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  • A diode is the simplest possible semiconductor device. A diode allows current to flow in one direction but not the other. You may have seen turnstiles at a stadium or a subway station that let people go through in only one direction. A diode is a one-way turnstile for electrons. When you put N-type and P-type silicon together as shown in this diagram, you get a very interesting phenomenon that gives a diode its unique properties. Even though N-type silicon by itself is a conductor, and P-type silicon by itself is also a conductor, the combination shown in the diagram does not conduct any electricity. The negative electrons in the N-type silicon get attracted to the positive terminal of the battery . The positive holes in the P-type silicon get attracted to the negative terminal of the battery. No current flows across the junction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction. If you flip the battery around , the diode conducts electricity just fine. The free electrons in the N-type silicon are repelled by the negative terminal of the battery. The holes in the P-type silicon are repelled by the positive terminal. At the junction between the N-type and P-type silicon, holes and free electrons meet. The electrons fill the holes. Those holes and free electrons cease to exist, and new holes and electrons spring up to take their place. The effect is that current flows through the junction. A device that blocks current in one direction while letting current flow in another direction is called a diode . Diodes can be used in a number of ways. For example, a device that uses batteries often contains a diode that protects the device if you insert the batteries backward. The diode simply blocks any current from leaving the battery if it is reversed -- this protects the sensitive electronics in the device. A semiconductor diode's behavior is not perfect, as shown in this graph: When reverse-biased , an ideal diode would block all current. A real diode lets perhaps 10 microamps through -- not a lot, but still not perfect. And if you apply enough reverse voltage (V), the junction breaks down and lets current through. Usually, the breakdown voltage is a lot more voltage than the circuit will ever see, so it is irrelevant. When forward-biased , there is a small amount of voltage necessary to get the diode going. In silicon, this voltage is about 0.7 volts. This voltage is needed to start the hole-electron combination process at the junction.
  • How big are the sensors? The current generation of digital sensors are smaller than film. Typical film emulsions that are exposed in a film-based camera measure 24mm x 36mm. If you've look at the specifications of a typical 1.3-megapixel camera, you'll find that it has a CCD sensor that measures 4.4mm x 6.6mm. As you'll see in a later section, a smaller sensor means smaller lenses.
  • Interpolation A more economical and practical way to record the three primary colors from a single image is to permanently place a filter over each individual photosite. By breaking up the sensor into a variety of red, blue and green pixels, it is possible to get enough information in the general vicinity of each sensor to make very accurate guesses about the true color at that location. This process of looking at the other pixels in the neighborhood of a sensor and making an educated guess is called interpolation. Bayer Filter Pattern The most common pattern of filters is the Bayer filter pattern . This pattern alternates a row of red and green filters with a row of blue and green filters. The pixels are not evenly divided -- there are as many green pixels as there are blue and red combined. This is because the human eye is not equally sensitive to all three colors. It's necessary to include more information from the green pixels in order to create an image that the eye will perceive as a "true color.“ The advantages of this method are that only one sensor is required, and all the color information (red, green and blue) is recorded at the same moment. That means the camera can be smaller, cheaper, and useful in a wider variety of situations. In other words, it makes it possible to create an affordable handheld digital camera. The raw output from a sensor with a Bayer filter is a mosaic of red, green and blue pixels of different intensity. Demosaicing Algorithms If you took a close look at the image of the Bayer filter pattern, you might be wondering how a digital camera can achieve its full advertised resolution if it takes four separate pixels to determine the color of a single pixel. Digital cameras use specialized demosaicing algorithms to convert the mosaic of separate colors into an equally sized mosaic of true colors. The key is that each colored pixel can be used more than once. The true color of a single pixel can be determined by averaging the values from the closest surrounding pixels.
  • 256x256 pixels - You find this resolution on very cheap cameras. This resolution is so low that the picture quality is almost always unacceptable . This is 65,000 total pixels. 640x480 pixels - This is the low end on most "real" cameras. This resolution is great if you plan to e-mail most of your pictures to friends or post them on a Web site . This is 307,000 total pixels. 1216x912 pixels - If you are planning to print your images , this is a good resolution. This is a "megapixel" image size -- 1,109,000 total pixels. 1600x1200 pixels - This is "high resolution." Images taken with this resolution can be printed in larger sizes , such as 8x10 inches, with good results. This is almost 2 million total pixels. You can find cameras today with up to 10.2 million pixels .
