Transcript of "7 finot newsletter vol 3 issue 1_july - december 2011"
December 2011 contents 6 News 93. Editorial4. The President’s Corner5. Handover6. District Governor’s Visit7. Entertainment Club Membership 8 8. Membership Development Club Administration 10 9. Induction 11 Amharic Rotary Song 30 Club Service 12 Fellowship & Fun 14 Guest Speakers Club Public Relations 32 ClubRotaryFoundation 28 2 Website 3 Brochure
Editorial This first edition for the year 2011/12 marks the beginning of another year of service to our communities. The newsletterportrays the accomplishments and activities of Finot in the area of club membership, administration, service projects, Rotary Foundation, and public relations from July to December 2011. Sections on the reflections of past and current presidents and humor have also been included. The continuation of service projects that are adding value and benefit to our communities,the vibrant Finot meeting sessions and fellowship among mem- bers are indicators that Finot is yet to have another great year.All is possible because of Finot’s superb leadership coupled with the cooperation, commitment and unity of heart of members. Keep up the good work. I have great appreciation for you all! Tehut Tesfaye Editor, Finot Rotary Club meets every Wednesday from 18:30-19:30 @ Bole Ambassador Hotel email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org www.finotrotary.org.et +251-911-606055 P. O. Box 5735, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3
The President’s CornerThe Oxymoron of Servant LeadershipIn physical law, I was taught that two opposites cannot coexist harmoniously. Itis either positive or negative, north or south, life or death. These realities aremutually exclusive and they do not exist at the same time in the samecircumstance. However, in literature, the paradox of contradictory reality mayexist together. Some expressions such as, “Deafening silence, pretty ugly, …”signify yawning gap between the two words coined together yet the formeradjective qualifying the later word.Few years ago, I heard another catchy contradictory phrase used by my boss, Dr.Steve Strauss, who discussed about the oxymoron of ‘servant leadership.’ If oneis a servant, how can s/he be a leader and if one is a leader, how can s/he be aservant? How would the two statuses coexist without contradiction? Heexplained this type of leadership is different because the focus is providing lead-ership by having a servant attitude, not demanding respect and lording overothers but exemplifying true service by lifestyle.I noticed that in Rotary clubs, presidents have great honor. It is very good torespect leaders for most of the presidents are highly involved in service projects Seble Hailu, Rotary Club of Finot,and are major donors and hence deserve honor. However, as we exercise lead- President,ership, the focus should not be how we can be honored by club members or oth- 2011/2012 ers. It should be how we enable others to use their potentials in ser- Finot’s leadership structure has five club directors: membership development, club administration, community and international services as well as public relations. Hence, it will not be a one person show but a corporate leadership. My hope for Finot’s new leadership is to move for- ward together by adopting servant leadership atti- tude, no matter how paradoxical it may sound, to lead the club by providing service above self. In addition to the servant attitude, transformational leadership fits our purpose of taking the club’s undertakings in the five domains to its higher steps in the ladder of service. A man may do an immense deal of good, if he does not care who gets the credit for it. ~Father Strickland, 1863 4
The Presidential Handover July 1 is designated by the Rotary to begin new leadership whereby the past presidents and the directors handover leadership to the incom- ing ones who were selected about six months ago. Past President, Sisay Kifle, reiterat- ed the milestones achieved in the 2010/2011 Rotary year before handing over the leadership to the incoming president. The website development was one of the new initiatives that were materialized during this leadership time. The incoming president, Seble Hailu, started introducing her program with the year’s theme—Reach within to embrace humanity. She said, “In order to reach within, I would like to specify what ‘within’ constitutes. Begin with within the person, and go on to within the club, then to within the surrounding community, then to within the country, and finally within the larger international Rotary community.” Then she introduced each Club official and their responsibilities. “I used to work for an international NGO, which mobilizes thousands of volunteer workers to deal with HIV and AIDS. We give them training on how they mobilize their community to tackle HIV related problems and mitigate the impact of AIDS. One of the major tool we focus on helping communities to deal with internal problems was what we called, ‘Doing Asset Mapping.’ This means, we let them count what they already have in their community. They enumerate: schools, cafeteria, kebele, NGOs, civil society organizations, business or- ganizations, Idir, health centers, etc. Then we show them how each of these can be utilized and mobilized to address HIV issues.” Let us do asset mapping of Rotary. Within the Rotary International, there are scholar- ships, peace keeping programs, clubs in about 200 countries, service projects, district and rotary foundation grants, polio eradication programs, fellowships, and so forth. Within the country, there are ample opportunities to partner with NGOs, communities,“If everyone is moving government structure, banks, and others.forward together, then Within Finot: The biggest asset is the human capital i.e., its members. So we look withinsuccess takes care of each member and the club to provide services. What are the needs of our communitiesitself.” and what are the assets we have and how do we embrace humanity using what we have? At the end of the year, our parameter for success will be evaluated by how much we have utilized individual Rotarian, our club, the community, the country and the international Rotary community to embrace humanity. 5
The Country Chair, Rotarian Teshome coordinated the Dis- The District Governor’s Visit trict Governer’s, Eric Kimani, in-country visits in which Finot was scheduled to have the honor of hosting the DG and his wife, Margaret Kimani on the 26th of October 2011. The visit started with site seeing of potential pro- ject that Finot submitted to seek funding. Lideta is the poorest sub-city whereby utter urban poverty prevails. Finot seeks to alleviate poverty of women who live in utter destitution.The DG and his wife, arrived at Bole Ambassador whereby the Club Assembly is held. A combined board and mem-bers meetings were conducted. Each Club Director presented the plan and accomplishments of the Club’s undertak-ings. After listening to the introductions and five presentations, the DG expressed appreciations about the Club’senthusiasm, leadership team, sex composition, and the potential within the club. Out of the 160 Rotary clubs in theDistrict, the DG expressed that the club can come in the top ten who arevibrant achieving the goals it sets.The DG motivated the club to go for the District award clearly stipulat-ed in the booklet prepared. He stressed on the fact that the race isabout finishing not just winning the prize. Hence, Finot needs to pushit.In the midst of the success stories presented, the DG drew Finot’s atten-tion to the present gaps of contribution to be made to the Rotary Foun-dation. No Finot member donates to the Foundation. Nor was anyonefound to be ready to be Paul Harris Fellow. The DG shared his experi-ences of the blessings on giving and encouraged members to fulfill the minimum expectation of all Rotarians to giveat least US $ 100 every year to achieve the Foundation’s goal of Every Rotarian Every Year (EREY) by which threeFinot members promised to give.The DG and his wife, Margaret left the same evening after having fellowshipdinner with Finot members. 6
