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  1. 1. Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe common types of hardware and their features </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding Hardware: Central Processing Units (CPUs) <ul><li>Core component of any computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as microprocessor or processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two main components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) <ul><li>Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processor’s integral electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Two main processor architectures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) <ul><li>Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines speed that processor executes commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Megahertz (MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in binary digits (bits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) <ul><li>Cache: Temporary store of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache size and location affect a processor’s ability to calculate larger volumes of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to processor via high speed link </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected directly to processor </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued) <ul><li>Multiple processors can work together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform the same tasks faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory <ul><li>Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor </li></ul><ul><li>Two main categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM <ul><li>Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information </li></ul><ul><li>Directly related to computer performance </li></ul><ul><li>Two major categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic RAM (DRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static RAM (SRAM) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued) <ul><li>Three main types of DRAM sticks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued) <ul><li>Three recent DIMM technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM <ul><li>Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer </li></ul>
  13. 13. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM Variants <ul><li>Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once </li></ul><ul><li>Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten </li></ul>
  14. 14. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives <ul><li>Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM, DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW, DVD-RW disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Memory </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Hard Disk Drives <ul><li>Not directly wired to the processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass through a hard disk controller card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of controller cards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations
  17. 17. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) <ul><li>Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A partition must be formatted with a filesystem </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) <ul><li>Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives </li></ul><ul><li>Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored outside of all partitions </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD
  20. 20. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices <ul><li>Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferable between computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in floppy disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can store much more information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in zip drives </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices (continued) <ul><li>DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater data transfer speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger storage capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information </li></ul>
  22. 22. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components <ul><li>Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>Three common slots for peripheral devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for video card peripherals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Figure 2-1: Mainboard components
  25. 25. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PS/2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COM (Serial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LPT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE1394 (Firewire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCMCIA </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>PS/2 ports: Connect keyboards and mice to computers </li></ul><ul><li>COM ports: Connect a variety of peripherals to the mainboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S erial port </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LPT ports: Most commonly connect printers to the mainboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel ports </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB) port: Connects peripheral components such as mice, printers, and scanners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot-swappable: Can be attached to the computer while it is running </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FireWire (IEEE1394): Hot-swappable variant of USB commonly used to connect SCSI hard disks, scanners, digital cameras, and CD-RW drives </li></ul>
  28. 28. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices </li></ul>
  29. 29. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) <ul><li>Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings </li></ul>
  30. 30. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors <ul><li>Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly referred to as video cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen </li></ul><ul><li>Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen </li></ul>
  31. 31. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths
  32. 32. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) <ul><li>Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Hertz (Hz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of refresh rates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HSync (horizontal refresh) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VSync (vertical refresh) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Understanding Hardware: Keyboards and Mice <ul><li>Facilitates user input and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of ways to connect to motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large circular AT 5-pin connector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless or radio connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Gathering Preinstallation Information Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements
  35. 35. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist
  36. 36. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist
  37. 37. Gathering Hardware Information <ul><li>Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool
  39. 39. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager
  40. 40. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet
  41. 41. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)
  42. 42. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility
  43. 43. Gathering Software Information <ul><li>Identifying system network configuration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netmask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve FQDNs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Gathering Software Information (continued) <ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6: Common Linux packages
  46. 46. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages
  47. 47. Summary <ul><li>Understand the hardware before an installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to make appropriate choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify that the installation was successful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPUs process most instructions in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Two CPU architectures: RISC and CISC </li></ul><ul><li>Computer memory can be volatile (RAM) or nonvolatile (ROM) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Most information is stored on hard disks, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs in a nonvolatile manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main types of hard disks: SCSI and IDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral components (video adapter cards, sound cards, mice, keyboards, NICs) attach to mainboard via an expansion slot or port </li></ul><ul><li>Common expansion slots: ISA, PCI, and AGP </li></ul><ul><li>Common ports: PS/2, serial, parallel, USB, FireWire, and PCMCIA </li></ul>
  49. 49. Summary (continued) <ul><li>All peripherals must have a unique IRQ and I/O address to communicate with the processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use DMA to bypass some processor operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware information can be gathered from computer manuals, BIOS, or other OSs </li></ul><ul><li>Can set software information at installation </li></ul>