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Basic Computer Organization
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Basic Computer Organization






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    Basic Computer Organization Basic Computer Organization Presentation Transcript

    • ECE3120: Computer Systems Dr. Xubin He http://iweb.tntech.edu/hexb Email: hexb@tntech.edu Tel: 931-3723462, Brown Hall 319
      • Today:
        • Basic Concepts
        • Software
    • Computer Concepts
      • Computer:
        • Hardware:
          • Processor: “brain”, CPU
            • Datapath: registers and ALU
            • Control unit: hardware instrucion logic.
          • Memory: place to store software programs and data
          • I/O devices: enter data/programs into the computer/display outputs
        • Software: programs
          • A program is a set of instructions that the computer hardware can execute.
    • Computer Organization
    • Processor (Central Processing Unit)
      • Datapath:
        • Register file: a register is a storage location within the CPU.
        • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):perform all the arithmetic computations and logic evaluations.
      • Control Unit:
        • Decodes and monitors the execution of instructions and coordinate the operations. The system clock synchronizes the activities of the CPU, which are measured by clock cycles. (GHz)
        • Maintain 2 registers:
          • PC: keeps track of the address of the next instruction to be executed
          • Status Register: flags the instruction execution result
    • Microprocessor
        • A processor implemented on a single integrated circuit (IC). Peripheral chips are needed to construct a product. A microcomputer is a computer that uses a microprocessor as its CPU (such as today’s desktop).
        • Classifications: word length (number of bits that a microprocessor can manipulate in one operation).
          • 4-bit (intel 4004,1971), 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit.
        • Limitations:
          • Requires external memory to execute programs;
          • Peripheral chips are needed to interface with I/O devices
          • Glue logic (decoders, buffers) is needed to interconnect external memory and peripheral interface chips with the microprocessor.
    • Microcontroller
      • A computer implemented on a single VLSI chip. It contains everything a microprocessor contains plus some more components, such as:
        • Memory
        • Timer
        • ADC, DAC
        • DMA controller
        • parallel I/O interface (parallel ports)
        • asynchronous serial I/O interface, synchronous serial I/O interface
        • DSP features.
    • Features of 68HCS12 microcontroller
      • 16-bit CPU
      • 64 KB memory space (also supports expanded memory up to 1 MB through a 16-KB window)
      • 0 KB to 4KB of EEPROM
      • 2 KB to 14 KB of on-chip SRAM
      • 32 KB to 512 KB flash memory
      • Sophisticated timer functions that include: input capture, output compare, pulse accumulators, real-time interrupt, and COP timer
      • Serial communication interfaces: SCI, SPI, CAN, BDLC
      • Background debug mode (BDM)
      • 10-bit A/D converter
      • Instructions for supporting fuzzy logic function
    • Embedded Systems
      • A product that uses one or more microcontrollers as controller (s). Also called embedded products.
      • End users are interested in the functionality of the product, not the microcontroller itself.
      • Cell phones, home security systems, and modern automobiles are examples of embedded products.
    • Memory
      • Semiconductor memory, magnetic, optical memory.
      • Semiconductor memory:
        • Random access memory (RAM):volatile
          • Dynamic RAM (DRAM): periodic refresh operations to maintain the stored information. Every a few milliseconds to over a hundred ms.
          • Static RAM (SRAM):no need to refresh. More transistors are used to hold one bit information.
        • Read-only memory (ROM): nonvolatile.
          • MROM: mask-programed ROM, programmed when being manufactured.
          • PROM: programmable ROM, one-time programmable ROM using PROM programmer/burner by end users.
          • EPROM: erasable PROM, strong ultraviolate light.erasable in bulk.
          • EEPROM: electrically EPROM, erased by elctrical signals and reprogrammed. Individual location.
          • Flash memory: take advantages of EPROM and EEPROM
    • I/O devices
      • Input device
        • Allow users to enter data/programs into the computer so that computation can be performed.
        • Examples:
      • Output device
        • Display results of computation so that users can read them and equipment can be controlled.
        • Examples:
    • Software
      • Programs. A program is a set of instructions that can be executed by the computer hardware.
      • Machine instructions:
        • A sequence of binary digits that can be executed by the processor
        • e.g: 0001100000000110 (Accumulator A<-- Accumulator A+B)
        • Hard to understand, program, and debug for human being
      • Assembly language:
      Defined by assembly instructions An assembly instruction is a mnemonic representation of a machine instruction (e.g: ABA) Assembly programs must be translated before it can be executed (assembler) Programmers need to work on the program logic at a very low level and can achieve high productivity.
    • Assembly Language examples
      • The programmer must be very familiar with the hardware organization of the microcontroller.
      • It’s difficult to understand for anyone other than the author;
      • Hard for large projects: Work on a very low level.
      line 1: 2: 3: 4: 6: addr. 1000 1003 1006 1009 machine code = 00001000 B6 0800 BB 0801 BB 0802 7A 0900 source code org $1000 ldaa $800 adda $801 adda $802 staa $900 end
    • High-level languages
      • - Syntax of a high-level language is similar to English, (C/C++,Java,Fortran,PASCAL…)
      • - A translator is required to translate the program written in a
      • high-level language -- done by a compiler
      • - High-level languages allow the user to work on the program logic
      • at higher level.
      Source Code A program written in assembly or high-level language Object Code The output of an assembler or compiler