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Wild Ones Handbook: Landscaping with Native Plants


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Wild Ones Handbook: Landscaping with Native Plants

Wild Ones Handbook: Landscaping with Native Plants

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  • 1. LANDSCAPING WITH NATIVE PLANTS Fourth Edition of the original Wild Ones Handbook
  • 2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF WILD ONES ®W ild Ones is a direct outgrowth of a natural projects. In the spring, summer and fall we are out on yard landscaping workshop offered by the Schlitz tours, woods excursions, and digs (rescuing plants in the Audubon Center of Milwaukee, Wis., in 1977. path of development). Annually, each chapter offers a “helpA nucleus of nine people became intensely interested in me” day of consultation at various members’ properties. Inthis new concept of native plants as an alternative to lawns. the late summer and autumn, we go on seed-collecting out-A camaraderie developed during the lectures, tours, and ings, sustainably harvesting seeds to do our own plantdigs, but it was two years later that an organization propagation.sprouted. Gini Lindow had a ‘wild’ idea that blossomed into Beyond exchanging seeds and rescuing plants, weWild Ones—Natural Landscapers, Ltd. Our resi- patronize the reputable native plant and seeddent expert, Lorrie Otto, taught us much about companies that have taken root. We do all these Nationalthe natural landscaping philosophy—organizing Presidents joyous things in an effort to grow a diverse andyard tours to help us with planning our yards. eye-pleasing collection of native species on our Gini Lindow We are no common ‘garden variety’ garden own land. James Brienclub, but a fast-growing, not-for-profit organi- In July 1979 there were just nine members. Margot Fuchszation encouraging natural yards with a sensi- As of 2004, there are 3,000 members in more Lu Ann Thompsontivity to land use in harmony with Nature. than 40 chapters. We believe time will prove our Rae Sweet Chapter winter programs include how-to-do-it landscaping methods popular for their econom- Deb Harwellsessions, seed exchanges, and presentations ic and environmental benefits, but we are Irena Macekby experts in prairie, woodland, and wetland already proving, by example, that our land- Mandy Plochrestoration, and members profiling their own scapes are beautiful—naturally. ❧ Bret Rappaport Joe Powelka WELCOME TO WILD ONES ® AND A HERITAGE OF STEWARDSHIP M embers and friends of Wild Ones have native landscapes to protect genotypes and endan- watched and participated in a journey of gered species. delight as they followed the natural land- All the while there were a few graduate students scaping movement. At first it was just the artists who who literally made it their business to provide us with were courageous enough to break the cruel fashion of native seeds and plants grown in their own nurseries. lawns. Not only were the landscapes flat, bleak and Today we name with pride and gratitude: Ahrenhoer- shaved, but shrubs were not free to display their own ster, Boehlke, Smith to Diboll, Kopitzke to Glass, shapes or bear flowers and fruit at the ends of their Powers and Wade. During these times not only was it branches. Young trees were pruned to look like difficult to get support from neighbors and officials, bushes on top of long broomsticks. Mature trees were but information on how to do it, where to do it and why sprayed with biocides which killed songbirds, butter- we should do it was hard to find. Oh! My Goodness! flies and multitudes of other breathing, moving life My Goodness! What a gift this Landscaping with forms. However, it was the aesthetic impoverishment Native Plants would have been then. which empowered these artists in the early ’70s to May this new generation learn from this book and defy the weed laws (conformity laws) and decorate treasure it, while making a lifetime commitment to their yards with diverse, tousled, communities of life. being good stewards as we heal our Earth! In Milwaukee, it was Ruth Grotenrath, Mary Berry, Emeline Krause, Tula Erskine, Rochelle Whiteman and I who flaunted our front yards of flowers and their pollinators. Soon Nature lovers and birders joined with their own models. Finally, concerned scientists added to the chorus, calling for islands and corridors of Lorrie Otto
  • 3. NATURAL LANDSCAPING IS CO N T E N T S … MORE BENEFICIAL— ALL THE LIFE THERE IS choosing organic methods over poisonous ones Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 … MORE ENLIGHTENED— reviving ecosystems rather than A Sustainable Future . . . . . . .5 planting indiscriminately THE LANDSCAPE THAT WAS … MORE JOYOUS— growing ever-changing plantscapes Forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 instead of mow-me-every-week turf grass Prairie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 … MORE ALIVE— attracting a diversity of wildlife that have Wetlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 few natural places left to call home. Today’s Lawns . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Landscaping with Native Plants (formerly titled WHAT EVERY WILD ONE SHOULD KNOW Wild Ones Handbook) presents the current wisdom regarding natural landscaping techniques. However, Being Neighborly . . . . . . . . .10 native plant culture and propagation theories continue to develop. You are encouraged to attend Wild Ones Important Causes of Hayfever .11 chapter meetings where knowledgeable individuals will keep you abreast of practices that work best in your Observational Design . . . . . . .12 locale. If your area does not have a chapter, you may form one. Request chapter information by writing to: Policies & Opportunities . . . .15 Wild Ones, P.O. Box 1274, Appleton, WI 54912-1274. This special issue represents the work of many It Starts with The Soil . . . . .16 pioneers of the natural landscaping movement. The Removing Vegetation . . . . . . . .17 views expressed are the opinions of the writers. The people whose names follow have earned our apprecia- Handling Seed . . . . . . . . . . .18 tion for putting on paper the why-for’s and how-to’s of natural landscaping. Planting A Woodland . . . . . .19 On behalf of our readers, thank you to: Planting A Prairie . . . . . . . .20 Annette Alexander Pat Armstrong Pat Brust Carol Chew Prairie Maintenance . . . . . . .21 Elizabeth Czarpata Neil Diboll Barb Glassel Darrel Morrison Wet Gardens . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Lorrie Otto Tom Patrick Invasive Species . . . . . . . . . .23 Mandy Ploch Joyce Powers Bret Rappaport Gloria Stupak Landscaping for Wildlife . . . . .24 Craig Tufts Don Vorpahl Genetic Guidelines . . . . . . . .26 Alan Wade Wendy Walcott E.O. Wilson Fox Valley Area Chapter for originating Copyright © 2004, Wild Ones: Native Plants, Natural Landscapes the idea for this book Landscaping with Native Plants is published on an as-needed basis. and Wild Ones’ very special illustrator— Copies may be obtained through chapters or by writing to: Lucy Schumann WILD ONES P.O. BOX 1274, APPLETON, WI 54912-1274 — Joy Buslaff, editor Wild Ones: Native Plants, Natural Landscapes promotes environ- —Lorraine Johnson, editor of mentally sound landscaping practices to preserve biodiversity through the revised fourth edition preservation, restoration and establishment of native plant communities. Wild Ones is a not-for-profit environmental education and advocacy organi- zation. TO BECOME A WILD ONES MEMBER Wild Ones Natural Landscapers Ltd. (now known as Wild Ones: Native or to obtain Wild Ones products, visit our website, Plants, Natural Landscapes) was incorporated in 1990 in the State of Wis-contact your local chapter or request current pricing consin, under the Wisconsin Non-Stock Corporation Act for educational information from the Appleton address at right. and scientific purposes. Wild Ones is a not-for-profit, tax-exempt corpora- Landscaping with Native Plants (4th Edition) tion under Section 501(c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code and is publicly and the original Wild Ones Handbook can also be supported as defined in Sections 170(b) (1)(iv) and 509(a). Donations are found online at and at tax deductible as allowed by law.
  • 4. All The Life There Is The Diversity of Life BY E.O. WILSON BY JOYCE POWERS, REPRINTED BY PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR CRM ECOSYSTEMS/PRAIRIE RIDGE NURSERY T B he creation of biodiversity came slow and iological diversity refers to the number hard: 3 billion years of evolution to start of different life forms co-existing in an the profusion of animals that occupy the ecosystem. Ecologists know that the seas, another 350 million years to assemble the more different kinds of organisms that can rain forests in which half or more of the species co-exist in a system, the more stable or resilient on Earth now live. Life had stalled on plateaus that system is. The concept of a web is often along the way, and on five occasions it suffered used to explain why this is so.“Nature, in extinction spasms that took 10 million years to Picture a spider’s web with its complex inter- her blind repair. But the thrust was upward. Today the connections. Suppose that each connection point search for diversity of life is greater than it was a 100 mil- is a separate life form or species and the strands life, has lion years ago—and far greater than 500 million connecting them are their interactions with one filled every years before that. another. Clearly, the more points of connection possible The modern fauna and flora are composed of or intersections within the web, the stronger it is. cranny of survivors that somehow managed to dodge and Further, when some event occurs that destroys a the Earth weave through all the radiations and extinctions point of connection or even a small section of the with some of geological history. All living species are web, the whole web does not collapse. However, sort of direct descendants of the organisms that imagine that one-half of the connection points fantastic lived 3.8 billion years ago. They are living are destroyed, without tearing the fabric of the creature.” genetic libraries which record evolutionary web, just decreasing the interconnections. The —Joseph events all across that immense span of time. web becomes noticeably more fragile. The next Krutch Scoop out a plant, shake the soil from the accidental event may destroy it completely. roots into the cupped hand, magnify it for close The metaphor of the spider’s web is, of examination. The black Earth is alive with a riot course, just that—a metaphor. It does not take of algae, fungi, nematodes, mites, springtails, into account the energy-exchange systems and enchytraeid worms, thousands of species of constant flux that all ecosystems embody. Even bacteria. The handful may be only a tiny frag- if our only interest is in self-preservation, all ment of one ecosystem, but because of the species have value because they strengthen the genetic codes of its residents it holds more order web of which we are a part. than can be found on the surfaces of all the other The more different kinds of plants we can planets of our solar system combined. It is a restore, the more different types of birds, sample of the living force that runs the Earth— butterflies and small mammals can live on and will continue to do so with or without us. the land. And the more different life forms we Now is the time to get on the great Linnean can keep with us on this planet, enterprise and finish mapping the biosphere. the better the chances that Species are disappearing at an accelerating rate we, our children and their through human action, primarily habitat destruc- children will not tion, but also pollution and the introduction of only survive, exotic species to residual natural environments. but live in a Why should we care? Vast potential biological balanced wealth will be destroyed. In amnesiac revery it and is easy to overlook the services that ecosystems beautiful provide humanity. They enrich the soil and world. ❧ 4 create the very air we breathe. The life-sustaining matrix is built of green plants with legions of microorganisms and mostly small, obscure ani- mals—in other words, weeds and bugs. They run the world precisely as we would wish it to be run.
  • 5. A Sustainable FutureA s we begin a new century, it is essential our landscapes take on a new meaning. On The Edge of A Sustainable Landscape Designed and managed landscapes BY DARREL MORRISON, FASLA, Landscape Architectneed to demonstrate an environmental con-sciousness and a shift in values. A part of thebeauty of a landscape in the 21st century will bederived from its resource consciousness, its pro- — Food-producing landscapes will have aductivity, its sustainability. resurgence, providing more food close to home These thoughts are stimulated, in part, by a and reducing the need for long-haul transporta-February 1990 prediction by the Worldwatch tion of fruits and vegetables, which will beInstitute. This Washington think-tank predicted picked when ripe and eaten in season.(optimistically, maybe) that the world will — In the same vein, beautiful vegetable andbecome ‘self-sustainable’ by the year 2030; i.e., herb gardens, as well as grape arbors and mini- “Mythat society will see that basic human needs are orchards of dwarf fruit trees will be integrated husbandmet without depleting or further polluting the into home grounds. and I feel soEarth’s resources. The Institute acknowledges — Ornamental plantings will also include a privilegedthat in order for its prediction to become reality, large component of time-proven native shrubs to own anda new set of values will need to be adopted, with and trees, flowers, ferns and grasses, providing observe thisone difficult component being a shift away from seasonal changes and links with our natural his- special littlematerialism and conspicuous consumption. tory without the need for irrigation or fertilizer. corner of In the Institute’s hopeful scenario, today’s — A network of forests and other natural the world,throw-away society will be replaced by one with areas will be preserved and protected, in various even thougha comprehensive recycling ethic. In the sustain- stages of succession. With management to main- we realize itable world, people will rely much less on auto- tain their natural diversity and beauty, various- is actuallymobiles and will live closer to their work in sized patches and corridors will be protected ours formixed-use neighborhoods, or work at home and managed, and they will in turn protect the just awith the assistance of technology. This will be quality of water in streams and rivers and will fleetinga world where neighborliness and sociability help counteract global warming trends. momentcan be revived, with people walking or biking — At the edges of the forests, and along fence in time.”to schools, shops, and offices, perhaps along rows between solar collection fields, pastures —Janicestreets where houses have front porches. Small and orchards, there will be a network of con- Stiefeltowns will experience their own revival. Historic sciously managed edge plantings producingbuildings will be preserved, restored and reused. food and habitat for many species of birds and And what will a sustainable landscape be like the year 2030? The Worldwatch Institute Whether we reach the goal of sustainabilitydoesn’t propose a scenario for this, so I will: is dependent on our activities. We won’t get — Expansive, resource-consuming lawns there by maintaining a business-as-usual attitude.will be unfashionable, obsolete symbols of over- We won’t get there if we permit the perpetuationconsumption and pretense. of an image that sustainable, productive land- — Where there is a need or an urge for large, scapes are anti-design, or that they can neveropen lawn-like areas these will be pastures in really be as beautiful as today’s irrigated,which cattle and sheep graze on native, drought- herbicided, chemically fertilized, and mowedtolerant grasses, returning nutrients to the soil. landscapes. — Other fields will be set aside with rows of We may help achieve the goal of sustain-solar collection panels harvesting sunlight for able landscapes—and public demand forpower. In the space between the solar collectors them—by demonstrating that they canwill be soil-rebuilding grasses intermingled with possess a new level of beauty derived from 5colorful drifts of native flowers. the richness of their lines, forms, colors, — On the shoulders of roads, hiking and bik- and textures, from their regional associa-ing trails, and in small openings on residential tions, and from their ver y productivity andand industrial sites will be infrequently mown sustainability. ❧short meadows.
  • 6. The Landscape That Was and clustering restrict the wind and its ability to Forest Cathedrals BY PAT ARMSTRONG desiccate. It is cool, dark, shady, humid, quiet, calm and fertile in a forest. Humus, leaf litter and duff pile up and are sifted, sorted, decomposed Forests are old and wise; they evoke feel- and recycled by fungi and invertebrates in their ings of reverence. Their air hangs heavy mysterious unseen ways. with the misty incense of ancient conifers. Plants are arranged in horizontal layers. The Their spires filter light through lacy leaves, tallest trees making the canopy top, younger radiating celestial beams as through cathe- trees and shorter species compose the under- dral stained glass windows. story below the canopy. Still younger trees, A t the end of the Cretaceous period, some saplings and tall shrubs make up the next layer. 75 million years ago, the cycads, Then there are small shrubs, seedling trees and “When we conifers, ferns and other Jurassic plants the herbaceous plants on the forest floor, and garden with and giant reptiles began to decline as mammals finally the humus and duff layer on top of the soil native and and Angiosperms (true flowering plants) began with all its roots, microrhizae and organisms. naturalized to rise. South America and Africa had begun Light is the controlling factor. Plants must wildflowers, separating from the supercontinent Pangea in adapt to its transient supply. Blooming and leaf- we garden the Cretaceous, but the tertiary forest still ing out in spring progresses from the ground up.not only with continued across North America and Euro-Asia Flowers bloom first, using stored energy in their Nature but as the Atlantic Ocean widened between them. bulbs, before the shrubs, understory and canopy also with About 15,000 years ago all the trees in eastern leaf out and eclipse the sun. Shrubs and trees history.”— North America were hunched-together refugees, often bloom before their leaves emerge and owe Brooklyn pushed to the mountaintops of the southern their survival to wind-pollinated flowers that pro- Botanic Appalachians by glaciers. As the ice retreated, duce seeds with wings that act like propellers for Garden the huddled species began to spread. As they dispersing through the relatively open branches. migrated back into the landscape, they sorted In the summer, deep shade envelops the according to the soils and climates encountered. forest floor and only the largest of leaves, held Only a handful of Spruces, Firs, Larches, horizontally to catch as much light as possible, Aspens and Birches reached the arctic tundra in can survive. Spring ephemerals disappear until the boreal forest of Canada. Similarly, a few next year. The many sizes, shapes, textures and species of Junipers, Pines and Oaks moved south- shades of green of the leaves become a pleasing west and west to the savannas, barrens and forest tapestry in groundcover layers. glades at the edge of the prairie. Even the richest By the end of August leaves of deciduous deciduous forests of the Midwest contain only a trees are tattered and shriveled. Their colors few species of Beech, Maple, Tulip, Ash, Elm and flame in October as they die and fall to the forest Basswood instead of the over 600 species that floor to be recycled. More light encourages late- made up the ancestral tertiary forest. blooming flowers to burst into bloom. Fleshy Trees and rainfall go together. We have tropi- fruits and berries, acorns, nuts, and seeds with cal rain forests and temperate rain forests, cloud forks, prongs, stickers and burs entice birds, forests and fog forests, flood plain, flatwoods and mammals, and insects to eat them, store them or swamp forests, mesic and mesophytic forests. carry them away to propagate somewhere else. These are our richest forests, and when the rain- In winter, the forest rests, lifting bare limbs to fall drops below 30 inches a year, the forests the sky or sloughing off snow mounds from began to peter out into savannas and prairies. bouncy evergreen branches. Nests, galls, foot- Trees need water, save water, hold water. They prints disclose the identities of its inhabitants. protect and supply the watershed. They evapo- There is some evidence that the fall of great rate water to cool and humidify the air around civilizations like Greece and Rome is linked to 6 them. Their leaves and branches intercept rain, the destruction of their forests. When the trees making it last are cut and the water is gone, we, too, perish. ❧ longer and fall more lightly upon the soil. Their size
  • 7. The Landscape That WasT o appreciate prairie, one must experience and understand the environment that Prairie Plants Evolved to a Harsh Climate created it. Drive across Interstate 80 inAugust. Stop somewhere just west of Lincoln, BY PAT ARMSTRONG, PRAIRIE SUN CONSULTANTSNeb., and get out of your car. Climb to the topof the roadway embankment and walk a shortdistance into the fields. Sun will beat down on with small or finely cut leaves that reduce evapo-you in fiery fury as 140°F heat waves writhe and ration. Hairy surfaces help, too, by reducing thewriggle dizzily across the land. Desiccating air flow, shading the leaf, catching and holdingblasts of oven wind will parch your lips and ping dew or condensing water evaporated throughyour skin with sharp dust arrows. Grass rising, the stomates. Having leaves close to the groundfalling, tossing in ocean-like waves will churn where air flow is reduced and they are shadedyour stomach and sway your balance with sea- by other plants is another way. Having no leaves “You can’tsickness. Yet in this unbearably hot and dry at all, growing altogether in a clump, having turn backenvironment several hundred beauteous plants wide-spreading fibrous roots or deep taproots the clock,thrive and multiply. are additional ways. but you Repeat your visit at the end of January. Now The second factor was the thick covering of can windhowling gales and biting winds sting and numb rock and soil debris left by glaciers. Clay it upyou with windchill factors of -70°F. There’s no particles in this young soil affect its fertility, again.”—place to hide and nothing to block wind or even texture, and ability to hold and release water. Benjaminhold snow as an insulating blanket over soil. Many, like loess (extremely fine wind-blown Franklin Where are the plants? Roots, rhizomes, bulbs, particles of silt from glacial deposits) are veryand growing tips (which is over 60 percent of the droughty. Prairies are located almost exactlyplant) are all safely protected in soil away from where there were once glaciers or where glacialtemperature extremes. Stems and leaves which debris washed or blew eastward from mountainsare above ground make up the smaller, more down into the great plains.expendable part of the plant. This is the most Thirdly, fire is an important factor in prairieimportant adaptation of plants to a harsh, prairie development. Being deep-rooted perennials,environment. prairie plants aren’t hurt by having their upper Four factors shaped the great American parts burned. In fact, if fire is suppressed, theyprairie that stretched in a rough triangle from lose vigor and fail to flower. Fire returns nutri-Northern Mexico to southern Canada along the ents to the soil in the form of ash and reduceseastern side of the Rocky Mountains, narrowing the dense overburden of plant debris so shootseastward into the prairie peninsula of Illinois, can reach sunlight.Indiana, and Ohio. Prairie soil is enriched and fertilized not by The first was a drier climate that occurred the decay and decomposition of leaf litter as onover millions of years as continental plates the forest floor, but by the death and decomposi-collided causing the formation of mountain tion of underground parts where the greater per-ranges and the breaking away of land masses. centage of plant material resides. Other benefi-Ocean currents and rain patterns changed, the cial effects of burning are to control invadingEarth cooled, and inland oceans retreated. By woody plants and aliens, and to allow sunlight to25 million years ago, the climate in central North reach the soil and warm it in the spring so thatAmerica had become dry enough for the first plants can resume growing sooner.grasses to appear. Twenty million years ago, The fourth factor influencing the developmentprairies were well-established. of prairie was the billions of large grazing her- Prairie plants developed an alternative form of bivores. Plants survived by differing strategies.photosynthesis, C4, which allows them to be Those with growing points extremely close to 7active at higher temperatures and require much the ground could be clipped off on top and keepless water. Plants using this system use carbon growing. Other species developed coarse, rough,dioxide more efficiently and have smaller stom- bristly or thorny surfaces. It is these diverseatal (pore) openings which cut down water loss. plant shapes and textures that give them their Other ways prairie plants adapt to climate is charm in the garden landscape. ❧
  • 8. The Landscape That Was prey. Water spiders build bubble nests to house The Influence of Effluence: Wetter Is Better their young. Caddis fly larva construct their cases from plant debris or grains of sand, and BY PAT ARMSTRONG some catch prey by casting sticky nets. To be small and live in a pond is the most dangerous thing in the world. One must be very Loren Eiseley once said, “If there is quick and clever to live long enough to repro- magic in this world, it is to be found in duce. And reproduction is a megabusiness in the water.” Water sparkles and ripples, gurgles pond. A female American toad can lay 4,000 to and splashes, trickles and thunders. It can 8,000 eggs in double strings; the bullfrog 10,000 excite like drums in a marching band or to 20,000 in a mass that covers five square feet. soothe like a mother’s heartbeat. It can Bluegill females can lay up to 67,000 eggs. “We need churn with fur y or be as still as a mirror. Although water is a fairly stable growththe tonic of A s long ago as 600 million years past, the medium (it is much slower to change tempera-wilderness, Cambrian sea contained every animal ture than air or soil), its size, depth and rate of to wade phyla except the vertebrates. Amphib- flow affect waves, currents, temperature gradi- sometimes ian mating choruses were the primeval voices ents and light penetration. Different plants andin marshes heard on our young Earth when animals crawled animals are adapted to life in fast or slow where the out of Devonian swamps 325 million years ago. currents, deep or shallow water, rocky, sandy or bittern Water makes our planet unique in the solar muddy bottoms, and various amounts of light, and the system and makes life, as we know it, possible. oxygen or anaerobic conditions. meadow When the glaciers covering most of North Some aquatic plants cast their pollen on the hen lurk, America melted away some 10,000 to 20,000 surface to float to waiting flowers. Many have and hear years ago, they left a barren landscape. They swollen stems that trap air to help the under- the boom- dropped their ice chunk pothole ponds and water parts ‘breathe.’ And most have large buoy- ing of the superimposed their meltwater rivers on top of ant tubers or seeds that float away to lodge else- snipe.” this newborn land to let the waters find their own where and propagate the species. —Henry way and create their own drainage patterns. Even the very muck on the bottom is mar- David Thus, we were blessed with millions of wetlands: velous, for in it dwell reducing bacteria so neces- Thoreau ponds, lakes, rivers, creeks, intermittent streams, sary in the cycle of life. All living things (except sloughs, marshes, sedge meadows, shrub carrs, for a few kinds of bacteria and fungi) breathe swamps, floodplains, bogs, fens, springs. oxygen and use it to burn (oxidize) their food, All of these places teem with life. Walk around producing energy to live and grow, thus more any natural body of water. Blackbirds “conk-a- and more substances are changed to their ree” in the cattails, shorebirds footprint the oxidized form. The reducing bacteria in mud live mudflats with sanskrit, frogs squawk and leap by changing all those oxidized substances back in ahead of you, whirligig beetles spin in dizzy into their reduced state. circles, their double eyes seeing both above and As May T. Watts canoed from open water below the water’s surface, a beaver disappears to a pond shore she described the sounds of her with a slap of the tail, dragonflies patrol on gos- paddle as drip, splatter, slide, rustle as it encoun- samer wings, waterfowl carve Vs in the water. tered dark water filled with microscopic plankton Hidden under the surface, uncountable algae graduating to a 10- to 5-foot-deep submergent and diatoms, plankton and copepods feed the zone of flaccid water weeds, then to a 5- to 2-foot- burgeoning billions of invertebrates. Insect larva deep area of waxy-leaved, floating lily pads fol- and naiads scuba dive, carrying water bubbles or lowed by a 2-foot- to 6-inch-deep area of stiff, breathing through snorkels. Two-inch salaman- emergent cattails and bull rushes. der tadpoles with their scarf-like gills are caught Wetlands are truly awesome. So instead of 8 fretting over that big puddle or wet ditch, look and sucked dry by the ice-tong jaws of one-inch water tigers or dragonfly naiads. Two-inch water to Nature. Find the plants adapted to wetlands bugs can suck a four-inch adult frog dry. and create a ‘sump pump garden,’ a mudflat, Boatmen and back swimmer beetles row a marsh or trickling stream and watch the their long legs looking down or up to find their wildlife teem to your yard. ❧
  • 9. Today’s LawnsU.S. Lawn Care Facts as Annual Totals & PercentagesFrom Redesigning the American Lawn by F. Herbert Bormann, Diana Balmori, Gordon T. Geballe,Yale University Press, 1993. • A lawnmower pollutes as much in one hour as does driving an automobile for 350 miles. • 30 to 60 percent of urban fresh water is used for watering lawns (depending on city). • $5,250,000,000 is spent on fossil fuel-derived fertilizers for U.S. lawns. • 67,000,000 pounds of synthetic pesticides are used on U.S. lawns. Powered • 60,000 to 70,000 severe accidents result from lawnmowers. mowers contribute • 580,000,000 gallons of gasoline are used for lawnmowers. to noise • $25,000,000,000 is spent for the lawn care industr y. pollution • $700,000,000 is spent for pesticides for U.S. lawns. and hearing loss. • 20,000,000 acres are planted in residential lawns. The English Burgher Lawn Aesthetic Can Lawns Kill? VIRGINIA SCOTT JENKINS BY BY COLLEEN AAGESEN & MARY FISCUS CONDENSED FROMTHE LAWN, CONDENSED FROM THE A HISTORY OF AN AMERICAN OBSESSION HEARTLAND JOURNAL T A he mowed lawn aesthetic originated in ccording to the National Coalition Against the late 18th century from aristocratic the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP), if France and England. Landscape architect you have your lawn chemically treated, André LeNôtre designed small lawn areas for the take these precautions: Do not walk barefoot on Palace of Versailles. This aesthetic was rapidly it; do not breathe near it; confine children, pets adopted by the rich of England, because turf and toys inside; close windows. “An old grass grew easily in the English climate of Wildlife specialists, such as Diana Conger error is moderate temperatures and frequent rains. of Washington, D.C., call bird poisonings in always The U.S. colonists also adopted the lawn residential areas lawncare syndrome. Symptoms more aesthetic in an attempt to transform the wildness enumerated by toxicologists include excessive popular of the new country into the sophistication of the salivation, grand mal seizures, wild flapping and than old world. Landscape architects again were at screaming, most often followed by death. a new the forefront, and Lancelot Brown created thou- Ward Stone, New York State’s wildlife path- truth.” sands of acres of magnificent parks using lawn ologist, sees more than that in the poisonings. —A turf and trees. “The songbirds act as miners’ canaries for us German Prior to the middle of the 19th century, U.S. in detecting the buildup of chemicals that may Proverb homes were either built fronting up to the street ultimately threaten humans,” reports Stone. or road, or else with a small fenced front yard According to the National Academy of consisting of bare ground or garden plots. The Sciences, lawn use is a significant component of middle class did not copy the wealthy lawn aes- the total pesticide problem. NAS said that thetic until after the Civil War, with the stimulus although the farmer uses pesticides more widely, of the new landscape architects leading the way. the homeowner uses 10 times more per acre In the late 19th and early 20th century, the than do farmers. ❧ 9 USDA, the U.S. Golf Association, and the Garden Clubs of America jointly spread the front lawn ethic throughout the U.S. [They] held competi- tions for landscaping and shamed neighbors into ||||//||||/||||||//||||||//||||||||||//||||||//||||//|| compliance by setting strong example. ❧
  • 10. Being Neighborly grasses, oak trees, and ragweed. Most native How to Naturally Landscape without Aggravating plants are insect-pollinated and do not produce Neighbors And Village Officials airborne allergens. Finally, property values are a function of public perception. As naturalistic BY BRET RAPPAPORT, Attorney & Wild Ones Past Pres. landscaping becomes more familiar and gains acceptance, it will be viewed as an asset rather I n 1981, Darrel Morrison, a professor at the than a liability. Furthermore, as suburban sprawl University of Georgia and member of the continues to consume open space and natural American Society of Landscape Architects settings are lost, those rare elements of nature (ASLA), defined three characteristics necessary that remain in a landscape will increase its value. in natural landscape design: It has been and continues to be a long, tough 1) regional identity (sense of place) row to hoe for those who would rather “grow “I want us 2) intricacy and details (biodiversity) than mow.” Confronted with out-dated and as a culture 3) elements of change ambiguous weed laws, a growing number of to depart Not surprisingly, the first professional and environmentally concerned homeowners are from the old amateur landscapers who attempted to realize standing up to their neighbors and municipal tradition of Morrison’s vision ran into public opposition. officials and reclaiming their right to landscape evaluating For several decades, natural landscapers from naturally. And, they are winning. land Florida to Canada faced prosecution for violating For those who undertake natural landscaping according to local weed laws. These laws, designed to in their own front and backyards, five simple what can be protect the public from neglectful landowners, steps may minimize potential conflicts and avoid extracted as promoted monoculture and the accompanying “weed wars.” They can be remembered by thea commodity notion that man and Nature are independent of acronym BRASH.or abstracted each other. Neighborhoods that opposed the BORDERS can provide a sense of order and from it as a non-conformity of the natural landscape purpose preferred by most homeowners. A social asset attempted to find valid objections for their “wild” yard tends to conflict with that preference and turn claims. They argued that natural landscapes and can disrupt equilibrium. A simple border— instead resulted in: a mowed edge or low stone wall—can keep to a new • rats and mice neighbors mollified, if not happy. tradition of • mosquitoes and pests RECOGNIZE the rights of others. You have avaluing land • fire hazards right to your coneflowers and bluestems, but for the life it • airborne pollens your neighbor has a right to his clipped lawn, harbors.”— • lower property values plastic sunflowers, and concrete lawn deer. Avoid Sara Stein Each argument is flawed. arrogance by remembering that you are trying Rats and vermin are products of civilization. to win converts, not be a martyr willing to go They do not live in natural landscapes, eating down in a flood of litigation and neighborhood plants and berries; they live in man-made hostility. structures, dining on garbage. ADVERTISE. Let your neighbors know what Mosquitoes breed in standing water. you are doing—and why. Naturalistic landscapes tend to absorb more Tell them about your water than traditional lawns, thus reducing, project before you start rather than increasing, runoff and standing and continue to provide water. By providing a habitat for birds, natural updates as you progress. landscapes may also increase the population of You may want to con- mosquito predators. sider putting up a small Properly managed naturalistic landscapes do but readable sign that not present any greater fire hazard than any announces that your 10 property is a special other landscape type. Not only does prairie grass burn quickly and at a low temperature, but place that saves water, natural landscapes comprise mostly green, leafy eschews toxic chemicals, material that does not burn readily. and provides sanctuary Allergens are primarily produced by exotic for wildlife. Wild Ones
  • 11. provides such a sign, as does the National bird feeders, birdbaths, stone benches, pathways,Wildlife Backyard Federation. You may also sundials, and gazer balls create interestingsimply make a sign of your own. accents. These touches also tell onlookers that START SMALL. Daniel Burnham, an influential the landscape is intended.architect at the turn of the century, once said, Many people create natural landscapes and“Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir never face hostile neighbors or uptight townmen’s blood.” officials. A good example is Wild Ones member The sixth-century philosopher Lao Tzu taught: Rochelle Whiteman in Milwaukee, Wis. When“A journey of a thousand miles begins with a she converted her yard into a naturalistic prairiesingle step.” landscape, her neighbors asked her to help them Both ideas apply to successful natural land- do likewise. Today, her neighborhood boastsscapes. Having an overall plan, but proceeding seven natural landscapes all on the same small stages, will reduce expenses, increase Although a lush green mask of Kentucky blue- “Coexistencelearning and enjoyment, and engender less grass covers some 32,000 square miles of subur- is part ofhostility from skeptical neighbors. ban and urban America, change is in the air. The the very HUMANIZE. Once we recognize that we are natural landscaping “movement” has taken root, foundationa part of nature, adding spontaneous personal and its adherents are a varied lot. They all share of Nature.”touches to our gardens provides a human ele- a common goal—to harmonize gardening and —Robertment to the natural setting. Strategically placed landscaping practices with nature. ❧ Masello Important Causes of Hayfever ground-nesting birds need cover. To mow at thatP eople often wonder if native landscaping contributes to allergies. You’ll see from the time destroys both cover and nests. Ironically, list below that the real culprits are rather a though it is against the law to shoot songbirds, itselect group of trees, non-native grasses, and is not illegal to destroy their nests.‘weeds’ (plants no one would choose to add to Mowing grasses from mid-July to frost istheir landscape). counter-productive for the following reasons: This information was collected from That the 1. Many grasses are in seed at this time. ThusPatient May Know by Harry F. Dowling, M.D. mowing does nothing to remove pollen.and Tom Jones, M.D. and The International 2. Mowing eliminates a good filter that removesTextbook of Allergy edited by J.M. Jamar, M.D. dust and other particulates which are healthAnnotations by Lorrie Otto. hazards that pose problems for the entire popula- TREES tion. Birches (Betula) 3. Cutting removes good food and cover for Hickories (Carya) wildlife. (This does not include rats, which do Ashes (Fraxinus) not gather grass seeds, but depend on grain Walnuts (Juglans) cribs, garbage, and pet food. Rats are not native Oaks (Quercus) to the U.S. They arrived in America with settlers[Although many trees are important sources of and are dependent on people.)allergenic pollens, no one would suggest that woods 4. Mowing maintains the landscape at weed destroyed for that reason.] Annual weeds germinate and thrive in disturbed GRASSES soil. Redtop Grass (Agrostis albia) 5. Frequent mowing retards the growth of peren- Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon) nial native flowers and prevents their seeding. 11 Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Timothy (Phleum pratense) HERBACEOUS PLANTS Kentucky Blue Grass (Poa pratense) Pigweeds (Amaranthus)[None of the grasses above is native to the U.S.] Ragweeds (Ambrosia) Many grasses bloom in May and June when Goosefoot (Chenopodium)
  • 12. Observational Design BY BARB GLASSEL, MANDY PLOCH, GLORIA STUPAK, Landscape Designers “Nature is the ultimate model for us to follow.Everything in Nature has its own carefully selected T hroughout the design process, we need Ser vices and utilities: Water faucets, A/C place.” to educate our eyes by observing Nature. units, utility meters, overhead and underground —Colston Notice how a forest canopy protects the utility lines, septic systems, easements. Burrell understory of smaller trees and shrubs. Note the Plants to be retained. ground layer and forest litter providing nutrients Changes in grade: High and low areas, either and protection for still more plants. Underneath those existing or those to be created for a it all, the terrain tilts and rolls. Move out to the natural look. forest edge where tall tree profiles are met by Adjoining features: Buildings, trees, roads, etc. shrub borders that grade down to the meadow. Sightlines: Common views. Consider the spacing, groupings, lines. Wet areas: Drainage swales, water elements, Now take these observational lessons to sump pump discharge. the drawing table to develop your master plan. Prevailing winds: Both summer and winter. Your goal is to unify all elements into a natural Sun/shade patterns: Summer and winter. harmony. Once made, you can prioritize imple- Snow areas: Drift and plow-dumping zones. mentation of the plan according to your time A WISH LIST and budget. Prepare a list of needed and wanted elements. THE BASE MAP Recreation: Lawn, sandbox, play structures. Determine the dimensions of your property Entertainment: Dining area, wildlife viewing. and choose a scale for your map. A map drawn Relaxation: Patio, pond, hammock. at a scale where a four-foot distance equals one Privacy screening. inch on paper will allow you to jot in more Special gardens: Vegetable, herb, cutting. details than one that is eight-feet-to-the-inch. Focal points inside and outside dwelling, Mark a north-pointing arrow and indicate the including where winter interest will best be 12 following items. enjoyed. Structures: Buildings (including door Circulation: Paths, steps. openings and window sill heights) decks, Storage: Shed, compost, wood, trash, rain fences, walls. barrel. Pavement: Driveways, sidewalks, patio. Pet considerations.
