Politeness The andFunction of Speech Address Forms Linguistic Politeness in Different Cultures
The Function of Speech • Affective (or Social) function • Referential (or informative) function Example: Fred : “Good morning, James. What a lovely day.” James : “Yes, it’s beautiful. So, How’s your weekend?” Fred : “It’s very great!”
The Function of Speech• Expressive utterances: express the speaker’s feeling• Directive utterances: attempt to get someone to do something• Referential utterances: provide information• Metalinguistic utterances: comment on language itself• Poetic utterances: focus on aesthetic features of language• Phatic utterances: express solidarity and empathy with others
Examples… • Expressive utterances – I’m happy today. – I am afraid. • Directive utterances – Wash the clothes. – Could you close the door? • Referential utterances – The second presenter will be Mrs. Hanna. – Make up speaking class will be held on Monday at 1 pm.
Examples… • Metalinguistic utterances – ‘Hegemony’ is not a common word – ‘Nat’ has to be added by affixes • Poetic utterances (a poem, an ear- catching motto, a rhyme) – Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers – Bu Lulu nuju udur huntu • Phatic utterances – Hi, how are you? – Lovely day, isn’t it.
Linguistic Politeness In DifferentCultures • Miscommunication .. • Learning another language • Sociolinguistics assumption • Acceptance and refusal an invitation
Example of miscommunication based oncultural differences … In some villages in Subang, if someone wants to invite people to come to the wedding ceremony, she/he uses cigarettes as an invitation. If someone gets an expensive cigarette, it means that she/he has to give much money to the hostess and vice versa.
(Batavia Example.. (Sundanes e) n) “Bade ka “Heh bumi PaTakrim, Hajimo pegi Kardun,kemane aya lu?” kaperyogia n”
Example of linguistic politeness … In Karawang, if there is a wedding ceremony, the goods from the bridegroom are mentioned and the lists of price are also mentioned. If we come from outside of Karawang which have different culture we automatically think that culture is impolite because mentioning the goods and the price are unusual things.
Greetings…• A part of communication• Serve an affective function
Examples.. • How are you? • Apa kabar? • Kumaha damang? • Kia ora? • Pripun kabare?
References..Holmes, Janet. (2001). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited