別ウィンドウで開く

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別ウィンドウで開く

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Exam Review Exploration Curriculum 2007-2008
  2. 2. 1.1.2  ROM is a form of permanent storage. Cisco devices use ROM to store: The bootstrap instructions Basic diagnostic software Scaled-down version of IOS  Flash Memory Flash memory does not lose its contents when the router loses power or is restarted.
  3. 3. 1.1.4  The output from the show version command includes:  IOS version  Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software  IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(28), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc5)  This is the version of the Cisco IOS software in RAM and that is being used by the router.  ROM Bootstrap Program  ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.1(3r)T2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)  This shows the version of the system bootstrap software, stored in ROM memory, that was initially used to boot up the router
  4. 4. 1.1.4  Location of IOS  System image file is "flash:c2600-i-mz.122-28.bin"  This shows where the bootstrap program is located and loaded the Cisco IOS, and the complete filename of the IOS image.  CPU and Amount of RAM  cisco 2621 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x200) with 60416K/5120K bytes of memory
  5. 5. 1.1.4  Interfaces  2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)  2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) network interface(s)  This section of the output displays the physical interfaces on the router. In this example, the Cisco 2621 router has two FastEthernet interfaces and two low-speed serial interfaces.  Amount of NVRAM  32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.  This is the amount of NVRAM on the router. NVRAM is used to store the startup-config file.
  6. 6. 1.1.4  Amount of Flash  16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)  Configuration Register  Configuration register is 0x2102  The last line of the show version command displays the current configured value of the software configuration register in hexadecimal.
  7. 7. 1.1.4  Enter Setup Mode (Optional). If the startup configuration file can not be located, the router prompts the user to enter setup mode.
  8. 8. 1.1.4  Bootup Process  There are four major phases to the bootup process:  1. Performing the POST  2. Loading the bootstrap program  3. Locating and loading the Cisco IOS software  4. Locating and loading the startup configuration file or entering setup mode
  9. 9. 1.1.4  After the IOS is loaded, the bootstrap program searches for the startup configuration file, known as startup- config, in NVRAM.  If the startup configuration file does not exist in NVRAM, the router may search for a TFTP server. If the router does not find the configuration in the server it will enter CONSOLE mode
  10. 10. 1.1.4  The IOS is typically stored in flash memory, but can also be stored in other places such as a TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) server.
  11. 11. 1.1.5
  12. 12. 1.2.2  Password can be configured for enteingr privileged EXEC mode. Router(config)#enable secret class  Passwords can also be configured for the console and Telnet lines. The command login enables password checking on the line. If you do not enter the command login on the console line, the user will be granted access to the line without entering a password.  R1(config)#line console 0  R1(config-line)#password cisco  R1(config-line)#login  R1(config-line)#exit  R1(config)#line vty 0 4  R1(config-line)#password cisco  R1(config-line)#login  R1(config-line)#exit
  13. 13. 1.2.2  The outcome of entering these commands R1(config)# line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)# password check123 R1(config-line)# login  sets the password to be used for connecting to this router via Telnet
  14. 14. 1.2.2  To change interfaces from administratively down to up you must issue the no shut command
  15. 15. 1.2.2  R1#show startup-config  This command displays the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM. This is the configuration that the router will use on the next reboot. This configuration does not change unless the current running configuration is saved to NVRAM with the copy running-config startup-config command.
  16. 16. 1.3.1  There are three functions of a router: packet switching segmentation of broadcast domains selection of best path based on logical addressing
  17. 17. 1.3.2  After the router's interface is configured and the interface is activated with the no shutdown command, the interface must receive a carrier signal from another device (router, switch, hub, etc.) before the interface state is considered "up." Once the interface is "up," the network of that interface is added to the routing table as a directly connected network.
  18. 18. 1.4.3  When a router has multiple paths to a destination network and the value of that metric (hop count, bandwidth, etc.) is the same, this is known as an equal cost metric, and the router will perform equal cost load balancing. The routing table will contain the single destination network but will have multiple exit interfaces, one for each equal cost path. The router will forward packets using the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table.  EIGRP (as well as IGRP) are the only routing protocols that can be configured for unequal cost load balancing.
  19. 19. 1.4.5  What does a router do with a packet received from one network and destined for another network? The router performs the following three major steps:  Decapsulates the Layer 3 packet by removing the Layer 2 frame header and trailer.  Examines the destination IP address of the IP packet to find the best path in the routing table.  Encapsulates Layer 3 packet into a new Layer 2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit interface.
  20. 20. 1.4.5  The header address information that the router changes in the information it receives from an attached Ethernet interface before retransmitting it out another interface: the Layer 2 source and destination address
  21. 21. 1.2.2  R1#show running-config  This command displays the current running configuration that is stored in RAM. With a few exceptions, all configuration commands that were used will be entered into the running- config and implemented immediately by the IOS.
  22. 22. 2.1.3  Two types of cables can be used with Ethernet LAN interfaces:  A straight-through, or patch cable, with the order of the colored pins the same on each end of the cable  A crossover cable, with pin 1 connected to pin 3, and pin 2 connected to pin 6  Straight-through cables are used for:  Switch-to-router  Switch-to-PC  Hub-to-PC  Hub-to-server  Crossover cables are used for:  Switch-to-switch  PC-to-PC  Switch-to-hub  Hub-to-hub  Router-to-router  Router-to-server

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