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CSE 678 Microprocessor/Microcontroller Review

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  • 1. Microcontroller Review CSE 678 Winter 2007
  • 2. Freescale MC9S12DP256 David Foster
    • A lot of processing power for a very low price (in the miniDragon+ development board)
    • Many I/O pins along with many standard interfaces: SCI, SPI, PWM, timer module, A/D converter
    • Programmable in C and/or assembly with numerous textbook and online references
    • In the miniDragon+, a very small size for a development board
  • 3. Freescale MC9S12DP256 David Foster
    • Speed – Very good: miniDragon allows 24 MHz bus speed,
    • Computing Capability – Very good: fuzzy logic unit, extended precision multiply and division instruction
    • Memory Space – Good: 12kB RAM, 256 (512) kB Flash
    • Cost – Great: ~$100 for development board
    • Power Usage – Average: roughly 325 mW max. at 24 MHz
    • Dev. Tools – Very good: Several as free downloads (some with code size restrictions), many online and printed resources
    • I/O – Great: relatively large I/O pin count, number of pins that can cause interrupts, PWM, SCI, SPI, A/D,…
  • 4. Systronix JStamp+ David Foster
    • Programmable in Java with no need to look at assembly/byte code level
    • Free design tools with no inherent limits
    • Relatively large data and code space
    • Fair processing speed and I/O pin count
    • Small size for a development board, and the JStamp+ can be removed and used as a DIP module for a very small footprint easily built into prototypes.
  • 5. Systronix JStamp+ David Foster Speed – Good: at 74 MHz, up to ~3,000,000 bytes codes per second Space – Great: 512kB RAM, 2 MB Flash Cost – Poor: ~$300 for development board Power Usage – Average: roughly 300 mW at 74 MHz Dev. Tools – Good: Several as free downloads, a few online references I/O – Fair: 22 I/O pins, PWM, SCI, SPI, I2C
  • 6. TI C2000 DSP Chips Peter Mahnken
    • 60 – 150 MHz, 32-bit Processors
    • Low cost for a DSP chip.
    • Comes with Code Composer Studio, a very powerful IDE
    • Native support for Matlab and Simulink through Embedded Target for TI C2000 DSP toolbox and Link for Code Composer Studio
    • Able to run at 3.3V DC for battery operated applications. Built in low power mode
  • 7. TI C2000 DSP Chips Peter Mahnken
    • TMS320F2801 Variant:
      • Processor: 32-bit, 100 MHz
      • 12KB of RAM, 32 KB of ROM
      • Up to 6 independent PWM Channels
      • Supports a variety of bus communications: SCI, SPI, CAN, etc
      • 16 channel, 8-bit A/D Converter
      • Cost: $11.25 @ 100 units
      • Development kit (with similar processor): $495.00 with USB communication and includes IDE, debugger, flasher, and compiler
  • 8. Zilog Neo Peter Mahnken
    • 16-bit, 20 MHz processors
    • 6 Channel Independent PWM for Motor/Servo Control
    • Built in IR Decoder/Encoder
    • Low cost for development kits
    • Up to 76 pins of GPIO (General Purpose I/O)
  • 9. Zilog Neo Peter Mahnken
    • Z16F2811AL20 Variant:
      • Processor: 16-bit, 20 MHz
      • 4KB of RAM, 128 KB of ROM
      • Up to 6 independent PWM Channels
      • Supports a variety of bus communications: SCI, SPI, etc.
      • 12 channel, 10-bit A/D Converter
      • Cost: $8.65 @ 100 units
      • Development kit: $130.00 with USB communication and includes IDE, debugger, flasher, and compiler
  • 10. 68HC12 Jon Cory
    • Internal 768K Bytes EEPROM, 32K Flash, 1K Bytes SRAM
    • PWM outputs, TPU, and Internal A/D
    • Serial bus controllers (RS-232, CAN 2.0).
