Critical discourse analysis


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Critical discourse analysis

  1. 1. Critical Discourse Analysis Discourse AnalysisGroup 6Fira Nursya’baniLuciyana DwiningrumPrita Annisa UtamiRiestia Handayani Part I
  2. 2. Overview• Principles of Critical discourse analysis• Doing critical discourse analysis• Critical discourse analysis and genre• Critical discourse analysis and framing• Critical discourse analysis and multimodality• Critical discourse analysis and identity• Critical discourse analysis and the world wide web• Criticisms of critical discourse analysis 2 Free powerpoint template:
  3. 3. Critical Discourse Analysis• Critical Discourse Analysis aims to help reveal some of the hidden and ‘out of sight’ values, positions, and perspectives• CDA explores the connection between the use of language and the social and political contexts in which it occurs 3 Free powerpoint template:
  4. 4. Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis• Some principles for CDA:a) Social and political issues are constructed and reflected in discourseb) Power relations are negotiated and performed through discoursec) Discourse both reflects and reproduces social relationsd) Ideologies are produced and reflected in the use of discourse 4 Free powerpoint template:
  5. 5. Doing Critical Discourse Analysis• CDA includes not only a description and interpretation of discourse in context, but also offers an explanation of why and how discourses work• CDA might commence by deciding what discourse type or genre of the text• The analysis may consider the framing of the text• CDA, then, takes us beyond the level of description to a deeper understanding of texts 5 Free powerpoint template:
  6. 6. Cont’d…At the sentence level, the analyst might consider what has been:a) “topicalized” in each of the sentences in the textb) “agent patient relations” in the discourse 6 Free powerpoint template:
  7. 7. Critical Discourse Analysis and Genree.g Hong Kong government’s promotion: Hong Kong as ‘Asia’s World City’Flowerdew (2004)• A public consultation document• The Hong Kong annual yearbook• A video 7 Free powerpoint template:
  8. 8. Critical Discourse Analysis and Framing Framed: the way in which the content of a text is presented to the audience • Foregrounded • Backgrounded e.g Huckin (1997) Newspaper report on a demonstration at a nuclear test site in the US (page 188) 8 Free powerpoint template:
  9. 9. Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodality• Readings of text are constructed not just by the use of words but by the combination of words with other modalities• The use of multimodal discourse establish a ‘proximity’ to the events and engage people in the events Video 9 Free powerpoint template:
  10. 10. Critical Discourse Analysis and Identity Example: •How a family use language to create and socialize each other into a shared family political identity • Online communities where social relations and identities are constructed through people’s participation and interaction with each other 10 Free powerpoint template:
  11. 11. Critical Discourse Analysis and The World Wide Web• Many works of critical discourse analysis use texts from world wide web• There are some problems in using material from the world wide – Source – Authority – Author – More than just words 11 Free powerpoint template:
  12. 12. Cont’d...• There are some advantages in using material from world wide web – Easy to find – A lot of relevant data – Can be used in research rorpus based 12 Free powerpoint template:
  13. 13. Criticism of Critical Discourse Analysis There are some critics toward critical discourse analysis: – Widdowson (1998, 2004) CDA should include discussion with the producers and consumers of texts. – Van Noppen (2004) CDA does not always consider the role of the reader in the consumption and interpretation – Schegloff (1997) CDA does not provide detailed and systematic analysis of texts 13 Free powerpoint template:
  14. 14. Cont’d... – Toolan (1997) Analyst should be more critical and demanding of the tools of analysis – Cameron (2001) A weakness in CDA is its reliance on just the analyst’s interpretation of the texts 14 Free powerpoint template:
  15. 15. Cont’d... There are some suggestions toward critical discourse analysis: – Benwell (2005) Use a textual culture approach in CDA – Martin (2000); Fairclough (2003) Use systemic functional linguistics as a tool in CDA – Mautner (2005a) Use corpus approaches as a way of increasing the qualitative dimension of CDA 15 Free powerpoint template:
  16. 16. Cont’d... – McKenna (2004) expand CDA by drawing on work such as schema theory in the area of language and cognition – Threadgold (2003) suggesting the issue of performatifity 16 Free powerpoint template:
  17. 17. Video Source: 17 Free powerpoint template:
  18. 18. Thank you! 18Free powerpoint template: