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  • Purpose: This chapter introduces the Cisco IOS™ CLI on the Catalyst® 1900 switch and router.
    Timing: This chapter should take about 2 hours to present.
    Note: The Catalyst 1900 switch only has a subset of the router Cisco IOS commands available.
    Contents:
    Introduction to Cisco IOS. Explain to the student what is IOS?
    Cisco Device startup procedures in general.
    IOS configuration source.
    General introduction to the IOS CLI.
    Cat 1900 switch startup procedures.
    Intro to Cat 1900 CLI. This part covers the basic configuration on the switch, like setting the IP address and hostname. More details about the various Cat 1900 switch configuration commands are explained in Chapter 6 and 7.
    Router startup procedures. More details on the router startup process is discussed in chapter 5.
    Router IOS CLI.
  • Note:
    RAM—Packet buffers, running configurations, running Cisco IOS
    ROM—POST, ROM monitor, baby Cisco IOS (Rxboot)
    NVRAM—Backup configurations, config register
    Flash—Cisco IOS
    Flash memory is nonvolatile. It behaves like a file system. It is more expensive than NVRAM. It is readable and writeable. The 2500 routers run from Flash. If it is running Cisco IOS from Flash, then the Flash is in the readable state. Use the boot system command to boot Cisco IOS from a TFTP server so the 2500 can run from RAM if you need to write or erase Flash online.
  • Emphasize: In a later slide, there is a very detailed flowchart of the router startup process.
  • Note: There is a detailed flowchart of the router startup process on the next slide.
  • Emphasize: Go through the flow from the START state to the Normal Startup Complete state.
    Note: This is a one-layer slide.
    Boot field = Last four bits of the config register.
    Config register is discussed in a later slide.
    Refer to the Documentation CD-ROM or the Installation and Maintenance (IMCR) class for more details on the config register.
  • Emphasize: Using the default config register value (0x2102), the router will load the config from NVRAM at startup.
  • Emphasize: Use the show version command to display the value of the config register setting. When you change the config register, you will see the change from the show version output:
    Configuration register is 0x2102 (will be 0x2142 at next reload).
    The new config register value will be used at the next reload.
  • Layer 4 of 4
    Emphasize: Layer 4—Finishes with the third case, a boot field setting in the range of 0x2 to 0xF. The entry of a configuration register value in the 0x2 to 0xF range is significant. When the router attempts to boot from the net (Netboot), the bootstrap program generates a Cisco IOS filename based on the value of the boot field. For example, with the setting 0x2, the default Cisco IOS filename generated will be cisco2-xxxx, where xxxx refers to a processor name (for example, 2500). Again, refer students to the IMCR course for details.
    You use the config-register command to change the value.
    Notice that the bottom lines of the show version output indicates what value the config register will be on the next reload.
  • Layer 4 of 4
    Emphasize: Layer 4—Finishes with the third case, a boot field setting in the range of 0x2 to 0xF. The entry of a configuration register value in the 0x2 to 0xF range is significant. When the router attempts to boot from the net (Netboot), the bootstrap program generates a Cisco IOS filename based on the value of the boot field. For example, with the setting 0x2, the default Cisco IOS filename generated will be cisco2-xxxx, where xxxx refers to a processor name (for example, 2500). Again, refer students to the IMCR course for details.
    You use the config-register command to change the value.
    Notice that the bottom lines of the show version output indicates what value the config register will be on the next reload.
  • Note: The current state of the Flash memory is in read-only mode. It is running Cisco IOS from Flash.
    This router has a total of 16 MB of Flash memory. The Flash contains one Cisco IOS image and there is 6.69 MB of available space left in Flash.
  • Note: The current state of the Flash memory is in read-only mode. It is running Cisco IOS from Flash.
    This router has a total of 16 MB of Flash memory. The Flash contains one Cisco IOS image and there is 6.69 MB of available space left in Flash.
  • Purpose: This slide is a repeated slide from Chapter 4, “Operating and Configuring a Cisco IOS Device.”
  • Note: The 2500 series routers do not operate this way. The 2500 series routers normally run Cisco IOS from Flash. The Cisco IOS in Flash is not compressed but it is relocatable. Relocatable means the Cisco IOS image can be run from Flash or from RAM.
    The 2500 can run from RAM if you use the boot system tftp command to boot the Cisco IOS image.
    The Rxboot mode is also run from RAM on the 2500 routers.
  • Emphasize: Using the default config register value (0x2102), the router will load the config from NVRAM at startup.
  • Purpose: This chapter introduces the Cisco IOS™ CLI on the Catalyst® 1900 switch and router.
    Timing: This chapter should take about 2 hours to present.
    Note: The Catalyst 1900 switch only has a subset of the router Cisco IOS commands available.
    Contents:
    Introduction to Cisco IOS. Explain to the student what is IOS?
    Cisco Device startup procedures in general.
    IOS configuration source.
    General introduction to the IOS CLI.
    Cat 1900 switch startup procedures.
    Intro to Cat 1900 CLI. This part covers the basic configuration on the switch, like setting the IP address and hostname. More details about the various Cat 1900 switch configuration commands are explained in Chapter 6 and 7.
    Router startup procedures. More details on the router startup process is discussed in chapter 5.
    Router IOS CLI.
  • Emphasize: In Cisco IOS Release 12.0, there are new copy commands. These new commands treat the RAM, Flash, NVRAM, TFTP, FTP, and so on as a file system. Since this class was developed when the most common Cisco IOS in the field is pre-12.0, these 12.0 commands are not covered in detail in this class.
  • Emphasize: This section introduces topics on managing your configuration file and Cisco IOS image.
  • Emphasize: The show flash command is an important tool to use to gather information about your router memory and image file. Caution students that they must know that they are loading the correct and appropriate image. The name for the Cisco IOS image file contains multiple parts, each with a specific meaning:
    The first part of the image name contains the platform on which the image runs. In this example, the platform is C2500.
    The second part of the name identifies the special capabilities of the image file. A letter or series of letters identifies the feature sets supported in that image. In this example, the “j” indicates this is an enterprise image, and the “s” indicates it contains extended capabilities.
    The third part of the name specifies where the image runs and if the file is compressed. In this example, “l” indicates the file is relocatable and not compressed. Relocatable means the Cisco IOS can be run from Flash or from RAM. You should be careful in reading the Cisco IOS image filename. Some fonts display the lowercase letter “l” and the number 1 as the same character. How you enter the characters will impact the ability of the router to load the files correctly.
    The fourth part of the name indicates the version number. In this example, the version number is 12.0 (3).
    The final part of the name is the file extension. The .bin extension indicates this file is a binary executable file.
    The Cisco IOS software naming conventions, name part field meaning, image content, and other details are subject to change. Refer to Cisco Connection Online (CCO) for updated details.
  • Emphasize: The show flash command is an important tool to use to gather information about your router memory and image file. Caution students that they must know that they are loading the correct and appropriate image. The name for the Cisco IOS image file contains multiple parts, each with a specific meaning:
    The first part of the image name contains the platform on which the image runs. In this example, the platform is C2500.
    The second part of the name identifies the special capabilities of the image file. A letter or series of letters identifies the feature sets supported in that image. In this example, the “j” indicates this is an enterprise image, and the “s” indicates it contains extended capabilities.
    The third part of the name specifies where the image runs and if the file is compressed. In this example, “l” indicates the file is relocatable and not compressed. Relocatable means the Cisco IOS can be run from Flash or from RAM. You should be careful in reading the Cisco IOS image filename. Some fonts display the lowercase letter “l” and the number 1 as the same character. How you enter the characters will impact the ability of the router to load the files correctly.
    The fourth part of the name indicates the version number. In this example, the version number is 12.0 (3).