The Membership Corner Membership recruitments and development has been Finot’s priorities for its survival for the Club struggled to keep the minimum membership requirements to sustain its activities. Having new members means new ideas, talent and energy to the Club leading to new club service projects. Moreover, it means sharing the extra burdens the existing members have by having additional people to take on leadership and committee roles. Every new Rotarian brings a range of personal and professional re- sources and knowledge that can greatly strengthen the clubs ability to serve throughout the community and the world. The three essential elements of membership growth are: 1. The recruitment of new members; 2. The retention of existing members; 3. The extension of Rotary through the formation of new clubs. Being determined to membership growth, Finot revised the classification of members, designed strategy and developed members education on Ro- tary. In addition, a one-day session was devoted to discussing member- ship development. The whole issue is to grow membership at least by ten in order to achieve the minimum num- ber. Thus far, we have inducted five increasing members’ number to twen- ty. One member was inducted by Country Chair, Rotarian Teshome on September 9 and the other four byFinot President on November 27, 2011, Fellowship Day.The District Governor, during his visit, encouraged each member to bringat least one new member to double the members by the end of the Rotaryyear.On the other hand, the club is working on retention of existing membersand as one of the retention strategies, the Club Administration took overin educating members, assigning them to present on 5 Minutes Rotary, tomotivate members on the knowledge Rotary. However, Finot has not yetreached the expansion stage. Kuri Kebede, Club Membership Director “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, com- mitted people can change the world. Indeed, that is the only thing that ever has.” Margaret Mead 8
Induction CeremonyFellow Rotarians, it is my privilege and pleasure today to welcome ZelalemTadesse into membership in the Rotary Club of Finot, whose name was pro-posed by Rotarian Tigist Awoke. The proposal has been reviewed in accord-ance with the constitution and bylaws of the club. I now ask Rotarian Tigistto come up here with the proposed new member, Zelalem Tadesse.Zelalem, we now proceed to admit you into membership in the Rotary Clubof Finot and so to the fellowship of Rotary throughout the world. It hasalready been explained to you that the ideal of Rotary is service. Our princi-pal motto is “Service Above Self” and the object of this club and all Rotaryclubs is to encourage and foster this ideal as a basis of worthy enterprise.You are to share in this effort.You have been approved for membership in this club because we believe youto be a worthy representative of your vocation, interested in the ideals ofRotary, and willing to do your share in translating these ideals into tangiblerealities. You have agreed to accept the obligations attached to your member-ship in this club, and to obey this clubs constitution and bylaws.I charge you to judge yourself by the Rotary Four-Way Test of the things youthink, say or do: First: Is it the Truth? Second: Is it fair to all concerned? Third: Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Fourth: Will it be beneficial to all concerned?You have a lot to learn about Rotary - its not just another club. Its a way oflife. You were elected to membership because we felt you would fit into thisway of life. You will be expected to attend the weekly meetings. In fact, youMUST attend, if you are to remain a Rotarian.Now I have the pleasure of asking your proposer to pin on the Rotary em-blem, which we expect you to wear daily and with pride.Welcome to the Rotary Club of Finot!Fellow Rotarians, I am happy to present to you Rotarian Zelalem Tadesse,our newest member, who has been loaned the classification of DATABASEADMINISTRATION SERVICES and charge all of you to welcome him. ELELELELELELLLLLLLLLLLL! 9
The Administration CornerOne of the major changes Finot introduced this year is starting theclub weekly meeting with Amharic Rotary Song. The song reflectsRotary’s best motto, principles and purpose with its internationaland service flavors.Second, Finot introduced a monthly bulletin which is used as a plan-ning and reporting tool, in addition to being informative to membersand other Rotarians interested to attend the club’s weekly meeting.The meetings are planned in such a way to focus and revolve aroundthe Rotary International monthly theme.The vibrant meeting sessions are attributed to the Finotian mem-bers, other Rotarians and guest speakers who present on varioustopics that have enriched and diversified the knowledge scope ofmembers. In the last six months, Finot has had eleven guest and fivemember speakers addressing sixteen different topics which includ-ed: Being visionary, modeling and humanity, health, gender, com-mon diseases, medicine, WASH, human right, family, e-health, de-mography, African peace, e-commerce, entrepreneurship, road engi-neering and so forth.In addition, the Club Trainer planned the yearly Five Minutes Rotarytopics, which members are assigned to present on the designatedRotary topic. Thus far, twenty-two Rotary topics were discussed bymembers.Finot is determined to know each other better at a personal level.“Know your Member” is a program started during Past President,Yigebashal time whereby assigned club members would share theirlife stories with others. This helps us to relate to each other at adeeper level. Thus far, three members shared their interesting lifestories with members.The educational aspects of the sessions were complimented by fel-lowships. One type of fellowship is getting together for swallowshiptime after the regular weekly one hour Rotary session is over. Someof us are so busy that this is our only socializing time. Come and en-joy!Two fellowship dates were designated for Finot members to taketime and have fun. Members went to Salayish Lodge, Debrezeit, onNovember 27, 2011 and had another fellowship at the President’sresidence on the 30th of the same month. It was hilarious!In order to facilitate smooth communication flow amongst members,the Communication Circle that was developed by Past President,Genet was now updated and posted. Club members need to networkaccordingly. Selamawit Yilma, Individual commitment to a group effort — that is what makes a team work, a company work, a Club Administration Director society work, and a civilization work. Vince Lombard 10
Paul Harris’ Statements about Fellowships“People need fellowship, and theywill go to where it is available. If nota service club like Rotary, it mightwell be a bar. Without the warmth offellowship, no Rotary Club wouldlast long enough to make a differ-ence in the community, much lessthe world.”“In the social desert of a city, theypossessed an oasis all their own. To itthe chosen few came to revel in thedelights of friendly communion. Nolonger would any of them have occa-sion to dream in city parks and publicplaces of happy days gone by; the‘Happy days had come again.”“Rotary, being invisible, spiritual, isintelligible to the higher order ofthings. Diamonds cannot compre-hend Rotary, but friendship, sympa-thy, integrity, devotion, idealismcan."“Rotary is good for you, my friends.To the ill, it says, "Take up thy bedand walk." Rotary prolongs the life ofhundreds of thousands of men; Rota-ry makes for health and happiness.”"The foundation upon which Rotaryis built is friendship; on no less firmfoundation could it have stood."“Shall we ever understand that theother fellow’s necessities should haveprecedence over our luxuries, our ab-surdities? If so, then we shall attainthe estate of the brotherhood ofman.” 13
