Computer Hardware


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Computer Hardware

  1. 1. Hardware Designed to Meet Your Needs (r7/19/07 rdm)
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify different types of memory and storage media, and understand the unique properties of each </li></ul><ul><li>Identify different types of input and output devices and how they are used to meet a variety of personal and professional needs </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the decision-making process involved in purchasing a computer system </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>201 Jeopardy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Transistor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of semi conducting material that opens or closes a circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrate circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store and process bits and bytes in today’s computers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Inside the Computer <ul><li>Central processing unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of integrated circuits that perform processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary circuit board of a computing device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random access memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary, or volatile, storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System bus (aka front side bus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel pathways between the CPU and RAM </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) <ul><li>Manipulating data as defined by programmed instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the circuitry to carry out instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequentially accesses and decodes program instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates flow of data in and out of ALU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processor Registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small amount of very fast memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(different than cache memory) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. The Machine Cycle <ul><li>Execution of an instruction involves two phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Fetch instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Decode instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Execution Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Execute instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Store results </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. CPU Characteristics <ul><li>System clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a series of electronic pulses at a predetermined rate called clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wordlength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of bits that a CPU can process at once </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Millions of instructions per second (MIPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of time it takes to execute an instruction </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. Multiprocessing and Parallel Processing <ul><li>Multiprocessing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses two or more CPUs in a single computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual-core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two independent processors inside a single CPU core (a single integrated circuit) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coprocessors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose processors that speed processing (i.e. math or graphics coprocessor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links several microprocessors to operate in parallel </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Storage on the Motherboard <ul><li>RAM (now mostly DIMMs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of chips grouped together on a circuit board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types: DRAM, SDRAM, DDR-SDRAM, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highspeed memory that can be accessed more rapidly than RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three levels of cache: L1, L2, and L3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video RAM (VRAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store image data for a computer display </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Storage on the Motherboard (Continued) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides permanent storage for data and instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores hardware configuration information and boot program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash BIOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to store data permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be updated </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Secondary Storage Technologies <ul><li>Storage device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive that reads and writes data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects that hold the data (disks) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum amount of bytes medium can hold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time it takes for a request for data to be fulfilled by the device </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Magnetic Media: Disks and Tapes <ul><li>Magnetic storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microdrives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny hard drives that store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable, low-capacity (1.44 MB) storage medium </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Magnetic Media: Disks and Tapes (continued) <ul><li>High capacity diskettes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores up to 83 times more data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage area network or SAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links together many storage devices over a network and treats them as one large disk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID or redundant array of independent disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a multiple system of disks that can reconstruct the data if any disk were to go bad </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Optical Storage <ul><li>Uses optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disk surface </li></ul><ul><li>Compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First optical media to be mass-marketed to the general public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital video disk (DVD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-compatible with CD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular format for rewritable CDs </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Flash Drives and Cards <ul><li>Flash memory card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A chip that is nonvolatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small and can be easily modified and reprogrammed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes referred to as media cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USB flash drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, flash memory modules </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. Output Devices <ul><li>Display resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the amount of pixels on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid crystal display (LCD), or flat panel display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly displacing CRT (cathode-ray tube) displays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LCD projectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for projecting presentations from your computer onto a larger screen </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Special-Purpose I/O Devices <ul><li>Many designed to support scientific and medical research </li></ul><ul><li>Computer scientists and musicians at the MIT Media Lab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting with special input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual reality headset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can project output in the form of three-dimensional color images </li></ul></ul>
  19. 26. Expansion <ul><li>USB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides connection to computer for data transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides power line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competes with USB as standard for connecting devices to PCs </li></ul></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>So you need to buy a computer! </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you begin? </li></ul>
  21. 30. Researching a Computer Purchase <ul><li>To learn about computer type and platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To learn about manufacturers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer shopper magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MacWorld magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> /us/en </li></ul></ul>
  22. 31. Portability versus Power <ul><li>When planning the purchase of a computer system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze your own computer style and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance portability with power and capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how your device will interact with other computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you be connecting to a corporate network </li></ul></ul>
  23. 32. Choosing a Manufacturer and Model <ul><li>Apple computer users have it easy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only decision is model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM-compatible users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to compare specifications and prices from different manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to choose a processor, and the amount of memory and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. Choosing Peripherals <ul><li>What types best suit your needs? </li></ul><ul><li>If preference is keyboard for text input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider an ergonomic design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What type of printing will you be doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need professional quality output? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be printing digital photos? </li></ul>
  25. 34. Making the Purchase <ul><li>Computer systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be purchased online, over the phone, or in a local computer store </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchasing online from the manufacturer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides custom configuration options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer store shoppers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take the unit home </li></ul></ul>
  26. 35. Summary <ul><li>When selecting a computer system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze your specific computing needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a computer type and platform that will support those needs </li></ul></ul>