Open Data in Participatory Design & Governance


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Lecture on Open Data and its potential for Participatory Design & Governance given as part of Seminar on Adaptive Governance in School of Architecture, University of Limerick on 21st October, 2013

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  • {"123":"Copenhagen Wheel\nRear bicycle wheel which attaches to normal bikes\nCaptures energy when cycling and provides power when needed\nIncludes environmental sensors\nUse smartphone to lock and unlock bike and change gears\n","104":"Open Data is nothing new in the G.I.S. world\nOne of the best examples of Open Data is OpenStreetMap\nThis is collaborative spatial data made openly available\n","9":"Participation\nTo increase citizen engagement with Government.\nIf Government and Citizens are to cooperate, then Government can’t be the only ones with the information\n","85":"Government 2.0 or Open Government is the use of Social Media by Government to enable innovation in the way Government engages with citizens and delivers services\n","28":"Membership Section\n","66":"Winner of the Enterprise Apps Category was\ is a Web App which uses Planning Application data from all 4 Dublin local authorities. These are displayed on a map allowing users to easily check planning applications in an area.\nFeatures include a notification service, a 3D interactive house showing what works need planning permission, a professional directory and planning-related news feed. Planning applications are colour coded by status and more info can be displayed.\n","114":"This is an example of the kind of interventions that people make to overcome problems they encounter with permeability\nIn this case signs used to advertise housing are put to use to cross a ditch\nThis would have started out as a small gap in the hedgerow which grew larger as more people used this shortcut\n","95":"The SOWIT project involving researchers from UCC, TCD, Kilkenny County Council in partnership with Fingal County Council will provide an online environment for citizen discussions and citizen participation in consultations\n","76":"Walk on the Bright Side is a web App that lets you select a walking route and it will indicate how well lit the route is\nIt also allows you to view all street light in an area and report any faults\n","19":"We have added a new facility to request data\nWe will check if we have the data and whether it can be released\nIf we can, we will publish it to the site\n","124":"Map of pollution levels captured from Copenhagen Wheel bikes\n","105":"U.K. Department of Transport made NAPTAN bus stop dataset available to OpenStreetMap\nOpenStreetMap volunteers check, edit and verify the data via the NOVAM viewer\nImproved data quality of public dataset\nPotential for the same approach to be used here with Government datasets\n","10":"In the United States, Barak Obama promised Open Government during his election campaign.\nThis website, was created in 2009 to share US Government data.\nThis is the seen as the main catalyst that has driven the Open Data movement\nThe site now contains 4,717 datasets\n","86":"Communicate\nGovernment can use Social Media as another broadcast communication channel\nHere Fingal County Council’s is using Twitter to inform citizens of events and service outages\n","29":"Past Events\nPlanning\nTechnology\nSpatial\nData Visualisation\nOpen Innovation\nFuture Events\nPublic Sector\nTransport\n","67":"Winner of the Overall & Tourism Apps Categories was Discover Fingal\nDiscover Fingal is a Mobile Web App in which users are encouraged to discover historical and cultural sites in Fingal through a Find and Reward Facebook App and Mobile Website. Detailed information is provided about each site.\nIf a user checks into three cultural sites they are rewarded with a voucher for a free cup of tea or coffee which can be redeemed at Skerries Mills.\n","115":"This is a map indicating an informal route that people were taking (the long straight yellow line)\nBeside it is a proposed solution to provide a formal alternative\n","96":"Open Data plays an important role in Open Government\n","20":"The site has a Featured Apps section to showcase uses that Fingal Open Data has been put to\n","1":"Today I am going to\ntalk about Data & Visualisation and why it is important;\ngive an overview of how Fingal has used data & visualisation;\ngive an overview of Open Data;\nshare our experience with Fingal Open Data;\ngive an overview of eGovernment and its role in civic governance\n","39":"This is the Google Group for the Irish Open Data community – sign up to keep up to date\n","125":"Engaging Cities tracks how Social Media technologies (Web 2.0) will impact our cities, especially the urban planning process\nWhat will “Planning 2.0” look like, and how will it be used to create more livable places?\n","106":"Greater Blanchardstown Initiative – a bottom-up approach to Urban Planning.