The Importance of Vision Guest Speaker — The first guest speaker was a visionary young man, Samuel Zemichael, a Civil Engineer by profession who is now the owner and man- Samuel Zemichael aging director of a construction company called “African Visionaries Construction PLC. Samuel has a good experience in project management and is famous for being a motivational trainer and life coach on vision, mission, the secrete of happiness, financial freedom, persuasion skill, positive thinking, emotional intelligence, personality, commu- nication skill, love and marriage management, and so on. He is one of the hosts of TV talk shows and radio programs. In addition, he published five best selling books. Samuel addressed the need to have a vision and shared his experi- ences with the Finot members on July 20, 2011. What is vision, and how do people explore it? For me, vision is the source and hope of life. It is through vision that our heart and mind works. It inspires the depressed and motivates the discouraged. A life without a vision is lived in vain. The present Working on media has given the Company the ad- world is moved by only three percent visionary personalities in var- vantage of persuading people to make positive changes ious walks of life such as business, politics and the like. I believe that in their lives, work, business, as well as contribute to our ancient continent is under poverty for centuries because of lack societal changes. The Company has thus far inter- of visionary leaders, business men and women and citizens. viewed and broadcasted visionary personalities, such as: As a motivational trainer, I have a strong held vision of changing 1. His Excellency, Mr. Girma Wolde Geiorgis, President people to be positive thinkers and visionaries. I hold on to the great of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. quotation of, “Where there is no vision, the people perish.” I hope to 2. Athlete, Haile Gebre Sellassie, the king of the race help people understand the principle of vision and to provide the practi- and a man of 26 world records. cal tools and skills necessary to bring their vision into reality. 3. Bahrain athlete, Meriem Jemal, the queen of the Our starting point is a belief in that race and the owner of five star hotel. 1) People can change their lives positively by changing their think- 4. Dr. Gezahegn Wordofa, ambassador for voluntary ing and attitudes. services, represented by UN. 2) We all have responsibilities of creating a better Africa for us and 5. Mr. Haward Haiscle, the former Mayer of New York for the future generation. city. 3) If someone can change him/herself and his/her life positively, 6. Dr. Meherit Wordofa, Health advisor and executive then s/he can change his secretary for US President, Barak Obama, under"But he who has once given himself environment positively. White House Fellowship, Washington DC, USA.to dreaming is not easily satisfied." Paul Harris 7. Ms. Bethelehem Alemu, the winner of world entre- “Leaders are optimists. preneurs under age 40 in the year 2011 with the Optimists are more realistic founder of Face Book. than pessimists. Pessimists All the trainings, media programs and other consultan- may be accurate prognosti- cy services are meant to create visionary society that cators simply because they will change the history of poverty. cause their worst scenarios to be fulfilled.” Finot would like to appreciate once again its first guest speaker, Samuel Zemichael, for sharing this Martin E. Seligman positive life experiences and his contributions for the betterment of the country. 14
Guest Speaker— Eskedar Girmay Finot: Tell us more about your activities in Bahrain? Eskedar: In 2004, I organized “Ethiopian Cultural Day” to promote the good side of Ethiopia. In 2005, Artist Tilahun Gessese and his wife came to my African day event to raise funds for the Diabetes Center they found- ed. I had a major role in raising funds. When Dire Dawa was flooded, we managed to collect about 69,000 birr and sent to the victims. I also managed to collect money to contribute for the construction of Black Lion Pediatric Heart Hospital, and a contribution is sent to Fistula Hos- Modeling and Humanitarian Work pital. I am also a member of a humanitarian NGO, called Mary Joy.On the Club’s meeting held on August 10, 2011, Finot had the privi-lege of listening how life sounds from a model’s perspective. Finot: What type of challenges did you face in support- ing the abused and the neglected ones?Finot: Tell us briefly about yourself Eskedar: Oh! Lots of challenges. Being ridiculed andEskedar: Born in Woldia, raised in Korem, Assab and Addis, I am now threatened by employers. On the other hand, at times,a model, designer and a humanitarian. I left to Bahrain at the end of the claims of the “victims” may not be genuine. Hence,1996 and worked as a house maid for five months, was hired in a five striking the balance and pushing for truth is very hard.star Gulf Hotel as a senior waitress for about two years. I met myhusband in Bahrain while I was on a three months business trip andnow we have two kids.Finot: What do you do now?Eskedar: I work in sales and marketing for one of the leading Maga-zines in Bahrain. I also design for my brand called "Esky". Finot: Tell us about your community in- volvement? Eskedar: I am very much interested in hu- manitarian work. I do support Ethiopians and Finot: Are you a member of any association in Bah- others who are abused rain? by their employers, con- Eskedar: The government of Bahrain is supporting an nect them with lawyers, NGO called, The Migrant Workers Protection Society and have their human which has an objective of extending protection and shel- rights respected. I also ter to abused migrant workers in Bahrain. I am the Head facilitate for those who of the fund raising committee. So we work that the law would like to return to becomes migrant friendly and do preventive works of Ethiopia. For instance, advocacy. Having an Embassy also helps for legal cases we managed to collect can be facilitated easily.300,000 birr for a maidservant who had breast cancer to have sur-gery and chemotherapy and she returned to Ethiopia having her Finot is grateful to have such an inside out beautifulhealth restored. speaker who aches for humanity. 15
Guest Speaker — Mesfin TesfayAccording to WHO, diarrheal disease is Mesfin Tesfay, Water, Sanitation and Hy- Installing a tippy-tap made from localthe second highest cause of mortality and giene Specialist, who formerly worked at materials, such as plastic jug, is an easymorbidity in children under five years of the Hygiene Improvement Project/ way to create a hand washing stationage. Academy for Educational Development that also conserves water. funded by USAID conducted a study withIn accordance with 2008 International HIP/AED team and he presented the find-Year of Sanitation, the UN General As- ings to Finot in a meeting held on Augustsembly appointed October 15 as 24, 2011. At present, Mesfin works forthe Global Hand Washing Day. It is a Alive and Thrive as Monitoring and Evalu-campaign to motivate and mobilize mil- ation Specialist.lions around the world to washtheir hands with soap.The campaign is dedicated to raisingawareness of hand washing with soap asa key approach to disease prevention. This prolongs and improves the qualityEthiopia took the challenge of getting 1 of life for PLWHA and protecting familymillion children to wash hands with soap members and caregivers from the de-on 15 October. Roughly 45 schools per 11 bilitating effects of diarrhea on schoolregions were mobilized primarily attendance, livelihood, and caregiving.through the Ministry of Education. A In addition to decreasing diarrheal diseas-mass event was held at Meskel square, Finot would like to extend its deepest es, Mesfin stated that evidence-based in-where private sponsors donated 150,000 appreciations for the excellent terventions showed that for people livingfree bars of soap. presentation Mesfin made that drew with HIV and their families in resource- our attention to simple yet doable lifeDo you know that small doable actions poor settings, the three key hygiene im- style which we all need to adopt forcan decrease diarrheal disease’s preva- provement practices—safe drinking water, healthy living. Thanks, Mesfin!lence in children under five through the washing hands with soap, and safe fecespromotion of key hygiene practices: hand handling and disposal can help mitigatewashing, safe feces disposal, and safe the impact of diarrhea on PLWHA andstorage and treatment of drinking water? 16 their families.