    • Vast amount of support and examples
    • Ease of Development
  • 11. 68HC12 Jon Cory
  • 12. MicroBlaze Jon Cory
    • High Speed (100MHz)
    • 32 Bit Processing
    • Configurable I/O and functions
    • Well Supported (examples)
    • Space, Weight, and Power savings (implemented in the
    • FPGA fabric)
  • 13. MicroBlaze Jon Cory
  • 14. Freescale HCS12 E256 Jason Mick
    • Easy to program with C compilers
    • Compiled code is very compact and optimized
    • Widely used, widely available
    • Good at I/O: easily interfaces with motors and peripherals
    • Many training resources available online and offline
    • Reasonable power requirements
    • Relatively inexpensive compared to other processors
    • Flexible memory addressing, multiple modes
    • On chip debugging
  • 15.
    • Compatible with miniIDE, a freeware assembly language HCS12 compiler and with CodeWarrior, a C language compiler for the HCS12, that has a free 30 day trial
    • 16-Bit Microprocessor
    • 40 nsec minimum instruction execution time
    • 5 16-Bit registers, and 1 8-Bit Condition register
    • 25 mA maximum current draw
    • 2.97-5.5 Supply voltage required
    • On chip bandgap reference of 2.5 V
    • Interrupt structure supporting simultaneous interrupts
    • Two 1 channel Digital-To-Analog (DAC) Converters
    • One 16 channel Analog-To-Digital (ADC) Converter with 10 bit resolution
    • Three 4-Channel Timers
    • 6-Channel Pulse Width Modulation
    • 256 KB Flash EEProm
    • 16 KB RAM
    • SPI and SCI interfaces
    • Up to 90 I/O lines with Drive Voltage of 5V
    • 50 MHz Processor speed (max)
    • 25 MHz Bus Speed
    • .5 to 16 MHz Resonating Crystal with PLL capability
    Freescale HCS12 E256 Jason Mick
  • 16. MicroBlaze Softcore on Xilinx FPGAs Jason Mick
    • Softcore for Xilinx FPGAs
    • Based on modern 32 bit architecture
    • Cutting edge
    • Utilizes GNU Compiler to compile code either in C or assembly
    • Floating point capability allows for more advanced math to be carried out in subroutines
    • Very Low power requirements when loaded onto 90 nm FPGA
    • Free! You only need to purchase the FPGA development board to load it on
    • Easily interfaces with coprocessors, such as video or math processors
    • Interrupt Capability
    • Processor has memory cache with user defined size
    • Can enter debug mode via signals to Xilinx Debug coprocessor, also free to download from Xilinx
    • More powerful processor, less output support (ADC, DAC, PWM, etc.)
  • 17.
    • Compatible with GNU MicroBlaze C/Assembly compiler, Free
    • Based on 32-Bit Harvard RISC Architecture
    • Variable instruction time...each instruction takes a set number of cycles, but clock can be external and vary in speed.
    • Thirty-Two, 32-Bit General Purpose Registers
    • 32-Bit instruction words with three operands and two addressing modes
    • 32-Bit address Bus
    • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    • Current varies with target FPGA
    • Most Xilinx FPGAs have 3 voltages- Core: 1.2V ; I/O: 3.3 V ; Auxilary: 2.5 V
    • Only supports 1 external interrupt
    • No built in ADC or DAC, but can FPGAs could be interfaced with ADC or DAC chips
    • No built in PWM
    • 3-Cycle Optimized Multiply instruction
    • 34-Cycle Hardware Optimized Integer divide instruction
    • 2 kB to 64 kB data cache, size is user definable
    • Eight 32-Bit General Purpose Inputs
    • Eight 32-Bit General Purpose Inputs
    MicroBlaze Softcore on Xilinx FPGAs Jason Mick
  • 18. Freescale HC12 Aaron Harris The HC12 family of microcontrollers are 16 bit processors with a decent amount of features for a relatively low cost. These processors started as an enhanced 16 bit version of the popular 8 bit HC11. They contain many of the modules you would expect from a microcontroller, such as SCI, SPI and CAN interfaces, an A2D module and a timer module. The HC12 is perfect for a system that is not overly complex yet still requires many different types of communication or control.
