Lab apparatus


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Lab apparatus

  1. 1. LAB APPARATUS NO Apparatus Function/Description How to use 1 BALANCE DIGITAL . They allow the user to quickly and accurately measure the mass of a substance to a level of accuracy impossible for traditional balances to achieve. This is especially important in experiments that require precise amounts of each substance to achieve the desired results. 1. Place the electronic balance on a flat, stable surface indoors. The precision of the balance relies on minute factors and wind, shaky surfaces, or similar forces will cause the readings to be inaccurate. 2. Press the "ON" button and wait for the balance to show zeroes on the digital screen. 3. Use tongs or gloves to place the empty container you will use for the substance to be measured on the balance platform. Fingerprints and other greases from your hands add mass and must be avoided for accurate measurements. 4. Press the "Tare" or "Zero" button to automatically deduct the weight of the container from future calculations. The digital display will show zero again, indicating that the container's mass is stored in the balance's memory. 5. Carefully add the substance to the container. Ideally this is done with the container still on the platform, but it may be removed if necessary. Avoid placing the container on surfaces that may have substances which will add mass to the container such as powders or grease. 6. Place the container with the substance back on the balance platform if necessary and record the mass as indicated by the digital display. 2 BEAKERS Beakers are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solid samples. They are also used to catch liquid from titrations and filtrates from filtering operations. A Beaker is a cylindrical container with a pour spout used for mixing and pouring chemicals. A beaker is used in chemistry to mix different chemicals or compounds together. It is also used to pour specific amounts of a mixture into a test tube. 3 BURETTE WITH CLAMP AND STAND A burette, or buret, is a uniform- bore glass tube with fine gradations and a stopcock at the bottom, used especially in laboratory procedures for accurate fluid dispensing and measurement. Clamp and stand : The clamp stand is used to hold equipment while they are being used Fix the burette into the burette holder, taking care that it is vertical and stable. Place a beaker underneath the burette. 2. Close the tap, and run some de-ionised water into the top of the burette. Let the water clean the inside of the burette. Open the tap, and allow the water to drain out. Repeat. 3. Close the tap, and (using the funnel) run some of the required reagent, e.g. acid, into the top of the burette. Open the tap, and allow the reagent to drain through into the beaker. Repeat. 4. Close the tap, and fill the burette to just above the 0.00 cm3 mark with the required reagent.
  2. 2. Remove the funnel. Make sure that there are no air bubbles inside the burette. Slowly open the tap, and allow the reagent to run down to (or just past) the 0.00 cm3 mark. Close the tap. 5. Remove the beaker, and place a white tile under the burette. Put a conical flask under the burette, and adjust the height of the burette so that the tip is just above the lip of the conical flask. The burette is now ready for use. 4 FLASK, ERLENMEYER Are useful to contain reaction or to hold liquid samples. They are also useful to catch filtrates. Commonly, we can use it by hold the flask on the neck of it. 5 FLASK, FILTERING FLASK WITH COLLAR AND VACUUM TUBING Vacuum flask can keep heat, because there is a gap between the inner and outer walls of the flask. During the manufacturing process the air in the gap is extracted and the opening is sealed - creating a vacuum between the walls. Heat transmits rapidly through air - but a lot less rapidly, in fact only very, very slowly, through a vacuum. A vacuum flask not only keeps heat in, it also keeps it out. If you put iced water into a vacuum flask it will stay cold for a very long time. A filter flask is a flask fitted with a side arm for connecting to a vacuum source. The flask is used with a Buchner funnel (a funnel with a flat, porous bottom). By drawing a vacuum on the flask, the filtration can be caused to be faster. The filter flask looks like a thick glass version of an Erlenmeyer flask with a side arm for attaching the vacuum source. 6 FLASK, VOLUMETRIC A volumetric flask is a container that is used to measure the volume of a liquid with extremely high accuracy. It is the best way to measure a specific quantity of a liquid. It cannot be used to measure just any volume (unlike a graduate cylinder) - - each volumetric flask is designed to measure one specific volume. Because of that they come in a variety of sizes, such as 1 mL, 5 mL, 10 mL, 25 mL, 50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL, 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2 L, and 5 L. A volumetric flask is tear-drop shaped, with a very long neck and a round section at the bottom (and a flat bottom so that it stands upright on a flat surface) In a volumetric flask, you should also fill the flask until the bottom of the meniscus is at the level of the marked Example on an experiment : Multiply the