Guest Speaker — Dr. Elehu Feleke Cardiovascular Diseases in the Developing WorldA man with a Charisma, a member of Rotary Club of AddisAbaba Bole since 2001, did undergraduate medical train-ing in Sweden, worked in Ethiopia from 1974 -1981 andspecialized in Internal Medicine & Cardiology in 1985,since 2001, a Consultant in Cardiology in Sweden and Ethi-opia, founder of International Cardiac Hosptial in Ethiopia,is Finot’s guest speaker on September 21, 2011—Dr. ElehuFeleke.After self introduction, Dr. Elehu started with the old andnew CVDs. The “Old “CVD probably afflicted mankind fromtime immemorial, either congenital or acquired, congeni-tal malformations affect unborn & newborn babies andyoung children. Some congenital malformations may bediagnosed in adult life. Acquired CVD comes after birth.Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is the most important inthis group which is distinctly related to poverty. By the year 2030, the three most prevalent causes of death inThe “New” CVD is not actually so “new” (cf. Egyptian “low income” countries are expected to be: 1. Ischemic Heartmummies) is divided into “Ischemic Heart Disease” and disease (13.4%); 2. HIV/AIDS (13.2%) and 3. Cerebrovascular“Cerebrovascular Disease.” According to WHO statistics, disease (8.2%). Hence, Cardiovascular diseases will continue tothe prevalence has increased since mid 20th Century. This increase in the “developing world” like an epidemic!is related to changing socio-economic conditions and de-mographic factors: Increasing longevity, “precursors”: The upside of the picture is that medical science has developeddiabetes, hypertension, cholesterol; and “life style factors”: tremendously during the past few decades concerning CVD. Wesmoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity. know a lot about mechanisms of disease and we have effective tools to prevent cardiovascular diseases. We have also effectiveIn 1992, a group of researchers at WHO published a study tools to help those afflicted to save them from premature deathestimating the causes of death worldwide. The results or severe disability.showed that coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular Prevention at the individual level:diseases were no. 1 and 2 as causes of death worldwide. Avoid smoking, activate yourThese two causes and other non-communicable diseases body regularly, eat wisely [Enjoytogether caused more deaths than all communicable dis- your meal but don’t eat moreeases on a world-wide scale. than your body needs, cut downThe findings came as a surprise to many, including to on salt, sugar and unhealthy fat,WHO, at the time conventional wisdom dictated that com- eat more fresh fruits and vegeta-municable diseases, malnutrition and other diseases re- bles,] limit alcohol and coffeesulting from poverty were the most important health prob- intake.lems in the world. Since then, attitudes have gradually Know your numbers: check yourchanged. WHO is now upholding the importance of CVD blood pressure, blood sugar andand NCD worldwide, including “low-income” countries. “bad” cholesterol Finot appreciates Dr. Elehu Feleke for squeezing his programs toSub-Saharan Africa faces the double burden of the very share his vocation with the members, as expected from Rotarians,high prevalence of “diseases of poverty” and the increasing and for answering all the questions raised by members! It was likeburden of NCD, though much attention is not given by poli- free consultation service. With grateful heart to you, Dr. Feleke!cy makers and the general public. 17
Responding to Violence against Women: Experiences, Guest Speaker — Challenges and OpportunitiesNew Year is a time when people see new hopes, renew their vows to Nebyu Meharichanges, and make resolutions. It is at the beginning of EthiopianNew Year that a shocking news were announced which violated notonly the victim but also those who identified with the injustice.Newsletters made news out of the Meskerem 4 event of a man whoplucked out his ex-wife’s two precious eyes. A flight attendant, Abe-rash‘s story will no longer have the same aspired New Year hope. Hernew life will have to be redefined with her New Year’s Resolution.It is in this context, our guest speaker, Nebyu Mehari, a gender spe-cialist, who has extensive experience in working with women, whohave been violated, has shared his experiences with Finot on October5, 2011.Nebyu started his presentations with statistical descriptions. Accord- Rehabilitation, empowerment and reintegration of survi-ing to the official WHO estimates, the magnitude of violence against vors are given in the Safe House whereby temporary safewoment (VAW) in Ethiopia at a national level are: home, food, medical services, counseling, legal aid, recre- 49% of women experienced physical violence from intimate part- ation and self-esteem building facilities are provided. ner at least once in their life time 59% experienced sexual vio- For the empowerment and reintegration of survivors: lence at least once in their life time. professional skill training (IGA), credit facilities and mar- 29% experienced physical violence in one year study period time. ket linkage, life skills and esteem building trainings 44% experienced sexual violence in one year study period time. (including HIV, STIs, RH), basic literacy education, self- 16.6% of girls’ first sex is forced . defense training and outreach follow-up are provided. 77% of all pregnant women suffered from physical violence dur- ing their pregnancy and 98% perpetrators are father of the child Opportunities in Addressing VAW: Legal and policy (WHO, 2003) frameworks /national and international such as: constitu- tion, revised criminal law, revised family law, women’sIn a study conducted in selected primary schools in Addis Ababa: the national policy, GTP, CEDAW/DEVAW, BPA, growingfollowing figures were reported (AWSAD, 2008): number of (national, international, bilateral, UN Agencies, Rape 6.5% civil society organizations) to support initiatives on VAW, Sexual harassment from teachers 13% networks and forums on prevention of VAW, national Sexual harassment from male students 17% women’s machineries such as MoWCYA, women’s forums, Battering from teachers 20% and associations are taken as opportunities to deal with Battering from male students 22% VAW. Battering from parents 23% Constraints and Challenges in Addressing VAW: Gap Intimidation from non-students on their way to schools 39%. between policy and practice, weak institutional structureThe best way to deal with violence is preventing it from occurrences. and function, weak capacity of law enforcement bodies,Different strategies such as community mobilization, IEC/BCC, capaci- cultural barriers and attitudinal problems, limitations inty development, service delivery, legal and policy advocacy were awareness and commitment of decision makers, lack ofused by the NGO Nebyu was working for. adequate human, material and financial resources, weak referral linkage and networking among CSOs working onAwareness raising/sensitization on VAW were prepared targeting VAW, limited proactive responsive from media on VAW,communities, judges, students, police, women’s affairs officials, asso- disproportionate representation of women in decisionciations, medical professionals, religious leaders and survivors. The making positions, limited information and consciousnesscapacity building activities included providing training on revised about women’s rights , limited male engagement to pre-laws (criminal and family codes) and constitution, training on psycho- vent VAW, few organizations work on prevention of VAW,social support provision, survivor handling and referral, mainstream existence of harmful traditional practices, CSO law pro-VAW in crime prevention courses in police universities, establish and hibits resident charities’ and INGOs’ advocacy on VAW.support children and women protection unit at police stations, estab- Thanks Nebyu, for availing yourself and facilitatinglish and strengthen referral linkages, strengthen the reporting of the discussion on this sensitive issue!VAW, and self-defense training for women and girls. It was SUPERB! 18
