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Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
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Chapter 7
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Chapter 7
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Chapter 7
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Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
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Chapter 7
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Chapter 7

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  • 1. Chapter 7 Storage
  • 2. Chapter 7 Objectives Differentiate between storage devices and storage media Describe the characteristics of magnetic disks Differentiate between floppy disks and Zip disks Describe the characteristics of a hard disk Describe the characteristics of optical discs Differentiate among CD-ROMs, recordable CDs, rewritable CDs, DVD-ROMs, recordable DVDs, and rewritable DVDs Identify the uses of tape Discuss PC Cards and the various types of miniature mobile storage media Identify uses of microfilm and microfiche Next
  • 3. Storage
    • What is storage ?
    p. 354 Fig. 7-1
      • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
    • Storage medium is physical material used for storage
    • Also called secondary storage
    Next
  • 4. Storage
    • What is capacity ?
    p. 356
      • Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold
    Next Kilobyte (KB) 1 thousand Megabyte (MB) 1 million Gigabyte (GB) 1 billion Terabyte (TB) 1 trillion Petabyte (PB) 1 quadrillion Exabyte (EB) 1 quintillion Zettabyte (ZB) 1 sextillion Yottabyte (YB) 1 septillion
  • 5. Storage
    • How does volatility compare?
    p. 356 Nonvolatile
    • Storage medium is nonvolatile —contents retained when power is off
    Contents retained Contents available to user ON OFF Volatile Display disappears Data and instructions available to user Display appears Data and instructions erased
    • Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily
    Storage Medium (floppy disks, Zip disks, hard disks, CDs) Next Memory (most RAM) (chips on motherboard) Screen Display
  • 6. Storage
    • What is a storage device ?
    Writing Process of transferring items from memory to storage media p. 356 Reading Process of transferring items from storage media to memory Hardware that records and retrieves items to and from storage media Next Functions as source of input Creates output
  • 7. Storage
    • What is access time ?
    p. 357 Fig. 7-4
      • Time it takes storage device to locate item on storage medium
      • Time required to deliver item from memory to processor
    faster transfer rates slower transfer rates Floppy Disk Small files to be transported Secondary Storage Primary Storage Hard Disk Flash Memory Cards and USB Flash Drives CDs and DVDs Tape Items waiting to be interpreted and executed by the processor Operating system, application software, user data and information Digital pictures or files to be transported Software, backups, movies, music Backups Memory (most RAM) Stores … Next
  • 8. Magnetic Disks
    • What are tracks and sectors?
    p. 357 Fig. 7-5
        • Formatting prepares disk for use and marks bad sectors as unusable
    Next Track is narrow recording band that forms full circle on disk
      • Sector stores up to 512 bytes of data
  • 9. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a floppy disk ?
    p. 358
      • Portable, inexpensive storage medium (also called diskette)
      • Thin, circular, flexible film enclosed in 3.5” wide plastic shell
    shutter shell liner magnetic coating flexible thin film metal hub Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Floppy Disks below Chapter 7
  • 10. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a floppy disk drive ?
    p. 358 Fig. 7-6 Floppy disk drive built into a desktop computer External floppy disk drive attaches to a computer with a cable
      • Also called secondary storage
        • One floppy drive, named drive A
      • Device that reads from and writes to floppy disk
    Next
  • 11. Magnetic Disks
    • How do you compute a disk’s storage capacity?
    p. 359
      • Multiply number of sides, number of tracks, number of sectors per track, and number of bytes per sector
        • For high-density disk: 2 sides  80 tracks  18 sectors per track  512 bytes per sector = 1,474,560 bytes
    Characteristics of a 3.5-inch High-Density Floppy Disk Next Capacity: 1.44 MB Sides: 2 Tracks: 80 Sectors per track: 18 Bytes per sector: 512 Sectors per disk: 2880
  • 12. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a write-protect notch ?
