WHAT IS FIRST AID It is an immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of professional medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID Preserve life. Prevent condition worsening. Promote recovery. Protect the unconscious.PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID A – AIR B – BREATHING C – CIRCULATION D – DIERESPIRATION A process of inhalation, pause, and exhalation. Breathe in oxygen, breath out carbon dioxide. Total amount of oxygen for breathing is 21% and we only use 5% for each breath.AVERAGE BREATHING RATE INFANT – 30/40 CHILD – 20-30 ADULT – 12-20COMMON PROBLEMS IN RESPIRATION SYSTEM CHOKING ASTHMA HYPOXIA NEBULIZER
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Comprises the heart and vessels.INCREASE PULSE RATE SHOCK STRESS CARDIOVASCULAR EXERCISESTYPES OF BLEEDING ARTERIA – from heart to body VENOUS – from body to heart CAPILLARY – joining the artery EXTERNAL BLEEDING INTERNAL BLEEDINGMANAGEMENT OF CONCUSSION Rest DON’T: Heat Ice Alcohol Compression Run Elevation MassageAMPUTATION Control bleeding and elevate the hand level.EMBEDDED FOREIGN BODY Do not pluck. Only remove if superficial.CONTROL BLEEDING DIRECT PRESSURE INDIRECT PRESSURE ELEVATION
NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN SPINAL CORD PERIPHERAL NERVESCONSCIOUS/UNCONSCIOUS ALERT VOICE PAIN UNRESPONSIVEFRACTURE OPEN CLOSED GREENSTICK COMMUNICATEDBURNS MANAGEMENT 3B’s BURNING STOPPED BREATHING MANTAINED BODY EXAMINEDMANAGEMENT 3C’s COOL COVER CARRYANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK Caused by severe allergy that affects the airway and breathing.
CAUSES OF UNCONSCIOUSNESSFAINTING STROKEINFANTILE CONVULSION ASPHYXIASHOCK POISONINGHEAD INJURY EPILEPSY DIABETES EMERGENCYCARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)CPR can help a stopped breathing person to stay alive. We do CPR when there is a person whosuddenly stop breathing and the person gives no response.APPLYING CPRD – DANGER A – AIRWAYR – RESPONSE B – BREATHING C - CIRCULATIONAPPLYING CPR In applying CPR, the rescuer must apply the DRABC steps. Next, the rescuer will give two blows from mouth to mouth and blow oxygen, means forcing air flow into the lungs. After blowing, the rescuer needs to find the sternum and place both hands on the chest. The chest pressing must be done about 30 times. Next, the rescuer needs to check the pulse of the casualty, just to make sure whether there is any responses from the casualty. If the casualty gives some response, the rescuer must repeat the steps from the beginning and do the CPR and pulse checking in 5 cycles until the casualty recover from the unconsciousness.
FIRST AID (UKQR 1051)ASSIGNMENT 1NAME: AHMAD NUR FIRDAUS BIN HASHIM MATRIC ID: A11MJ0069 IC NO: 920829-01-7333