Human Rights and Good Governance Guest Speaker — Alemayehu Seifu The obligation to fulfill is usually related with socio- economic rights but not limited to. To realize the right to education, states should lay all the system needed such as schools, and teachers, etc. To realize the rights to health, states should make health centers available, ac- cessible, to all with basic health care facilities. Even though states are duty bound to fulfill, it always needs resources to realize. Hence, fulfillment is progres- sive. In human rights parameters, states endeavors to fulfill their: Resource allocation to military, health, and education Efforts to secure international cooperationAlemayehu Seifu, Human Rights Lawyer, who works at the Human RightsCommission has shared his knowledge and experiences with Finot Club Efforts to combat mal-administrations and placeon October 12, 2011. Finot expresses its highest regard to this young good governance.professional, Alemayehu, for the enlightened presentation! This means states may need to provide tangible reasonsHuman rights are the rights that all persons have by virtue of being hu- beyond their control if they fail to fulfill requirements.man derived from the inherent dignity of existing as human. The conceptof human rights can be traced back to the period of Magna carta (1215), Good Governance and Human Rights: Governance isand the Thomas Aquinas’s theory of natural rights. Other different decla- the system of values, policies, and institutions by whichration of enlightenment period were regarded as milestones for develop- society manages its economic, political and social affairsment of human rights. through interactions within and among the state, civil society and the private sector. Good governance is cre-In the aftermath of 2nd world war, the establishment of the United Na- ating well-functioning and accountable institutions polit-tions (1945) reaffirmed the worth of human dignity in its Charter. In the ical, judicial, and administrative which citizens regard as1948 UDHR very first article, it states that all human beings are born free legitimate. Hence good governance play critical role inand equal in dignity and rights (Article 1); Non discrimination: (Article human rights. An effective governance can place legisla-2); Civil and political rights (Articles 3-13, 15 and 16-18 to 21); and Eco- tive, judiciary and institutional mechanisms to protectnomic, social and cultural rights (articles 23-27). After UDHR, in 1966 the and promote human rights.UN General Assembly adopted two human rights instruments: The inter-national covenant on civil and political rights and the international cove- Limitations and Derogations of Human Rights: Hu-nant on economic, social and cultural Rights. Human Rights are univer- man rights could be limited for the interest of other orsal, indivisible, interrelated. the public. E.g. freedom of expression might be limited for others interest. Derogation of human rights could beSources of Human Rights: a) International conventions, whether exercised during state of emergency. There are rightsgeneral or particular; b) International custom, as evidence of general always intact even during state of emergency, such as thepractice accepted as law; c) General principles of law recognised by right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment.civilised nations; d) Subsidiary means for the determination of rules oflaw such as judicial decisions and teachings of the most highly qualified International Human Rights Monitoring System:publicists. There are Charter Based [Human Rights Council, Univer- sal Periodic Review, Special Procedures of Human Rights 19
Humanity and Peace: Africa Union’s Guest Speaker — Quest for Peace in Africa Halleluiah Lulie BA in English and Law, MA in Journalism and Communications and MA in Peace and Security Studies, Halleluiah Lulie is from Rotaract Club of Keroggie, the New Generation guest speaker on November 9, 2011 The success and effective implementation of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) will determine the peace, stability and prosperity of the African continent in the coming years. APSA consists of diverse yet harmonious mechanisms for conflict prevention, management and resolution, as well as post-conflict reconstruction and development. The strategy that has the African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC) as its core is indeed one of the great accomplishments witnessed as a result of the OAU-AU transition. The progress and success in the efforts towards the establish- ment of APSA have been mixed. The past years have wit- nessed the operationalisation of the Continental Early Warn- ing System (CEWS), the establishment of the regional brigades which are the foundations for the African Standby Force (ASF) and the establishment and engagement in various peace and security issues of the Panel of the Wise. The Military Staff Committee and the Peace Fund also came in to being. The di- verse instruments demonstrate that the architecture is indeed a comprehensive set of tools to address the security concerns of the continent by African actors. Its full picture can only be clearly seen - like a jigsaw puzzle – when all the parts fit into place. The Peace and Security Council (PSC), which was established by the first Summit of the AU in Durban, South Africa in July 2002 is the most visible component of the APSA. The Council is the most powerful decision-making organ for the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts in Africa. Forming the basis of the security architecture, the PSC of the AU relies on the availability and quality of information, expertise, wisdom and power of the various components of APSA. The political deci- sions and recommendations by the Council cannot be relevant without a proper support at the conflict prevention, manage- ment and intervention levels. The Continental Early Warning System is established as one of the key pillars of the African Peace and Security for the purpose of information gathered through the Early Warning Sys- tem to advise the Peace and Security Council on potential conflicts and threats to peace and security in Africa and recommend the best course of action. The African Standby Force is more or less a continental version of a national army and the Military Staff Committee is a military advisory council. ASF is composed of standby multidis- ciplinary components with civilian and military components in their countries of origin and ready for rapid deployment at an appropriate notice. One of the conflict prevention mechanisms of the continental architecture is the Panel of the Wise. Drawing on Africa’s rich tradition of bestowing peacemaking efforts on the elders because of their wisdom, the African Union established the Panel of the Wise as one of the key pillars of its peace and security architecture. The Panel which is com- posed of five highly respected African personalities from diverse backgrounds, advise the PSC and the Chairperson of the AU Commission on matters relating to the promotion and maintenance of peace, security and stability on the continent. The archi- tecture also has a financial wing called the Peace Fund to provide the necessary financial resources for peace support missions and other operational activities related to peace and security. 20 Finot acknowledges the young, knowledgeable speaker and encourages him on his future endeavor! Peace be to you, Halleluiah!