molarity by the volume of the solution and the molar mass of the compound to calculate the mass of the substance needed. In our example, the molar mass of sodium hydroxide is 40 g/mole and the solution volume is 0.5 L (500 ml). The mass of sodium hydroxide is 2 mole/L x 0.5 L x 40 g/mole = 40 g. Weigh the calculated amount of the compound (step 1) on the analytical scale. Carefully transfer sodium hydroxide into the "500 ml" volumetric flask. Add about 400 ml of the distilled water into the volumetric flask. Gently swirl the flask until the sodium hydroxide gets completely dissolved. Add the distilled water slowly to the volumetric flask until the level of the liquid almost reaches the volume mark on the flask neck. Fill in the plastic pipette with the distilled water.Lift the volumetric flask
  3. 3. ring around the neck of the flask. Hold the flask at eye level and carefully add liquid (drop by drop if necessary) until the bottom of the meniscus is exactly at the level of the marking on the neck of the flask. to bring the volume mark to the eye level. You will see the curved solution meniscus.Add the distilled water from the pipette drop by drop until the bottom of the solution meniscus lines up exactly with the volume mark. 7 FUNNEL, BUCHNER are for funneling liquids from one container to another or for filtering when equipped with filter paper. Buchner funnels are used to conduct filtrations very quickly Essentially, the Buchner funnel simply speeds up the separation of solid/liquid mixtures by drawing off the liquid under vacuum and catching the solid component on a piece of filter paper. This basic concept can save significant amounts of time compared to the much slower process of gravity filtration. 8 1. PIPETTE, DISPOSABLE are used to dispense small quantities of liquids. Squeeze the bulb before inserting the tip of the pipette into the liquids of choice. Insert the pipette into the liquid to be moved. Release your grip on the bulb. The liquid will be sucked into the pipette. Move your pipette to the next container and squeeze the bulb. Its contents will be pushed into the container. 9 PIPETTE, MOHR Mohr pipettes are measuring devices that have multiple graduation lines, so you can use them to measure and dispense volumes of liquid that you cannot do with a standard volumetric pipette. Insert the non-tapered end of the Mohr pipette into your pipette aid, so that it fits snugly and is able to remain inserted without you having to hold the pipette itself. Draw up the fluid you want to transfer vertically into the Mohr pipette using the pipette aid, so that the the bottom of the curve created by the top of the fluid (also known as the meniscus) is precisely at the top graduation mark. No matter what size Mohr pipette you are using, the top graduation mark on it will be 0 milliliter (ml). Determine, based on the amount of fluid you want to transfer, at which graduation mark on the Mohr pipette you should stop the meniscus of the fluid while you are dispensing. For example, if you want to transfer 6 ml of fluid from a full 10 ml Mohr pipette, you will want the meniscus to stop at the 6 ml graduation mark. Dispense the fluid in your Mohr pipette using the pipette aid, stopping when the meniscus reaches the graduation mark that
  4. 4. corresponds to the volume of fluid you want to transfer. 10 PIPETTE PUMPS are used to dispense small quantities of liquids. Insert the cotton-filled end of a sterile pipette into the end of a plastic pipette pump. o Both pipettes and pumps come in different sizes. Be sure to use a pump that can "suck" the quantity of liquid you want (e.g. 10 ml pump with a 5 ml or 10 ml sterile pipette). Using the wheel at the top of the pump, raise the white top of the pump approximately 1 cm BEFORE inserting the pipette into the liquid. o This step is necessary in order to create additional air pressure in the pipette as you expel the liquid. Next, place the tapered tip of the pipette into the liquid. The tip should be within the liquid during the pipetting. Hold the pipette pump with one hand-- your thumb should be placed on the wheel. Use your thumb to rotate the wheel downward. This will cause the liquid to rise into the pipette. Do this carefully and watch the meniscus of the liquid rise to your desired level. o Remember: Measure the level of the liquid at the BOTTOM of the meniscus. Next, take the tip of the pipette out of the liquid and move the entire apparatus to the place where you desire to put the measured liquid. Use your thumb to rotate the wheel upward. This will cause the liquid to be dispensed from the pipette. Lower the white top of the pump all the way to the pump shaft. Because you created the extra space before pipetting, the entire contents of the pipette should be now be dispensed! 11 RING STAND WITH RING CLAMPS are for holding pieces of glassware in place. In chemistry, a ring stand places a heated sample above the direct flame of a Bunsen burner. Clamps and ring stands are used to hold glassware and apparatuses in place. For example, clamps are frequently used to hold round-bottom flasks, condensers, thermometers, addition funnels, etc. Ring stands may be used for larger diameter items, including separatory funnels, filter funnels, wire gauze etc. 12 STIRRER/HOT PLATE AND STIR BARS The function of hot plate with stirrer : a) Stirring a solution with the magnetic stirrer b) Simultaneously heating the same solution Magnetic Stirrer : Place the magnetic stir bar into the flask or beaker by gently sliding it along the wall of the vessel. Make sure that the plate is relatively cool initially, and that the stirrer
