Reference, sense and referring expressionPresentation Transcript
English Language and Literature Program 4BGroup 1• Fira Nursya’bani 0906856• Luciyana Dwiningrum 0902428• Meyza Pritama 0902467• Riestia Handayani 0902434
Semantics ‘’Semantics is the study of meaning in language.’’ ‘’Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language.’’ (Hurford, Heasley & Smith, 2007)
ReferenceReference deals with therelationship between languageand the world.Reference is a relationshipbetween parts of language andthings outside the language (inthe world).
Types ofReference• Variable Reference a. One word b. Many expressions c. Refer to different type 0f that object• Constant Reference a. One word b. Many expressions c. Refer to the same thing
Example of Variable Reference• Book The word book has a real object or appearance in the world.
Example of Constant Reference.America America has a real appearance and also can be defined in other words or expressions.
The Expressions of America
SenseSense deals with relationshipsinside the language.Sense of an expression is itsplace in a system of semanticrelationships with otherexpressions in the language.
Example of Sense1. The example of sense in word-form GUILT• Blame, Culpability, Guiltiness, Iniquity, Wrong, etc.• Feeling of shame for having done wrong, Fact that somebody has done something illegal, Blame or responsibility for wrongdoing.
Example of Sense2. The example of sense in phrase or sentence A prisoner escaped from jail yesterday.• A prisoner ran away from the jail yesterday.• A prisoner got free from the jail yesterday.
The Relationship between Reference and Sense• Reference Concrete It can be proved by the thing in the real world and only one step to prove it.• Sense Abstract It does not have a real object and we have to imagine and compare to our experience. Every expression that has meaning has sense, but not every expression has reference!
Referring ExpressionA referring expression is any expression usedin an utterance to refer to something or someone.The same expression can be a referringexpression or not depending on the context.The condition which makes an expression can bementioned as a referring expression when thespeaker and the hearer have the sameperception of what is being talked about.
Types of Referring Expression• Indefinite Noun Phrase uses articles in its expression. e.g. -A girl who wore a black sweater is friendly. -Some apples are bought by my grandmother. -Five boys are playing guitar.• Definite Noun Phrase uses proper name, personal pronoun and longer descriptive expression. e.g. -Rania is friendly. -She is studying Semantics. -The person who stole my bag is my friend.
More Notions of Referring Expression• An opaque context is a part of a sentence which could be made into a complete sentence by the addition of a referring expression. Opaque context typically involve a certain kind of verb like: want, believe, think and wonder about in the form complete sentence, but we also can find opaque context in shorter expression. Because of those kinds of verb, it was often in the context that indefinite noun phrase could be ambiguous between a referring and a non referring expression.
More Notions of Referring Expression• An equative sentence is a part of a sentence which could be made into a complete sentence by the addition of referring expression, but it is different from opaque context, an equative sentence is one which is used to make sure the identity of the referents.
References…Anonymous. Reference and Sense. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.phil.muni.cz/~materna/sense.htmlHurford, James R. Heasley, Brendan. and Smith, Michael B. (2007). Semantics a Coursebook. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Sundayana, Wachyu. and Aziz, E. Aminudin. (2000). Semantik. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.Wahab, Abdul. (1995). Teori Semantik. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press.