Guest Speaker — Dr. Frehiwot KebedeDr. Frehiwot Kebede, one of the available Pediatrician for4.5 million children in Ethiopia is the guest speaker ofFinot on November 23, 2011.I want to start with what medicine is as summarized insix sentences: Learned profession devoted to the care of the health of people. Governed by code of conduct, ethics and humanity. Requires standards of skill, knowledge and experi- ences. Diagnosis, prognosis and therapy based on probabili- ties. The figure for the total Ethiopian specialists graduated in the coun- Best estimate of probabilities derived from scientific try and abroad since 1987 till Dec 2006 and those available in ALL methods. public sector shows: [405 surgeons graduated, 97 available; 352 Action embraces all and is a science and an art. gynecologist graduated, 76 were available; 372 Internists graduatedDr Frehiowt continued her presentation with the back- but 53 available; 376 pediatricians graduated but only 48 wereground information about medical situation in Ethiopia. available.]The figures for total doctors in Ethiopia since 1896 in Aggregate loss of Ethiopian doctors from public sector betweenpublic health institutions until 2006 is astonishing. In 1987 and 2006 shows that the total doctors who graduated in Ethio-1896, there were three doctors, which the number grew pia and abroad were 4629. However only 932 doctors were availa-up and picked in 1990 to be 1996. However, this growth ble in 2006 i.e., about 3704 were lost.was somehow hampered and headed in the downward Hospital to population ratio in Ethiopia (2006) shows that 85% ofspiral. In 2006, there were only 638 doctors who the population lives rurally; 139 hospitals for 77 million people, (1worked in public hospitals. On the other hand, the doc- per 550,000); 36 hospitals are in the capital. Many hospitals are overtors graduated from Ethiopian medical schools from 150 km from the rural population.1968 to 2006 in three medical schools were 3728. Focusing on pediatrics, which encompasses treatment of childrenWHO’s minimum recommendation for developing coun- from age 0-18, the problem gets no better. The MDG sets a goaltries is 1:10,000 but the total doctor-population ratio in which Ethiopia strives to reach.2006 was 1:118,000 in the public sector. The specialist: Neonatal mortality rate 45/1000 – 2010 …. Goal 38/2015patient ratio is more staggering as you can see from the Infant mortality rate 59/1000 – 2010 …. Goal 31/2015table below: Under five mortality rate 88/1000 – 2010 .…Goal 68/2015 Specialist- Internal Challenges: Access and availability of health facilities Specialist-to- to-hospital Qualification Number population ratio [medical equipment, drugs, vaccines, lab equipment and supplies] Trained human resource: Shortage of experienced teachers/ train- Surgeon 44 1:1.6 million 1:1.7 ers both in production and retention. Obstetrician & Gynecologist 39 1:1.8 million 1:1.9 External Challenges: Socio-economic problems [poverty, lack of Pediatrician 16 1:4.5 million 1:4.8 awareness, cultural and traditional beliefs, fast population growth]; Internist Emerging and reemerging diseases, [HIV/AIDS, multi drug resistant 15 1:4.8 million 1:5.1 (Physician) TB; and globalization [diet, substance abuse, physical inactivity] Ophthalmologist 7 1:10.3 million 1:10.9 Opportunities: Ethiopian Pediatric Society, professional satisfaction Total (Addis Ababa) 88 1:34,000 11:1 and diversified exposure and practice. Finot would like to say more than thank you to Dr. Frehiwot for the National (MOH) 219 1:342,000 2.6 :1 thought provoking presentation about the current realities of practicing medicine with particular attention to pediatrics . 21
Challenging the Challenges of Marriage: Common Causes for Divorce in Ethiopia Guest Speaker, Yemesgen Molla “The hunger for love is much more difficult to remove than the hunger for bread.” Mother Teresa The third alleged cause is interference by third party, it could be in-laws, siblings, friends, colleagues or others. The man says, “I don’t want her friends.” The lady says, “I don’t want to see his sister in our house.” If we do not know how to handle those whom we may not like, if outsiders have more spaces than the marriage has, it may end of in chaos. The building block should be nuclear family first, then relatives then the community. Our relationships with others may affect our family or vise-versa. When our relationship with spouses did not go right, anything or anybody can be a deceptive replacement. This could be pseu- do sex partners, or financial gain or work that may try to substi-Let me start with what someone said, “Human beings are the tute the relationship. All these show that the shallow relation-product of five things: Four can be emulated with plastic and one ship the couples have. I would like to challenge this as well. It iswith glass. The four plasticish ones are health, friends, finance not the third party that is the cause of the problems but our re-and spirituality. The fifth that is represented by glass is family. actions to their demands or the unnecessary priority we gaveOnce shattered, very difficult to restore to its former stage,” said them over our marriage. Others can have a foothold to the mar-Yimesgen on the Family Month of December 14, 2011. riage when the two individuals who constituted the marriage did not work on what is important to each other.Yemesgen stated that research conducted on the major causes of If these three alleged causes are mere manifestations of under-divorce in Ethiopia showed that there were three cause of di- lying problems, what would save marriages from going intovorce: sexual incompatibility, finance and third party interfer- shattered pieces?ence. Today, I would like to challenge these three alleged causes. 1) Acquiring knowledge and skill about marriage. It is amaz- ing that we go to school to acquire knowledge about every-Let me start with sexual incompatibility. This may arise due to thing but we don’t spend time to learn about this big institu-nature and lack of skill about love making. When we talk about tion that contributes to our happiness, success, and fulfill-nature, it includes differences in arousal, satisfaction, timing, ment. The knowledge and skill includes: relationship, com-physical sizes, etc. The skill includes foreplay, play and after play. munication, love expressions, human body, background ofMany people start to have an affair when they see big disparity on individuals and how that affects the marriage, raising chil-this. However, if the cause is incompatibility, it cannot be solved dren, accommodating differences, and so on.with another problem of looking for a substitute. Having an af-faire will never solve the spouses’ compatibility issues. 2) Dealing with one’s personal life. The way we are raised or lived affects the way we deal with others. If we live selfish- ly, we reflect that in marriage relations. So understandingThe second alleged cause is finance. It is good to have moneybecause that is what enables us to meet our needs. If finance was what marriage requires and getting in terms with the bag-the real cause for divorce, then no wealthy couples would have to gage we bring to the marriage helps from imposing who weface divorce. Hence, it is not the lack nor the excess that could be are on others and contributing to the wellbeing of the mar-a cause for conflict. Rather, it is our attitude, understanding of riage.how we use the money, common goal, agreement in prioritizing 3) Developing oneness in marriage and learning to love ourand usage may underlie the finance issues. A lady said, “I lent myhubby some money, but he refused to repay me.” This couples partner the way he/she wants to feel loved is important forthink as “her money” vs. “his money” so it is not “our money”. enriched marriage.Our attitude towards money may end up in dishonesty. For some, Finot expresses its deeper gratitude to Ato Yemesgen, who is a mar-money is an expression of status, for others they care more about riage and family counselor, who at present hosts a Radio program,comfort so they enjoy overspending, for some it is more of a secu- called “Hiwot Bebet” on FM 102.1 on Tuesdsay from 8:00-9:00.rity so it has to be saved and for still some others it is more of a Thanks a million!means of living. The issue here is reaching agreement on how touse, spend, and save. 22