  • 19. Freescale HC12 Aaron Harris
    • (all numbers are for the MC9S12C32)
    • Clock rate : 8 Mhz
    • Flash space : 32 KB
    • RAM : 2 KB
    • SPI and SCI modules
    • CAN module
    • Timer module
    • Analog-to-Digital module
    • Relatively low cost
    • Many different tool sets due to widespread use
  • 20. Freescale ColdFire Aaron Harris The ColdFire family of microcontrollers are 32 bit processors with extensive features. They are based on Motorola’s 68k architecture. Depending on requirements, there are ColdFire packages with many different modules available. Some of the modules include SCI, SPI and I2C, timer modules, CAN, A2D, USB, PCI and Ethernet. With clock rates that can reach 300 MHz, the ColdFire can be quite powerful for an embedded system. This microcontroller is good for a system that is complex and requires many of the different resources available in the ColdFire family.
  • 21. Freescale ColdFire Aaron Harris
    • (all numbers are for the MCF5282)
    • Clock rate : 64 MHz
    • Flash space : 512 KB
    • Ram : 64 KB
    • SPI, SCI and I2C modules
    • CAN module
    • Timer module
    • Analog-to-digital module
    • Ethernet module
    • Good value for its power and resources
    • Multiple toolsets available such as CodeWarrior
  • 22. HCS12DP256 on Wytec Eval Board Jason Gorski
    • 16-bit processor with a maximum clock frequency of 25 MHz
    • Extensive I/O capabilities
    • Support for floating point numbers and fuzzy control
    • Extensive support from manufacturer and online forums
    • Program in C and download to onboard flash using Codewarrior IDE.
    • Register based processor – A,B,X,Y,SP, PC
    • Huge selection of development boards available in varying form factors starting at about $100.
    • External memory interfaces are available to increase program space.
  • 23. HCS12DP256 on Wytec Eval Board Jason Gorski Large systems that require a lot of external interfacing and little to moderate intelligence with moderate power consumption and low cost. Appropriate for 8-ch 16bit IC,OC,PA. up to 91 I/O, 2 SCI, 3 SPI, I2C, 16-ch 10bit A/D, 8-ch 8bit PWM I/O 256K Flash, 12K Ram, 4K EEPROM (DP256 in single chip mode) Memory Directly Proportional to clock speed, about 2 mA per MHz @ 5V (250 mW at 24 MHz) Power
  • 24. Systronix JStamp Jason Gorski
    • 32-bit processor with a 73 MHz clock.
    • Executes Java byte code natively w/ in-silicon RTOS
      • Programming in a high level language increases development speed.
      • Execution is streamlined as no JVM is required.
    • Large amount of internal memory allows for storage of large, complex programs.
    • Very little low level I/O, however high speed serial I/O is available.
    • Very few development platforms offered, high cost (although increased capability) and limited support
  • 25. Systronix JStamp Jason Gorski Small to medium systems that require high intelligence with moderate power consumption and cost. Not a stand-alone solution for larger systems (requires external devices for low level interfacing). Appropriate for 2 SCI, 1 SPI, 1 I2C, 1-wire, PWM, 22 pins of general I/O. I/O 2 MB Flash, 512 KB SRAM Memory Unregulated 5-14 VDC 45-300 mW power consumption Power
  • 26. Atmel AT91M55800A Chia-yang Hung
    • 32-bit ARM 7 micro-controller for power-constraint devices
    • Good power management and low mW/MHz
    • Numerous peripherals: counters, UARTs, SPI, ADCs and DACs
    • Vectored-interrupts and Peripheral Data Controller (DMA-like)
    • ARM's memory and peripheral buses
    • Support from RTOSes: eCOS, Neucleus, and uC/OS-II
    • Development tools: IDEs and toolchains from ARM, Green Hills, and GNU; in-circuit emulators, etc.
