The Motherboard is sometimes called the system board. Many electronic components attach to the motherboard;others are built into it.
Computer chips are usually silicon, An integrated circuit contains microscopic pathways that carry electrical currents. Each integrated circuit can contain millions of elements such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors.
On larger computers, such as mainframes and supercomputers, the various functions performed by the processor extend over many separate chips and often multiple circuit boards. The term microprocessor is used to refer to a personal computer processor chip.
The control unit is like a traffic cop, it interprets each instruction.
Today’s computers support a concept Pipelining , it begins fetching the 2 nd instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the 1 st
The clock speed determines the pace and is measured by the amount of ticks per second. 1 gigahertz equals one billion ticks/second.
ADM which stands for Advanced Micro Devces, is the leading manufacturer of Intelcompatible processors.
Chip for chip requires replacing the old chip with a new one. Piggyback requires putting the new chip physically on top of the old one. Daughterboard upgrade requires the new chip to be on an adapter car that plugs into the motherboard.
A heat sink can sometimes be metal. Adding new chips cause to much heat because of all the extra power.
Floating point is a type of coprocessor that is able to do math. Parallel Processing also divides up the assigned task and solves the problem at the same time.
Human speech is called analog. Bits are the smallest unit of data the computer can process. 0s and 1s represent 256 individual characteristics .
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is the most widely used coding system to represent data. The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code scheme is used primarily on mainframe computers and high-end servers.
1 or more chips on the motherboard or some other circuit board.
The 3 rd category is called the stored programs concept.
Volatile is temporary and nonvolatile memory is permanent. RAM is the most common type of volatile memory.
When computer is powered on, certain operating system files load into RAM from a storage device such as a hard disk.
Dynamic RAM includes also: 1. Synchronous DRAM, which are most faster b/c they are synchronized to the system clock 2. Double Data Rate SDRAM, which are even faster than SDRAM b/c they transfer twice the data for each clock cycle. 3. Rambus DRAM, which are the fastest b/c they use pipelining techniques.
SIMM have pins on opposite sides that connect to form a single set of contacts DIMM have pins on opposite sides that don’t connect and form 2 sets of contacts
The amount of RAM in computers purchased today ranges from 128 MB to 2 GB. There are RAM guidelines for different types of computer users.
When a processor needs an instruction or data, it searches the memory in this order: -L1 -L2 -L3 -RAM -if it still isn’t found it searches hard disk, CD, or DVD
Once a programmer writes the microcode onto the PROM chip, it functions like a regular ROM chip. It can’t be erased.
Store data on mobile computers, such as PDAs, cellular telephones, printers, digital cameras, music players, and pagers The flash memory chip in a digital cell phone stores names and telephone numbers
The flash memory chips that store a computer’s startup info often use CMOS technology.
Electricity travels about 1 foot in a nanosecond. Very fast.
Sometimes, all functionality is built into the adapter card. With others, a cable connects the adapter card to a peripheral.
A modem card is sometimes called an internal modem.
All PC Cards conform to standards developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
Some modems that connect the system unit to a telephone line use a serial port b/c the telephone line expects the data in a specific frequency.
Printers connect with a 25 pin female connector.
USB supports hot plugging and PLUG and PLAY- can plug into different things and make it easier
A system unit with a MIDI port has the capability of recording sounds that have been created with a synthesizer and then processing the sounds to create new sounds.
The larger the # of bits handled by the bus, the faster the computer transfers data.
A 64-bit processor can manipulate 64 bits at a time.
Many newer computers have additional fans near the ports and processor.
Lisa Schulke The Components of the System Unit Chapter 4