The Components of Plasma: 1.) Water (H 2 O) = 90 – 92 % of plasma volume 2.) “Non-nutrient” Proteins = 7 % of plasma volume The non-nutrient proteins are made up of three major groups:
A. Albumin – This is the largest fraction of the non-nutrient proteins. It accounts for about 60% of the total. They are the smallest of these proteins and are formed in the liver . Their main function is in the regulation of osmotic pressure in the blood. Osmotic pressure can be translated as “ water ” pressure . Albumin only exists in the blood so as water leaks out of the blood vessels, much of it passes back into the blood vessels by osmosis. The water that does not pass back by osmosis is recovered by the lymphatic system .
B. Globulin – This is the second largest fraction of the non-nutrient proteins. It accounts for about 36% of the total. There are three primary types of globulin proteins: <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Alpha globulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Beta globulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Gamma globulin </li></ul></ul></ul>Alpha and Beta globulins are formed in the liver and aid in the transport of lipids and fat soluble vitamins in the blood. Gamma globulins are produced by “ plasma cells ” located in the lymph nodes and are the proteins that function as immunoglobulins or antibodies .
Chylomicrons – Transport dietary fats to muscles and adipose tissue. Measured as triglycerides in a blood test. An important “aside”: Examples of “fat” carrying molecules (globulins) in plasma called Lipoproteins : Very low-density Lipoproteins (VLDL) – transport triglycerides that are made from excess carbohydrates in the diet from the liver to adipose tissue. Low-density Lipoproteins (LDL) – Main cholesterol carrier in the body. Remnant of VLDL’s. Also called the “ bad ” cholesterol . High-density lipoprotein (HDL) – Transport the remainder of chylomicrons after they lose the triglyceride to the liver. called “ good ” cholesterol .
<ul><ul><li>C. Fibrinogen – This is the smallest fraction of the major non-nutrient proteins and comprises about 4% of the total. It precipitates out of the plasma as “ fibrin ” at the site of a wound, it creates a “mesh” or “web” to which platelets and RBC can “stick” to form a clot . </li></ul></ul>Back to the non-nutrient proteins: fibrin
A Continuation of the Components of Plasma (with review first): 1.) Water (H 2 O) = 90 – 92 % of plasma volume 2.) “Non-nutrient” Proteins = 7 % of plasma volume a. Albumin b. Globulins i. alpha globulin ii. beta globulin iii. gamma globulin c. Fibrinogen
3. Minerals – Dissolved salts that form such ions as Na +1 , K +1 , Ca +2 , Mg +2 , Cl -1 , PO 4 -3 , F -1 , and I -1 that, when dissolved, are called “ electrolytes ”. 4. Dissolved Gasses – These gasses, such as CO 2 , N 2 , or O 2 , are dissolved in the water of plasma and are NOT carried by R.B.C. 5. Nutrients – There are three major types within this category. These are glucose , fatty acids , and amino acids .
Remember!!! The three (3) different types of “calorie containing” nutrients : Glucose which comes from carbohydrates Fatty acids which come from lipids which are fats and oils Amino acids which come from proteins
7. Other Substances – hormones (erythropoietin, insulin, glucagon, etc), antibodies (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM), enzymes, vitamins, etc. 6. Metabolic Waste Products – Examples would be urea or uric acid (both from protein metabolism) , lactic acid (from anaerobic metabolism of glucose), or various ketones (from excess fatty acid metabolism).
1.) Water (H 2 O) 3.) Minerals 4.) Dissolved Gasses 5.) Nutrients 7. Other Substances 6. Metabolic Waste Products 2.) “Non-nutrient” Proteins a. Albumin b. Globulins i. alpha globulin ii. beta globulin iii. gamma globulin c. Fibrinogen ~ 91% water Plasma Composition Summary: ~ 7% non-nutrient protein ~ 2% everything else Packed red cells Buffy coat Plasma