  • 27. Atmel AT91M55800A Chia-yang Hung Good: Arm Development Suite (trial), C/C++ GNU tool chain Development Tools Fair: Open-source eCOS uC/OS-II Neucleus, etc.; > 7 RTOS support Better: Core voltage >= 2.7 V Multiple power modes (Normal, STDBY, etc) Individual Peripheral Clocks ~216 mW @ 33 MHz Power Management Good: Numerous; counters / PWM, SPI , 3 UARTs, 8-ch ADC, 2-ch DAC Peripherals Good: Vectored Interrupt Controller Interrupts Fair: 33 MHz max Speed Atmel AT91M55800A
  • 28. TI TMS320F2802 Chia-yang Hung
    • 32-bit Digital Signal Controller (DSC) from TI.
    • DSP core: better performer on signal-processing algorithms
    • Separate program and data buses: less contention in memory access.
    • Numerous peripherals:SCI, SPI, CAN, counters / timers, ADCs
    • Vectored interrupts and DMA-like transfer for I/O
    • Development tools: TI Code Composer Studio IDE and DSP / BIOS real-time kernel
    • Low core voltage (1.8 V)
  • 29. TI TMS320F2802 Chia-yang Hung Good: Code Composer Studio IDE, C/C++ Hardware Breakpoint Development Tools Limited: TI’s DSP/BIOS kernel + ~4 3 rd party systems RTOS support Good: Low core voltage: 1.8 V Multiple power modes (Normal, STDBY, etc) Individual Peripheral Clocks ~280 mW @ 33 MHz ~400 mW @ 60 MHz Power Management Better: Numerous; counters / PWM, SPI, I2C, SCI, CAN Peripherals Good: Vectored Interrupts Interrupts Good: 66 MHz max, DSP MACs Speed TI TMS320F2802
  • 30. MC68HC12 Neeta Kulkarni
    • MC68HC12 is a 16 bit microcontroller with on chip
    • peripherals like flash EEPROM, RAM, EEPROM, advanced
    • serial communication interfaces, PWM ,A/D converter.
    • It has 256Kbytes flash EEPROM and 4Kbytes EEPROM and
    • thus has large program memory
    • PLL enables adjusted power consumption and performance to
    • suit operational requirements
    • It has two 8 channel A/D converters and thus a number of
    • sensors can be connected.
    • MC68HC12 has 8 PWM channels with programmable period
    • and duty cycle
    • It has enhanced serial communication interfaces.
  • 31. MC68HC12 Neeta Kulkarni
    • Important parameters of the microcontroller:
    • High speed, large program and data memory, large number of
    • I/O ports, A/D converter, PWM, power consumption, development tools.
    • Parameters of MC68HC12 :
    • Speed of operation can go up to 50 MHz.
    • It can operate in low power modes to minimize the power
    • consumption. Modes are
    • 1.Stop mode
    • 2.Pseudo stop mode
    • 3.Wait mode
    • Various development tools are available. Mini IDE is commonly used.
  • 32. PIC18F4620 Neeta Kulkarni
    • PIC18F4620 is a 8 bit microcontroller which gives high computational performance at economical price.
    • It has on chip peripherals like flash EEPROM, RAM, enhanced addressable USART, programmable PWM, A/D channels.
    • It has 64 Kbytes flash memory available as program memory
    • It can be configured to give up to 4 PWM channels and thus a couple of motors or servos can be connected.
    • PIC18F4620 has 13 A/D channels and thus a number of sensors can be connected.
    • It has enhanced addressable USART supporting RS485, RS232.
  • 33. PIC18F4620 Neeta Kulkarni
    • Important parameters of the microcontroller:
    • High speed, large program and data memory, large number of
    • I/O ports, A/D converter, PWM, power consumption, development tools.
    • Parameters of PIC18F4620 :
    • Speed of operation can go up to 40 MHz.
    • It offers seven operating modes for efficient power management. The modes are categorized into run mode, idle mode and sleep mode.