  5. 5. Stirring a solution with the magnetic stirrer b) Simultaneously heating the same solution Stir bars : A magnetic stir bar is used to stir a mixture on a stir plate. The stir plate contains a magnet that spins, causing the magnetic stir bar to spin and stir the mixture. Many hot plates also have this feature built in. is off before placing the vessel onto the plate. Place the flask onto the plate and turn on the stirrer. Use a low setting at first, and increase the rate of stirring if necessary. Do not stir the solution too rapidly. thermometer, clamp it in place so that the thermometer's tip does not come into contact with the stir bar or the sides of the vessel. Hot Plate : Place the vessel containing the liquid to be heated on the plate. If the liquid should be stirred while it is being heated, the vessel should contain a magnetic stir bar. Turn on the hotplate using the heating control knob. The red light to the left of the knob flashes to indicate the heat setting. 13 TEST TUBE RACK A test tube holder is used in a laboratory and it is used to hold/support test tubes containing chemicals waiting for further operations. Although it is called a test tube holder, it is also used to hold/ support pipettes, etc. Since a test tube has a rounded bottom, it cannot stand by itself; the rack is a convenient and necessary piece of laboratory equipment for the storage of test tubes. Test tube racks are used to support the test tubes but unlike the test tube holder, it can store the test tubes without anyone who will hold the rack. 14 TONGS are similar in function to forceps but are useful for larger items. Laboratory tongs are large pincers for grasping and lifting vessels of heat-resistant material used in high temperature chemical reactions. They can be used to hold or pick up many items, but work best as tongs for picking up a hot evaporating dish. Crucible tongs are welded steel tools used to lift a hot crucible from a furnace or for other items you may not want to handle with your hands. Crucible tongs may also be used to prevent any inaccuracies regarding mass measurements as any moisture or oil will affect the readings and accuracy. Beaker tongs are best used to hold a hot beaker. Pick up hot glassware without heat protection and your skin will be injured. This is as true in the laboratory as it is in your kitchen. Lab tongs, part of a range of laboratory safety equipment, help you move hot ceramics and glassware safely. Lab tongs are a type of forceps designed to grip laboratory items used during a heating process. Opening and closing lab tongs is an intuitive action. You will avoid accidents by always using the tongs during heating experiments. You can handle lab tongs safely by complying with some basic safety procedures. 15 WIRE GAUZE WITH CERAMIC CENTER Wire gauze can be used to support a container (such as a beaker or flask) during heating. When the bunsen burner flame is beneath it, with a On a bunsen burner tripod. It is for the beaker or other container.
  6. 6. tripod, the wire gauze helps to spread the flame (and heat) out evenly over the container. It is frequently used in combination with an iron ring and ring stand with a bunsen burner underneath it (see the Related Questions for more information about an iron ring, ring stand, and bunsen burner & tripod). A clay triangle serves a similar purpose, except that a clay triangle is used for a crucible instead. 16 CENTRIFUGE TUBE A centrifuge is used for separating components in a liquid that have different weights. Make a counterbalance for the centrifuge tube you want to put in the centrifuge. The masses, not volumes, of the tubes should be as close as possible! Unbalanced tubes may permanently damage the centrifuge. Put the tubes opposite each other in the centrifuge. If you have more than two tubes, only the ones opposite each other have to be equal in mass. Enter your settings such as rotations per minute. Remove the tubes carefully after the centrifuge has completely stopped spinning. This is so that the different suspensions do not mix again. 17 CRUCIBLE WITH LID A crucible is a container that is used to hold things whilst they are heated to very high temperatures and typically melted. In the school chemistry lab they are usually small ceramic pots. A substance is placed in the crucible. A lid may be used to cover it. The crucible is heated, typically with a Bunsen burner. A support system is usually used (such as a triangle of pipe clay on wire placed on a tripod) to minimize the risk of burns. A crucible is used to hold small amounts of chemicals during heating at high temperatures. The lid covers the bowl so nothing escapes, or to keep oxygen out of the reaction. 18 LIEBIG CONDENSER it is used to separate two liquids and find out what both of them are The liebig condenser is used in distillation. It allows cold water to run in the condenser so that the vapour passing through it can condense.
