Ch4- Presentation

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Ch4- Presentation

  1. 1. Computers Chapter 4 Inside the Computer © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 2
  2. 2. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Digital signals: Data is represented by a stream of bits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit – short for b inary dig it (either 0 or 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 represents on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0 represents off </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 6
  3. 3. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>The Language of Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI – American National Standards Institute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNICODE – capable of handling most printed languages </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 7
  4. 4. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Digital: The Language of Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte – collection of bits that represent a character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII – 7 bits/byte </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI – 8 bits/byte </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNICODE – 16 bits/byte </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 8
  5. 5. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>The PC System Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to the Motherboard: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chipset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chips </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion boards </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 11
  6. 6. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>The PC System Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System bus – permits communication between components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device controllers – control peripheral devices </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 12
  7. 7. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>The PC System Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Processor: Computer on a Chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentium 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celeron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xeon TM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Itanium TM </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 13
  8. 8. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz (GHz) – billions of clock cycles per second (Instructions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz) – millions of clock cycles per second (Instructions) </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 39
  9. 9. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>CPU Speed: GHz, MIPS, and FLOPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIPS – millions of instructions per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLOPS – floating point operations per second; used to measure speed of supercomputers </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 40
  10. 10. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>RAM: (Temporary Memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed holding area for data and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile memory – data is lost if electrical current is not maintained </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 18
  11. 11. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>RAM: (Temporary Memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DDR SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs – single in-line memory modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMMs – dual in-line memory modules </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 19
  12. 12. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache Memory – faster than RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housed on (L1) or near (L2) the CPU </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 20
  13. 13. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Other High-Speed Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM (read-only memory) – contains instructions to the computer that the user cannot change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROM (programmable ROM) – user can store read-only programs and data </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 21
  14. 14. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Other High-Speed Memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memory – does not lose data in a power outage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily upgraded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS (Basic Input Output System) – stored in flash memory </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 22
  15. 15. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Memory Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MB (megabyte) – approximately 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GB (gigabyte) – approximately 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB (terabyte) – approximately 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 42
  16. 16. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Memory Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KB (kilobytes) – approximately 1000 bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kb (kilobit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mb (megabit) </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 43
  17. 17. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCI (peripheral component interconnect) local bus – allows for circuit boards to connect to the common system bus </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 27
  18. 18. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion slots – where expansion boards are installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion boards or expansion cards – provide additional capabilities to the computer </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 28
  19. 19. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AGP (accelerated graphics port) bus– speeds up high-resolution 3-D graphics </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 29
  20. 20. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB (universal serial bus) – used to connect peripheral devices to the PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB hub – connects to the USB port and provides additional places to plug USB devices </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 30
  21. 21. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot plug – USB devices can be attached or removed while the PC is running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB 2.0 – about 40 times faster than original USB </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 31
  22. 22. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1394 bus – similar to USB in speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FireWire – Apple terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports hot plugging </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 32
  23. 23. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Buses and Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI (small computer system interface) or “scuzzy” bus – early alternative to expansion slots in PCs </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 33
  24. 24. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Legacy and Other PC Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial port – data flows one bit at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel port – data flows several bits at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IrDA port or infrared port – data sent by light waves </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 34
  25. 25. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Bus Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most buses operate at MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major block to efficiency in a PC </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 41
  26. 26. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>PC Growth: Adding Capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion Boards – placed in expansion slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics adapter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data/voice/fax modem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI interface card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video capture card </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 35
  27. 27. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>PC Cards: PCMCIA Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCMCIA card or PC card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used on notebook computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard-disk cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (global positioning system) </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 36
  28. 28. Computers Chapter 5 <ul><li>Storage Devices: (Permanente Storage) measured in Mega Bytes (MB), or Gaga Bytes (GB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy Disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R (Recordable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW (Rewritable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-R, DVD+R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RW, DVD+RW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD+,-RW </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Computers Inside the Computer <ul><li>Build Your Own PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper (for high-end systems) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meets your requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No warranty on system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No help desk </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 37

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