <ul><li>Developed to replace read only memory </li></ul><ul><li>Full address and data buses allow random access to any memory location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can access any memory cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow sequential access </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. NAND Flash Memory <ul><li>Developed to replace hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential-accessed command and data registers replace the external bus of NOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases chip real estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only access pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster sequential access </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Optimizations <ul><li>Wear levelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counting writes & dynamically remapping blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad block management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write verification and remapping bad sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-Level Cell technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory cells store more than one bit </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Standardization <ul><li>Part of the reason for the success of Flash memory </li></ul><ul><li>Open NAND Flash Interface Working Group developed standard low-level interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard pinout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard command set for reading, writing, and erasing NAND flash chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism for self-identification </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. New Developments <ul><li>AND Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit line replaced with embedded diffusion line to reduce cell size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power dissipation (3V) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DINOR (DIvided bit-line NOR) Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to reduce the chip real estate compared to conventional NOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power dissipation (3V), sector erase, high data transfer rate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Future of Flash Memory <ul><li>Continues to be among the most aggressively scaled electronic technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cell size minimum of 20 nm expected to be met in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>May be replaced by Phase-Change RAM or other emerging technologies </li></ul>
  14. 14. In Closing… <ul><li>One of the most popular alternatives for portable device storage </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive advances are still being made </li></ul>
  15. 15. References Wikipedia - Flash Memory How Stuff Works - Flash Memory http:// smithsonianchips.si.edu
  16. 16. Questions?

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