  7. 7. 19 DESICATOR GLASS The dessicator is a very usual laboratory instrument used to dry substances or to store dry substances. Desiccators are sealable enclosures containing desiccants used for preserving moisture- sensitive items. A common use for desiccators is to protect chemicals which are hygroscopic or which react with water from humidity. The contents of desiccators are exposed to atmospheric moisture whenever the desiccators are opened. It also requires some time to achieve a low humidity. Hence they are not appropriate for storing chemicals which react quickly or violently with atmospheric moisture such as the alkali metals. Aglovebox or Schlenk-type apparatus may be more suitable for these purposes. Desiccators are sometimes used to remove traces of water from an almost-dry sample. Where a desiccator alone is unsatisfactory, the sample may be dried at elevated temperature using Abderhalden's drying pistol. in laboratory use, the most common desiccators are circular, and made of heavy glass. There is usually a removable platform on which the items to be stored are placed. The desiccant, usually an otherwise-inert solid such as silica gel, fills the space under the platform. A stopcock may be included to permit the desiccator to be evacuated. Such models are usually known as vacuum desiccators. When a vacuum is to be applied, it is a common practice to criss-cross the vacuum desiccator with tape, or to place it behind a screen to minimize damage or injury caused by an implosion. To maintain a good seal, vacuum grease is usually applied to the flanges. 20 DRYING TUBE A drying tube or guard tube is a tube-like piece of apparatus used to house a disposable solid desiccant, wherein at one end the tube-like structure terminates in a ground glass joint for use in connecting the drying tube to a reaction vessel, for the purpose of keeping the vessel free of moisture from the air from entering a reaction flask.. The tube-like structure is often bent and can also widen to form a bulb/desiccant reservoir. If the drying tube is bent the bend is oriented so that solid desiccant does not fall into the reaction vessel. useful as a molecular sieve for running anhydrous reactions.
  11. 11. 40 BEND PIPE 41 PLASTIC WASH BOTTLE for dispensing small quantities of distilled water. Press the bottle and then the water will be go out 42 PNEUMATIC TROUGH To hold water, gas collecting bottles and delivery tube from gas generator. 43 FUNNEL SUPPORT To support funnel Put the funnel on the funnel support 44 FORCEPS To pick up or hold small object 45 BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE To observe the microscopic object like plant cell, animal cell etc Put the object which you want to observe, covered it by glass plate. You can set the objective lens, and observe the object. 46 WATCH GLASS for holding small samples or for covering beakers or evaporating dishes.
  12. 12. 47 GLASS PLATE To hold the specimen You put a specimen on a glass plate and then view the specimen under a microscope. It acts sort of like a slide. 48 EVAPORATING DISH As a container for small amounts of liquid being evaporated. Put the liquid/subtances in the evaporating dish 49 TEST TUBE BRUSH made with nylon bristles attached to a twisted-wire shaft, used to knock the bottoms out of test tubes. It is a brush that is long and narrow to clean the inside of glassware, in particular test tubes. make test tube brush get in and get out from test tube to clean the test tube. 50 DROP PLATE a place to test the chemistry reaction inlarge quantities. Put the small substances in drop plate by dropper/pipette 51 CLAY TRIANGLES A clay triangle is a piece of laboratory equipment used in the process of heating substances. It is used in conjunction with other lab equipment to create a stable framework in which to place a substance -- usually a solid chemical -- while it is heated to a high temperature. The Clay triangle is placed into the open triangle gives stability to the set up to prevent tipping and spilling the molten contents. 52 DROPPERS A dropper is used to dispense small amounts of a liquid. It is especially useful when the Squeeze the rubber part, put in liquid, let go of rubber part- you have liquid in dropper
  13. 13. amount to be added is very small and needs to be measured accurately. slowly squeeze out drops 53 HOT PLATES A hot plate is an adjustable heating source which is ideal for heating beakers, erlenmeyer flasks, hot water baths, and other flat-bottomed containers. It is essentially an electric stove top that is used in the laboratory. A hot plate or heating mantle should always be used in place of a Bunsen burner or other open-flame source to heat a flammable liquid 54 SPECTROPHOTOMETERS measure the absorbance or tran smittance of a liquid sample. 55 FUME HOODS ventilate noxious or harmful gases. 56 BUNSEN BURNER Its source of heat Lighting the Bunsen burner - Make sure the rubber tubing is connec ted to the Bunsen burner and the gas jet. Turn the gas valve until it is parallel to the gas jet. You should be able to hear the gas flow. Use a flint striker to cause a spark and ignite the gas. Adjusting the Bunsen burner - First, adjust the height of the flame using the gas valve at the bottom of the burner. For a
  14. 14. clean burning flame, more air is required than is available from the gas exhaust. The air vents can be adjusted to produce an inner blue cone in the flame with no yellow tip. Too little air produces a sooty, orange-yellow tipped flame that is quite noisy. Too much air supply may cause the flame to separate from the burner and even blow itself out. The ideal working flame is bluish-green with a light blue cone and it burns quietly. 57 POWER SUPPLY a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load Connect the power supply with the electricity source and then turn on the power supply. THIS IS STILL NEED TO BE EDITED, SORRY ^_^