\nWhat is the lived experience for citizens?\nHow readily can citizens access local services?\nWhat is the walkability or permeability of an area?\nWhen making decisions to locate services and facilities how can we select the optimum location?\n","87":"Share\nWe can share information such as images, data and video\nDublin City Libraries share video via YouTube\n","68":"All winners and runners up of the Apps4Fingal competition\n","11":"In the United Kingdom, Tim Berners-Lee persuaded Prime Minister Gordon Brown that the UK should pursue an Open Data policy.\nThis website, was created in 2010 to share UK Government data.\nDavid Cameron’s Government has continued this policy\nThe site now contains 8,751 datasets\n","116":"This photo shows the desire line\nThe vegetation has been worn away by people walking to this wall and fence which they then climb over\nUnfortunately, it was not possible to implement the formal alternative\n","21":"There is a blog where we post updates on Fingal Open Data and Open Data in Ireland\n","59":"For Open Data to be of value, it must be put to some use\nThe most common use is through web or mobile Apps\nTo encourage the creation of Apps we organised a competition\n","2":"Some background about Fingal\n","126":"\nUsing technology to change the way that cities and citizens interact\n19 projects showcased\n","107":"We captured them like this\n","31":"Some background about Fingal\n","69":"For Open Data to be of value, it must be put to some use\nThe most common use is through web or mobile Apps\nTo encourage the creation of Apps we organised a competition\n","12":"In fact, the EU were ahead of the game\nThe 2003 EU Reuse of Public Sector Information Directive was designed to allow European companies to exploit the potential of Public Sector Data and to contribute to economic growth and job creation.\nIn a 2009 report, the EU cited the value of EU Public sector data at an estimated €27B.\nHowever, the PSI directive was primarily about requesting or ‘pulling’ data from Government rather than the publishing or ‘push’ model of Open Data\n","88":"Dialogue\nGovernment can engage in two-way conversations with citizens\nHere is an example of South Dublin County Council responding to a citizen’s enquiry on Facebook about their water supply\n","117":"When we revisited the area, we discovered that someone had actually cut away the bars in the fence to make it easier to take this shortcut\n","3":"Map illustrates population density in the County\n239,813 citizens\n4th largest Local Authority\n22.2% population growth 2002-2006\nFastest growing & Youngest county\nPopulation is concentrated in the South and East of the County\n3 main population centres of Blanchardstown, Swords and Balbriggan\nNorth-West is rural farmland\n","79":"This is an iPhone App that has been built with Fingal Bring Bank data\nIt displays all Bring Banks\nIt allows filtering on the type of recyclable material – glass, cans or textiles\nIt displays information about the selected Bring Bank\nIt also identifies the nearest Bring Bank to your location and will provide directions to Bring Banks\n","22":"The About section gives general information about Fingal Open Data and a link to the licence governing the use of the data\n","60":"In order to encourage the reuse of data published on Fingal Open Data and Dublinked, Fingal County Council organised the Apps4Fingal competition\nThe competition ran from 9th November 2011 to 9th January 2012\nThere was a prize fund of €11,500 thanks to the generosity of our sponsors\n","127":"\nChange people’s behaviour through fun\nEnvironment, Driving, etc.\n","108":"And this is a photo of one of these high-difficulty desire lines\nPeople climb this wall, using a shopping trolley as a form of improvised stile\nAnother indicator is capping missing from the top of walls – dislodged by repeated climbing of the wall\n","70":"Hit The Road is a startup using Public Transport data as the basis for its journey planner app\n","13":"In the two and a half years since the launch of, Open Data sites have sprung up around the world, mainly in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia and New Zealand\n2010 – UK Government, London, United Nations, World Bank\n","51":"Census 2011 data is also available at the new Small Area level of geoography\n18,488 Small Areas\nHugely valuable and mineable dataset if released en bloc\nUsage restrictions at present (non-commercial)\n","89":"Participate\nSocial Media can be used to facilitate participation\nKilkenny County Council use Blogs to enable citizens to provide feedback on proposed Plans for their area\n","4":"To cope with our phenomenal growth we made extensive use of data & visualisation for service planning.