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  • The lens aperture is usually specified as an f-number , the ratio of focal length to effective aperture diameter. A lens typically has a set of marked "f-stops" that the f-number can be set to. A lower f-number denotes a greater aperture opening which allows more light to reach the film or image sensor. Aperture priority refers to a shooting mode used in semi-automatic cameras. It allows the photographer to choose an aperture setting and allow the camera to decide the shutter speed and sometimes ISO sensitivity for the correct exposure. This is sometimes referred to as Aperture Priority Auto Exposure, A mode, Av mode, or semi-auto mode. Maximum and minimum apertures The specifications for a given lens typically include the minimum and maximum apertures. These refer to the maximum and minimum f-numbers the lens can be set at to achieve, respectively. For example, two versions of the Canon EF 70-200mm lens have a maximum aperture of f/ 2.8 and a minimum aperture of f/ 32. The maximum aperture (minimum f-number ) tends to be of most interest; it is known as the lens speed and is always included when describing a lens (e.g., 100-400mm f/ 5.6, or 70-200mm f/ 2.8). A typical lens will have an f-number range from f/ 16 (small aperture) to f/ 2 (large aperture) (these values vary). Professional lenses for 35mm cameras can have f-numbers as low as f/ 1.0, while professional lenses for some movie cameras can have f-numbers as low as f/ 0.75 (very large relative aperture). These are known as "fast" lenses because they allow much more light to reach the film and therefore reduce the required exposure time. Stanley Kubrick 's film Barry Lyndon is notable for having scenes shot with the largest relative aperture in film history: f/ 0.7.
  • DC1_ClassPresentation.ppt

    1. 1. Digital Camera Class 1 Revised, July 2009 Gold Country Computer Learning Center GCCLC
    2. 2. Lesson slides <ul><li>Lesson 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 4 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Lesson 1 Introduction to Digital Cameras <ul><li>The Community Center layout </li></ul><ul><li>Needed by students for this course: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your camera with batteries and memory card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries charged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student guide for this course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Cable connection camera to PC (opt) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Lesson One <ul><li>Finding information about your camera </li></ul><ul><li>What type of batteries are used in your camera </li></ul><ul><li>What type and size of memory in your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Basic camera modes </li></ul><ul><li>Optical and digital zoom in your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring Images to PC </li></ul>
    5. 5. Camera Basics <ul><li>Camera Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data chips – not film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reusable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn basic functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More enjoyable use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice between lessons </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. My Camera Exercise 1-1 <ul><li>Begin recording camera information </li></ul><ul><li>Enter as you complete various exercises </li></ul>
    7. 7. Camera Standard Features Batteries <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel Cadmium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Li-ion (Lithium Ion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External battery packs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise 1-2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the battery(ies) from your camera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they rechargeable or standard? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record the information in the chart found in Exercise 1-1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace the battery(ies). </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Camera Standard Features Camera Memory 1 <ul><li>Exercise 1-3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open the memory door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record the type of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SD Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>xD Picture Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microdrive </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Camera Standard Features Camera Memory 2 <ul><li>How many memory cards and what size? </li></ul><ul><li>Memory card costs (as of 7/2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 2GB Ultra II CompactFlash Card $7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 2GB SD Memory Card $3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 4GB SDHC Memory Card $9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 1GB xD Memory Card $16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 2GB xD Memory Card $25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 4GB Memory Stick Pro Duo $18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 8GB Memory Stick Pro Duo $32 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SanDisk 4GB microSD Memory Card $13 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Camera Standard Features Camera Memory 3 <ul><li>Number of Photos per camera memory and pixel capacity of the camera- for highest resolution & least compression </li></ul>Source: Olympus MP = mega pixel 960 1120 1280 1520 1920 2240 8 GB 480 560 640 760 960 1120 4 GB 240 280 320 380 480 560 2 GB 120 140 160 192 240 280 1 GB 60 70 80 96 120 140 512 MB Camera 12 MP Camera 10 MP Camera 8 MP Camera 7 MP Camera 6 MP Camera 5 MP Memory Card Size
    11. 11. Camera Modes <ul><li>What is a “mode”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture taking modes = settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-programmed camera settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies picture taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes some of these settings: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shutter speed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How long the shutter stays open </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shutter opening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much light is let in through the lens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many pixels of the shot will be saved to memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Camera Modes Exercise 1-4 <ul><li>Look closely at your camera – get out your manual </li></ul><ul><li>Some modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close-up (macro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Cameras Lenses <ul><li>Zoom – almost all digital cameras - standard </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical – what is the magnification of yours? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lens moves in and out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>true telephoto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital – Causes loss of quality! Use cautiously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lens doesn’t move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>camera magnifies existing optical image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SLR – single lens reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable lenses </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Taking a Few Test Photos Exercise 1-5 (pg11) <ul><li>Two-step shooting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press half-way down (why?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then press the rest of the way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn on your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Take a “head” picture of someone in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Take a picture of something across the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Turn your camera off </li></ul>