    p. 359 Fig. 7-7
      • Small opening with a cover that you slide
      • Protects floppy disk from being erased accidentally
    Next hole on this side means disk is high density write-protected not write-protected notch closed means you can write on the disk notch open means you cannot write on the disk
  • 13. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a Zip disk ?
    p. 359 Fig. 7-9
      • Magnetic medium that stores 100 MB to 750 MB of data
      • Zip disks require a Zip drive c — c high capacity drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk
      • Used to back up and to transfer files
        • Backup is duplicate of file, program, or disk in case original is lost
    c Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Zip Disks below Chapter 7
  • 14. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a hard disk ?
    p. 360 Fig. 7-10 hard disk installed in system unit
      • High-capacity storage
      • Consists of several inflexible, circular platters that store items electronically
      • Components enclosed in airtight, sealed case for protection
    Next
  • 15. Magnetic Disks
    • What are characteristics of a hard disk?
    p. 361 Fig. 7-11 actual disk capacity Next Sample Hard Disk Characteristics Advertised capacity 120 GB Platters 3 Read/write heads 6 Cylinders 16,383 Bytes per second 512 Sectors per track 63 Sectors per drive 234,441,648 Revolutions per minute 7,200 Transfer rate 133 MB per second Access time 8.9 ms
  • 16. Magnetic Disks
    • How does a hard disk work?
    p. 361 Fig. 7-12 Step 1. Circuit board controls movement of head actuator and a small motor. Step 2. Small motor spins platters while computer is running. Step 3. When software requests a disk access, read/write heads determine current or new location of data. Step 4. Head actuator positions read/write head arms over correct location on platters to read or write data. Next
  • 17. Video: Install a New Hard Drive Speed up your computer with a new hard drive low quality (click to start) high quality (click to start) Next
  • 18. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a cylinder?
    p. 362 Fig. 7-13
      • Vertical section of track through all platters
      • Single movement of read/write head arms accesses all platters in cylinder
    platter read/write head platter sides cylinder track sector Next
  • 19. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a head crash?
    p. 362 Fig. 7-14 clearance read/write head platter hair dust smoke
      • Spinning creates cushion of air that floats read/write head above platter
      • Occurs when read/write head touches platter surface
        • A smoke particle, dust particle, or human hair could render drive unusable
        • Clearance between head and platter is approximately two-millionths of an inch
    Next
  • 20. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a disk cache?
    p. 363 Fig. 7-15
      • Portion of memory that processor uses to store frequently accessed items
    hard disk Next second request for data—to hard disk disk cache first request for data—to disk cache processor
  • 21. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a miniature hard disk?
    p. 363 Fig. 7-16
      • Provide users with greater storage capacities than flash memory
      • Some have a form factor of less than 1 inch
      • Storage capacities range from 2 GB to 100 GB
    Next
  • 22. Magnetic Disks
    • What are external hard disks and removable hard disks ?
    p. 364 Fig. 7-17 External hard disk —freestanding hard disk that connects to system unit Removable hard disk —hard disk that you insert and remove from hard disk drive
    • Used to back up or transfer files
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Hard Disks below Chapter 7
  • 23. Magnetic Disks
    • What is a disk controller?
    p. 364 SCSI ( S mall C omputer S ystem I nterface) controller supports up to fifteen devices including hard disks, CD and DVD drives, tape drives, printers, scanners, network cards SATA ( Serial Advanced Technology Attachment ) controller uses serial signals to transfer data, instructions, and information Next EIDE ( E nhanced I ntegrated D rive E lectronics) controller supports four hard disks, provides connections for CD and DVD drives Chip and circuits that control transfer of items from disk
  • 24. Magnetic Disks
    • What is online storage ?
    p. 365 Fig. 7-18
      • Others can be authorized to access your data
      • Service on Web that provides storage for minimal monthly fee
      • Files can be accessed from any computer with Web access
      • Large files can be downloaded instantaneously
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Online Storage below Chapter 7
  • 25. Optical Discs
    • What are optical discs?
