Order-Maintenance Policing for Police Departments

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"Reduce Crime by Restoring Order, Restore Order by Reducing Crime"

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Order-Maintenance Policing for Police Departments

  1. 1. Order-Maintenance Policing for Police Departments “ The Police Are Paying Attention” Criminal Justice Systems Dr. Robelyn A. Garcia (December 7, 2013 ) Robelyn A. Garcia 1
  2. 2. Order-Maintenance Policing for Police Departments •Police are key to order maintenance •Policing strategy that makes senses •Reducing crime by restoring order •Restoring order by reducing crime (Bratton & Kelling, 2006) Robelyn A. Garcia 2
  3. 3. Order-Maintenance Policing Philosophy •This type of policing involves an aggressive enforcement of minor offenses and disorder to reduce more serious types of crime and overall crime rate. (Rosenfeld, Fornango, & Rengifo, 2007) Robelyn A. Garcia 3
  4. 4. Order-Maintenance Policing Components •Broken Windows Theory •Quality of Life Initiative •Zero Tolerance •Stop, Question, & Frisk (Rosenfeld, et. al., 2007) Robelyn A. Garcia 4
  5. 5. The Goal of Order-Maintenance Policing Criminal Justice Goal • Ultimate goal of repression of criminal behavior by apprehension, conviction, and punishment of offenders of quality of life crimes. (Bratton & Kelling, 2006) Robelyn A. Garcia 5
  6. 6. Order-Maintenance Policing • Quality-of-life offenses •Vagrancy •Loitering •Prostitution •Graffiti •Panhandling •Public drunkenness •Vandalism •Minor drug use •Public urination •Related breaches of public order (Rosenfeld, et. al., 2007) Robelyn A. Garcia 6
  7. 7. Order-Maintenance Policing The Broken-Windows Theory •Developed in 1982 by Wilson and Kelling, is a philosophical underpinning of ordermaintenance policing arguing that when misdemeanor crimes (broken windows) are addressed (fixed) then major crimes are prevented. •Supplies the rationale and theoretical framework of crime control through order maintenance for the quality-of-life initiative. (Bratton & Kelling, 2006) Robelyn A. Garcia 7
  8. 8. Order-Maintenance Policing Suppor ting Resear ch •60,000 violent crimes were prevented in New York City between 1989 and 1998 by order-maintenance policing. •The Police Commissioner credited the quality-of-life initiative as the sole and primary reason for the New York City drop in crime rates. •In 27 months, serious crime in NYC decreased by 33% and the murder rate was cut in half by order-maintenance policing. (Bratton & Kelling, 2006; Kelling & Bratton, 1998) Robelyn A. Garcia 8
  9. 9. Order-Maintenance Policing Suppor ting Resear ch •Las Vegas Police Department had a 18.3% reduction in serious offenses within their order-maintenance unit experimental area. •Statewide felony assault and robbery declined immediately in California when implementing order-maintenance policing; burglary and other crimes also declined. (Pace, 2010; Worrall, 2006) Robelyn A. Garcia 9
  10. 10. Policy Recommendations l Quality of Life Initiative for Public Spaces •Department wide mandated training. •Disorder in public spaces instills the fear of crime in law abiding citizens and causes abandonment of public spaces, creating opportunities for serious crimes. •This initiative will restore order, public confidence and bring down overall crime rate. (Bratton & Knobler, 1998) Robelyn A. Garcia 10
  11. 11. Policy R ecommendations Police Order-Maintenance Unit •Specialized unit designed to reduce minor and major offenses in high-crime communities by arresting persons for minor infractions. •Extensive police strategies and efforts designed to address specific community crime problems while reducing crime and fear of crime. •Decreases tension between the police and the community by sending a message that the police care and will enforce community standards. (Pace, 2010; Bratton & Kelling, 2006 Robelyn A. Garcia 11
  12. 12. References Bratton, W. & Knobler, P. (1998). Turnaround: How America’s Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. Bratton, W. & Kelling, G. (2006). There are no cracks in the broken Windows. National Review. (February 28); p. 2. Kelling, G. & Bratton, W. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders’ views of the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 88:1217–32. Pace, S., (2010). Assessing the impact of police order maintenance units on crime: An application of the Broken Windows Hypothesis. UNLV Theses/Dissertations. Paper 372. Retrieved 8-9-13 from http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/thesesdissertations/372 Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., & Rengifo, A.F. (2007). The impact of ordermaintenance policing on New York City homicide and robbery rates, 1998-2001. Criminology, 45, 355-384. Worrall, J. (2006). Does targeting minor offenses reduce serious crime? A provisional, affirmative answered based on analysis of countylevel data. Police Quarterly, 9, 47-72. Robelyn A. Garcia 12

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