Economic Growth and Development Guest Speaker —Dawit Getachew, President of Rotary Club of AddisAbaba, was the guest speaker who addressed eco- Dawit Getachewnomic growth and development on December 21,2011.Dawit started with defining what economic growthand development is all about. Growth refers to theincreasing in production of a country within a year.Gross domestic product is anything that a countryproduces within a year: the aggregate value of pro-duction [agricultural, industrial, mining materials, ...]or services [energy, construction, education,transport, communication, health, ...] divided by thetotal population. A real term growth takes place if ittakes inflation into account. block had no private sector, everything was public, collective and little market mechanism. The capitalist system directsOn the other hand, development is more complex resources where it is needed, no plan but if there is oppor-which has indicators. There were about 60 indica- tunity for high return, resources are invested there.tors; however, in the year 2000, only 8 indicatorswere agreed as development indicators: such aseliminating extreme poverty, reducing child mortali- The global world has changed since 2008, the recession, banking sys-ty improving maternal health , HIV/AIDS, and others. tem, the political and economic world are changing. There are emerg- ing markets: Brazil, Russia, India and China. China is the only country showing 10-11% growth since 1979. The oil producing countries areFactors affecting development are: 1) Resources 2) holding some power. US has 15 trillion dollars but China has 5 trillionGovernment policies, 3) Technology 4) Good govern- dollars. However, the way things are moving globally may not keep ance 5) Saving and the dollars where they are now. In the 90s, new cooperation is devel- investment. These oped. There is big debate whether or not the available resources are all interrelated. would help us sustain us in the coming years in terms of oil depletion, If there is no re- population growth, environmental degradation, climate change, and source to invest, so forth. there is no develop- ment. Overcon- sumption, people / Ethiopia, during the time of the Emperor, the capitalist policy was fol- government bor- lowed, at the time of the derg, the Marxist/Lennist philosophy wasrowing but not repaying affects development. adopted and all western relations were cut off. There was no means to develop the country. There was less than 2% growth, no saving, no resources, no western support, and only Italy and World Bank sup-What happened to the global economic differences? ported Ethiopia and to make things worse, war affected the countryThe north and south, east and west? for about seventeen years. According to official data, the GDP is con- stituted from: agriculture 40%, Service [construction, education,1) Geographical factors: The north is developed, health...] 50%, industry 10%. The economic growth is said to be 11% resourceful, land is fertile where as the south which has taken care of the 30-60% inflation. The devaluation, high which consists of Latin America, Africa are cate- oil and fertilizer import price, circulation of excess money in the mar- gorized as developing. The East and West has ket contributes to inflation. The government introduced growth and cultural bearing as well for their differences. transformation plan to boost industrial products.2) Political factors: Marxism/socialism which teaches human development comes through Walking Economy equality, plans and control of resources and not through market competition; whereas capitalism “A guy is walking down the street with his friend. He says to his friend, "Im a operates on the balance between demand and walking economy. "His friend replies, "Hows that?" "Its like this -- my hair supply. line is in recession, my stomach is a victim of inflation, and the combination 23
Telemedicine and its Applications Guest Speaker — in Ethiopia Dr. Asfaw Atnafu Dr. Asfaw Atnafu (M.D, M.Sc.) Head, Department of Radiology & Center for e-health was Finot’s guest speaker on December 28, 2011. Dr. Asfaw started his presentation on the concept of ehealth. The World Health Organization defines eHealth as the combined use in the health sector of electronic communication and information technology (digital data transmitted, stored and retrieved electronically) for clinical, education and administrative purposes, both at the local site and at a distance. The term characterizes not only a technical development, but also a state-of-mind, a way of thinking, an attitude, and a commitment for networked, global think- ing, to improve health care locally, regionally and worldwide by using information and com- munication technology. Avails remote consultation in remote areas where specialists are not available enabling a GP to treat. The application and scope of eHealth is seen in Telemedicine Helps when case is complex and when more than one special- where there is remote health care, in health information system , ist is required to treat a patient. information for citizens and tool for disease surveillance, mHealth Provides continuous medical education through streaming and electronic based health education. video and video conferencing. Provides training to prevent and respond to typical disease Tele education Programs can be done in between national and patterns in remote areas. international academic centers (through VSAT / ISDN / Internet), Serves as health care knowledge-base, a communication tool broadcast classes or courses and to have education for doctors at to understand the nature of ailments. peripheral sites. In disaster management – relief efforts during natural calami- What is Telemedicine? The term Telemedicine (TM) is the deliv- ties. ery of medicine at a distance. It is sharing or exchanging of patient Potential Challenges : High initial investment, recurrent budget related data and medical opinion between a medical professionals to run the unit, techno phobia by health professionals and time of and a remote location through telecommunication networks. Tele- senior doctors for active involvement in TM, acceptability to pa- medicine generally refers to the use of communications and infor- tients and doctors, security of patient data, quality and continuity mation technologies for the delivery of clinical care. It encom- of connectivity. passes the processes of diagnosis, treatment and education. Requirements: Telecommunication infrastructure and network- Benefits of Telemedicine: ing: The technology to move the information electronically from one site to another and to the geographically dispersed locations. Networking health services that support the referral system. connectivity is through internet links with optimized band width; Death of distance, reduce unnecessary travel, expense strain equipment and procedures used to acquire the physical and clini- and time for the patient. cal information and store the data in the computer for further Wider access to specialty/quality service, improve quality of analysis, study and for tele-education. service to rural areas. Clinical applications: Tele-Radiology, Tele-Cardiology, Tele- Grassroots consultancy and preventive healthcare. Dermatology, Tele-Pathology, Tele-Psychiatry, Tele- Avoiding crowd in hospitals. Ophthalmology, Tele-Gynecology, Tele-Mentoring, and so forth. Solves the problem of retaining health professionals in non- Finot is astounded with gratitude to Dr. Asfaw for letting us urban areas. “Working in isolated environments where access have your valuable time to share this global initiative that is at to peers, education and information is limited, is one of the the infant stage in the Country. highest risk factors for physicians retention and ’ loss of medi- cal competence” Application of Telemedicine: It overcomes geographical barriers, to avail cost effectiveness quality and effective health care. It provides second opinion to confirm diagnosis plan treat- ment. Avails tele-mentored procedures/surgery – in case of emer- gency GP can perform surgery with a tele-mentored specialist attendance. 24
Demographic issues: 7 Billion People Member Speaker —Finot member, Behailu G., a demographer and a statistician by pro-fession, was the speaker on August 17 and November 2, 2011. Hestarted with the basic definition of population, which is the total Behailu Gebremedhinnumber of inhabitants living in a given geographical area (Country,region, zone, wereda, kebele) at a specific point in time.According to the Central Statistical Agency, the population of thecountry was 73.8 million in 2007. According to the same source,36.6 % in of the population lived in Oromiya Region. The secondand third largest shares of the national population were counted inAmhara (23.4%) and SNNP (20.2%) regions respectively.Sources of population data are Census, which is a process of count-ing everyone within a geographically defined boundary and timeand collecting analysing and disseminating relevant demographicand socio economic and sample survey is a technique in whichdata is collected from a sample population that enables to draw aconclusion for the total population. Vital/Civil registration is a 7 Billion is an opportunity: We have so many talented,system in which vital events such as birth, death, migration andor creative, educated people. Never before has humanity beenmarriage and divorce data are collected and summarized. so interconnected. We are now part of a global community where actions taken in one country or region can have anPopulation Debate on its Impact on Development: immediate impact on other parts of the world. We have twoOptimistic: Population growth fuels development and hence it is billion young people who can change the world.an economic asset. As population size increases, so does the stock Poverty and inequality: In the poorest countries, extremeof human ingenuity. Though population growth creates pressure on poverty, inequity, high mortality and high fertility are linkedresources, people are resourceful and are stimulated to innovate, in a vicious cycle. Reducing poverty by investing in healthespecially in situations of livelihood challenges – necessity is the and education, especially on women and girls, can breakmother of invention. this cycle.Pessimistic: Rapid population growth imposes negative impacts on Environmental sustainability: The paramount challengedevelopment; The demand for resources increases and capital per of this century is to meet the needs of Seven billion humanworker decreases eventually lowering the standard of living. When beings – and the next generations – while protecting thepopulation growth is rapid, a large part of investment is used to intricate balance of nature that sustains life.provide supplies for the increasing basic needs of the people ratherthan improving the level of satisfaction of people. Aging populations: Population ageing is particularly pro- nounced in Asia, Europe and Latin America. While moreNeutralist: Population growth has no significant effects on devel- developed countries have higher proportions of older per-opment; Given other factors controlled, here is little cross-country sons, less developed countries are ageing at a faster pace,evidence that supports the assertion that increasing population with less time to prepare: the case of Ethiopia 4.4 % or overimpedes or promotes development. 4 million people are over age 65.Planning is needed to achieve balanced and sustainable develop- Urban Growth: Almost all future population growth will bement; to distribute resources equitably; to coordinate the develop- absorbed by cities of the developing world, which are un-ment efforts of different actors; to enable the private sector to play prepared for such rapid expansion. The next two billionleading role in the economy; to fill the market failure in providing people will live in cities which thus needs earnest planninggoods and services particularly of the economic and social infra- now.structure . The challenge also remains as far as utilizing 2 billion youth,The world at 7billion: By 31st October 2011, the global popula- unleashing the power of women and girls, governmentstion would reach 7 billion. It was 1 million in 1804, 2 million in share responsibility to support organizations and individu-1927, 3 million in 1959, 4 million in 1974, 5 million in 1987, 6 mil- als working to improve society, creating opportunity andlion in 1999. increasing productivity is everyone’s business, food andThe Population of our country has reached 82 million; It was 42 water, better health, education and media.million in 1984 and 53 million in 1994. The growth rate was 2.6% Behailu deserves a bigger thank you for the two daysper annum. If this sustains over the years to come, then the popula- timely messages and adding spice to the club meetings.tion will double by 2038, and becomes 194 million by 2050. 25
Member Speaker — Tigist Awoke Tigist Awoke Opportunities & Challenges of E-Commerce the Case of EthiopiaFinot’s second member speaker was Tigist who recentlygraduated with MBA in Information Systems from Sik- September 14, 2011kim Manipal University. She presented the thesis shewrote as partial fulfillment of her graduation. Initiatives in Ethiopia: Dashen bank has 55 ATM along with over 500 point of service;Tigist started with explaining what the virtual network world” or “The Sixth United Bank has introduced tele banking ser-Continent” is as called by Lu Yongxiang. It is a new economic revolution digitali- vices and Zemen Bank has online bankingzation and Internet, which breaks the boundary of time and space, alters the trade services and Commercial Bank of Ethiopia haspattern and has profound impact on human society. 250 ATM , 500 POS. Ethiopian Commodity Exchange is at early stages.E-Commerce: is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction Human capacity development: The numberthat involves the transfer of information across the Internet. It covers a range of ICT students has increased significantlyof different types of businesses, from consumer-based retail sites, through auc- both in public and private institutions in re-tion or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and services between cent years. According to Ministry of Educa-corporations. tion, the number of undergraduate students in ICT related fields (Computer science, Infor-There are six types of e-Commerce: Business to Consumer, business-to- mation systems and Electrical Engineering)government, government-to-government, consumer-to-consumer, business-to was about 8,246 in 2006 that is 13per cent of-business the total enrolment in the same year.Opportunities of E-Commerce: Electronic commerce has economic efficiency Policy: The PASDEP recognizes that exploit-gains to the consumer by reducing whole sellers and retailers 25%), removes ing information technology is central in ordercost of building by 50% , enables direct export, reporting and goal monitoring. to promote growth and reduce poverty. Ac-The cost of distribution is reduced up to 50 to 90% for digital products, and cordingly, it attaches high priority to “leap25% for others. E-commerce changes the cost structure of the value-added frog” forward the ICT sector by building a ma-chain, allows market entry (SME’s favored), future media of e-commerce, inte- jor ICT backbone and providing affordablegrates Ethiopia to the world market, leads to formal account transaction de- local level access to ICT.creasing high cost of transaction, increase better banking service and resolve Telecommunications Infrastructure: The num-physical depositing cash challenges, facilitate export, out sourcing due to cheaplabor and increases societal awareness. ber of subscribers grew up to 360,000 from 1995-2008. By 2014 the number of fixed lineChallenges of E-commerce: E-commerce is a smokeless business. However, subscribers in Ethiopia is expected to increasethere are constraints associated in making transactions electronically. Physical to 4.4 million, representing an annual averagedelivery of products bought electronically takes time and costs money. Not growth rate of 38 percent. The number of mo-only delivery is costly but also there is uncertainty regarding quality, as one bile subscribers is expected to grow at 43 per-cannot see the products physically and as well as the legality of the company, cent per year over the period, reaching almostby which there is no guarantee of money before delivery of goods. In addition 20 million by 2014. The number of Internetto these, there are issues regarding privacy and security of electronic transac- users will jump to 12 million, but Internettions. Whether or not payment details (for example, credit card details) will be subscribers will still be low at 1.4 million atmisused is also a big concern. Low levels of: Internet penetration, human ca- the end of 2014 .pacity, communication infrastructure, public awareness; absence of legal back-ground : e-document, e-commerce policy, and e-payment make e-commerce to Finot can only say Thank, Thanks and Thankbe challenging especially lesser developed countries. you to this young and beautiful presenter who knew what she was talking about. 26