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  • 1. Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation
  • 2. Objectives
    • Describe common types of hardware and their features
    • Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux
  • 3. Understanding Hardware: Central Processing Units (CPUs)
    • Core component of any computer
      • Also known as microprocessor or processor
    • Two main components:
      • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here
      • Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here
  • 4. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processor’s integral electronics
    • Two main processor architectures:
      • Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
      • Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
  • 5. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor
      • Determines speed that processor executes commands
      • Measured in Megahertz (MHz)
    • A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar
    • Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed
      • Measured in binary digits (bits)
      • The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated
  • 6. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Cache: Temporary store of information
      • Cache size and location affect a processor’s ability to calculate larger volumes of data
    • Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself
    • Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip
      • Connected to processor via high speed link
    • Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip
      • Connected directly to processor
  • 7. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Multiple processors can work together
      • Perform the same tasks faster
      • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task
      • ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently
  • 8. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory
    • Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor
    • Two main categories:
      • Random Access Memory (RAM)
        • Volatile memory
      • Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • 9. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM
    • Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information
    • Directly related to computer performance
    • Two major categories:
      • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
      • Static RAM (SRAM)
  • 10. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued)
    • Three main types of DRAM sticks:
      • Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM)
        • No longer produced
      • Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM)
      • Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM)
        • Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems
  • 11. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued)
    • Three recent DIMM technologies:
      • Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)
      • Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM)
      • Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)
  • 12. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM
    • Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to
      • Nonvolatile
    • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer
  • 13. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM Variants
    • Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once
    • Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole
    • Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten
  • 14. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives
    • Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits
      • Hard disk
      • Floppy disk
      • CD-ROM, DVD
      • CD-RW, DVD-RW disk
      • Zip disk
      • Flash Memory
  • 15. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Hard Disk Drives
    • Not directly wired to the processor
      • Pass through a hard disk controller card
        • Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD)
    • Two types of controller cards:
      • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
        • Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers
      • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
  • 16. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations
  • 17. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued)
    • Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive
    • Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself
      • A partition must be formatted with a filesystem
  • 18. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued)
    • Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions
    • Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives
    • Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk
      • Stored outside of all partitions
  • 19. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD
  • 20. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices
    • Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer
      • Transferable between computers
    • Floppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically
      • Used in floppy disk drives
    • Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks
      • Can store much more information
      • Used in zip drives
  • 21. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices (continued)
    • DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses
      • Greater data transfer speed
      • Larger storage capacity
      • More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks
    • Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information
  • 22. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components
    • Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard
    • Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board
    • Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer
      • e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs)
      • Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard
  • 23. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Three common slots for peripheral devices:
      • Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz
      • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz
        • Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA)
      • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz
        • Designed for video card peripherals
  • 24. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Figure 2-1: Mainboard components
  • 25. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard
      • PS/2
      • COM (Serial)
      • LPT
      • USB
      • IEEE1394 (Firewire)
      • PCMCIA
  • 26. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • PS/2 ports: Connect keyboards and mice to computers
    • COM ports: Connect a variety of peripherals to the mainboard
      • S erial port
    • LPT ports: Most commonly connect printers to the mainboard
      • Parallel ports
  • 27. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Universal Serial Bus (USB) port: Connects peripheral components such as mice, printers, and scanners
      • Hot-swappable: Can be attached to the computer while it is running
    • FireWire (IEEE1394): Hot-swappable variant of USB commonly used to connect SCSI hard disks, scanners, digital cameras, and CD-RW drives
  • 28. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality
    • Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices
  • 29. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU
    • Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device
    • Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings
  • 30. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors
    • Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor
      • Commonly referred to as video cards
    • Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen
    • Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen
  • 31. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths
  • 32. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)
    • Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed
      • Measured in Hertz (Hz)
      • Two types of refresh rates:
        • HSync (horizontal refresh)
        • VSync (vertical refresh)
  • 33. Understanding Hardware: Keyboards and Mice
    • Facilitates user input and direction
    • Variety of ways to connect to motherboard
      • Serial port
      • Large circular AT 5-pin connector
      • Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector
      • USB connection
      • Wireless or radio connection
    • Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
  • 34. Gathering Preinstallation Information Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements
  • 35. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist
  • 36. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist
  • 37. Gathering Hardware Information
    • Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist:
      • Computer manuals
      • Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed)
      • Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)
  • 38. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool
  • 39. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager
  • 40. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet
  • 41. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)
  • 42. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility
  • 43. Gathering Software Information
    • Identifying system network configuration:
      • Hostname
      • IP address
      • Netmask
      • Gateway
      • DNS servers
        • Resolve FQDNs
  • 44. Gathering Software Information (continued)
    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers
      • If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network
  • 45. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6: Common Linux packages
  • 46. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages
  • 47. Summary
    • Understand the hardware before an installation
      • Allows you to make appropriate choices
      • Verify that the installation was successful
    • CPUs process most instructions in a computer
    • Two CPU architectures: RISC and CISC
    • Computer memory can be volatile (RAM) or nonvolatile (ROM)
  • 48. Summary (continued)
    • Most information is stored on hard disks, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs in a nonvolatile manner
      • Two main types of hard disks: SCSI and IDE
    • Peripheral components (video adapter cards, sound cards, mice, keyboards, NICs) attach to mainboard via an expansion slot or port
    • Common expansion slots: ISA, PCI, and AGP
    • Common ports: PS/2, serial, parallel, USB, FireWire, and PCMCIA
  • 49. Summary (continued)
    • All peripherals must have a unique IRQ and I/O address to communicate with the processor
      • Can use DMA to bypass some processor operations
    • Hardware information can be gathered from computer manuals, BIOS, or other OSs
    • Can set software information at installation