    15. 15. Transfer the Photos Exercise 1-6 (page 12) <ul><li>Turn off your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Insert data chip into the PC (or use USB cable & follow camera instructions) </li></ul><ul><li>Select first option in window </li></ul><ul><li>Select photos to download </li></ul><ul><li>Enter your name for the “group” </li></ul>
    16. 16. Transfer the Photos Exercise 1-6 (page 15-cont.) <ul><li>After photos are copied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Finish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If enough time – instructor will show how to view the photos </li></ul><ul><li>Remove your data chip (or properly disconnect USB cable) </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Note: See the alternative procedure in the student manual (page 12) if the wizard does not appear </li></ul>
    17. 17. Homework for Lesson 1 Get ready for Lesson 2 <ul><li>During the week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review your camera manual so that you are familiar with each of the functions/modes discussed in class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice taking some pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice copying photos to your PC </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Lesson 2 Using the Camera <ul><li>Student needs for this lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your camera with charged batteries and data chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student guide for this course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding more information about your camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image quality settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical (and digital) zoom in your camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the zoom ratings of your camera? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash modes of your camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture taking exercises </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Review of Basic Camera Functions and Controls <ul><li>On/Off – Button or sliding lens cover </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Modes – Auto, (Semi-Manual, and Manual), landscape, action, close-up, video, night, portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Lenses – Optical (and Digital) zoom </li></ul>
    20. 20. Image Quality Settings (1/2) <ul><li>Image quality settings affect the quality of the picture and the number of pictures your data chip will hold </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the quality – the fewer number of pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Example (Cannon 128 MB card) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Image Quality Settings (2/2) Examples Canon Olympus
    22. 22. Optical and Digital Zoom <ul><li>Background about Zoom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes image from wide-angle to close-up (telephoto) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brings a far image closer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zoom – almost all digital cameras - standard </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical – what is the magnification of your camera lens? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lens moves in and out (W and T) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True telephoto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare digital camera lenses by the optical zoom rating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital – what is the digital zoom rating of your camera lens? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lens doesn’t move </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camera magnifies the existing optical image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crops the existing optical image – and magnifies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best to disable digital zoom in your camera unless your are sure of results </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Zoom Lens Effects <ul><li>Wide Angle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Objects in mirror are closer than they appear” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorts near objects larger than reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zoom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorts distant objects larger than reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow perspective </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Zoom Lens Effects <ul><li>Portraits are usually best taken zoomed out to prevent close features from appearing fatter </li></ul><ul><li>But experiment for effect! </li></ul>Wide Angle Zoom
    25. 25. More Zoom Wide Angle – 0.5x Normal – 1x Zoom – 8x Zoom – 3x
    26. 26. Digital Zoom – Grainy Result
    27. 27. Lens Resolution in Digital Cameras <ul><li>Resolution = pixels captured when taking the picture </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with file size </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with picture quality </li></ul><ul><li>2 MP vs. 3 MP in amount of data captured </li></ul><ul><li>A 3 MP camera with a 10x optical zoom – records maximum of 3 MP of data </li></ul>
    28. 28. Resolution = Picture Quality <ul><li>Quality = size of the printed picture </li></ul><ul><li>The larger is the file size, the larger can be the printed picture </li></ul><ul><li>The number of pixels matters </li></ul><ul><li>High quality requires more pixels </li></ul>Pixels ~ 7 8 x 10 ~ 3 5 x 7 ~ 2 4 x 6 File Size in Megapixels Very good quality Print Size in inches
    29. 29. Resolution Examples High Resolution Low Resolution
    30. 30. <ul><li>What flash features does your camera have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Modes Check below your camera features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auto [ ] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash On, Fill Flash, or [ ] Forced Flash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flash OFF [ ] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red-eye reduction [ ] </li></ul></ul></ul>Flash Exercise 2-1 (p 23)