    The final part of the name is the file extension. The .bin extension indicates this file is a binary executable file.
    The Cisco IOS software naming conventions, name part field meaning, image content, and other details are subject to change. Refer to Cisco Connection Online (CCO) for updated details.
  • Purpose: This slide discusses how to create a backup version of a Cisco IOS software image to a TFTP server.
    Emphasize: Routers by default come with Flash memory that has a preloaded copy of the Cisco IOS software. Although Flash is extremely reliable—good for 65 years and 100,000 rewrites—it is a good idea to make a backup copy of the Cisco IOS software if you have a TFTP server available. If you have to replace Flash memory for some reason, you will have a backup copy at the revision level currently running on your network.
    The copy command screen output varies depending on the Cisco IOS software level.
    Determine the platform type of your TFTP server prior to beginning the backup procedure. The TFTP server may be running Windows, UNIX, Mac, or other OS. Filename and directory access procedures may vary depending on the TFTP server platform and platform version.
  • Purpose: This slide describes how to load a backup version of a Cisco IOS software image from a TFTP server to the router.
    Emphasize: If you need more Flash space to load a copy of the Cisco IOS software, you must first erase the Flash memory. You cannot erase a single image—you must erase all copies of Cisco IOS software from Flash. However, if Flash memory on the router is partitioned, you can erase one or more of the parts.
    After the TFTP transfer is completed, use the show flash command to view the file size to compare its size with that of the original on the server.
    If the Cisco IOS is running from Flash, then the Flash is in the read-only state. To change the Flash to a writeable state, you can use the boot system TFTP command to boot a Cisco IOS from a TFTP server and the Cisco IOS will be run from RAM, or you can go to the Rxboot mode to perform the copy.
  • Layer 4 of 4
  • Layer 4 of 4
  • Note: Cisco IOS Release 12.0 supports a new syntax for the copy command.
  • Note: Cisco IOS Release 12.0 supports a new syntax for the copy command.
  • Purpose: This slide discuss the initial configurations on the routers and switches.
    Note: There is no setup mode on the Catalyst 1900 switch.
  • 別ウィンドウで開く

    1. 1. 2 Module 5: Managing Cisco IOS Software Frank Mann CCAI-CCNA
    2. 2. Router Internal Components Routers have different types of memory Routers need to locate the Config file and the IOS
    3. 3. 5.1 Router Boot Sequence and Verification Startup routines must do the following: • Test the router hardware. • Find and load the Cisco IOS software. • Find and apply configuration statements, including protocol functions and interface addresses.
    4. 4. Router Power-On/Bootup Sequence 1. Perform power-on self test (POST). 2. Load and run bootstrap code. 3. Find the Cisco IOS software. 4. Load the Cisco IOS software. 5. Find the configuration. 6. Load the configuration. 7. Run the configured Cisco IOS software.
    5. 5. 5.1.2 How a Cisco device locates and loads IOS
    6. 6. Finding the Cisco IOS Software
    7. 7. Router Startup Flowchart
    8. 8. Loading the Configuration • Load and execute the configuration from NVRAM. • If no configuration is present in NVRAM, enter setup mode.