\n","42":"For Open Data to be of value, it must be put to some use\nThe most common use is through web or mobile Apps\nTo encourage the creation of Apps we organised a competition\n","80":"FixYourStreet is an open transparent tool for reporting problems to Local Government\nIt also has an Open Data dimension, as the data is exposed for developers to write programs that comsume the data behind the site – location, details and resolution of Reported issues\n","23":"The data is subject to the Irish PSI Licence, drawn up by the Department of Finance, which allows for fair use of the data.\n","61":"23 Apps were submitted\n","109":"This gave us a complete route network for the area giving all the possible means by which the public move\n","14":"What about Ireland?\nUp to November 2010 there were no Open Data websites in this country.\n","90":"Collaborate\nUltimately, Government 2.0 is about enabling a new approach to citizens and Government working together in a collaborative manner on matters of mutual concern\nIdeally, collaboration should be capable of being initiated by either Government or Citizen\nThis is an example from North Sydney Council, Australia in which citizens can participate in determining budget priorities\nThe citizen can choose to increase, decrease or not alter spending under the budget headings\nTheir selections are totalled interactively so that they can see whether they are over or under budget and if over budget what the implications are for rates\nCitizens inputs are compiled into a report which feeds into the Councils decision-making process\n","71":"Parkya is a startup which has created an app to help people with parking\n","138":"Contact details for Fingal Open Data and Dublinked\n","100":"Open Data plays an important role in Open Government\n","43":"CSO collect large volumes of Census data\nPreviously difficult to access\nSmall Area Population website makes it easier to access\nDemographics for each of 3,409 Electoral Divisions\n","24":"The Dublin Region encompasses Dublin City and the surrounding counties\n","62":"The Apps4Fingal section of Fingal Open Data contains all the information about the competition including details of and links to the competition entries, rules, judging criteria and the shortlisted entries\nI am going to give a quick run-through of the winning Apps\n","5":"The Fingal Data Hub was created by the Fingal Development Board in 2009.\nIt was a collaboration between 9 partner agencies.\nIt was designed for sharing of anonymised data between partner agencies, to enable interagency cooperation and service planning.\n","110":"With our network in place we can now carry out walkability or permeability analysis\nThis map indicates the local and regional services areas in Blanchardstown (locations of shops, doctors, etc.)\n","15":"Progress is also being made at National level in Ireland\n","91":"Collaborate\nThis example is from Melbourne, Australia\nHere the draft City Development Plan is published as a Wiki and the public can directly edit the Plan\nThere is also a discussion page relating to each section of the plan where suggestions can be outlined or changes justified\nAll versions are retained to enable comparison between versions of the Plan\nOnce the public consultation phase is complete, the Council deliberates on the contributions to organise, refine and incorporate ideas in the most practical way\n","72":"While the apps4fingal concentrated on Fingal services, many of the Apps incorporate data from other services and across the whole of the Dublin region.\nIn addition, most could scale up to National or International services.\nOne App that has been developed since the competition and which makes use of Open Data is KidsMaps.\nThis takes the playground data from the Fingal Open Data site, but also includes playground data sourced from most of the Local Authorities in Ireland.\nThis is a great example of how Apps based on Open Data can be scalable.\n","139":"To conclude\nData is a fundamental requirement for evidence-based decision making - in this case in the planning and design processes\nVisualisation and mapping allows us and the public to engage with and understand complex data; and to understand places\nOpen Data is a platform for opening up the decision-making processes\nIt enables Open Government which allows for increased citizen participation\nOpen Data and technology developments including Social Media and the proliferation of location aware mobile devices enable new approaches to design and civic governance\nIn particular, I would strongly urge that any design mapping produced is captured digitally in a manner that facilitates reuse by others – in GIS systems, Google Maps, Bing Maps, Apps, etc. – and published as Open Data where possible\nAs I mentioned earlier, Fingal Open Data is available at\nAnd you can also follow us on Twitter at fingalopendata\n","101":"FixYourStreet is an open transparent tool for reporting problems to Local Government\nIt also has an Open Data dimension, as the data is exposed for developers to write programs that comsume the data behind the site – location, details and resolution of Reported issues\n","25":"\n","63":"Winner of the Ideas Category was Fingal Deals\nThe Fingal Deals App idea is intended to encourage people to shop locally in Fingal and give local businesses a boost. The app would showcase current special offers and discounts offered by a wide variety of businesses, and could be refined into business type categories to facilitate searches. \n","6":"Gives us the ability to profile a place\nPopulation, Age, Social Class, Deprivation, Unemployment, Social Housing, School goers\nTo plan a place you must know a place\n","111":"We use a walkability measure of 700m.