  • War-mart pricing Featuring 1-Hour Pick-Up from 19¢ or Home Delivery from 12¢. PriceSize 1-Hour In-Store Home 4 x 6 $0.19 $0.15 $0.12 5 x 7 $1.47 $0.58 $0.58 8 x 10 $2.84 $1.96 $1.96 Wallets $0.58 $0.54 $0.54
  • Digital photography makes it easy to enlarge a portion of an original image, a feature known as cropping. View the megapixel demo to see how megapixel size impacts cropping capabilities. Optical zoom magnifies like a telescope, with no image quality tradeoffs. Digital zoom simply enlarges pixels already present, causing a rapid decline in image quality. View the optical vs. digital zoom demo to see the difference for yourself. Image stabilization, also known as "anti shake," is a digital camera feature that helps prevent blurred images. It reduces the vibration caused by camera shake, slow shutter speeds or the use of a long telephoto lens, when a tripod is not used. Handheld shots can be taken almost two stops slower with image stabilization, helpful when using long telephoto optical lenses or shooting subjects in low light. The LCD on the back of a digital camera is your screen guide to taking digital photos. It frames shots like a viewfinder, allows you to review recorded images after they are taken and displays the camera's menus and settings. Some LCD monitors swivel and tilt in various directions making it easier to view when held overhead or down low. Today's LCDs are as large as 3" and improving so they can be seen more clearly under a variety of lighting conditions. Some ultracompact digital cameras have no optical viewfinder, only an LCD. What you need to know before going to the store Here's a list of questions that a Best Buy sales associate will most likely ask you when you go to the store to purchase a digital camera. To make sure you get the correct solution to your digital photography needs, please consider these questions ahead of time. 1. What sort of activities do you want to photograph? 2. What kind of computer do you have? 3. Does your PC have a CD or DVD burner? 4. What make/model of printer do you own? 5. What TV do you have? As a customer, here are a few questions you might want to ask a sales associate: 1. What features are best for the type of photos I want to take? 2. What accessories do I need and why? 3. Why is a Product Service Plan important?
  • Digital photography makes it easy to enlarge a portion of an original image, a feature known as cropping. View the megapixel demo to see how megapixel size impacts cropping capabilities. Optical zoom magnifies like a telescope, with no image quality tradeoffs. Digital zoom simply enlarges pixels already present, causing a rapid decline in image quality. View the optical vs. digital zoom demo to see the difference for yourself. Image stabilization, also known as "anti shake," is a digital camera feature that helps prevent blurred images. It reduces the vibration caused by camera shake, slow shutter speeds or the use of a long telephoto lens, when a tripod is not used. Handheld shots can be taken almost two stops slower with image stabilization, helpful when using long telephoto optical lenses or shooting subjects in low light. The LCD on the back of a digital camera is your screen guide to taking digital photos. It frames shots like a viewfinder, allows you to review recorded images after they are taken and displays the camera's menus and settings. Some LCD monitors swivel and tilt in various directions making it easier to view when held overhead or down low. Today's LCDs are as large as 3" and improving so they can be seen more clearly under a variety of lighting conditions. Some ultracompact digital cameras have no optical viewfinder, only an LCD. What you need to know before going to the store Here's a list of questions that a Best Buy sales associate will most likely ask you when you go to the store to purchase a digital camera. To make sure you get the correct solution to your digital photography needs, please consider these questions ahead of time. 1. What sort of activities do you want to photograph? 2. What kind of computer do you have? 3. Does your PC have a CD or DVD burner? 4. What make/model of printer do you own? 5. What TV do you have? As a customer, here are a few questions you might want to ask a sales associate: 1. What features are best for the type of photos I want to take? 2. What accessories do I need and why? 3. Why is a Product Service Plan important?
  • Digital photography makes it easy to enlarge a portion of an original image, a feature known as cropping. View the megapixel demo to see how megapixel size impacts cropping capabilities. Optical zoom magnifies like a telescope, with no image quality tradeoffs. Digital zoom simply enlarges pixels already present, causing a rapid decline in image quality. View the optical vs. digital zoom demo to see the difference for yourself. Image stabilization, also known as "anti shake," is a digital camera feature that helps prevent blurred images. It reduces the vibration caused by camera shake, slow shutter speeds or the use of a long telephoto lens, when a tripod is not used. Handheld shots can be taken almost two stops slower with image stabilization, helpful when using long telephoto optical lenses or shooting subjects in low light. The LCD on the back of a digital camera is your screen guide to taking digital photos. It frames shots like a viewfinder, allows you to review recorded images after they are taken and displays the camera's menus and settings. Some LCD monitors swivel and tilt in various directions making it easier to view when held overhead or down low. Today's LCDs are as large as 3" and improving so they can be seen more clearly under a variety of lighting conditions. Some ultracompact digital cameras have no optical viewfinder, only an LCD. What you need to know before going to the store Here's a list of questions that a Best Buy sales associate will most likely ask you when you go to the store to purchase a digital camera. To make sure you get the correct solution to your digital photography needs, please consider these questions ahead of time. 1. What sort of activities do you want to photograph? 2. What kind of computer do you have? 3. Does your PC have a CD or DVD burner? 4. What make/model of printer do you own? 5. What TV do you have? As a customer, here are a few questions you might want to ask a sales associate: 1. What features are best for the type of photos I want to take? 2. What accessories do I need and why? 3. Why is a Product Service Plan important?

Transcript

  • 1. Digital Camera July 16, 2005
  • 2. Agenda
    • Conventional cameras vs. digital cameras
    • Understanding the basic
      • Image sensors
      • Resolution
      • Capturing color
      • Pixels
    • What can you do after you take the pictures
    • Selecting a digital camera
    • What else do you want to buy?
  • 3. Conventional Camera vs. Digital Camera
    • Conventional film camera:
      • Basic elements
        • an optical element (the lens)
        • a chemical element (the film )
        • a mechanical element (the camera body itself)
      • Process the film chemically
      • Print it onto photographic paper
    • Digital Camera
      • Basic elements
        • An optical element (the lens)
        • A semiconductor device that records light electronically
        • Removable storage device
        • A mechanical element (the camera body itself)
      • A computer then breaks this electronic information down into digital data
      • You can view the result immediately
      • Print it onto photographic paper via printer
      • Send and store the images digitally
  • 4. Understand the Basic
      • Understand the basic
        • Image sensors
        • Resolution
        • Capturing color
        • Pixels
  • 5. Understand the Basic
      • Image Sensors
        • A collection of tiny light-sensitive diodes.
        • Diodes convert photons (light) into electrons (electrical charge).
        • These diodes are called photosites .
        • In a nutshell, each photosite is sensitive to light -- the brighter the light that hits a single photosite, the greater the electrical charge that will accumulate at that site.
    A CMOS image sensor A diode is the simplest possible semiconductor device. A diode allows current to flow in one direction but not the other. Kodak’s CCD
  • 6. Understand the Basic
    • Image Sensors
      • Most common types of image sensors are
        • Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
        • Complementary Metal oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
      • Convert light into electrons at the photosites. Think of it as having a 2-D array of thousands or millions of tiny solar cells, each of which transforms the light from one small portion of the image into electrons.
      • Both CCD and CMOS devices perform this task using a variety of technologies .
      • The next step is to read the value (accumulated charge) of each cell in the image.
      • In a CCD device, the charge is actually transported across the chip and read at one corner of the array. An analog-to-digital converter turns each pixel's value into a digital value .
      • In most CMOS devices, there are several transistors at each pixel that amplify and move the charge using more traditional wires. The CMOS approach is more flexible because each pixel can be read individually.
      • CCDs use a special manufacturing process to create the ability to transport charge across the chip without distortion. This process leads to very high-quality sensors in terms of fidelity and light sensitivity.
  • 7. Understand the Basic
    • Difference Between CCD and CMOS
      • CCD sensors creates high-quality, low-noise images . CMOS sensors, traditionally, are more susceptible to noise .
      • Because each pixel on a CMOS sensor has several transistors located next to it, the light sensitivity of a CMOS chip is lower. Many of the photons hitting the chip hit the transistors instead of the photodiode.
