Appendicular skeleton

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Appendicular skeleton

  1. 1. Organization of the Skeleton <ul><li>Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul>Axial Skeleton is the “ blue ” Appendicular Skeleton is the “ purple ”
  2. 2. The Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>The appendicular skeleton is composed of the: </li></ul><ul><li>pectoral girdle </li></ul><ul><li>upper extremities </li></ul><ul><li>pelvic girdle </li></ul><ul><li>lower extremities </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Pectoral Girdle <ul><li>Also called the “ shoulder girdle ,” the pectoral girdle contains four (4) bones. It functions to anchor and support the upper extremities and serves as an </li></ul>important attachment site for a great number of muscles that help to move the arm . The bones of the pectoral girdle are as follows:
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Clavicles (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the “ collarbones ,” these act as anterior braces or struts, helping to prevent dislocations of the shoulder. </li></ul>Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Scapula (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the “shoulder blades,” these contain the shallow sockets into which the head of the humerus fits. </li></ul>Bones of the Pectoral Girdle
  6. 6. The Upper Extremities <ul><li>The upper extremities or upper appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the “arms,” contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the “upper arm,” “forearm,” “wrist,” and “hand.” The bones of the upper extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bones of the Upper Extremities Humerus
  8. 8. Bones of the Upper Extremities Radius
  9. 9. Bones of the Upper Extremities Ulna
  10. 10. Reminder: A Comparison of the Radius to the Ulna always “palm up,” palmar or supinated perspective “ Thumb” “ Pinkie” Radius (on thumb side) Ulna (on pinkie side)
  11. 11. 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Proximal row of carpals – supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 = Scaphoid 3 = Triangular 2 = Lunate 4 = Pisiform
  12. 12. 5 = Trapezium 6 = Trapezoid 7 = Capitate 8 = Hamate Distal row of carpals – supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Bones of the Upper Extremities
  13. 13. Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals
  14. 14. Naming the Metacarpals: ____________ metacarpal of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) **Note: Counting for the metacarpals 1 st through 5 th goes from “thumb” to “pinkie.” Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals
  15. 15. Bones of the Upper Extremities P P M D D P M D P M D P M D 1 2 3 4 5 Phalanges
  16. 16. Naming the Phalanges: _______________ phalanx of the ___________ digit of the _________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th ) (Left or Right) (proximal, middle, or distal) **Note: The 1 st digit, or thumb, has only proximal & distal phalanges – no middle. P P M D D P M D P M D P M D Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges
  17. 17. Summary of Upper Extremities <ul><li>4. Metacarpals (10) – the “palm” and/or the “back of the hand” </li></ul><ul><li>5. Phalanges (28) – (singular = phalanx) the “fingers” </li></ul><ul><li>1. Humerus (2) – the “upper arm” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Radius and Ulna (4) – the “forearm” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Carpals (16) – the ‘wrist” </li></ul><ul><li>a. lunate </li></ul><ul><li>b. hamate </li></ul><ul><li>c. capitate </li></ul><ul><li>d. triangular </li></ul><ul><li>e. trapezium </li></ul><ul><li>f. trapazoid </li></ul><ul><li>g. scaphoid </li></ul><ul><li>h. pisiform </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Pelvic Girdle <ul><li>The pelvic girdle , also called the “ pelvis ,” functions to support and protect the soft, vital organs of the abdominal cavity , provide a stable support for the trunk of the body , and to provide attachments for the lower extremities (the legs). The bones of the pelvic girdle are as follows: </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Coxal Bones or Ossa Coxae </li></ul><ul><li>Also commonly called the “ hipbones ,” the coxal bones each consist of three parts which become fused </li></ul>Bones of the Pelvic Girdle in late adolescence to form a single bones. They articulate posteriorly with the sacrum and anteriorly to each other at the symphysis pubis joint.
  20. 20. <ul><li>The three subparts of the coxal bone which fuse in late adolescence are as follow: </li></ul><ul><li>a. The Ilium </li></ul><ul><li>b. The Ischium </li></ul><ul><li>c. The Pubis </li></ul>Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Also a part of the vertebral column, it serves as a posterior anchor for the coxal bones and as a solid, posterior wall for the pelvic girdle . </li></ul>Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The Coccyx Also known as the “ tailbone .”
  22. 22. The Lower Extremities <ul><li>The lower extremities or lower appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the “legs,” contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the “thigh,” “shin,” “ankle,” and “foot.” The bones of the lower extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows: </li></ul>
  23. 23. Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities Femur
  24. 24. Patella (2)
  25. 25. Tibia Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities
  26. 26. Fibula Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities
  27. 27. Reminder : Comparison of the Tibia to the Fibula Right Leg – Anterior View Tibia Fibula Lateral Medial Right Leg – Posterior View Fibula Tibia Lateral Medial
  28. 28. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Medial Lateral 1 = Calcaneus (heel bone) 3 = Navicular 2 = Talus (ankle bone) 4 = Medial Cuneiform 5 = Intermediate Cuneiform 6 = Lateral Cuneiform 7 = Cuboid Tarsals – dorsal view; Rt. foot Bones of the Lower Extremities
  29. 29. Summary of Lower Extremities <ul><li>1. Femur (2) – the “thighbone” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Patella (2) – the “kneecap” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tibia (2) – the “shinbone” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fibula (2) – the “calf bone” </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tarsals (14) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Talus </li></ul><ul><li>b. Calcaneus </li></ul><ul><li>c. Navicular </li></ul><ul><li>d. Cuboid </li></ul><ul><li>e. Medial Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>f. Intermediate Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>g. Lateral Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>6. Metatarsals (10) – the “instep” or the “top of the foot” </li></ul><ul><li>7. Phalanges (28) – (singular = phalanx) – the “toes” </li></ul>

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