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Long short flat irregular bones
 

Long short flat irregular bones

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    Long short flat irregular bones Long short flat irregular bones Presentation Transcript

    • Classifications of Bones
      • Long Bones
      • Short Bones
      • Flat Bones
      • Irregular Bones
      All bones can be separated into four different types based on the shape of each individual bone, NOT on its size . These groups are:
    • Long bones are bones involved with large movements. They are “elongated” (greater length than width) and cylindrical with enlarged, “knob-like” ends, called epiphyses (singular epiphysis ) which are mostly spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone . Long Bones
    • The long shaft between the epiphyses, called the diaphysis , is composed of mostly compact bone and is “hollow.” The epiphyses are named according to their location. The epiphysis closest to the body’s center is the proximal epiphysis , while that located farthest away is the distal epiphysis .
    • The “hollow” center of the diaphysis, called the medullary cavity , is filled with a fatty substance called, yellow bone marrow , while the “hollow” spaces of the epiphyseal spongy bone are filled with blood making tissue called red bone marrow .
    • The epiphyses are covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage at the proximal and distal articulation points (joints). Articular Cartilage Articular Cartilage The epiphyses are divided by templates of hyaline cartilage in the young called epiphyseal discs (growth plates) which are replaced by bone in adults.
    • Epiphyseal disc (growth plates-hyaline cartilage) Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) Spongy bone Red bone marrow (contained in spongy bone) Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow bone marrow (within medullary cavity - made from mostly fat) Periosteum (fibrous outer “ skin” of bone) Proximal Epiphysis Diaphysis Distal Epiphysyis
    • Long Bones of the Body
      • Femur (2)
    • Anterior View Posterior View Femur
      • Tibia (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Tibia Anterior View Posterior View
      • Fibula (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Fibula Anterior View Posterior View
    • A Comparison of the Tibia to the Fibula Right Leg – Anterior View Tibia Fibula Lateral Medial Right Leg – Posterior View Fibula Tibia Lateral Medial
      • Metatarsals (10)
      Long Bones of the Body Metatarsals
    • 1 2 3 4 5 Naming the Metatarsals ____________ metatarsal of the _________ foot (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) Medial Lateral Metatarsals
      • Phalanges of the Foot (28)
      Long Bones of the Body Phalanges
    • Naming the Phalanges _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ foot . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) (proximal, middle, or distal) Medial Lateral **Note: The 1 st digit has only proximal & distal phalanges – no middle. All other digits have three phalanges – proximal, middle, and distal. 1 2 3 4 5 Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges
      • Humerus (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Humerus
      • Radius (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Radius
      • Ulna (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Ulna
    • A Comparison of the Radius to the Ulna always “palm up,” palmar or supinated perspective “ Thumb” “ Pinkie” Radius (on thumb side) Ulna (on pinkie side)
      • Metacarpals (10)
      Long Bones of the Body Metacarpals 1 2 3 4 5
    • Naming the Metacarpals: ____________ metacarpal of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) **Note: Counting for the metacarpals 1 st through 5 th goes from “thumb” to “pinkie.” 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals
      • Phalanges of the Hand (28)
      Long Bones of the Body 1 2 4 5 3 Phalanges
    • Naming the Phalanges: _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) (proximal, middle, or distal) **Note: The 1 st digit, or thumb, has only proximal & distal phalanges – no middle. P P M D D P M D P M D P M D 1 2 3 4 5 Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges
    • ? _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . 3 rd Right Middle _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . 5 th Right Distal _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . 1 st Right Proximal ? ? 1 2 3 4 5
    • There is one more long bone name. What is it? Clavicle (2) – the collar bone Note the “S” or sigmoid curvature to this bone
      • Femur (2)
      • Tibia (2)
      • Fibula (2)