    9. 9. Determining the Current Configuration Register Value wg_ro_a#show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L), Version 12.0(3), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Mon 08-Feb-99 18:18 by phanguye Image text-base: 0x03050C84, data-base: 0x00001000 ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.0(10c), SOFTWARE BOOTFLASH: 3000 Bootstrap Software (IGS-BOOT-R), Version 11.0(10c), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) wg_ro_a uptime is 20 minutes System restarted by reload System image file is "flash:c2500-js-l_120-3.bin" --More-- Configuration register is 0x2102 • Configuration register value in show version
    10. 10. • Configuration register bits 3, 2, 1, and 0 set boot option. • Check the configuration register value with show version. Configuration Register Values
    11. 11. Configuration Register Values
    12. 12. show version Command Router#show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-JS-M), Version 12.0(7a), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Tue 05-Feb-02 01:48 by pwade Image text-base: 0x80008088, data-base: 0x80B0404C ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router uptime is 1 minute System restarted by reload System image file is "flash:c2600-js-mz.120-7a.bin" cisco 2610 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x300) with 53248K/12288K bytes of memory. Processor board ID JAD06090BMD (2719249260) M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49 Bridging software. X.25 software, Version 3.0.0. SuperLAT software (copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp). TN3270 Emulation software. Basic Rate ISDN software, Version 1.1. 1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) 2 Serial(sync/async) network interface(s) 1 ISDN Basic Rate interface(s) 32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102
    13. 13. show flash Command wg_ro_a#show flash System flash directory: File Length Name/status 1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin [10084760 bytes used, 6692456 available, 16777216 total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY) wg_ro_a#show flash System flash directory: File Length Name/status 1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin [10084760 bytes used, 6692456 available, 16777216 total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY)
    14. 14. show running-config and show startup-config Commands wg_ro_c#show startup-config Using 1359 out of 32762 bytes ! version 12.0 ! -- More -- wg_ro_c#show running-config Building configuration... Current configuration: ! version 12.0 ! -- More -- In NVRAMIn RAM • Displays the current and saved configuration
    15. 15. Loading the Cisco IOS Software from Flash Memory •The flash memory file is decompressed into RAM.
    16. 16. Loading the Configuration • Load and execute the configuration from NVRAM. • If no configuration is present in NVRAM, enter setup mode.
    17. 17. 5.1.5 Troubleshooting IOS boot failure In the event that the router does not boot properly, there are several things that could be wrong: • Configuration file has missing or incorrect boot system statement • Incorrect configuration register value • Corrupted flash image • Hardware failure
    18. 18. © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Managing Cisco IOS Devices
    19. 19. Cisco IOS File System and Devices
    20. 20. Managing Cisco IOS Images
    21. 21. wg_ro_a#show flash System flash directory: File Length Name/status 1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin [10084760 bytes used, 6692456 available, 16777216 total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY) • Verify that flash memory has room for the Cisco IOS image. Verifying Memory and Deciphering Image Filenames
    22. 22. Verifying Memory and Deciphering Image Filenames
    23. 23. 5.2 Prefixes for Managing the Cisco File System
    24. 24. • Back up current files prior to updating flash memory. Creating a Software Image Backup
    25. 25. Upgrading the Image from the Network
    26. 26. Device Configuration Files
    27. 27. 5.2.4 Managing configuration files using copy and paste
    28. 28. Cisco IOS copy Command • NVRAM • Terminal • TFTP server • Erase start
    29. 29. Cisco IOS copy Command from TFTP An IOS image can be copied into flash from a TFTP server • A series of "e's" are displayed as the current IOS image is erased from flash. • A series of "!'s" are displayed as the image is downloaded successfully to flash • After the new flash image is downloaded, it is verified
    30. 30. Cisco IOS copy Command Example interface s0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e0 ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.0 interface e1 no ip address interface s0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e0 ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.0 interface e1 no ip address interface e0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e1 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e1 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface s0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e1 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface s0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 interface e1 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 running-config TFTP Server saved.cfg Resulting running-config copy tftp run (merged)
    31. 31. copy run tftp and copy tftp run Commands wg_ro_a#copy running-config tftp Address or name of remote host []? 10.1.1.1 Destination filename [running-config]? wgroa.cfg .!! 1684 bytes copied in 13.300 secs (129 bytes/sec) wg_ro_a#copy tftp running-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.1.1.1 Source filename []? wgroa.cfg Destination filename [running-config]? Accessing tftp://10.1.1.1/wgroa.cfg... Loading wgroa.cfg from 10.1.1.1 (via Ethernet0): ! [OK - 1684/3072 bytes] 1684 bytes copied in 17.692 secs (99 bytes/sec) wg_ro_a#copy running-config tftp Address or name of remote host []? 10.1.1.1 Destination filename [running-config]? wgroa.cfg .!! 1684 bytes copied in 13.300 secs (129 bytes/sec) wg_ro_a#copy tftp running-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.1.1.1 Source filename []? wgroa.cfg Destination filename [running-config]? Accessing tftp://10.1.1.1/wgroa.cfg... Loading wgroa.cfg from 10.1.1.1 (via Ethernet0): ! [OK - 1684/3072 bytes] 1684 bytes copied in 17.692 secs (99 bytes/sec)
    32. 32. Adding New Devices to the Network 1. Determine the IP address to be used for management purposes. 2. Configure administrative access for the console, auxiliary, and vty interfaces. 3. Configure passwords for the privileged EXEC mode for the device. 4. Configure the network management access to the device. 5. Determine the IP address to assign to each interface. 6. Configure the new device with the appropriate configuration.