      • CMOS sensors traditionally consume little power . Implementing a sensor in CMOS yields a low-power sensor. CCDs, on the other hand, use a process that consumes lots of power. CCD s consume as much as 100 times more power than an equivalent CMOS sensor.
      • CMOS chips can be fabricated on just about any standard silicon production line, so they tend to be extremely inexpensive compared to CCD sensors.
      • CCD sensors have been mass produced for a longer period of time, so they are more mature. They tend to have higher quality pixels, and more of them.
  • 8. Understand the Basic
      • Digitize Information
        • The light is converted to electrical charge; but the electrical charges that build up in the CCD are not digital signals that are ready to be used by your computer.
        • In order to digitize the information, the signal must be passed through an analog-to-digital converter ( ADC ).
          • Think of each photosite as a bucket or a well, and think of the photons of light as raindrops. As the raindrops fall into the bucket, water accumulates (in reality, electrical charge accumulates).
          • Some buckets have more water and some buckets have less water, representing brighter and darker sections of the image.
          • Sticking to the analogy, the ADC measures the depth of the water, which is considered analog information. Then it converts that information to binary form.
  • 9. Understand the Basic The Digitizing Process Raindrops = Photons of Light Filter Bucket = CCD ADC – Analog-to-digital Converter to convert raindrop (light) amount to digital info 135 92 38 120 48 71 216 85 66
  • 10. Understand the Basic
      • Resolution
        • The amount of detail that the camera can capture is called the resolution.
        • It is measured in pixels.
        • The more pixels your camera has, the more detail it can capture.
        • The more detail you have, the more you can blow up a picture before it becomes "grainy" and starts to look out-of-focus.
  • 11. Understand the Basic
      • Capturing Color
        • Each photosite is colorblind.
        • It only keeps track of the total intensity of the light that strikes its surface.
        • In order to get a full color image, most sensors use filtering to look at the light in its three primary colors.
        • Once all three colors have been recorded, they can be added together to create the full spectrum of colors that you've grown accustomed to seeing on computer monitors and color printers.
  • 12. Understand the Basic How the three colors mix to form many colors?
  • 13. Understand the Basic
      • Capturing Color
        • There are several ways of recording the three colors in a digital camera.
        • The highest quality cameras use three separate sensors, each with a different filter over it.
          • Split Beam
          • Spinning Disk
          • Interpolation
          • Bayer Filter Pattern
          • Demosaicing Algorithms
        • Most consumer cameras on the market today use a single sensor with alternating rows of green/red and green/blue filters (Bayer Filter Pattern).
  • 14. Beam Splitter How the original (left) image is split in a beam splitter ? The highest quality cameras use three separate sensors, each with a different filter over it. Light is directed to the different sensors by placing a beam splitter in the camera. Think of the light entering the camera as water flowing through a pipe. Using a beam splitter would be like dividing an identical amount of water into three different pipes. Each sensor gets an identical look at the image; but because of the filters, each sensor only responds to one of the primary colors. The advantage of this method is that the camera records each of the three colors at each pixel location. Unfortunately, cameras that use this method tend to be bulky and expensive.
  • 15. Spinning Disk A spinning disk filter Rotate a series of red, blue and green filters in front of a single sensor. The sensor records three separate images in rapid succession. This method also provides information on all three colors at each pixel location; but since the three images aren't taken at precisely the same moment, both the camera and the target of the photo must remain stationary for all three readings. This isn't practical for candid photography or handheld cameras.
  • 16. Interpolation A more economical and practical way to record the three primary colors from a single image is to permanently place a filter over each individual photosite. By breaking up the sensor into a variety of red, blue and green pixels, it is possible to get enough information in the general vicinity of each sensor to make very accurate guesses about the true color at that location. This process of looking at the other pixels in the neighborhood of a sensor and making an educated guess is called interpolation .
