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Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
Ch4- Presentation
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Ch4- Presentation

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  • 1. Computers Chapter 4 Inside the Computer © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 2
  • 2. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Digital signals: Data is represented by a stream of bits.
      • Bit – short for b inary dig it (either 0 or 1)
        • 1 represents on
        • 0 represents off
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 6
  • 3. Computers Inside the Computer
    • The Language of Computers
      • Encoding systems
        • ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
        • ANSI – American National Standards Institute
        • UNICODE – capable of handling most printed languages
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 7
  • 4. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Digital: The Language of Computers
      • Byte – collection of bits that represent a character
        • ASCII – 7 bits/byte
        • ANSI – 8 bits/byte
        • UNICODE – 16 bits/byte
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 8
  • 5. Computers Inside the Computer
    • The PC System Unit
      • Connected to the Motherboard:
        • Processor
        • Chipset
        • Memory chips
        • Expansion boards
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 11
  • 6. Computers Inside the Computer
    • The PC System Unit
      • Motherboard
        • System bus – permits communication between components
        • Device controllers – control peripheral devices
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 12
  • 7. Computers Inside the Computer
    • The PC System Unit
      • The Processor: Computer on a Chip
        • Pentium 4
        • Celeron
        • Xeon TM
        • Itanium TM
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 13
  • 8. Computers Inside the Computer
    • CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS
      • Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of clock cycles per second (Instructions)
      • Megahertz (MHz) – millions of clock cycles per second (Instructions)
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 39
  • 9. Computers Inside the Computer
    • CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS
      • MIPS – millions of instructions per second
      • FLOPS – floating point operations per second; used to measure speed of supercomputers
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 40
  • 10. Computers Inside the Computer
    • RAM: (Temporary Memory)
      • High-speed holding area for data and programs
      • Volatile memory – data is lost if electrical current is not maintained
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 18
  • 11. Computers Inside the Computer
    • RAM: (Temporary Memory)
      • DDR SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM
      • SIMMs – single in-line memory modules
      • DIMMs – dual in-line memory modules
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 19
  • 12. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Cache
      • Cache Memory – faster than RAM
      • Housed on (L1) or near (L2) the CPU
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 20
  • 13. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Other High-Speed Memories
      • ROM (read-only memory) – contains instructions to the computer that the user cannot change
      • PROM (programmable ROM) – user can store read-only programs and data
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 21
  • 14. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Other High-Speed Memories
      • Flash Memory
        • Nonvolatile memory – does not lose data in a power outage
        • Easily upgraded
        • BIOS (Basic Input Output System) – stored in flash memory
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 22
  • 15. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Memory Capacity
      • MB (megabyte) – approximately 1 million bytes
      • GB (gigabyte) – approximately 1 billion bytes
      • TB (terabyte) – approximately 1 trillion bytes
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 42
  • 16. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Memory Capacity
      • KB (kilobytes) – approximately 1000 bytes
      • Kb (kilobit)
      • Mb (megabit)
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 43
  • 17. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • PCI (peripheral component interconnect) local bus – allows for circuit boards to connect to the common system bus
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 27
  • 18. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • Expansion slots – where expansion boards are installed
      • Expansion boards or expansion cards – provide additional capabilities to the computer
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 28
  • 19. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • AGP (accelerated graphics port) bus– speeds up high-resolution 3-D graphics
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 29
  • 20. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • USB (universal serial bus) – used to connect peripheral devices to the PC
      • USB hub – connects to the USB port and provides additional places to plug USB devices
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 30
  • 21. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • Hot plug – USB devices can be attached or removed while the PC is running
      • USB 2.0 – about 40 times faster than original USB
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 31
  • 22. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • 1394 bus – similar to USB in speed
      • FireWire – Apple terminology
      • Supports hot plugging
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 32
  • 23. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Buses and Ports
      • SCSI (small computer system interface) or “scuzzy” bus – early alternative to expansion slots in PCs
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 33
  • 24. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Legacy and Other PC Ports
      • Serial port – data flows one bit at a time
      • Parallel port – data flows several bits at a time
      • IrDA port or infrared port – data sent by light waves
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 34
  • 25. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Bus Speed
      • Most buses operate at MHz
      • Major block to efficiency in a PC
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 41
  • 26. Computers Inside the Computer
    • PC Growth: Adding Capabilities
      • Expansion Boards – placed in expansion slots
        • Graphics adapter
        • Sound
        • Data/voice/fax modem
        • Network interface card (NIC)
        • SCSI interface card
        • Video capture card
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 35
  • 27. Computers Inside the Computer
    • PC Cards: PCMCIA Technology
      • PCMCIA card or PC card
      • Usually used on notebook computers
        • Expand RAM
        • NIC
        • Hard-disk cards
        • GPS (global positioning system)
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 36
  • 28. Computers Chapter 5
    • Storage Devices: (Permanente Storage) measured in Mega Bytes (MB), or Gaga Bytes (GB)
      • Hard Drive
      • Floppy Disc
      • CD-ROM
      • DVD-ROM
      • CD-R (Recordable)
      • CD-RW (Rewritable)
      • DVD-R, DVD+R
      • DVD-RW, DVD+RW
      • DVD+,-RW
  • 29. Computers Inside the Computer
    • Build Your Own PC
      • Advantages
        • Cheaper (for high-end systems)
        • Meets your requirements
      • Disadvantages
        • No warranty on system
        • No help desk
    © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 37

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