  • 13. BUBBLE should haveDIAGRAMS a purpose— Overlay lead some-your base where, bendmap with around antracing paper element, leador make to a bench orcopies of the sitting stump,base map on and visually “Naturewhich to enter encourage is alwaysyour ideas from the wish list. Make blobs of exploration. Use curves and turns to slow walk- hintingspace, not specific details. Draw many variations ers for viewing of special features. Establish at see which work best. It hints paths on your basic plan, then outline them on Draw bubbles around areas where you want over the ground with a hose or rope and stakes.activities, such as children’s play, entertaining, or and Construct paths wide enough for two people towildlife viewing. Use symbols for features such over walk abreast. The surface may be turf, crushedas a birdbath or bench. Draw arrows where you again. stone, shredded bark, sawdust, or constructed ofwant views, dotted lines for potential pathways, And wood, brick, or stone.and hatch marks in areas of steep slope. Note suddenly Coarse plant texture (Oak tree, Wild Ginger)general types of plants, such as conifers, low we take is aggressive and strong—moving toward theshrubs, vines or a tall hedge. Note some of your the hint.” viewer and holding attention. Fine textureideas, such as a low area for a pond—will you be —Robert (Maidenhair Fern, Flowering Spurge) is lessable to see it from a frequent viewing point? Frost obvious—it is least noticed and first to be lost inDESIGN PRINCIPLES design. Medium plants should predominate to Establish general lines in the garden before provide unity and transitions between coarse andselecting plant types. Plan gentle, flowing curves. fine textures. Contrast provides interest. Backgrounds obscure objectionable views Sunlight affects your selection of plants, butand emphasize nice ones. They should be plain it can mean much more. Note how light travels—just a backdrop. They may be fences, walls, through your yard over the course of a day andshrubs, trees or a combination of these. Keep in through the seasons. Consider how shadowsmind the year-round effect and incorporate both create niches and the sun selects highlights inevergreen and deciduous plants. Avoid planting the landscape. Landscape designer Jens Jensenshrubs in rows; let them weave in and out. often used long, low openings to the east and A focal point attracts the eye; it should be west to take advantage of the views and wavesinteresting and fairly obvious. Lesser focal points of color that come at sunrise and sunset.can be put along the path to the main one, i.e., Maximize forms: Look out the windows,sculpture, furniture, fountains, ponds, a distinc- especially during cold months when colortive plant or grouping. distracts less. The shapes and shadows of trees Flowers can be divided into two color groups and shrubs are enjoyable throughout the sea-—blue/red through blue and orange/red sons. Retain their natural form. Use properthrough yellow. By sticking to one color family pruning methods to keep them can create a harmonious effect; although The sound of trickling water will attractNature pleasingly creates her own combinations. wildlife and charm your visitors. By providing 13Regard leaf color in summer and fall, the fruit, habitat, you’ll benefit from the songs of birds,even the bark. Consider house colors, existing frogs, and insects. A covered porch will let youtrees, and fences as a starting point. watch and listen to the rain. Berries growing Paths guide the eye, then the feet. Paths along a path are a taste treat, as are the plants
  • 14. Maps courtesy of Naturescape British Columbia. Use plants native to your area. from which you can make tea. And then there is “When fragrance … the bouquet of individual flowers you spend or the sweet blend of a whole meadow in bloom. enough Provide sanctuaries and safe travel corridors time for sensitive wildlife. Disturbance to wildlife can outside, be lessened if areas with human activity are PLANT SELECTION it doesn’t clustered and kept small. The most exciting part of the process is seem like Well-established trees are valuable. Avoid selecting the plants. Ideally, you will have be- outside putting new features or structures where they come familiar with plants native to your region anymore.” will damage trees. Roots extend far from the and site and know their basic cultural require- —Jim trunk, and construction close to the roots may ments. Collect lists of plants and plant communi-Ciancimino harm the tree. Some species cannot tolerate soil ties for sun, shade, wet, bird-attracting, etc. from applied over their root zone; as little as one inch which to make your selections. Remember: can kill some oaks. Upright dead trees (snags), large logs and — Suit the plants to the region, plant commu- stumps serve as sculpture and provide food and nity, soil conditions and microclimate. shelter for many organisms. — Think in three strata—canopy, shrub layer, Locate patios and decks for wildlife viewing. groundcover. Also consider views from inside the house. — Place shrubs, forbs, grasses in groups of three, five, or more. Avoid planting in COMPLETING YOUR PLAN pairs—the eye jumps back and forth Compare your preliminary plans and choose between the two. The exception is trees; you the one that best fits your needs. Now add may have space for only one or two. the details of plant species and materials, and — Avoid planting in straight lines or perfect exact locations and dimensions of these fea- circles. tures. If you want a pond, for example, you — Do not use too many species in small must determine how it will be lined, how it areas. will be cleaned, and if you want recirculating — Use repetition of groups of plants and water. Details of grading and drainage must colors to allow the eye to flow through the 14 also be designed. landscape. When all details are complete, draw your final — Be aware of each plant’s ultimate height plan. Accuracy is important because this is the and spread at maturity. Do not overplant blueprint that will guide your construction and nor plant too close to structures. Enjoy the development over time. growth process. ❧
  • 15. Policies & OpportunitiesWILD ONES RECOMMENDS THAT YOU… FROM THE WILD❧ Shop ‘close to home.’ Local suppliers will With property owner permission, you may collectbe more familiar with local conditions and will likely seeds and plants from the wild—with the under-carry species descended from local genetic material. standing that Nature needs you to leave the greater❧ Patronize nurseries with knowledgeable staffs. portion behind to rejuvenate herself. You may also rescue great numbers of plants❧ Inquire of nurseries how any endangered or that would otherwise be lost to development andthreatened species were acquired. All plants offered use them to stock your yard, donate to communityfor sale should be ‘nursery propagated.’ projects, and share with others at seed and plant❧ Learn botanical names to avoid confusion. exchanges. [Stay alert for indications of impend-❧ Collect native seed and plant catalogs which ing bulldozer activity, such as real estate signsmake good reference books. or sur veyor markers.]PLANT CHOICE Plant Rescue Procedures: Alien grasses, flowers, vines, shrubs and trees 1) Seek out the private owner, developer or govern-have come to dominate dwindling societies of native ment agency (in the case of roadway development)species. And you will notice as you go on yard tours for permission to trespass.that many Wild Ones members have chosen to 2) Survey the site for indigenous species or contacteliminate all alien species from their properties. your local Wild Ones chapter plant rescue team.This does not mean that you must give up Aunt 3) If there is no local Wild Ones chapter near you ,Eva’s heirloom hollyhocks, your vintage asparagus follow these steps for conducting a plant rescue.patch, or your teenager’s athletic turf. Indeed, good Explain to the landowner that …landscaping takes into account such thoughtful “We need … you have identified native American plants on naturalconsiderations. Wild Ones decries only mindless and their site that you would like to rescue fromenvironmentally irresponsible land practices. To that areas to destruction. bringend, we not only recommend you get to know the … you will take responsibility for your own safetybeautiful native plants of America, but that you make people and that of any assisting rescuers and that all andyourself familiar with some of the marauding bullies are willing to sign release waivers protecting theof the vegetative world. Nature property owner from any liability together. See page 23 for more information on invasive … you are willing to dig during whatever hours arealien species. We need convenient to the landowner a placeSOWING FARTHER AFIELD … in the case of a developer, they can generate for youth Many Wild Ones members branch out with good publicity out of their generosity in helping to to betheir natural landscaping, taking it to their house of preserve some native plants wowedworship or place of business. Oftentimes teachers 4) Inform only those potential assisting rescuers by 10-and parents initiate native plantings at schools. whom you trust to respect the landowner’s rights foot-tallContact Wild Ones for referrals to current recom- and privacy about the exact location of the site, prairiemended planting and study guides. its boundaries, growing conditions and types of grasses.” plant communities present, and any restrictions —SEEDS FOR EDUCATION imposed by the owner. Marlin The Lorrie Otto Seeds for Education Fundof the Milwaukee Foundation through Wild Ones 5) Dig and transplant, cutting back the top third of Johnsonawards grants to places of learning for projects each forb to reduce transplant shock.whose efforts best reflect our message of creating 6) Express your gratitude. (By maintaining annatural landscapes using native plants and environ- upbeat, professional manner and honoringmentally sound practices, and appreciating the owner’s restrictions, you may be treatedhumankind’s proper place in the web of Nature. to additional dig sites in the future!)Contact Wild Ones for further information and an For more information about plant rescue 15application. procedures please go to the Wild Ones website at Beware: If you take plants under any other circumstances, you risk criminal prosecution.