  • 17. Bayer Filter The most common pattern of filters is the Bayer filter pattern . This pattern alternates a row of red and green filters with a row of blue and green filters. The pixels are not evenly divided -- there are as many green pixels as there are blue and red combined. This is because the human eye is not equally sensitive to all three colors. It's necessary to include more information from the green pixels in order to create an image that the eye will perceive as a "true color." The advantages of this method are that only one sensor is required, and all the color information (red, green and blue) is recorded at the same moment. That means the camera can be smaller, cheaper, and useful in a wider variety of situations. In other words, it makes it possible to create an affordable handheld digital camera. The raw output from a sensor with a Bayer filter is a mosaic of red, green and blue pixels of different intensity.
  • 18. Demosaicing Algorithms Digital cameras use specialized demosaicing algorithms to convert the mosaic of separate colors into an equally sized mosaic of true colors. The key is that each colored pixel can be used more than once. The true color of a single pixel can be determined by averaging the values from the closest surrounding pixels.
  • 19. Understand the Basic
      • Pixels and Resolution
        • 256x256 pixels – 65K total pixels. Very cheap cameras. Picture quality is almost always unacceptable .
        • 640x480 pixels – 307K total pixels. Low end on most "real" cameras. Great for e-mail and/or post them on a Web site .
        • 1216x912 pixels – 1.1M total pixels. Good resolution for printing images .
        • 1600x1200 pixels – 1.9M total pixels. “High resolution“ for printing larger sizes , such as 8x10 inches. You can find cameras today with up to 10.2 million pixels .
  • 20. Resolution: Printing Pictures
      • Kodak recommends the following as minimum resolutions for different print sizes:
          • Print Size Megapixels Image Resolution
          • Wallet 0.3 640x480 pixels
          • 4x5 inches 0.4 768x512 pixels
          • 5x7 inches 0.8 1152x768 pixels
          • 8x10 inches 1.6 1536x1024 pixels
  • 21. What Can You Do after You Take the Pictures?
      • Viewing the Pictures
      • Image Storage
      • Printing the Pictures
      • Fun Projects
  • 22. View the Pictures
      • Digital cameras on the market today have an LCD screen , which means that you can view your picture right away.
      • This is one of the great advantages of a digital camera: You get immediate feedback on what you capture.
      • Once the image leaves the CCD sensor (by way of the ADC and a microprocessor), it is ready to be viewed on the LCD.
      • Of course, that's not the end of the story. Viewing the image on your camera would lose its charm if that's all you could do.
      • You want to be able to load the picture into your computer or send it directly to a printer.
  • 23. View the Pictures with Fun
      • With the image-editing software that often comes with your camera you can do lots of neat things:
        • crop the picture to capture just the part you want
        • add text to the picture
        • make the picture brighter or darker
        • change the contrast and sharpness
        • apply filters to the picture to make it look blurry, painted, embossed, etc.
        • resize pictures
        • rotate pictures
        • cut stuff out of one picture and put it into another
        • "stitch" together many pictures to create one large panoramic/360-degree picture
        • create a 3-D picture that you can rotate and zoom in on and out of
  • 24. Image Storage Which one shall I buy?
  • 25. Image Storage
    • There are a number of storage systems currently used in digital cameras:
      • Built-in memory - Some extremely inexpensive cameras have built-in Flash memory.
      • SmartMedia cards - SmartMedia cards are small Flash memory modules.
      • CompactFlash - CompactFlash cards are another form of Flash memory, similar to but slightly larger than SmartMedia cards.
      • Memory Stick - Memory Stick is a proprietary form of Flash memory used by Sony.
      • Floppy disk - Some cameras store images directly onto floppy disks.
      • Hard disk - Some higher-end cameras use small built-in hard disks, or PCMCIA hard-disk cards, for image storage.
      • Writeable CD and DVD - Some of the newest cameras are using writeable CD and DVD drives to store images.
    • In order to transfer the files from a Flash memory device to your computer without using cables, you will need to have a drive or reader for your computer. These devices behave much like floppy drives and are inexpensive to buy.
    • Think of all these storage devices as reusable digital film . When you fill one up, either transfer the data or put another one into the camera.
    • The different types of Flash memory devices are not interchangeable . Each camera manufacturer has decided on one device or another. Each of the Flash memory devices also needs some sort of caddy or card reader in order to transfer the data
  • 26. Image Storage
      • The two main file formats used by digital cameras are TIFF and JPEG.
      • TIFF is an uncompressed format and JPEG is a compressed format.
