ECE3120: Computer Systems Dr. Xubin He http://iweb.tntech.edu/hexb Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 931-3723462, Brown Hall 319
Processor: “brain”, CPU
Datapath: registers and ALU
Control unit: hardware instrucion logic.
Memory: place to store software programs and data
I/O devices: enter data/programs into the computer/display outputs
A program is a set of instructions that the computer hardware can execute.
Processor (Central Processing Unit)
Register file: a register is a storage location within the CPU.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):perform all the arithmetic computations and logic evaluations.
Decodes and monitors the execution of instructions and coordinate the operations. The system clock synchronizes the activities of the CPU, which are measured by clock cycles. (GHz)
Maintain 2 registers:
PC: keeps track of the address of the next instruction to be executed
Status Register: flags the instruction execution result
A processor implemented on a single integrated circuit (IC). Peripheral chips are needed to construct a product. A microcomputer is a computer that uses a microprocessor as its CPU (such as today’s desktop).
Classifications: word length (number of bits that a microprocessor can manipulate in one operation).
Hard to understand, program, and debug for human being
Defined by assembly instructions An assembly instruction is a mnemonic representation of a machine instruction (e.g: ABA) Assembly programs must be translated before it can be executed (assembler) Programmers need to work on the program logic at a very low level and can achieve high productivity.
Assembly Language examples
The programmer must be very familiar with the hardware organization of the microcontroller.
It’s difficult to understand for anyone other than the author;
Hard for large projects: Work on a very low level.