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Appendicular skeleton

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  • 1. Organization of the Skeleton
    • Axial Skeleton
    • Appendicular Skeleton
    Axial Skeleton is the “ blue ” Appendicular Skeleton is the “ purple ”
  • 2. The Appendicular Skeleton
    • The appendicular skeleton is composed of the:
    • pectoral girdle
    • upper extremities
    • pelvic girdle
    • lower extremities
  • 3. The Pectoral Girdle
    • Also called the “ shoulder girdle ,” the pectoral girdle contains four (4) bones. It functions to anchor and support the upper extremities and serves as an
    important attachment site for a great number of muscles that help to move the arm . The bones of the pectoral girdle are as follows:
  • 4.
    • The Clavicles (2)
    • Also known as the “ collarbones ,” these act as anterior braces or struts, helping to prevent dislocations of the shoulder.
    Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
  • 5.
    • The Scapula (2)
    • Also known as the “shoulder blades,” these contain the shallow sockets into which the head of the humerus fits.
    Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
  • 6. The Upper Extremities
    • The upper extremities or upper appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the “arms,” contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the “upper arm,” “forearm,” “wrist,” and “hand.” The bones of the upper extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows:
  • 7. Bones of the Upper Extremities Humerus
  • 8. Bones of the Upper Extremities Radius
  • 9. Bones of the Upper Extremities Ulna
  • 10. Reminder: A Comparison of the Radius to the Ulna always “palm up,” palmar or supinated perspective “ Thumb” “ Pinkie” Radius (on thumb side) Ulna (on pinkie side)
  • 11. 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Proximal row of carpals – supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 = Scaphoid 3 = Triangular 2 = Lunate 4 = Pisiform
  • 12. 5 = Trapezium 6 = Trapezoid 7 = Capitate 8 = Hamate Distal row of carpals – supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Bones of the Upper Extremities
  • 13. Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals
  • 14. Naming the Metacarpals: ____________ metacarpal of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) **Note: Counting for the metacarpals 1 st through 5 th goes from “thumb” to “pinkie.” Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals
  • 15. Bones of the Upper Extremities P P M D D P M D P M D P M D 1 2 3 4 5 Phalanges
  • 16. Naming the Phalanges: _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) (proximal, middle, or distal) **Note: The 1 st digit, or thumb, has only proximal & distal phalanges – no middle. P P M D D P M D P M D P M D Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges
  • 17. Summary of Upper Extremities
    • 4. Metacarpals (10) – the “palm” and/or the “back of the hand”
    • 5. Phalanges (28) – (singular = phalanx) the “fingers”
    • 1. Humerus (2) – the “upper arm”
    • 2. Radius and Ulna (4) – the “forearm”
    • 3. Carpals (16) – the ‘wrist”
    • a. lunate
    • b. hamate
    • c. capitate
    • d. triangular
    • e. trapezium
    • f. trapazoid
    • g. scaphoid
    • h. pisiform
  • 18. The Pelvic Girdle
    • The pelvic girdle , also called the “ pelvis ,” functions to support and protect the soft, vital organs of the abdominal cavity , provide a stable support for the trunk of the body , and to provide attachments for the lower extremities (the legs). The bones of the pelvic girdle are as follows:
  • 19.
    • The Coxal Bones or Ossa Coxae
    • Also commonly called the “ hipbones ,” the coxal bones each consist of three parts which become fused
    Bones of the Pelvic Girdle in late adolescence to form a single bones. They articulate posteriorly with the sacrum and anteriorly to each other at the symphysis pubis joint.
  • 20.
    • The three subparts of the coxal bone which fuse in late adolescence are as follow:
    • a. The Ilium
    • b. The Ischium
    • c. The Pubis
    Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
  • 21.
    • The Sacrum
    • Also a part of the vertebral column, it serves as a posterior anchor for the coxal bones and as a solid, posterior wall for the pelvic girdle .
    Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The Coccyx Also known as the “ tailbone .”
  • 22. The Lower Extremities
    • The lower extremities or lower appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the “legs,” contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the “thigh,” “shin,” “ankle,” and “foot.” The bones of the lower extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows:
  • 23. Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities Femur
  • 24. Patella (2)
  • 25. Tibia Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities
  • 26. Fibula Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities
  • 27. Reminder : Comparison of the Tibia to the Fibula Right Leg – Anterior View Tibia Fibula Lateral Medial Right Leg – Posterior View Fibula Tibia Lateral Medial
  • 28. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Medial Lateral 1 = Calcaneus (heel bone) 3 = Navicular 2 = Talus (ankle bone) 4 = Medial Cuneiform 5 = Intermediate Cuneiform 6 = Lateral Cuneiform 7 = Cuboid Tarsals – dorsal view; Rt. foot Bones of the Lower Extremities
  • 29. Summary of Lower Extremities
    • 1. Femur (2) – the “thighbone”
    • 2. Patella (2) – the “kneecap”
    • 3. Tibia (2) – the “shinbone”
    • 4. Fibula (2) – the “calf bone”
    • 5. Tarsals (14)
    • a. Talus
    • b. Calcaneus
    • c. Navicular
    • d. Cuboid
    • e. Medial Cuneiform
    • f. Intermediate Cuneiform
    • g. Lateral Cuneiform
    • 6. Metatarsals (10) – the “instep” or the “top of the foot”
    • 7. Phalanges (28) – (singular = phalanx) – the “toes”