\nWhen calculated by a straight line method (as the crow flies) this indicated that the majority of the households were within a 700m catchment of services\n","54":"The Public Service Reform Plan was published in November 2011\n","92":"Last 3 Development Plans produced with GIS\nStarted using in 1997 – 1999, 2006 & 2011 Plans\n2006 Plan live in Council Chamber – interactive visualisation (inc. Aerial Photography) eliminated interpretation of data – concentrate on decision-making\n2011 Plan – Online Submissions; mapping of submissions & motions\nA large quantity of spatial data to make up the Development Plan\n","16":"This video is available on\n\n","121":"Walkonomics website\nRates the walkability of streets based on data for each street relating to street width, crime, gradients and traffic levels\n","102":"These programs could be Apps, Visualisations, alternative interfaces, etc\nHeyGov! is an example of the type of development that could be done with FixYourStreet data\n","26":"Datastore\n200 datasets (557 files)\nData from 4 Dublin Councils and OSI data in research zone (thanks to OSI for being the first)\nNational datasets (Hazardous & Transfrontier Waste Shipments; National Public Transport Nodes; NIAH)\nRegional Datasets\nThemes focussed for first release of data were Land Use, Transport & Environmental\nZones – Open and Research (Members) – O & M\nData criteria for Members zone – Legal issues, Technical (e.g. streaming/live data (samples); binary (Traffic)), Commercial (high-value)\nFormats – open & non-proprietary where possible; can be onerous to convert – working towards this goal; go ugly early; respond to feedback\nMetadata for each dataset – Dublinked ‘lite’ standard developed in partnership with Dept. Environment, NUI Galway, Dept. Marine & Natural Resources; compliant with international standards\n","64":"Winner of the Student Apps Category was Fingal Day Tripper\nFingal Day Tripper is a Web App that allows day trippers to select the type of activities they prefer, as well as if they would like to stop for a coffee. They can also specify whether they are travelling with children or disabled passengers.\nThe app will then suggest a day trip in the local area, showing locations of interest on the map. It also provides the option of getting the route and driving directions for the trip and details of each attraction.\n","7":"So, we have seen the importance of demographic and administrative data in the Fingal Data Hub; spatial data in the Development Plan; physical infrastructure and services data in the Greater Blanchardstown Initiative\nIn the summer of 2010, Fingal County Council became aware of the Open Data movement\nOpen Data is …\n","83":"Open Data plays an important role in Open Government\n","131":"Open Data plays an important role in Open Government\n","112":"However, people don’t walk as the crow flies – they need to use roads and paths\nWhen the calculation is run across the route network, the catchment area shrinks dramatically\n","17":"Fingal County Council launched the first Open Data website in the country in November 2010\nFingal Open Data evolved from the principles of the Fingal Data Hub and the Open Data movement.\nIn Summer 2010 we were preparing a report with data about all Local Authorities which was difficult to find and only available in PDF\nWe discovered the Open Data movement and felt that this was a better way\nWe decided to take the initiative with the backing of the County Manager and Fingal Open Data was born\nIt is available at\nThe website, which you can see on screen, provides public access to source data from Council systems.\n","55":"The eGovernment Action plan contains 3 specific actions relating to Open Data\nAll public bodies will publish Open Data\nData published in reports should also be published in parallel in open formats\nPublic bodies will identify data holdings and release by default\n","93":"Fingal County Council provided an online submissions facility as part of the consultation process for our last Development Plan\n","141":"In line with the theme, this presentation is licenced for sharing under a Creative Commons licence\nIt is available for viewing and downloading on slideshare\nThank you.