    Push the same button to close the tray. p. 366 Fig. 7-19
      • Most PCs include an optical disc drive
      • Flat, round, portable metal discs made of metal, plastic, and lacquer
      • Can be read only or read/write
    Insert the disc, label side up. Push the button to slide out the tray. Next
  • 26. Optical Discs
    • How does a laser read data on an optical disc?
    p. 367 Fig. 7-20 Step 1. Laser diode shines a light beam toward disc. Step 2. If light strikes a pit, it scatters. If light strikes a land, it is reflected back toward diode. Next laser diode laser diode prism prism light- sensing diode light- sensing diode 0 1 lens lens pit land disc label Step 3. Reflected light is deflected to a light-sensing diode, which sends digital signals of 1 to computer. Absence of reflected light is read as digital signal of 0.
  • 27. Optical Discs
    • How is data stored on an optical disc?
    p. 367 Fig. 7-21
      • Typically stored in single track
      • Track divided into evenly sized sectors that store items
    single track spirals to edge of disc disc sectors Next
  • 28. Optical Discs
    • How should you care for an optical disc?
    p. 368 Fig. 7-22 Do store the disc in a jewel box when not in use Do hold a disc by its edges Do not eat, smoke, or drink near a disc Do not stack discs Do not expose the disc to excessive heat or sunlight Do not touch the underside of the disc Next
  • 29. Optical Discs
    • What is a CD-ROM ?
    p. 369 Fig. 7-24
      • C ompact d isc r ead- o nly m emory
      • Cannot erase or modify contents
      • Typically holds 650 MB to 1 GB
      • Commonly used to distribute multimedia and complex software
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click CD-ROMs below Chapter 7
  • 30. Optical Discs
    • What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive?
    p. 369 75X Ranges from 48X to 75X or faster 75  150 KBps = 11,250 KBps or 12.25 MBps 75X is 150 KBps (KB per second) 48X: 48  150 KBps = 7,200 KBps or 7.2 MBps Next
  • 31. Optical Discs
    • What is a Picture CD ?
    p. 370 Fig. 7-25 Step 3. At home, print images from Picture CD on your ink-jet photo printer. At a store, print images to Picture CD at kiosk. Step 1. Drop off film to be developed. Mark the Picture CD box on the film-processing envelope. Step 2. When you pick up prints and negatives, a Picture CD contains digital images of each photograph. Next Film developers offer Picture CD service Can be modified using photo editing software Stores digital versions of roll of film Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Picture CDs below Chapter 7
  • 32. Optical Discs
    • What are CD-Rs and CD-RWs ?
    p. 371 Must have CD recorder or CD-R drive Cannot erase disc’s contents CD-R ( c ompact d isc- r ecordable) — c disc you can write on once CD-RW ( c ompact d isc- r e w ritable) — ce erasable disc you can write on multiple times Must have CD-RW software and CD-RW drive Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click CD-Rs and CD-RWs below Chapter 7
  • 33. Optical Discs
    • What is a DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc-ROM or digital video disc-ROM)?
    p. 372 Fig. 7-26
      • High capacity disc capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB
      • Must have DVD-ROM drive or DVD player to read DVD-ROM
      • Stores databases, music, complex software, and movies
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click DVDs below Chapter 7
  • 34. Optical Discs
    • How does a DVD-ROM store data?
    p. 372 Fig. 7-27
      • Two layers of pits are used, lower layer is semitransparent so laser can read through
      • Some are double-sided
      • Blu-Ray discs currently have a storage capacity of up to 27 GB
    Next
  • 35. Tape
    • What is tape ?
    p. 374 Fig. 7-28
      • Magnetically coated plastic ribbon capable of storing large amounts of data at low cost
      • Primarily used for backup
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Tape below Chapter 7
  • 36. Tape
    • How is data stored on a tape?