      • Metatarsals (10)
      • Phalanges of the Foot (28)
      • Humerus (2)
      • Radius (2)
      • Ulna (2)
      • Metacarpals (10)
      • Phalanges of the Hand (28)
      • Clavicles (2)
      Long Bones of the Body
    • Clavicle
      • Femur (2)
      • Tibia (2)
      • Fibula (2)
      • Metatarsals (10)
      • Phalanges of the Foot (28)
      • Humerus (2)
      • Radius (2)
      • Ulna (2)
      • Metacarpals (10)
      • Phalanges of the Hand (28)
      • Clavicles (2)
      Long Bones of the Body Total long bones in the body: ?? 90 bones
    • Short bones are roughly cube-shaped, or “cuboid,” meaning length, width, and height are all closer to equal, and they are associated with smaller, more complex movements. Note the “cuboid” shape Short Bones
    • Short bones have only a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a spongy bone interior and are joined by multiple articulations . This allows for increased flexibility, decreased mass, but with no sacrifice in strength. Note the multiple articulation surfaces per bone
    • Short Bones of the Body
      • Carpals (16) – small bones in the base of the hand
      Carpals
    • 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Proximal row of carpals supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 Distal row of carpals supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 1 = Scaphoid 3 = Triangular 2 = Lunate 4 = Pisiform 5 = Trapezium 6 = Trapezoid 7 = Capitate 8 = Hamate
    • Short Bones of the Body
      • Tarsals (14) – small bones in the posterior foot
      Tarsals
    • 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Medial Lateral 1 = Calcaneus (heel bone) 3 = Navicular 2 = Talus (ankle bone) 4 = Medial Cuneiform 5 = Intermediate Cuneiform 6 = Lateral Cuneiform 7 = Cuboid Tarsals Dorsal view (top of foot); Rt. foot
    • Short Bones of the Body
      • Tarsals (14)
      • Carpals (16)
      Tarsals Total short bones in the body: ?? 30 bones
    • Flat bones – These bones are thin, generally curved, and as their name implies, “flat.” Their structure is formed from two parallel layers of compact bones sandwiching a layer of spongy bone. This creates large, broad, flat surfaces. Flat Bones
    • This allows for a large surface area for tendon attachment as well as strong, protective structures, which is why these bones tend to protect the most important internal organs.
    • Flat Bones of the Body
      • Cranial bones (4)
    • Flat Bones of the Body Frontal (1)
    • Flat Bones of the Body **One on each side of the head Parietal (2)**
    • Flat Bones of the Body Occipital (1)
    • Flat Bones of the Body
      • Thoracic Cage bones (25)
    • Flat Bones of the Body Sternum (1) Ribs (24) Ribs
    • Flat Bones of the Body
      • Cranial bones (4)
      • Thoracic Cage bones (25)
      Total flat bones in the body: ?? 29 bones
    • Irregular bones do not fit into the previous categories. They consist of a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a spongy bone interior . As implied by the name, their shapes are “irregular” and complicated. The bones of the vertebral column, pelvic girdle, face, and more are irregular bones. Irregular Bones
      • Vertebral Column (26)
      Irregular Bones of the Body
    • Total Vertebra = 26 bones Vertebral Column 7 Cervical Vertebra 12 Thoracic Vertebra 5 Lumbar Vertebra 1 Sacrum 1 Coccyx
      • Skull bones (25)
      Irregular Bones of the Body
    • Cranial Bones Facial Bones Sphenoid (1) Temporal (2) Zygomatic (2) Ethmoid (1) Lacrimal (2) Maxilla (2) Mandible (1) Nasal (2)
    • Palatine Bones (2) Vomer (1) Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)
    • Hyoid Bone (1) Ossicles of the Ears (6)
      • Other (6)
      Irregular Bones of the Body
    • Coxal Bones or Os Coxae (2)
    • Posterior View Scapula (2)
    • Patella (2)
      • Vertebral Column (26)
      • Skull bones (25)
      • Other (6)
      Irregular Bones of the Body Total irregular bones in the body: ?? 57 bones
    • Total long bones in the body: ?? 90 bones Total short bones in the body: ?? 30 bones Total irregular bones in the body: ?? 57 bones Total flat bones in the body: ?? 29 bones Total bones in the body: ?? 206 bones Total Bones in the Body
      • Long Bones
      • Short Bones
      • Flat Bones
      • Irregular Bones
      • Sesamoid Bones
      The additional group is: Sometimes bones are be separated into five different types based on the shape of each individual bone. The first four have already been covered.
    • Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act to hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the force of the muscle is increased. Examples of sesamoid bones are the patella and the pisiform.