    33. 33. Moving Devices on the Network • Determine what to do with the obsolete equipment. –Which devices connect to the equipment being moved? –Will the move and reconfiguration affect the security policy? –Does the device play a role that no other devices play? • Review the facilities for the new location. • After the move, test network connectivity.
    34. 34. Changing the Hardware Hardware changes • Power down the equipment or use OIR. • Make sure the appropriate modules are available. • Read the hardware installation manual. • Verify your organization’s policies. Cisco IOS software changes • Does the new version support the current and future features you need? • Does your platform have sufficient RAM and flash memory to support the feature set?
    35. 35. show and debug Commands Processing characteristic Processing load Primary use show Static Low overhead Gather facts debug Dynamic High overhead Observe processes
    36. 36. Considerations When Using debug Commands • May generate output in a variety of formats that may not identify the problem • Require high overhead, possibly disrupting network device operation • Useful for obtaining information about network traffic and router status
    37. 37. Commands Related to debug Router(config)#service timestamps debug datetime msec Router#show processes CPU utilization for five seconds: 0%/0%; one minute: 0%; five minutes: 0% PID Q Ty PC Runtime(ms) Invoked uSecs Stacks TTY Process 1 C sp 602F3AF0 0 1627 0 2600/3000 0 Load Meter 2 L we 60C5BE00 4 136 29 5572/6000 0 CEF Scanner 3 L st 602D90F8 1676 837 2002 5740/6000 0 Check heaps 4 C we 602D08F8 0 1 0 5568/6000 0 Chunk Manager 5 C we 602DF0E8 0 1 0 5592/6000 0 Pool Manager 6 M st 60251E38 0 2 0 5560/6000 0 Timers Router#no debug all
    38. 38. Summary • The Cisco IOS File System feature provides a single interface to all the file systems that a router uses. • As your network grows, you may want to store your Cisco IOS software and configuration files on a central server, which would allow you to control the number and revision level of software images and configuration files you must maintain. • Device configuration files contain a set of user-configured commands that customize the functionality of your Cisco device.
    39. 39. Summary (Cont.) • You use the Cisco IOS software copy commands to move configurations from one component or device to another, such as RAM, NVRAM, or a file server. • Network equipment is often moved from one location to another, removed from the network, or the configuration may change. The process is referred to as adds, moves, and changes. • The show and debug commands are built-in tools for troubleshooting. The show command is used to display static information, while the debug command is used to display dynamic data.
    40. 40. Module 5: Managing Cisco IOS Software Lab: 5.1.3 Using the Boot System Command 5.1.5 Troubleshooting Config Register Boot Problems 5.2.3 Managing Configuration Files with TFTP 5.2.5 Managing IOS Images with TFTP 5.2.6a Password Recovery Procedures 5.2.6b Managing IOS Images with ROMmon and Xmodem e-Lab: 5.1.3 Preparing for Boot System Commands 5.1.4 Configuration Register 5.1.5 Troubleshooting IOS Boot Failure

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