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  • PGA-pins cover entire surface (same side as chip Inverted PGA has pins of opposite surface from chip
  • Storing is only if needed Clock speed-number of cycles in one second Gigahertz-1 billion cycles in one second
  • Parallel processing-the main processor controls the secondary processors, so that each secondary processor is only doing part of the work.
  • ASCII-American standard for information interchange-most widely used coding system EBCDIC-extended binary coded decimal interchange code- used primarily on supercomputers and high end servers
  • SDRAM is much faster than DRAM since it is in sync with the computer clock DDR SDRAM is even faster because they transfer data twice each clock cycle. Rambus DRAM-Faster than SDRAM, because it uses a pipelining technique
  • L1-generally very small but fast L2-Slower than L1, but more memory originally stored memory, but on newer computers funcitons as a trasfer cache.
  • Daisy chain- hooking up a series of USB devices in a row one after another (series) USB hub-a device that allows several devices to be hooked to it, then it hooks up to a single USB port
  • Tablet PCs look a lot like a large PDA

Transcript

  • 1. The Components of the System Unit Jeremy Lukianovich Chapter 4
  • 2. The system unit
    • The system unit is the case that contains the electronic components that make up a computer.
    • The mother board is the main circuit board that all of the electronic components are in some way connected to.
  • 3. Computer Chip
    • The computer chip is a small piece of etched semi-conducting materiel, such as silicone.
    • There are two types of attachments
    • 1) DIP-dual inline package (two rows of metal feet)
    • 2) PGA-Pin grid array (large number of pins covering the surface of the chip)
  • 4. Processor-(CPU)
    • The Control unit- directs and coordinates activities in the computer
    • The arithmetic logic unit- performs comparisons, arithmetic, and logic operations
    • Machine cycle- the repeated 4 steps to all computer actions (1-fetching, 2-decoding, 3-executing, 4-storing)
    • Registers-Small storage locations in the processor. This is a high speed temporary storage area.
    • The system clock- controls timing of all computer operations
  • 5.
    • Processor installation and upgrades
      • Three types
        • Chip for Chip-Replace existing chip
        • Piggy back-stack new one on top of old chip
        • Daughterboard upgrade-new chip on adapter card that plugs into motherboard
    • Heat sinks and heat pipes
        • ceramic or metal finned components that help dissipate heat
    • Coprocessors
        • a secondary chip that aids the main processor, thereby increasing the performance of the computer
    • Parallel processing
        • Using multiple computer processors to increase the speed of the processor.
  • 6. Data Representation
    • Computers use digital representation
      • Binary code
        • 1=on
        • 0=off
    • A single digit is a bit
    • 8 bits equal a byte
    • Two coding systems
      • ASCII
      • EBCDIC
  • 7. Memory
    • RAM (Random access memory)
        • Primary memory type
        • Read from and written by programs
        • If power loss RAM is lost, unless stored
          • DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
            • Must be reenergized or will lose memory
            • Several types
          • SRAM (Static RAM)
            • Most stable but expensive
        • More RAM the faster the computer will be
  • 8.
    • Cache
        • Memory Cache
          • Stores frequently used data - speeds up computer
          • 3 types
            • L1-built into processor
            • L2-advanced transfer cache
            • L3-separate cache, must have L2 to work
        • Disk Cache (see chapter 7 )
    • ROM (Read only memory)
        • Stores permanent data and instructions
    • Flash memory
        • Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically
        • Often contains startup instructions due to its adaptability
    • CMOS (Complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor)
        • Technologically advanced materiel that produces high speeds with low power draws.
    • Memory access times
        • The time it takes a computer to do an operation, this can be as little as 10 nano-seconds
  • 9. Expansion Slots and Adapter cards
    • Expansion slots
      • Slot on computer that can hold a circuit board that in some way increases the performance of the computer.
        • Sound cards
        • Video cards
        • Modem cards
        • Network cards
    • PC cards and Flash memory cards
      • PC cards-a thin device that plugs into a computer and adds memory, storage, sounds, modem, communications, fax, or other abilities to the computer.
      • Flash memory cards-a card that allows a user to add data from a mobile device (such as a PDA) to a laptop.
  • 10. Ports and connectors
    • Serial ports-a port that connects two devices and transmits 1 bite at a time, good for devices that do no require high transfer rates.
        • Mouse
        • Keyboard
        • Modem
    • Parallel ports-a port connects devices but transmits data at a higher rate than a serial port
        • Printers
    • USB ports-universal serial bus port
        • Can connect up to 127 peripherals together on one port.
            • Daisy chain them
            • USB hub
            • Hot plugging (plugging in a device without first shutting the computer down.
  • 11. Special purpose ports
    • Firewire port
          • Similar to USB
          • Faster than USB
    • MIDI port (musical instrument digital interface)
          • Used to connect a instrument to a computer
    • SCSI (small computer system interface
          • Attach such devices as disk drives and printers
          • Daisy chain up to 7 to 15 devices
    • IrDA (infrared data ssociation)
          • Transfer data via infrared light waves, completely wireless
    • Bluetooth
          • Radio waves to transmit information
          • Similar to IrDA but you don’t need to line up the devies
  • 12. Buses
    • Buses
        • The channels within a computer chip which the bits take to travel from one point to another.
        • Bus width dictates how many bits a computer may transmit and one time
        • Faster the bus speed the faster the programs will run.
    • System Buses
        • Part of the mother board
        • Connects processor to main memory
    • Expansion buses
        • Channels outside the main processor that transmit data into and out of the processor
          • ISA (industry standard bus)-slowest
          • Local- high speed bus that connects things such as disk drives
          • Accelerated Graphics port-improves speed which 3D graphics move
          • USB and Firewire
          • PC Card bus
  • 13. Bays
    • Opening in system where you can insert additional equipment
    • Drive bays- rectangular openings which usually house disk or CD drives.
  • 14. Power Supplies
    • Battery powered-primarily laptops
    • AC adaptor-allows the DC powered computer to be plugged into a AC power supply (wall socket)
    • A cooling fan is generally mounted near the power input
  • 15. Mobile Computers and Devices
    • Laptops-small computers that have folding screens, very portable
      • Contain many miniaturized components which generally raises the price
    • Tablet PC-entire computer in the shape of a tablet.
    • PDA-handheld computing device, generally contain a phone book, basic word processing, and little else.