Larynx The larynx lies below the epiglottis at the top of the trachea. The “Adams apple” or “voice box” contains the vocal cords . In women, these are usually shorter, tauter, and closer together than those of men, thus women usually have higher pitched voices.
Larynx The Laryngeal Cartilage
The Thyroid cartilage
The Cricoid cartilage
The Arytenoid cartilage
Larynx Vocal Cords - Changing the length & tension on the cords produces sounds of different pitches. - The longer and looser the cord, the deeper the pitch
- Because males have larger thyroid cartilages their cords are longer & voices are usually deeper - Changing the position of the vocal cords can close/open the airway. Larynx Vocal Cords
The Trachea Trachea
Trachea The trachea is a cylindrical tube, often called the “ wind pipe, ” about 11 cm (~4.5 inches) long and 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter (~1 inch). It lies from the larynx (6 th cervical vert.) to the point where it branches (5th thoracic vert.) to form the two primary bronchi . Primary bronchi
Trachea The trachea is composed of rings of hyaline cartilage separated by fibrous and muscular tissue. It is lined internally with mucus secreting cells and cilia that beat continually upward sweeping particles to the pharynx where they are swallowed.
Trachea Smoking paralyzes the cilia so that they no longer beat. This causes particles to accumulate in the lungs, which can only be brought up by coughing – hence the “smoker’s cough.”
This inability to cleanse the lungs properly produces lungs stained with tar and the nicotine in the tobacco damages blood vessels, possibly producing a diseased heart as well.
Continued tobacco use could result in permanent lung damage in the form of a chronic, debilitating condition called emphysema . Normal Color Emphysema
Or, continued tobacco use could result in a terminal disease – lung cancer , not to mention congestive heart failure due to an enlarged heart or myocardial infarction due to coronary artery damage . Lung Cancer Normal Lung Color