    p. 374
      • Sequential access
        • Unlike direct access — used on floppy disks, Zip disks, hard disks, CDs, and DVDs — which can locate particular item immediately
        • Reads and writes data consecutively, like music tape
    Next
  • 37. PC Cards
    • What is a PC Card ?
    p. 374 Figs. 7-29–7-30
    • Adds capabilities to computer
    • Credit-card - sized device commonly used in notebook computers
    Next
  • 38. Miniature Mobile Storage Media
    • What is miniature mobile storage media?
    p. 375 Fig. 7-31
      • Storage for small mobile devices
    Next
  • 39. Miniature Mobile Storage Media
    • What are common types of flash memory cards?
    p. 376 Fig. 7-32 Next Smart Media xD Picture Card CompactFlash Secure Digital Memory Stick Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Flash Memory Cards below Chapter 7
  • 40. Miniature Mobile Storage Media
    • How does one type of flash memory card work?
    p. 377 Fig. 7-33 Next
  • 41. Miniature Mobile Storage Media
    • What is a USB Flash Drive ?
    p. 377 Fig. 7-34
      • Plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile device
      • Storage capacities up to 4 GB
      • May eventually make the floppy disk obsolete
    Next
  • 42. Miniature Mobile Storage Media
    • What is a smart card ?
    p. 378 Fig. 7-35
      • Stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card
      • Input, process, output, and storage capabilities
    Next Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 7, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Smart Cards below Chapter 7
  • 43. Microfilm and Microfiche
    • What are microfilm and microfiche ?
    p. 379 Fig. 7-36 Images recorded using computer output microfilm recorder Store microscopic images of documents on roll or sheet of film Next Microfilm — 100- to 215-foot roll of film Microfiche — small sheet of film, usually 4”  6”
  • 44. Microfilm and Microfiche
    • How do life expectancies of various media compare?
    p. 379 Fig. 7-37
    • Microfilm and microfiche have longest life of any storage media
    Next
  • 45. Putting It All Together
    • What are recommended storage devices for home users?
    p. 380 Fig. 7-38
    • 80 GB hard disk
    • Online storage
    • CD or DVD drive
    • Card reader/writer
    • USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk drive
    Next Home
  • 46. Putting It All Together
    • What are recommended storage devices for small office/home office (SOHO) users?
    p. 380 Fig. 7-38
    • 750 MB Zip drive
    • 120 GB hard disk
    • Online storage
    • CD or DVD drive
    • External hard drive for backup
    • USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk drive
    Next Small Office/ Home Office (SOHO)
  • 47. Putting It All Together
    • What are recommended storage devices for mobile users?
    p. 380 Fig. 7-38
    • 80 GB hard disk
    • Online storage
    • CD or DVD drive
    • Card reader/writer
    • Portable hard disk for backup
    • USB flash drive, and/or 2 GB PC Card hard disk, and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk drive
    Next Mobile
  • 48. Putting It All Together
    • What are recommended storage devices for power users?
    p. 380 Fig. 7-38
    • CD or DVD drive
    • 300 GB hard disk
    • Online storage
    • Portable hard disk for backup
    • USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk drive
    Next Power
  • 49. Putting It All Together
    • What are recommended storage devices for large business users?
    p. 380 Fig. 7-38
    • Desktop computer
      • 160 GB hard disk
      • CD or DVD drive
      • Smart card reader
      • Tape drive
      • USB flash drive and/or 3.5-inch floppy disk drive
    • Server or Mainframe
      • Network storage server
      • 40 TB hard disk system
      • CD-ROM or DVD-ROM server
      • Microfilm or microfiche
    Next Large Business
  • 50. Summary of Storage Floppy disks Zip disks Internal hard disks Portable hard disks Recordable CDs Rewritable CDs DVD-ROMs Recordable DVDs Rewritable DVDs Tape PC Cards Flash memory cards and USB flash drives Chapter 7 Complete Smart cards, microfilm, and microfiche

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