Theoretical and methodological aspects of focauldian critical discourse analysis and dispositive analysis

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  • 1. Theoretical and MethodologicalAspects of Focauldian CriticalDiscourse Analysis and Dispositive Critical Discourse AnalysisAnalysis GROUP I Alfiani Safitri (0902534) Fira Nursya‘bani (0906856) Luciyana Dwiningrum (0902428) Meyza Pritama (0902467) Prita Annisa Utami (0902542) Riestia Handayani (0902434)t~a~g~o~n~i
  • 2.  Introduction  Foundations of discourse theory - The concept of discourse - Aims of critical discourse analysis - Discourse and reality - Discourse and powert ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -PRITA
  • 3. • What is valid knowledge at a certain place and certain time?• How does this knowledge arise and how it is passed on?• What functions does it have for constituting subjects?• What consequences does it have for the overall shaping and development of society?t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -PRITA
  • 4. Aims of critical discourse analysis Questioning and criticizing discourse in two ways: - CDA reveals the contradictions within and between discourse - CD Analyst needs to be clear about the fact that the critique is not situated outside discourse which can invoke values, norms, constitution and so ont ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -PRITA
  • 5. Discourses and power  Power of discourse  Power over discourset ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -PRITA
  • 6. from Discourse to DispositiveDiscursive PracticesNon-Discursive Practices DispositiveMaterializationThe interplay......human beings assign meanings to reality...people learn the conventions of assigned meanings through language, which helps to interpret reality in the way it has previously been interpreted by others...consciousness reflects realityt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -FIRA
  • 7. from Discourse to Dispositive has as its major function at a...dispositive `a sort of formation which given historical moment that of responding to an urgent need.` (Foucault)...discourses as `practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak` (Foucault)...materialization of work are part of reality...If the discourse change, the object does not only change its meaning, it turns into different object. It loses previous identity.t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -FIRA
  • 8. Methods for analysing discourse and dispositives•Methods of CDA is one of linguistic concepts•Linguistic concepts fill only one slot in the ‘toolbox’ of discourse analysist ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -RIESTIA
  • 9. The structure of discourse• Special discourses and interdiscourse Special discourses are discourses in the sciences, whileinterdiscourse refers to all non-scientific discourses• Discourse strands - discourse strands are flows of discourse that centre on a common topic - the concept of discourse strands is similar to the one of discourses - every discourse strand has a diachronic and synchronic dimensiont ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -RIESTIA
  • 10. The structure of discourse (cont…) • Discursive limits and techniques for extending them or narrowing them down - discursive limits is the borders to what is not sayable - it can be extended or narrowed down • Discourse fragments - discourse fragments refers to a text or part of a text that deals with a particular topict ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -RIESTIA
  • 11. The structure of discourse (cont…) • Entanglements of discourse strands - a statement where several discourses are entangled is called discursive knot - two discourse strands can be entangled more or less intensively • Collective symbols - collective symbols are cultural stereotypes, also called topoi which are handed down and used collectively - an important technique for connecting collective symbols is catachreses - catachreses establish connections between statements, link up spheres of experience, bridge contradictions and increase plausibilityt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -RIESTIA
  • 12. The structure of discourse (cont…) • Discourse planes and sectors - discourse planes influence to each other and relate to each other - a discourse plane consists of various sectors • Discursive events and discursive context - discursive analysis can examine whether an event becomes a discursive event or nott ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -RIESTIA
  • 13. Discourse positions •Discourse positions show the ideological position of a discourse •This happens and subjects participate in it •Discourse positions can be identified through discourse analysis •The example of discourse position is the partiality of mediat ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -MEYZA
  • 14. Overall societal and global discourse • All the linked discourse strands in society together form the overall societal discourse • And in turn, the overall societal discourse is part of global discourse • Overall societal discourse is a very complex network. In this way, Discourse Analysis aims to disentangle or elaborate this net • The procedure first is to identify the single discourse strand on single discourse planest ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -MEYZA
  • 15. The history, present, and future of discourse strands • Discourse strands have a history, present, and future • We can trace the origin of a discourse strand. Even, it is said that we can know what will happen to that discourse strand • The analysis of the history, present, and future of overall societal or global discourse can only be done in the form of single project • From that project we can find the basis which could change or influence the further development of the discourse strandt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -MEYZA
  • 16. On the completeness of discourse analyses • A discourse analysis fully captures what can be said and how it is said in one or more discourse strands • A discourse analysis is complete if further analysis does not lead to further findings • When the analyst notices that the argument that is found from the analysis begins to repeat themselves, it means that the analysis is completedt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -MEYZA
  • 17. A little toolbox for discourse analysis There are four practical procedures for discourse analysis: 1. Choosing a subject matter The first step is to find what subject matter which will be analyzed. It is also to decide which discourse strand(s) to focus on. 2. Choosing a discourse plane and a sector and characterizing them It is typically to limit the analysis to one discourse plane. In some cases, it may be possible to examine several discourse planes at once, but it is very time –consuming. 3. Accessing and preparing the materials The next step is to describe the concrete corpus for analysis. Then the preparation of the analysis is to provide the questions.t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -MEYZA
  • 18. Analysis • A Structural Analysis of The Discourse Strand • Compile a list of all articles of relevance for the discourse strand • Structural analysis should roughly capture the characteristics of articles on particular aspects of interest • A discourse strand encompasses various sub-topics • Examine with what frequency particular groups of sub- topics appear • If the analysis is diachronic, examine how sub-topics are distributed over the course of time • Discursive entanglements are then identifiedt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -LUCI
  • 19. Detailed Analysis of Typical Discourse Fragments The aspects of the detailed analysis of typical discourse fragments: • Context • Surface of the text • Rhetorical means • Content and ideological statements • Other peculiarities of the article • Discourse position and overall message of the article Synoptic Analysis The final assessment of the newspaper’s discourse position is made.t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -LUCI
  • 20. Non-discursive practiceDiscursive practices Materializationt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -ALFIANI 
  • 21. Dispositive analysis: The form of examined The form of examined Concept of knowledge Concept of knowledge knowledge knowledge cognition cognition apparent or implicit? apparent or implicit? emotion emotion into what arguments into what arguments is the knowledge packed? is the knowledge packed?t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -ALFIANI 
  • 22. t ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -ALFIANI 
  • 23. Knowledge in Materialization •Rely on researchers’ background knowledge •Extend the knowledge •Artefact analysis: Deconstruct the materialization Transformed material object into textt ~ a ~ g ~ o ~ n ~ i -ALFIANI 
  • 24. Sank you t~a~g~o~n~i