    • Various development tools are available. Microchip technology development tool MPLAB IDE is commonly used.
  • 34. PIC 18F4680 James Batcheler
    • Minimal External Hardware
    • Easy to Program
    • Many Integrated Components
    • 2.5V and 5.0V Models Available
    • Tremendous Amount of Documentation Online
  • 35. PIC 18F4680 James Batcheler
    • Nominal Voltage: 5.0V
    • Power Consumption: 33 ma @ 40 MHz
    • Development Tools: Single IDE with Integrated Bootloader
    • ADC: Integrated, 11-channel, 10-bit
    • CAN: Integrated ECAN module
    • Program Space: 64 KB
    • Data Space: 3.3 KB
  • 36. BS2P40 James Batcheler
    • Fast Development Time
    • No External Hardware
    • Easy to Program & Use
  • 37. BS2P40 James Batcheler
    • Nominal Voltage: 5.0V
    • Power Consumption: 40 ma @ 20 MHz
    • Development Tools: Single IDE with Integrated Bootloader
    • Program Space: 16 KB
  • 38. Microchip PIC18F458 Jason Beaudoin
    • Cheap development board $38
    • Easy instruction set (75 instructions)
    • 4 PWM outputs
    • 8 channel A/D
  • 39. Microchip PIC18F458 Jason Beaudoin
    • Speed: Up to 40 MHz, 10 MIPS
    • Power consumption: ~ 30 mA on 5.0V supply
    • Development tools: MPLAB IDE, Free, C compiler available
    • Support: ‘ticket’ Tech support and forums at microchip.com
  • 40. NXP (Philips) LPC2148 Jason Beaudoin
    • 512 kB Flash
    • 32 kB SRAM (for a small frame buffer?)
    • Plenty of serial interfaces, including USB
    • 6 PWM outputs
  • 41. NXP (Philips) LPC2148 Jason Beaudoin
    • Speed: Up to 60 MHz
    • Power consumption: max 50 mA on 3.3V supply
    • Development tools: uLink+, Keil ARM development tools
    • Support: Online docs or thru distributor FAE
  • 42. MC9S12DP256 Kevin Van Sickle
    • Powerful Feature SET
    • Already have Prototype board from other project
    • Available Code Warrior C compiler
    • (crippled version free to use)
    • Available Free Unlimited GNU compiler with examples from Axiom Mfg.
    • Experience Programming this device from other class
  • 43. MC9S12DP256 Kevin Van Sickle
    • 50 MHz capable
    • Sleep Mode and Internal oscillator for power saving
    • 7 micro Second 10 bit ATD.
    • Three SPI interface
    • Two SCI interface for RS232
    • More PWM and Capture Compare capability than MC9S08GT60
    • 16 bit
    • Controller Area Network
    • $15.49ea price on 1000+ quantity
  • 44. MC9S08GT60 Kevin Van Sickle
    • Small Size
    • Through Hole SDIP pkg. available
    • Still Has Many advanced Features
    • Available Code Warrior C compiler
    • (crippled version free to use)
    • Zigbee wireless design board possibly at hand.
    • Quantity price $3.65~$5.17
  • 45. MC9S08GT60 Kevin Van Sickle
    • 40 MHz capable
    • Sleep Mode and Internal oscillator for power saving
    • 14 micro Second 10 bit ATD.
    • One SPI interface
    • Two SCI interface for RS232
    • Some PWM and Capture Compare capability
    • Low Price $3.65~$5.17 on 1000+ Quantity
  • 46. dsPIC30F3010 Tim Raabe The dsPIC is a great choice for motor controlling. It has dedicated motor control hardware, and is easy to set up to control many types of motors. A big benefit of Microchip devices is the free IDE and C compiler for students. Additionally, the development kit can control 48v motors at 2.2A. Along with motor control features, the dsPIC also has built in DSP functionality. This can allow more complex algorithms on a small, cheap 16bit micro.
  • 47. dsPIC30F3010 Tim Raabe
    • 40 MHz
    • 6 10 bit ADCs
    • 20 I/O pins
    • Cost
      • Chip is extremely cheap
        • $5.00
      • Development Kit (can drive Motors)
        • $129.99
    • On chip Oscillator
  • 48. LM3S811 Microcontroller Tim Raabe The Luminary Micro seems like a good choice if a low cost 32 bit processor is needed. It actually has dedicated hardware for both multiplication and division, which should add speed over a 16 bit, or 32 bit processor which relies on software algorithms for both multiplication and division. The evaluation board for this device is also very affordable, cheap enough that several could be used for controlling a single robot if needed.
  • 49. LM3S811 Microcontroller Tim Raabe
    • 50 MHZ
    • 4 10bit ADC
    • 4-32 IO Pins
    • Cheap
      • $10 for chip
      • $49.99 for Evaluation Board
    • 32 bit ARM processor
    • 64KB of Flash memory
  • 50. HCS12 C32/DP256 Terry Redman dragonfly C32 module
    • Typically programmed using C or Assembly
    • Inexpensive - development board for about $100 or a dragonfly C32 module for about $40
    • Includes PWM Channels, Timer Channels, CAN Interface, SCI/SPI Ports, A/D Converters
    • Easy to use IDEs - Codewarrior, Cosmic, eGnu
    • Flash programmed with a BDM - Multilink or DragonBDM
    • (Note about DragonBDM, it needs serial monitor running and doesn't integrate with Codewarrior)
  • 51. HCS12 C32/DP256 Terry Redman
    • Clock Speed - 4/24 MHz
    • RAM - 256 KBytes
    • I/O Pins - 91
    • Flash Memory - 256 KBytes
    • Power Consumption - 60mA @ 5V
    • Accessible Documentation - Good but not always easy to find what you’re looking for
    DP256 Development Board
  • 52. JStamp Terry Redman
    • Programmed using Java
    • Relatively inexpensive - development kit for about $300 or a JStamp module for about $100
    • Includes SPI Port, Serial Port, PWM
    • Add on modules for CAN Interface, RF, graphic LCD, and more
    • Uses common Java IDEs like Eclipse
    • Programmed and debugged using aJile development tools included with the JStamp development kit
  • 53. JStamp Terry Redman
    • Clock Speed - 74 MHz
    • RAM - 512 KBytes
    • I/O Pins - 22
    • Flash Memory - 512 KBytes
    • Power Consumption - 61mA @ 5V
    • Accessible Documentation - Good
  • 54. Freescale Coldfire 5282 Paul Krasicky
    • 32-bit Coldfire Architecture
    • 64kb on-chip RAM, 512kb on-chip Flash
    • 80 MHz clock speed available
    • Wide array of input/output capabilities
      • CAN, SPI, UART, I2C, Ethernet
    • Good power management capabilities
    • Very popular in industry - widely supported
    • Low cost at high volume - ~$20
    • Development kits available for under $300
  • 55. Freescale Coldfire 5282 Paul Krasicky
    • High marks in most relevant categories!
      • CPU speed – powerful enough for most embedded apps
      • I/O – wide variety of I/O, among best in industry
      • Support availability – very high
      • Cost – medium, good costs for 32-bit processor
      • Availability – easy to find
    • Little in the way of on-chip RAM
  • 56. Freescale PowerPC MPC5553 Paul Krasicky
    • 32-bit PowerPC architecture
    • 1.5Mb on-chip Flash
    • 200 MHz clock speed available
    • Wide array of input/output capabilities
      • CAN, SPI, UART, Ethernet
    • No power management capabilities
    • Very new – not widely available
    • Pricing info not widely available yet
  • 57. Freescale PowerPC MPC5553 Paul Krasicky
    • High performance, higher cost, low availability
      • CPU speed – very powerful!
      • I/O – wide variety of I/O, two CAN busses, tons of GPIO
      • Support availability – decent
      • Cost – high cost for 32-bit processor
      • Availability – hard to find
    • Little in the way of on-chip RAM