  • 16. It Starts with The Soil holding capacity with good drainage. Easier to ALL NEIL DIBOLL ARTICLES ARE work than clays, better consolidated than sands, loamy soils are an excellent growing medium. CONDENSED FROM PRAIRIE NURSERY CATALOG Dig into your soil when it’s dry. A sandy soil will seldom exhibit clods. Any clods that do form will crumble easily. A loamy soil will have clods S oils can be divided into three basic classifi- that can be sliced cleanly with a shovel. Clay cations: sands, loams, and clays. There is soils tend to form hard, persistent clods. Rather great variation within these basic groups, than slicing through them, a shovel will get but these categories will suffice for the purpose stuck or will shatter the clod into many hard, of describing where a given plant will grow. little blocks of soil. If you’re in doubt, take a soil Sandy soils, referred to as light soils, contain sample to your local county extension agent or“We are of large-sized soil particles that are loose and easy soils lab. the soil to work. They allow water to drain readily, and If you have a sand or clay soil and wish to and the tend to be low in nutrients. Sandy soils tend to improve it, add large quantities of organic matter. soil is be more acidic than the more fertile loams and Compost and dead leaves are excellent. Do not of us.” clays. If your soil’s pH is below 5, consider add- use sawdust or wood chips. These require a long —Luther ing lime or wood ashes to raise the pH to 6 or 7. time to break down and rob the soil of nitrogen. Standing Clay soils are known as heavy soils. Consist- Avoid uncomposted manure. It contains large Bear ing of small, tightly packed soil particles, clays numbers of weed seeds. tend to be dense and hard to work. They’re Another method of improving poor soils is to generally rich in nutrients, have a high water- plant a green manure crop, such as buckwheat or holding capacity, and can be very productive. winter wheat. These crops improve the soil by Loamy soils are intermediate—between bringing up nutrients from the lower soil and sands and clays. Composed of different-sized converting them into organic plant matter. The particles, they combine fertility and moisture- crop is plowed under while actively growing to incorporate the roots and leaves into the soil. Clay soils with low levels of organic matter COMPOSTING can be difficult to work. The fine soil particles C omposting vegetative waste speeds the natural process whereby organic material is returned to the soil to add fertility. Aged compost can be worked pack together tightly, impeding drainage and air exchange. In the heat of summer, clay soils into the soil at planting time or added as a surface mulch harden and prevent downward root growth. Clay any time. Alternately layer combinations of as many of soils warm up slower in spring and compact if these items as you have available… worked when wet. Each of these problems will Green waste: Kitchen wastes (avoid dairy, meat or retard root development and plant growth. synthetic products), grass clippings. There are many plants that can grow in clay Brown waste: Shredded leaves, sawdust (not from soils. With good initial care, these flowers and treated wood), straw, uncolored paper products. grasses will flourish even on difficult sites. Their Topsoil: It stocks your compost with the organisms needed for decomposition. roots will gradually work their way down into the Manure: Fresh or aged, but no pet wastes. clay, opening and improving it, just as these Keep the pile moist by watering or covering it to retain plants have done for thousands of years. moisture.Good air circulation is necessary, so sides of the Soil moisture is equally important in deciding bin need to ‘breathe.’ Once the what species to plant. Moist soils have a gener- pile reaches about 4 feet cubed, ous amount of water in the subsoil throughout start a new pile. Turning the the growing season. They may have periods of pile with a pitchfork from time standing water in the spring or fall. to time will speed the process, Dry soils include sandy and gravelly soils 16 which will take anywhere from that drain readily and never have standing water, three to 18 months. You have humus when the material is even after a heavy rain. dark and crumbly, bearing no Mesic (medium) soils include well-drained resemblance to the original loams and clays. These soils may have standing components, and has a fresh, water for short periods after a hard rain. ❧ earthy smell. Illustration courtesy of Naturescape British Columbia
  • 17. Removing VegetationO n small areas of a few thousand square BY NEIL DIBOLL feet or less, smothering is simple. Smoth- ering involves covering the surface with present, work up the soil all year, same as for oldblack plastic, old plywood, a thick layer of leaves, fields. Once all vegetation is removed, the finalor any creative resource available (old pool seedbed should be prepared by tilling or disking,liners, carpeting, etc.). This should be left for a followed by dragging or raking.full growing season to kill the plants beneath. Do not plant flowers in fields treated with If you use herbicides, chose a low-toxicity, Atrazine within the last two years. A smothernon-persistent herbicide, read the label, and fol- crop of corn or sorghum will hold your soil andlow the manufacturer’s instructions. The best is control weeds while the Atrazine breaks down. “Thea glyphosate (i.e., Roundup, Ranger or Kleenup). Erosion-Prone Sites. To avoid runoff and efforts If you prefer not to use herbicides, a variety of soil loss, the site should not be left unvegetated expendedequipment can prepare your soil by cultivation. for any length of time. Cultivation should be min- to main- Lawns. The quickest way is to remove the imal. Preparing your site solely by cultivation tain atop three inches of grass and soil using a rented may create erosion problems. The site should be lawn cansod-cutter. This usually creates a nearly weed- planted immediately following soil preparation. be usedfree site ready for seeds or transplants. Be aware Use a nurse crop of oats and a cover of mulch, instead tothat the area will be lower than the surrounding stabilized with netting. If you are unable to plant plant andlawn after sod removal. If using herbicides, apply immediately, the site may be stabilized by plant- restore thein fall or spring, when lawn grasses are actively ing oats at a rate of four bushels (128 lbs.) per nativegrowing. Cultivate after everything has turned acre. Till the oats under when ready for planting. vegetationbrown to prepare the seedbed for planting (usu- A Final Tip. After the existing perennial of yourally about two weeks). To remove a lawn by culti- vegetation is eliminated, weed seeds still lurk in part of thevation, cultivate two to three times, about a week the soil below. These seeds will germinate and country.apart. If rhizomatous perennial grasses such as compete aggressively with your flowers and Gardens,Quackgrass or Johnsongrass are present, a year- grasses. Weed density can be greatly reduced unlikelong tilling program may be required. by a final treatment of the surface soil just prior lawns, Old Fields. An old field usually requires at to planting in late spring or early summer (this createleast one full growing season to prepare the site. will not work in late summer or fall). Start with experiencesThis may seem long, but a little patience at this a prepared seedbed. Allow weeds to germinate that upliftstage is essential for a successful planting. and grow. Apply herbicide when the weeds are our spirits, To herbicide, mow in early spring. This will two to three inches tall. Wait 10 days, and then expand ourencourage new growth. Apply a glyphosate till the soil one inch deep. Tilling deeper will visions,herbicide three times—once in mid-spring, again bring up more weed seeds. Plant immediately. andin mid-summer, and finally in early fall—unless If you prefer to avoid using herbicides, similar invigorateno plant growth is visible one month after the results can be obtained using well-timed, careful our lives.”second spraying. This allows you to attack weeds cultivation. Start with a prepared seedbed. Till —Steviewhich have peak activities at different times. the soil one inch deep five to seven days after the Daniels Using cultivation only, cultivate every two to first good rain. This will kill weeds after they ger-three weeks from spring through fall at a depth minate but before they come up, without bring-of five inches. Be religious about this. If you are ing up more weed seeds. On sandy soils, a dragfighting rhizomatous, perennial weeds, waiting can be used. A very light disking is usually morelonger than two or three weeks will allow these effective on heavy soils. Plant immediately. ❧weeds to recover. For some species, such asQuackgrass, cultivating in intervals greater thantwo weeks may actually increase its density. If you’ll be plugging in transplants, a weed-free site Agricultural Fields. To prepare with herbi- can be created by putting down a 12" layer of leaves 17cides, spray once mid-spring for spring planting, or 10 sheets of newspaper (you can check with theor after crop removal for fall planting. publisher to make sure they use vegetable-based inks) The seedbed may be prepared without topped by a couple inches of quarried sand (beach orherbicides using cultivation as you would for dune sand might contain weed seeds). This mulchany other crop. If rhizomatous perennials are will deny light to existing vegetation and weed seeds.
  • 18. Handling Seed BY PAT BRUST, LUCY SCHUMANN AND CAROL CHEW, INOCULATION Native Plant Enthusiasts Inoculation is necessary for certain legumes, such as Lupine. After scarification and stratifica- tion, seeds of this group will germinate but need G ermination rates of plant species can vary greatly. For instance, some seeds, nitrogen-producing soil bacteria for successful including Buttercup, Pasque Flower, growth. Your soil may contain these bacteria, Columbine, and Blue-eyed Grass, do best if but to be sure, purchase inoculum (from seed planted fresh as soon as they’re collected. But suppliers) specific to the particular legume most seeds require some form of pre-treatment, species. imitating Nature in order to change from a dry, COLD-WEATHER SOWING dormant embryo to a visible sprout. If, with Native seed can be sown outdoors during landowner permission, you collect seed, follow “A seed winter months and even into very early spring. these techniques to maximize your yields. is latent, The combination of cold weather with ice and intelligent DRY STRATIFICATION snow provides natural stratification conditions energy Start with proper winter storage in a cool, dry needed for germination which occurs duringwaiting for place in a clean, dry airtight container. A garage warmer spring weather. Protective seed mecha- the right or unheated attic serves well. Remember to label! nisms, such as thick coverings or germination- time and inhibiting chemicals, ensure that young plants MOIST STRATIFICATION place to won’t sprout during fall rains and freeze in Four to eight weeks before germination is express winter. Cold weather and repeated exposure to desired (either inside or outside), moist stratifi- itself. moisture softens seed coats and dissolves inhibit- cation is worth the effort since it will increase A seed ing chemicals when conditions are optimum. germination success. Place seeds with equal knows To do winter planting, find an area in your amounts of clean, moist (sandcastle consistency) exactly yard that has bare, humus-rich soil and is free of sand into clean plastic bags. Close and label what it snow. (If you have special types of seeds you’d with species’ name and date. Then place in the has to have trouble replacing, reserve a portion to refrigerator (not freezer) to mimic Nature’s cycle do and ‘winter over’ in the refrigerator and plant later in of freeze-thaw of the soil surface which breaks exactly flats or use for reseeding, if needed.) Then seed down chemical inhibitors of germination. Most how to according to the general seeding instructions on forb seeds benefit from this process. do it.” page 20. Since the ground will probably be —Jamie SCARIFICATION frozen or wet, it might not be possible to set Jobb Legumes require additional techniques to seeds by raking. Birds may relocate seeds to break their hard coats. One is scarification, new unplanned areas (which may add to your which involves making a small cut in the hard pleasure) so some experts cover the planted site seed coat enabling the seed to absorb water. with hardware cloth to keep out wildlife. Seeding As it does, the embryo expands which ruptures just before a snowfall will press seeds into the the protective coat causing the seed to sprout. soil and provide a protective blanket. Scarify by rubbing seeds against a wire screen Native seeds vary in appearance, hardiness, or sandpaper. Moist stratification should follow growth patterns, and germination rates. Keep in scarification, but for a shorter time, usually 10 to mind biodiversity and try seeds in different spots 14 days. until you find the best places. ❧ “The plant reveals “All the flowers of all the tomorrows what is in the seed.” are in the seeds of today.”—Unknown 18 —Ancient Egyptian Proverbs