      • Most cameras use the JPEG file format for storing pictures, and they sometimes offer quality settings (such as medium or high).
      • The following chart will give you an idea of the file sizes you might expect with different picture sizes.
      • Image Size TIFF JPEG JPEG
    • (uncompressed) (high quality) (medium quality)
    • 640x480 1.0 MB 300 KB 90 KB
    • 800x600 1.5 MB 500 KB 130 KB
    • 1024x768 2.5 MB 800 KB 200 KB 1600x1200 6.0 MB 1.7 MB 420 KB
  • 27. Image Storage * Average file size using cameras highest resolution JPEG mode. The actual number of images per card will vary and depends on the camera model and compatibility of the scene being photographed. MB = Megabytes, GB = Gigabytes The number showed on each cell indicate the images you can save with the memory card. 585 292 146 73 36 18 9 3.5MB 8 megapixel 640 320 160 80 40 20 10 3.2MB 6 megapixel 818 409 204 102 51 25 12 2.5MB 5 megapixel 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 2.0MB 4 megapixel 1706 853 426 213 106 53 26 1.2MB 3 megapixel 2274 1137 568 284 142 71 35 900Kb 2 megapixel 2GB 1GB 512MB 256MB 128MB 64MB 32MB File Size* Camera Type
  • 28. Printing the Pictures
      • Type of printing
        • Upload to computer and then print to printer
        • Direct from storage device to printer
        • On-line printing service
          • Snapfish ( www.snapfish.com 12 cent/photo + shipping)
          • War-Mart ( www.walmart.com Photo Center, order on-line 15 cent/photo & pick up in store)
          • Winkflash ( www.winkflash.com with promo 8 cent/photo, 99 cent/shipping)
          • Costco ( www.costco.com Photo Center)
          • Shutterfly ( www.shutterfly.com )
          • Kodak Gallery ( www.kodakgallery.com )
        • In-store printing service
  • 29. Fun Projects
        • Slide show
        • Greeting card
        • Calendar
        • Poster
        • Invitation
        • MPEG movie
  • 30. Selecting a Digital Camera
      • Selection criteria
        • What type of photo I going to take?
        • Does the size of the camera matter to me?
        • What do I do with the pictures?
      • What do you have to look out when you are shopping for a digital camera?
        • More megapixels, more cropping flexibility
        • Optical vs. digital zoom
        • LCD
        • Image Storage
      • How do you shop for a digital camera?
  • 31. What Are You Looking For?
        • Resolution (pixels, imaging sizing selection)
        • Image sensor type (CCD vs. CMOS)
        • Media storage type
        • Shutter speed range, ISO Film speed setting
        • Optical and digital zoom (focus on optical zoom)
        • AF Zoom
        • Recording mode (normal, TIFF, e-mail, Burst shooting)
        • Len and SLR
        • Camera size
        • LCD size
        • Self Timer, flash light, nightshot ability
        • Red eye reduction capability, special effects
  • 32. Compare Before You Buy It?
      • Go on-line to do the comparison
        • www.dpreview.com
        • www.zdnet.com
        • www.digicamera.com
      • Learn more for on-line
        • www.howstuffwork.com for digital camera
        • www.sony.com for Sony 101
        • www.nikon.com for Digitutor
        • www.canon.com for product descriptions
        • www.bestbuy.com for “compare with products in this pricing range” (after you select a product)
  • 33. What Else Do You Want to Buy?
      • Printer
        • Regular color printer
        • Photo Printer – HP, Epson, Canon and Lexmark
      • Photo processing software
        • Editing and printing
        • Media management
      • Other accessory
        • Storage media
        • Additional battery
        • Tripod
        • Camera bag
        • Additional lens
        • Additional flash light
  • 34. Q & A
  • 35. Agenda for the Next Session (Aug. 6, 2005)
    • Photo editing
        • Why do I have to edit the photo?
        • What do I need to edit a photo?
        • Basic editing functions
        • Look outs for photo editing
    • Photo printing
        • Print them yourself or not to print them yourself
        • Cost of printing it yourself
        • What do you need to print a photo?
        • Photo printing alternative
    • Photo project
      • Creating slide show
      • Calendar
      • Gift for special occasion
    • Photo archiving and storing