    31. 31. Picture Taking – 10 minutes Exercise 2-2 (p 24) <ul><li>( Zoom – 2 pictures – flash off ) Find a distant object in the classroom up against the wall - like the door and take pictures with no zoom and then maximum optical zoom of your camera. </li></ul><ul><li>( Zoom – 1 pictures – flash off ) This time take a picture of someone or an object that is in the foreground using optical zoom– like maybe 5 feet in front of a wall, door or bookcase. </li></ul><ul><li>( Flash – 2 pictures – “Off and Auto flash” ) Find an object that is slightly shaded or in a shadow like in the front of the classroom with the front lights off, or open one of the closets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a picture with flash off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then turn flash on Automatic and take the same picture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Flash – 2 pictures ) Find a person who is slightly in the shade or shadow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a head picture with Auto flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take one picture with “red eye” flash turned on. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Flash – 2 pictures ) With flash OFF, take a head picture of someone who is well illuminated then take the same picture with a flash (fill flash) turned on. This will help to show the “wash out” effects that a flash will have. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Reviewing Your Photos using your camera Exercise 2-3 (p 25) <ul><li>Review photos using the playback feature </li></ul><ul><li>Delete photos that do not meet your expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To do this, use your instruction manual for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally you use the Viewing, or Browsing, feature of the camera to see the photo on the LCD display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the erase picture button and confirm that you want it erased. Erase one picture at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>View the next picture and perform the same steps. If you do not want to erase the picture, then simply select the next photo on the camera. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Transfer Photos to the PC Exercises 2-4 and 2-5 <ul><li>Start the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the data chip – insert in PC </li></ul><ul><li>Select “Copy pictures to a folder” (p 26) </li></ul><ul><li>Select photos to download </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the directory name group = your name </li></ul><ul><li>Next then Finish </li></ul>
    34. 34. Removing Images from the Data Chip (p 30) <ul><li>Data chip looks like a hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>File and Folder Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move – takes from chip to PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy – adds a copy to PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete – deletes from chip </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. End of Lesson 2 <ul><li>Remove data chip from PC </li></ul><ul><li>Place data chip back in camera </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Homework for Lesson 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review optical and digital zoom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your camera’s flash range in feet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice taking pictures then removing photos from the data chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When chip is in the camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When chip is in the PC </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Lesson 3 Composition and E-mailing <ul><li>Student needs for this lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your camera with charged batteries and data chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student guide for this course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This Lesson: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composing your pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mailing your pictures </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Review from Lesson 2 <ul><li>What is the difference between optical and digital zoom? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have enough time to work on flash? Any questions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between Auto, Fill or manual flash, and flash off? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reviewing, deleting images using the camera? </li></ul><ul><li>Copying images to your PC? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Composing Your Pictures (as you take them) <ul><li>Strong point of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A focal point that is off-center (Rule of Thirds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add people for scale and interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad weather photos can be very interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcast – few shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill-flash useful </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 1: Get down to their level </li></ul>
    40. 40. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 2: Plain background </li></ul>
    41. 41. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 3: Using flash outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Fill flash </li></ul><ul><li>Manual flash </li></ul>
    42. 42. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 4: Move in close to subject </li></ul><ul><li>Three feet (+) is good </li></ul><ul><li>Fill picture area with subject </li></ul>
    43. 43. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 5: Take some vertical pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul>
    44. 44. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 6: Move it from the middle </li></ul>
    45. 45. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 7: Focus control – lock the focus (two-step) </li></ul><ul><li>Half-way down to focus and lock in the lens setting </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for the OK signal </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on subject </li></ul>
    46. 46. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 8: Lock the focus </li></ul><ul><li>“Center weighted” focus </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the subject – then move to compose </li></ul><ul><li>Use two-step process </li></ul>
    47. 47. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 9: Delays in auto-focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens when camera is confused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use two-step process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point at main area of interest and press half-way to focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose picture and press the rest of the way </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 10: Know flash range of your camera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main mistake – subject out of flash range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use “night flash” – background with subject up front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your camera’s flash range? _______ ft. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 11: Watch the light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use flash when needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move subject or yourself </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Composition Tips <ul><li>Tip 12: Be a picture director </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take control of the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick the location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange your subjects when needed </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Picture taking Exercise 3-1 20 minutes (p 41) <ul><li>Down to “their” level: (2 pictures): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look down at object (person) ~ 3ft from ground, take picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get down to their level, take picture from 10 feet away w/zoom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plain background (2 pictures): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing background, take a picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then take a picture with a plain background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fill flash (2 pictures) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person in shadow, bright background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take another picture with fill flash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move in Close to subject (2 pictures) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 - 20 feet from subject, take picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move closer or zoom so subject fills frame, take picture </li></ul></ul>“Buddy up” with person next to you
    52. 52. Picture Taking Exercise (cont) <ul><li>Vertical picture (2 pictures): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a tall object and take a picture in vertical (portrait) mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a picture of the same object in regular horizontal (landscape) mode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offset from the middle (2 pictures): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find an object which you believe is interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take picture with object in middle of frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a picture of the object moving it off center to the left or right (1/3 way) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus control, nearby object (2 pictures) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject off center, center is far away, take picture in 2 step mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same picture, first focus on subject (half way down), then move to frame with subject off center, take picture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be a director (1 picture): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize a couple of people and direct them how to pose for an interesting picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the picture </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Transfer Photos and Review Them Exercise 3-2 <ul><li>Place the data chip in the PC and copy the photos into your folder under My Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Open the folder and double-click on one of the pictures </li></ul><ul><li>This will start the Windows Picture and Fax Viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Notice at the bottom of the screen are arrows on the left middle – this allows you to scroll through the pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Notice at the bottom middle the two magnifying glasses. To the left of those is an icon looking like a picture screen. This is the slide show icon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on the slide show icon. Your pictures will scroll automatically from one to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can escape the slide show by clicking the Esc key on your keyboard or wait until the show has ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safely remove the data chip and install in your camera </li></ul>
    54. 54. E-mailing your photos (Outlook Express) Exercise 3-3 (p 42) <ul><li>My Pictures<your folder> </li></ul><ul><li>Select image file to e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Choose “E-mail this file” </li></ul><ul><li>Choose “Make all my pictures smaller” </li></ul><ul><li>Click OK </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook Express will open </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your e-mail address (look on r-side of PC tower for the name) </li></ul><ul><li>Give the e-mail a Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Send the message </li></ul><ul><li>Wait a minute or two </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “Send and Receive” </li></ul><ul><li>Open the message you just sent </li></ul><ul><li>Re-do this exercise a few times – try “Keep the original size” </li></ul>
    55. 55. End of Lesson 3 <ul><li>Remove your data chip from PC – use “Safe to remove” option </li></ul><ul><li>Replace data chip into your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Homework for next week: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the self timer – read up on how to use it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have a sports or action setting for your camera? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find it – read about it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a dial setting or a menu setting? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Lesson 4 More Digital Camera Features <ul><li>Student needs for this lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your camera (batteries charged) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student guide for this course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This Lesson: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Timer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini-movie clip </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Handling Problem Situations <ul><li>Taking a group photo - with yourself in it </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to focus due to lighting or moving objects </li></ul><ul><li>Dark situations </li></ul><ul><li>Fast moving objects (sports) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Over/Under Exposure </li></ul>
    58. 58. The Self Timer <ul><li>Get yourself in the picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a tripod or flat surface for the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim, push button, quickly go to your spot </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Self Timer Exercise 4-1 <ul><li>Read how to use your self timer </li></ul><ul><li>Place the camera on top of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Set the self timer and “shoot” yourself </li></ul><ul><li>After the shot – review your picture and re-take if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Work with your neighbor and take a shot of both of you </li></ul>
    60. 60. Delayed Shutter <ul><li>2 second delay </li></ul><ul><li>Used to reduce camera shake on longer exposures </li></ul><ul><li>Often associated with Self-Timer </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with or without a tripod (M&Ms) </li></ul><ul><li>If your self-timer goes off too soon, it may be on the delayed shutter setting! </li></ul>
    61. 61. Macro – Close-up <ul><li>Uses of macro mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject is less than 20 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give other examples of usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How close can the camera lens get and be in focus? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the symbol on your camera for close-up or macro? </li></ul><ul><li>Causes the background to be out of focus (an “open” or wide lens aperture) </li></ul><ul><li>Some photographers keep a tape measure handy to measure distance (or a string, etc) </li></ul>
    62. 62. Macro Examples
    63. 63. More Macro Examples With Macro Without Macro
    64. 64. Macro Exercise 4-2 <ul><li>Using a macro setting on your camera, take a close up of an object at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 inches or less. This could be a key on your keyboard or the mouse, or an eraser on a pencil held by someone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These objects could be objects on your table, or on the tables in the middle of the room. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Macro Focusing Problems <ul><li>Did you use the two-step procedure? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you move the camera during exposure? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the camera in macro mode and the object the correct distance? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the subject moving too fast for the shutter speed? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the subject have contrasting tones-colors for the automatic focus to register? </li></ul>
    66. 66. Sports Scenes <ul><li>What is the setting on your camera for sports (fast moving scenes)? </li></ul><ul><li>“Shutter Priority” (S), “Action”, or “Sports” mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set shutter to 1/100 of a second or as fast as possible </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. Sports Scenes - Panning <ul><li>Panning – moving the camera in sync with the speed of the subject and taking the shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful when subject is very fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful in low light when the shutter has to be wide and shutter speed slower to get a lighted shot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice taking a shot of a moving car close to the subject, or an animal playing </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Sports Scene - Example Water Goaltender Ball
    69. 69. Sports – Exercise 4-3 Panning <ul><li>Turn on your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the flash </li></ul><ul><li>The camera mode can be sports, however since the idea here is to use panning, keeping the camera in auto mode will work better for testing your ability to use this technique </li></ul><ul><li>Have someone (like the instructor or coach) hold up a piece of colored paper and walk quickly across the room </li></ul><ul><li>Students - pan as you take a picture of the person moving across the room or swinging something </li></ul><ul><li>Review your shots </li></ul>
    70. 70. Exposure Settings <ul><li>“ Exposure” means the amount of light entering the camera onto the image surface </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by Shutter Speed and Aperture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shutter Speed is the time the shutter is open, expressed in fractions of a second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Slow” shutter speed blurs action, may require a tripod </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fast” shutter speed stops action. Limited by aperture size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aperture is the size of the opening of the iris in the lens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large opening = narrow depth of focus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small opening = wide depth of focus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Aperture = opening <ul><li>Depth of field </li></ul><ul><li>Combine the opening of the lens and the speed the shutter opens/closes </li></ul><ul><li>F stop – low number = wide, high number = narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Fast lens = one that opens wide (1.8 or lower number) </li></ul>f/32 narrow aperture stop and slow shutter speed f/5 – wide aperture stop and fast shutter speed
    72. 72. Changing Lighting Conditions Presets – Typical Settings <ul><li>Automatic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The white balance is adjusted automatically so that colors look natural regardless of the light source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunlight : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For natural colors under a clear sky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overcast : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For natural colors under a cloudy sky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tungsten : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For natural colors under incandescent lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For natural colors under fluorescent lighting </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Dark Scenes <ul><li>Night, dusk, dimly lit interior where flash is not usually effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Long exposures, so stabilize the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Select “Flash Off” </li></ul><ul><li>Select Night-Time mode on camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: some cameras have a “Night Flash” mode that applies flash to what is close and extends exposure for what is far </li></ul>
    74. 74. Mini-Movie Clip-Video Mode Exercise 4-4 <ul><li>Video recording mode </li></ul><ul><li>From a few seconds to many minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses lots of memory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Some cameras record the noise </li></ul><ul><li>Usually low resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ok for a small TV – some are better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connect to a TV to play, or copy to a CD and display on the TV or computer </li></ul>
    75. 75. Review your Pictures Exercise 4-5 <ul><li>Turn on the PC and log in </li></ul><ul><li>Review the photos you took using the LCD viewer on the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Browse through the photos for pictures you do not want to save and erase them from the camera using the delete button </li></ul><ul><li>For all other photos, take notes for each on what you may want to edit. Consult with your neighbors and the coaches. </li></ul>
    76. 76. Class Evaluation <ul><li>Please fill-in the class evaluation form you received in our first lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Let the instructor know if you didn’t receive one. </li></ul><ul><li>This class name is DC1 </li></ul><ul><li>Give honest feedback so we can continue to meet the needs of YOU , our students. </li></ul>Thank you
    77. 77. Use New Knowledge at Home Exercise 4-4 <ul><li>Take 6 or 7 pictures at your home </li></ul><ul><li>Try to frame the photo into a nice scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the background and the foreground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the zoom feature to close in on the photo scene you want to capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Macro setting for close-up shots (object on the table for instance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust the White Balance for light objects in the shade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review the photos using the LCD viewer and delete ones that you do not want </li></ul>
    78. 78. Thank you for participating in the Digital Camera Class ! (The End)