  • 19. Planting A WoodlandT est your soil for pH (i.e., acid, neutral, BY DON VORPAHL, Landscape Designer alkaline), PKN (phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen) and organic content. Depend- Blue Wood Phlox Phlox divaricataing on the results, you may amend your soil with False Dragonhead* Physostegia virginianasand, leaf litter, humus, compost, cottonseed or Mayapple Podophyllum peltatumsoybean meal, malt sprouts, lime, peat, pine nee- Jacob’s Ladder Polemonium reptansdles, and/or ‘starter soil’ containing microorgan- Silverweed Potentilla anserinaisms and microrhizae (beneficial fungi) from the Oldfield Cinquefoil Potentilla simplextop two inches of forest soil (where most soil Solomon’s Plume Smilacina racemosaorganisms live). To eliminate existing vegetation, Starry Solomon’ssmother it with newspapers, finely shredded Plume Smilacina stellatahardwood bark or flakes of weed-free hay. Zigzag Goldenrod* Solidago flexicaulis “Fertile Create shade, depending on your location, Early Meadowrue Thalictrum dioicum womb,with early-succession tree species such as Birch, Wild Violet Viola spp. my world.Aspen, Plum, Black Cherry, Pin Cherry, For best results, water deeply after planting SuchServiceberry, Hawthorn, Red or White Cedar. and during dry spells. Fertilize with organics burgeon-Shrubs: Hazelnut, Diervilla, Ninebark, such as fish-emulsion, cottonseed and soybean ing.Potentilla, Hypericum, Red or Silky Dogwood, meal, malt-sprouts, compost, leafmold, and bone- Pulsing.Oldfield Juniper. Groundcovers: Virginia meal. Deep-mulch to feed, insulate, control Opening.Creeper, Wild Strawberry, Common Blue weeds, and hold moisture. Hand-weed diligently, Pouring(Butterfly) Violet, False or Starry Solomon’s especially in first and second years. forthPlume, Solomon’s Seal, Mayapple, WildColumbine, Pearly Everlasting, Pussytoes, miracles,Wineleaf or Oldfield Cinquefoil, Zigzag a million BOOKS TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR rightGoldenrod, Bigleaf Aster. WOODLAND LANDSCAPE around Add mature canopy, later-succession andclimax species. Trees: Oak, Maple, Basswood, The American Woodland Garden: Capturing the my feet.”Beech, Hemlock, Hophornbeam, Musclewood. Spirit of the Deciduous Forest, by Rick Darke —MelShrubs: Witchhazel, Pagoda Dogwood, Ellis Growing and Propagating Showy Native WoodyBladdernut, Leatherwood, American Cranberry, Plants, by Richard E. BirArrowwood, Mapleleaf, and NannyberryViburnum, Russet Buffaloberry, Eastern Wahoo. Growing Woodland Plants, by Clarence andGroundlayer: Limit species to fewer than six in Eleanor Birdseyea given area, often planting in masses of only one Landscaping With Native Trees: The Northeast,or two species. Plan for blooming and fruiting Midwest, Midsouth and Southeastern Edition, bythroughout spring, summer, and fall. Guy Sternberg Many native grasses, ferns, sedges, andrushes (Juncus spp.) are useful as groundcovers. Native Trees for North American Landscapes, byAll, except ferns, can be field-seeded. Several Guy Sternberg and Jim Wilsonspecies shown below (see asterisks*) may also Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines: A Guide tobe field-seeded. The remainder are generally Using, Growing, and Propagating Northplanted as dormant rootstocks or potted plants. American Woody Plants, by William CullinaCanada Anemone* Anemone canadensisWild Columbine* Aquilegia canadensis Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban andSilver Sage* Artemisia ludoviciana Rural America, by Gary L. HightshoeWild Ginger Asarum canadense The New England Wild Flower Society Guide toLarge-leaf Aster* Aster macrophyllus Growing and Propagating Wildflowers of the 19Coreopsis* Coreopsis spp. United States and Canada, by William CullinaWild Strawberry Fragaria virginianaWild Geranium Geranium maculatum 100 Easy-to-Grow Native Plants for AmericanPrairie Smoke* Geum triflorum Gardens in Temperate Zones, by LorraineWaterleaf Hydrophyllum virginianum Johnson
  • 20. Planting A Prairie TRANSPLANTS BY NEIL DIBOLL For small prairie gardens, transplants are often preferable to seeds. Perennial flowers and P rairies require sunny, open sites with good grasses are slow to grow from seed, and typically air circulation. A minimum of one-half day do not bloom until the third year. With care, of full sun is necessary for most prairie transplants often bloom the first year, giving you plants to thrive and bloom. an instant prairie garden. Be careful of aggressive, weedy plants located Transplants do best when installed in spring adjacent to your future prairie site. Some plants or early fall. Early spring flowers often do better can creep into your meadow by means of under- when transplanted in autumn. ground rhizomes, while others have seeds that Transplants should be spaced approximately can blow in on the wind. Problem neighbors one foot apart. Mark each transplant at planting “Native include Quackgrass, Smooth Bromegrass, time so it’s easily identified. Mulching with three flowers, Johnson Grass, Canada Goldenrod, Tall to four inches of clean straw helps keep weedsgrasses and Goldenrod, Canada Thistle, Gray Dogwood, down. One weeding may be required the first ferns can Sumac, Buckthorn, Tartarian and Japanese growing season. Once established, little if any match the Honeysuckle, and Multiflora Rose, to name a further weeding should be necessary. finest few. If there is an old field next to your prairie, cultivated expect some incursion by unwanted visitors. SEEDING perennials To prevent this problem, maintain a mowed strip Seeding prairies in late spring or early sum- in beauty five to ten feet wide between the prairie and the mer typically produces good results. Most prairie and old field, and mow the adjacent fields every sum- flowers and grasses are warm season plants surpass mer in late July, before the plants go to seed. which germinate best after soil temperatures them in Short prairies are a good choice for around have warmed up. Grasses do best with spring ruggedness homes and buildings. Tall prairies are best when and summer seedings. Planting in spring or and planted on larger acreages, or in background early summer allows for better pre-planting weed resistance situations. You may want to plant some areas of control than fall seeding. Prairie plantings can be to insects both tall and short prairie to create two different successfully seeded through mid-July. and landscape effects and habitat types. Beware that Fall seeding can be very successful, too, espe- diseases.” if you plant tall prairie to the west or north of cially on dry soils. Fall plantings are dormant —Jim your short prairie, the ripening seeds of the seedings (the seeds will not germinate until next Wilson taller plants may be blown into the short prairie. spring). Fall plantings on dry soils allow seeds to Eventually your short prairie may become a tall germinate in early spring and become estab- grass prairie. lished before the heat of summer. Clay soils can For a prominent display of flowers, plant them also benefit from fall plantings. Young seedlings with the shorter bunchgrasses, such as Little can become established before the clay dries out Bluestem, Prairie Dropseed, and Side Oats in summer and restricts root growth. Careful Grama. These low-growing, clump-forming soil preparation and weed control is essential grasses allow the flowers to show off better than with fall plantings. Native flowers exhibit when planted with the taller prairie grasses. higher germination when planted in fall. Large, robust flowers should be planted with the Fall seedings on erosion-prone sites require tall prairie grasses. planting with a nurse crop for soil stabilization. I recommend including native grasses for a Nurse crops of Annual Rye (15 lbs. per acre) or number of reasons. Their dense root systems Oats (128 lbs. per acre = 4 bushels per acre) help squeeze out weeds, making the prairie truly must be planted by mid- to late September to low-maintenance. Grasses also help hold the grow sufficiently to form a protective covering flowers upright, and provide cover and seeds for over the soil. The nurse crop will be winter- 20 birds. The grasses’ warm autumn colors of gold, killed, but the dead roots will continue to hold orange and bronze extend the meadow’s interest the soil over winter, until spring when the prairie well into winter. seeds germinate. ❧ For more information, we recommend purchasing the booklet Prairie Restoration for The Beginner by Bob Ahrenhoerster and Trelen Wilson.
  • 21. Prairie MaintenanceMOWING BY ALAN WADE, PRAIRIE MOON NURSERY Mowing is the primary management tool usedto prevent weeds from shading prairie seedlings.During the first growing season the planting may sure are weeds. To help identify weeds, coverneed mowing a number of times. The cutting part of the planting area with a piece of bedheight should be 4 to 5 inches (a home lawn- sheet before sowing. Mark the outside cornersmower set at the highest cutting position should of the sheet (stakes, driven in flush with the soilwork well for small areas). Mow each time the surface, will not interfere with later mowing).weed growth is 6 to 10 inches high and do not Remove sheet after seed is planted. Plants thatallow weeds to set seed. Do not worry about germinate in this marked area can be consideredcutting the tops off or crushing the seedlings. weeds since prairie seed has been excluded.A flail-type mower is preferable for large areasbecause it chops cuttings into small pieces which “Once we Illustration by Aimee Kuehlwill filter down and serve as mulch. If a sickle- becomebar or rotary-type mower is used, mow more interestedfrequently so cuttings will not have become in thelarge enough to smother native seedlings. Try progress ofto time the last mowing so weeds can grow to plants inabout 8 inches before winter. This will help our care,protect young seedlings from heaving frosts. their During the second growing season one develop- BURNING mentmowing may be helpful in late spring or early After two growing seasons, planted prairies becomessummer if weeds are thick. This should be the need to be burned annually for the next several a partlast mowing needed for weed control unless a years to become well established (mature prairies of theserious problem occurs. Raise cutting height to with no serious weed problems may need burn- rhythm of6 to 12 inches if mowing during second year. ing only once every two to four years). Always our ownHAND WEEDING use caution when burning. Check local fire regu- lives and Hand weeding small plantings during the lations and obtain permits. Try to burn or mow we aresecond and third growing seasons will make a only one-third of the prairie area each year to refreshedbig difference in your planted prairie. Care must preserve over-wintering insects, their eggs and by it.”—be used when weeding to avoid disruption of the pupae. Thallasasoil which can dislodge prairie seedlings. Weeds Always plan fire safety into plantings, even Crusowill generally pull easier a day or two after rain if you are not going to use burn management.or watering (when soil is soft but not muddy). Prairie fires intentionally or accidentally setAnother control option is to clip weeds near the during fall or spring dormancy can burn veryground with pruning shears. Whatever method rapidly. Use any existing features such as roads,you use, be sure to remove weeds from the site driveways, streams, lakes, or mowed lawns asbefore they mature and spread seed. fire breaks. In addition to paths through a Discriminating between prairie seedlings and prairie, also include a wide path around theweeds is of utmost importance. If you are unsure perimeter. A mowed lawn buffer 20 feet in widthas to what your young prairie plants will look between buildings and prairie is, plant a small amount of the seed mix 1/4 An alternative to burning is to mow in lateinch deep in a regular garden flat filled with fall after seeds set or preferably in early springsterile potting soil and keep moist. By studying (late March to mid-April). Sites that are too wetthe seedlings which emerge you will learn to in spring need fall mowing when soil is dry. Ifrecognize prairie seedlings. These may then be burning does not occur periodically, cuttingstransplanted to pots and eventually set out in the need to be removed to avoid a thatch layer 21planting. buildup. Do not cut and then burn large quanti- An easier method to avoid pulling prairie ties of plant material (creating thick piles) or youseedlings is to remove only plants which you are will sterilize the soil beneath. ❧ For more information, we recommend purchasing the booklet How to Manage Small Prairie Fires by Wayne R. Pauly.
  • 22. Wet Gardens BY ANNETTE ALEXANDER, Native Plant Enthusiast While many kits offer a liner of 10- to 12-mil thickness, experts recommend 30 mil if you plan for your pond to have any permanence. IRAIN n planning a water garden, first consider To prevent puncture, put a protective underlay-GARDENS the safety of small children, check local ment between the ground and your liner. Youare those regulations, and call the digger’s hotline to can either buy underlayment for this purpose,planted in locate buried utility lines. Do not disrupt exist- use old carpeting, put down a bed of sand ordepressions ing valuable habitat—especially intact wetlands. use a 1 2-inch-thick layer of newspaper. As the /where water Follow the design rules on pages 12-14, pay- newspaper slowly decays, it actually forms agathers from ing particular attention to grade. For instance, if watertight substance called gley.rain or snow- you heavy clay soil and expect to create a pond Concrete contains chemicals toxic to aquaticmelt. Rain without a liner, use a low area where water col- life. Scrub concrete ponds with muriatic acidgardens filter lects naturally but doesn’t receive surface run-off and rinse thoroughly. New concrete continues topollutants, from roads, parking lots and fertilized areas. Ob- leach lime for up to a year, so monitor pH levelsslow run-off, serve drainage during and after rainfall. Deter- (testing kits available from pond suppliers).prevent soil mine which direction to aim the pond’s overflow. A lined pond should have a free-form shape.erosion, miti- If you’ll need to supply your pond with water, Gradually sloping, rocky sides provide nichesgate flooding, locate it within reach of a hose. If your water for plants. If predators (i.e., raccoons) are arecharge contains chlorine, aerate it while filling and allow problem, steep sides will help protect fish, butgroundwater, it to stand for a week before adding plants or then you’ll need to provide emergent stonesand provide fish. If your water contains chloramine, use or deadwood elsewhere in the pond to providehabitat. filtered water or collected rainwater instead. wildlife access. A log connected to the shore will Choose a The sound of a stream spilling into a pond serve as an escape route for small mammalslow spot at will attract species of birds that would ignore that fall in and would otherwise drown.least 10 feet still water. Moving water is easily created by cir- Hide the pond edge as Nature would. Lay afrom the house culating water with a submersible pump. A fine branch at a curve and train a vine along it, thenand dig down spray or mist is also an attraction, particularly change the pace with sedges and rushes blend-6 to 12 inches, to hummingbirds. When using a pump, allow for ing into stones that provide shelter for emerginggently sloping a weatherproof electrical outlet adjacent to the amphibians. Hiding places for fish include:the sides. pond and conduit running to your power source. sunken drain tiles, rock piles, or flowerpots orDirect your A pond needs at least five hours of light a day brown plastic milk crates turned on their sidesdownspout or for plants to thrive and lilies to bloom. Locate (top the crate with stones for camouflage).sump pump your pond away from large trees to avoid exces- Follow the advice of native species pondoutlet to the sive shade. In addition, digging into tree roots books and wetland nursery experts when mak-area, via may damage the tree as well as your back. De- ing decisions about plants and their density.either a caying vegetation in the water depletes oxygen, Each type requires a specific location in relationshallow swale so skim out any leaves that do blow in. to the surface of the water—some need theiror through a Now that you’ve found just the right spot, crowns just above the surface, others wellburied plastic experiment with the pond’s size and shape by below. Including oxygenating plants willdrain. laying out a hose to represent the pond’s edge. improve water quality. Be sure to include Amend the Your pond need not be deeper than 1 to 2 vertical plants (as opposed to all water lilies)soil at the feet, unless you’re planning to stock fish. A for emerging dragonflies to climb.bottom of the 4-foot-deep center protects fish from predators You may pack your plant roots in soil anddepression with and gives them a better chance to over-winter. then tie up the rootball in burlap. If using pots,compost, sand, In areas with very cold winters, you’ll need to line them with a permeable fabric to preventand gravel. use a heating coil (such as those made for horse the soil’s leaching out, then cover the soil withPlant moisture- troughs) or your fish will need to be relocated to a layer of pea gravel to keep it in place. Or youloving species indoor tanks. Minnows are excellent mosquito may put soil into the pond bottom and plantin and larva eaters. Goldfish are bottom feeders. directly into it. In any case, be patient aboutaround the Materials for pond liners include flexible learning how your pond will stabilizedepression synthetic rubber (EPDM), PVC or polypropy- itself. Then sit back and enjoy watchingand mulch lene (purported to be kinder to aquatic life). all the activity that’s bound to follow. ❧to discourageweeds.
  • 23. Invasive PlantsA tragedy is silently but relentlessly unfold- BY ELIZABETH J. CZARPATA ing before our eyes. All around the world, as the human population becomesincreasingly mobile, the spread of ecologically Invasive weeds destroy wildlife habitat andinvasive plants is taking its toll. As defined by an food sources. Having evolved with native plantExecutive Order from then President Clinton in species, our wildlife often relies on native plants1999 that called for increased national attention for survival. If invasive weeds cause the diversityto, and coordination of, control of invasive non- and quantity of native plants to diminish, thenative species, an “invasive plant” is “an alien diversity and quantity of native wildlife willspecies whose introduction does or is likely diminish as cause economic or environmental harm to The economic impact of invasive weeds ishuman health.” (Alien plants are also sometimes staggering, costing the U.S. economy more thanreferred to as exotic, non-native, or non-indige- $35 billion a year. Besides decreasing propertynous species.) values, invasive weeds are a major threat to It is important to note that the vast majority of tourism (hunting, fishing, swimming, hiking,non-native plants, about 85 percent, cause little if photography, birding, and other activities),any environmental damage. They politely occupy forestry, and agricultural production.their place in the landscape and pose little threat OTHER IMPACTS CAUSEDto natural areas. Even our food supply is primar- BY INVASIVE WEEDSily made up of exotic species. But some exotic —Soil instability and runoff may increase.plants are not so innocent. Once removed from —Herbicide use increases the longer invasivetheir native habitats, they begin to reproduce weeds are ignored.abundantly in their new settings, causing signi- —Hybridization (crossing) with native speciesficant environmental disruption. Invasive plants can occur, potentially leading to loss of originalhave competitive advantages over native plant strains.species that often include: —Insect life cycles, microbial activity, soil—an absence of the insect predators and plant characteristics, and other natural processes diseases that helped to keep their numbers in can be altered. check in their homelands; —Water quality and quantity may decrease.—a longer growing season that allows them to —Threatened and endangered species, particu- shade out native plants before the natives have larly vulnerable to environmental disruptions, a chance to grow, or to take more than “their undergo rapid decline once areas are infested share” of moisture and nutrients from the soil; with invasive weeds.—an astonishing ability to reproduce and form This is one environmental problem we can do colonies in disturbed soil due to rapid growth something about. Early detection and monitoring rates and massive seed or shoot production; of natural areas can make a huge difference in—the capacity to adapt to a wide range of grow- the effort required for invasive weed control, the ing conditions; cost of control, and the number of species saved.—effective means of spreading. The ability to properly identify invasive weedsINVASIVES SHADE OR CROWD and utilize safe and effective control techniquesNATIVE PLANTS OUT OF EXISTENCE is vital. Insist that your legislators support The impact that invasive weeds have on our greater funding for educational programs aboutquality of life can be staggering. Allowing them invasive weeds and get involved in controlto proliferate has many consequences. High- efforts. Contact the Nature Conservancy, yourquality woodlands, normally bursting with local extension office, nature center, parksspringtime beauty and diversity, are being department, conservation organization, or statequietly and sadly transformed into jungles of office of natural resources for more information. 23buckthorn, honeysuckle, and garlic mustard. Invasive weeds cannot be ignored.The amazing springtime arrangement of diverse Some recommended Web sites:wildflowers that delight so many is being lost in,,the process.,
  • 24. Landscaping for Wildlife TOM PATRICK, President, Windstar Wildlife Institute another. For some species, the berries in your garden are ideal. For others, it’s the nuts and acorns, grasses, grain or seeds, or nectars in D o you enjoy observing nature? Hearing flowers. the song of a chickadee, watching hum- Water is as important as food and is critical to mingbirds fill up on nectar from trumpet survival. Adding a pond or bird bath will produce vines, listening to the chattering of squirrels, results in a hurry. Perhaps letting your pond seeing the beauty and grace of a monarch butter- overflow will produce wetlands. fly perched on milkweed, experiencing the antics Cover is important for weather protection of a mockingbird, the cooing of mourning doves, as well as protection from predators. It’s also the swiftness of a cottontail, and the brilliance of important for nesting and resting. Cover can be a cardinal or Baltimore oriole … provided by shrubs, grasses, trees (including “If nothing If you enjoy any of the activities mentioned dead trees), rock and brush piles, nesting boxes, moves in above, you’ll probably want to attract more and abandoned buildings. your wildlife to your property. Space is needed for wildlife to raise their landscape The term “wildlife” means different things to young. Most species establish territory and but a different people. To a livestock producer, it may defend it. For example, bluebird nesting houseslawnmower, mean coyotes. To someone who feeds birds, it must be 300 feet apart or the bluebirds will fight it’s time to may mean cardinals, nuthatches, and humming- each other. Wood ducks and purple martins do think of birds. To a birder, it may mean rare species. To a not defend territories. Loons prefer 100 acres of designing gardener, it may mean butterflies. lake or wetlands, and ruffed grouse need 10 a natural To a wildlife biologist, the term wildlife means acres. yard.”— all living organisms out of the direct control of Rochelle BASIC CONCEPTS OF A HABITAT humans. Dr. Thomas Barnes, extension wildlife Whiteman Before fully evaluating a wildlife habitat, some specialist, University of Kentucky, suggests that basic concepts about habitat and relationship of the definition should also include the habitat habitat to different wildlife species needs to be of the species. He says that it is impossible to understood. understand the ecology of a species without A term that you will often hear in reference having a thorough knowledge of an animal’s to wildlife habitat is niche. This refers to the diet and how this differs during the year, plus concept that each individual species in a commu- how the species relates to its habitat (predators, nity has its own role within that community. For vegetation, soil, competitors, etc.). instance, it is the occupation of woodpeckers to Wildlife doesn’t just randomly appear in a eat insects under tree bark and to excavate holes given area. It is there because of favorable in tree trunks, while beavers can be expected to habitat. To attract more wildlife, you need to cut down trees and create dams. These are apply specific wildlife management practices. examples of species that are fairly specialized. To reach your wildlife management goals, you Other creatures could be called generalists, must manipulate the habitat, the animal popu- and they tend to be in competition with one lation, or manage the people (landowners). another. For example, raccoons, foxes, and other ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS medium-size omnivores all seek the same fruits OF A WILDLIFE HABITAT and small mammals for food, but the variety of There are four essential elements needed for their food sources lets them compete success- survival in a wildlife habitat—food, water, cover, fully. and space for wildlife to raise their offspring. Each species performs a specific role in the If you keep these needs in mind while creating ecosystem that directly benefits other living your wildlife habitat plan, your things, including people. A good example is that 24 chances for success are excel- squirrels help forests continue to grow. Squirrels lent. bury acorns for food, but fail to dig up all of Food requirements vary them, so acorns sprout and produce new oak for every species. It changes as trees. they age, and from one season to Other birds and animals scatter seeds
  • 25. throughout the landscape. Blue jays, for exam- you should also provide the flatter, more openple, are especially important in the long-distance blooms that butterflies prefer.dispersal of acorns and beechnuts. They carry Always be careful not to plant invasive exoticthem to distant locations and bury the nuts in species, such as multiflora rose and Japanesesoft earth or under leaves. A Virginia study honeysuckle, which can overwhelm native plantsshowed that 50 blue jays transported 150,000 and be nearly impossible to eradicate.acorns in one month. Some of the acorns were Wildlife needs extend through all four sea-retrieved by the jays and eaten later in the year, sons of the year, so be sure to plant a variety ofbut many were left to regenerate the forest. trees, shrubs, and flowers that bloom or bear Within a forest ecosystem, plants grow in fruit at different times of the year. For example,different vertical layers. This is important crabapple trees provide fruit in fall and winter. “Goodbecause some wildlife species may use the Cherry trees produce fruit in summer. Hickory neighborsground layer (herbaceous plants) for food, but trees produce nuts in the fall. comethey also need the tallest layer (tree canopy) for Food, water, and cover need to be arranged in allshelter. The middle layer is composed of shrubs. close together to produce optimum results. This species.” —SallyIf you follow nature’s lead by planting in layers, cuts down on mortality from predators when Wasowskithis will allow for the different feeding and nest- wildlife species move from one habitat elementing habits of many species. to another. Connecting elements with a corridor While it is not necessary to give up entirely on of good cover is important.having a lawn, limiting its size will not only bene- Thoughtful landscaping can help tofit wildlife, it will also save you time and money. maintain biodiversity. By offering manyMowing, chemical treatments, weeding, and kinds of native plants. you are ensuringwatering are all costly—both in terms of what that a wide range of wildlife can pay for them and the number of hours thatyou spend doing them. WindStar Wildlife Institute is a 501(c)(3) The place where two or more different plant national, non-profit, conservation organiza-communities or successional stages meet (such tion. Its mission focuses on effectively teach-as where a forest meets an open area) is called ing and communicating wildlife habitatedge. Sometimes there is an abrupt change, or improvement methods, including promotingdistinct edge, between plant communities. Other the use of native plants. The institute holdstimes there is no sharp or distinct difference, but seminars throughout the country and certifiesonly a gradual change from one plant community wildlife habitats and also individuals asto another. The latter attracts the most wildlife. “wildlife habitat naturalists.” The institute Jonathan Kays, Maryland regional extension is located at 10072 Vista Ct., Myersville,specialist for natural resources, says that if there MD 21773. Phone: (301) one single rule to follow in attracting wildlife, it Web: E-mail: to make your landscape as diverse as possiblewith many different plant species. Then, yourhabitat is less vulnerable to insect damage ordiseases that can wipe out single species. In TO MAKE A TOAD HOME:ecosystems, diversity means stability and ability Cut a small arch in the rim of a clay pot forto withstand change. an entrance. Invert the pot amongst You will find that wildlife thrives when you vegetation in a secluded, shadylandscape using a wide variety of plants. Some spot near water and a rock pile.plants will be evergreen or form thickets for —Naturescape British Columbiacover, while others will be valuable because ofthe flowers and fruits that they bear. 8-INCH-DIAMETER CLAY POT 25 Become aware of the needs of the wildlifespecies in your area. Fancy double-petaled,ruffled blossoms are lovely in the garden, butbutterflies can’t access the nectar in them, so Illustration courtesy of Naturescape British Columbia
  • 26. Genetic Guidelines BY WILD ONES LOCAL ECOTYPE COMMITTEE plant material to that of the planting site, the better the plants will grow. Studies show that this is because species have become genetically THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL ECOTYPE: adapted to the local conditions to varying GUIDELINES ON THE SELECTION degrees—some species more than others. Since OF NATIVE PLANTS there is little species-specific information, it is best to take a conservative approach so plantings T he following guidelines are intended to will do better both in the short term and in the assist Wild Ones members and others in long term. their natural landscaping efforts. They Example: A red maple from the deep South were developed by a committee of national board will not do well in the North. Also, a red maple members and others who read widely in the from a lowland will not do well if transplanted to scientific literature and consulted with experts. an adjacent upland site. While there is ongoing debate within the restora- Exception: Threatened and endangered tion community concerning the issues below, we species which have reduced genetic variability, offer the following guidelines with the hope that may need an infusion of genetic variability from they will help make our natural landscapes places plants from other, maybe distant locales, in order of health, diversity, and ecological integrity. to ensure their survival over the long term. Work with such species should be conducted Wild Ones Natural Landscapers advo- under the supervision of the state and federal cates the seelction of plants and seeds agencies which have jurisdiction over them. derived, insofar as is possible, from local 2. To help preserve local pollinators, insects, or regional sources at sites having the same birds, mammals, and other wildlife which have or similar environmental conditions as the coevolved with plants of local ecotype and depend site of planting. Such plant materials is upon them for food, shelter, etc. often termed the local ecotype. 3. To preserve the genetic diversity and integrity of native plants. Environmental Conditions: These include An all-important concern today is the preser- everything from soil, climate, elevation, vation not only of a diversity of species, but also drainage, aspect (such as north/south slope), of the genetic diversity within each species. A sun/shade, precipitation, etc. native species varies genetically in its adaptation Local or Regional Sources: Plant material to the particular localities and environmental that originates in and is native to your geo- conditions under which it grows. This results graphic region is generally the best to use. in a number of ecotypes of the same species or These regions have ecological, not political gradations (clines) between populations. boundaries; i.e., it is better to use a source from You can help preserve the local ecotypes in your geographic region but outside your state your area by using them in your landscaping. than to use a source from a different geographic There can also be significant genetic variation region inside your state. Such regions are often within an ecotype in terms of form, size, growth referred to as ecoregions by scientists. The rate, flowering, pest resistance, etc. You can help ecoregions within the U.S. are best delineated preserve this gene pool by asking for seedling by The Nature Conservancy in the U.S. and the stock, not clonal stock or cultivars. Conservation Data Centres in Canada. (Maps of the ecoregions can be obtained from these HOW TO FIND YOUR LOCAL ECOTYPES groups; a copy of each set of maps is in the Wild To prevent the local extinction of native Ones library.) plants, plants should be bought from reputable nurseries, not dug from natural areas.26 WHY CHOOSE LOCAL ECOTYPES Exception: Plants rescued from a site slated 1. To ensure the greatest success in your land- for immediate development. (However, every scaping efforts. effort should be made to save such sites when- In general, the more closely you match the ever possible.) environmental conditions of the source of your
  • 27. WHERE TO BUY can be a naturally occurring variety or a horti- A list of nurseries carrying native plants of culturally produced variety.) Check with locallocal ecotypes can often be obtained from local lists of native plants to see if the varieties arenature centers, from state natural resource native locally or horticulturally produced.departments, from local Wild Ones chapters or SEED COLLECTIONfrom native plant organizations. Nature centers When collecting seeds, collect from manyor nurseries dealing exclusively with native individual plants from within the same ecotype ofplants are more apt to have stock of local each species (rather than taking seeds from onlyecotypes. the biggest plant, for example), and do not take• Ask the nursery about the source of their plant all the seeds from any plant. This will help pre- material. Does it originate within your eco- serve and increase the genetic variation of the region? population. Also, be sure to get permission for• Beware of plant material dug from the wild or seed collecting; it is not allowed in some natural plants which are “nursery grown” in pots after areas. being dug from the wild. Plants should instead be “nursery propagated” from seed DOCUMENT YOUR PROJECT or cuttings, not collected from the wild. It is Keep records of the origins of the plant mater- environmentally unethical and contrary to the ial you use. This is particularly important for mission of Wild Ones to buy plants dug from large-scale restorations, especially if they are at our last remaining natural areas in order to nature centers or other places of education. naturalize your yard. Detailed records on sources of plants used can• Ask for seedling stock, not clonal stock, culti- help us understand their success or failure and vars or horticulturally enhanced plants. Clonal adapt our plant selection strategies as needed. stock, cultivars, and horticulturally enhanced This may become increasingly important given varieties lack genetic variation. They are the changes in climate expected with global usually selected for bigger, showier flowers warming. or sturdier stems, and this goal of aesthetic This guideline has been drafted by the Local uniformity is at the expense of genetic diver- Ecotype Committee: Pat Armstrong, Lorraine sity. Cultivars and horticulturally enhanced Johnson, Chistine Taliga, and Portia Brown, with varieties are often propagated asexually and final revisions made by committee chair, Mariette thus are clones rather than unique, genetic Nowak, August 7, 2001, and revised March 19, individuals. (A variety of an individual species 2002. NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONSBat Conservation International National Wildlife Federation Society for Ecological RestorationP.O. Box 162603, Austin, TX 78716 11100 Wildlife Center Drive 285 W. 18th Street, Suite Reston, VA 20190-5362 Tucson, AR 85701 ser.orgBrooklyn Botanic Garden1000 Washington Avenue The Nature Conservancy Wild Farm AllianceBrooklyn, NY 11225 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 100 Box 2570, Watsonville, CA Arlington, VA 22203-1606 nature.orgCenter for Plant Conservation Wild Ones: Native Plants,Missouri Botanical Garden New England Wild Flower Society Natural LandscapesP.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166 180 Hemenway Road P.O. Box Framingham, MA 01701 Appleton, WI 54912 for-wild.orgInvasive and Exotic Species 27of North America Project North American Native Plant Society Xerces P.O. Box 84, Station D 4821 SE Hawthorne Blvd. Etobicoke, Ontario M9A 4X1 Portland, OR 97215Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center xerces.org4801 La Crosse Avenue, Austin, TX
  • 28. SOME BOOKS TO HELP YOU ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED APPLETON, WI 54912-1274 P.O. BOX 1274WITH YOUR LANDSCAPE(See additional book list on page 19)GUIDESThe Book of Field and Roadside, by John EastmanThe Book of Forest and Thicket, by John EastmanThe Book of Swamp and Bog, by John EastmanA Classification of North American Biotic Communities, by D. Brown, F.Reichenbacher, S. FransonFreshwater Wetlands: Guide to Common Indicator Plants of Northeast, byDennis MageeA Great Lakes Wetland Flora, by Steve ChaddeHortus Third V1&2 Dictionary of plants cultivated in the U.S. and Canada,by L.L.H. Bailey Hortatorium, Cornell UniversityThe Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist, by Noel HolmgrenInvasive Plants of the Upper Midwest: An Illustrated Guide to TheirIdentification and Control, by Elizabeth J. CzarapataNewcomb’s Wildflower Guide, by L NewcombPlant Identification and Terminology: Illustrated glossary, by J.G. Harris,M.W. HarrisWeeds of the Northern U.S. and Canada, by France Royer, RichardDickinsonPLANT SELECTION & LANDSCAPE DESIGNAmerican Plants for American Gardens, by E.A. Roberts, E. Rehmann100 Easy-to-Grow Native Plants for American Gardens in Temperate Zones,by Lorraine JohnsonGrow Wild! Low Maintenance, Sure-Success, Distinctive Gardening withNative Plants, by Lorraine JohnsonThe Native Plant Primer, by Carole OttesenNative Gardens For Dry Climates, by Andy and Sally WasowskiThe Natural Habitat Garden, by Ken DruseReflecting Nature: Garden Designs from Wild Landscapes, by J. Malitz, S.MalitzPROPAGATIONThe New England Wild Flower Society Guide to Growing and PropagatingWildflowers of the United States and Canada, by William CullinaWILDLIFE & HABITATAmerican Wildlife and Plants: Guide to Wildlife Food Habits, by A.C.Martin, H. Zim, A. NelsonAttracting Birds, Butterflies and Other Backyard Wildlife, by staff ofNational Wildlife FederationLandscaping for Wildlife and Water Quality, by Minnesota Department ofNatural ResourcesWild Neighbors: The Humane Approach to Living with Wildlife, by theHumane Society of the United StatesGENERAL PHILOSOPHYBuilding Inside Nature’s Envelope: How New Construction and LandPreservation Can Work Together, by Andy and Sally WasowskiEcoregion-Based Design for Sustainability, by Robert BaileyFarming with the Wild: Enhancing the Biodiversity on Farms and Ranches,by Dan ImhoffHow to Get Your Lawn and Garden off Drugs: Pesticide-Free Gardening fora Healthier Environment, by Carol RubinHow to Get Your Lawn off Grass: A North American Guide to Turning offthe Water Tap & Going Native, by Carol RubinThe Landscaping Revolution: Garden With Mother Nature, Not Against Her,by Andy and Sally WasowskiMy Weeds: A Gardener’s Botany, by Sara SteinNature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, by GretchenDailyNoah’s Children: Restoring the Ecology of Childhood, by Sara SteinNoah’s Garden: Restoring the Ecology of our own Backyards, by Sara SteinReading the Landscape of America, by May T WattsRequiem for a Lawnmower, by Andy and Sally WasowskiRestoring the Tallgrass Prairie for Iowa and Upper Midwest, by ShirleyShirley