\n","122":"In addition, members of the public can rate the streets to improve the accuracy of the rating\n","103":"The FixYourStreet approach has been taken a step further\nAs well as allowing people to let ue know where there are problems, why not let them suggest where servcies should be located\ Bike Racks website evolved from New York City looking at how it could maximise the value of its CRM investment\nThe website enables citizens to identify a location where they believe bike racks should be provided, to include a photo of the location and to outline their reasons for the suggested location\nOther citizens can vote on the suggestions\nCitizens can also check whether their suggested location meets Bike Rack Location Guidelines to see racks provided sooner\n","65":"Winner of the Community Apps Category was Fingal Traffic View\nFingal Traffic View is an Android Mobile App which provides information about traffic cameras, parking zones, disabled parking, train stations and Garda safety zones. \nThese are displayed on a map and users can also view images from the traffic cameras. The App also incorporates a live feed of twitter accounts related to Dublin Traffic. \n","8":"Open Formats\nAvailable in non-proprietary formats\ne.g. CSV, XML, KML, RDF, open APIs\n","84":"The full movie is 1 hour long and free to view online.\n\n","113":"When we run an analysis of households against the newly calculated catchment area, we find that 52% of households fall outside a 700m permeability catchment – meaning that they are more likely to use a car rather than walk to their service centres\n","37":"The Irish Open Data Community has existed online since October 2010\nIn October 2012 it organised its first real-world meetup\n3 meetups to date\nHackathon planned for International Open Data Day\n","18":"There are currently over 120 datasets organised into 12 categories\nDetailed information is provided about each dataset, including description, date published and available formats.\n","56":"In the 2012 Budget the Irish Government announced it’s intention to apply to join the Open Government Partnership\n","94":"The SOWIT project involving researchers from UCC, TCD, Kilkenny County Council in partnership with Fingal County Council will provide an online environment for citizen discussions and citizen participation in consultations\n"}
  • Open Data in Participatory Design & Governance

    1. 1. Open Data in Participatory Design and Governance School of Architecture, University of Limerick 21st October, 2013 @fingalopendata
    2. 2. Fingal
    3. 3. 3 largest rd Youngest Fast Growing Fingal
    4. 4. Rapid Population Growth
    5. 5. Shared Anonymised Data
    6. 6. Profile of a Place
    7. 7. Open Data
    8. 8. What is Open Data? • Public Data • Open Formats • Machine Readable • Accessible
    9. 9. Why Open Data? • Transparency • Participation • Collaboration • Economic Opportunities
    10. 10. US Government – 98,871 datasets
    11. 11. UK Government – 10,387 datasets
    12. 12. Reuse of Public Sector Information
    13. 13. Open Data Initiatives Worlwide
    14. 14. Ireland
    15. 15. FINGAL Bailey Lighthouse, Howth Head, Fingal
    16. 16. Fingal Open Data
    17. 17. Fingal Open Data website
    18. 18. 206 datasets in 12 categories
    19. 19. Request Data
    20. 20. Apps
    21. 21. Blog
    22. 22. About
    23. 23. Irish PSI Licence
    24. 24. DUBLIN REGION
    25. 25. Dublin Region Innovation Network
    26. 26. 280 datasets in Datastore
    27. 27. Top 10 Downloads
    28. 28. Apps
    29. 29. Events
    30. 30. Events to Date •Planning & Land Use •Technical Workshop •Spatial Data •Data Visualisation •Open Innovation •Public Sector Data •Linked Data Workshop •Public Transport •Tourism •Social Enterprise 60-120 attending – high % entrepreneurs
    31. 31. IRELAND Corballis, Donabate, Fingal
    32. 32. Clare Open Data
    33. 33. Sligo Open Data
    34. 34. Limerick Open Data
    35. 35. Roscommon Open Data
    36. 36. Galway County Open Data
    37. 37. OPEN DATA COMMUNITY #OpenDataIRL
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Open Data Ireland Google Group!forum/open-data-ireland
    40. 40. Open Data Day 2013 Hackathon Projects • • • • • Visualise university performance Do I need this health insurance? Pedestrianise this street? Where should business locate? Crowdsourcing local history • • • • • How thick are your kids? Open Data Finder Hospital Dashboard Crystal (Swing States) Distance from open space
    41. 41. 176 Irish Datasets Documented
    42. 42. Local Census Data
    43. 43. Census Demographics (3,409 EDs)
    44. 44. Census Demographics (18,488 SAs)
    45. 45. Area Profiles
    46. 46. GOVERNMENT
    47. 47. eGovernment 2012-2015
    48. 48. Open Government Partnership
    49. 49. Civil Society Organisations
    50. 50. Apps4Fingal
    51. 51. apps4fingal COMPETITION 9th November, 2011 – 9th January, 2012 €11,500 in prizes Community, Enterprise, Tourism, Student & Ideas Categories
    52. 52. apps4fingal 22 Apps created 36 Ideas entered
    53. 53. Apps4Fingal
    54. 54. Ideas - Fingal Deals
    55. 55. Student - Fingal Day Tripper
    56. 56. Community - Fingal Traffic View
    57. 57. Enterprise -
    58. 58. Overall & Tourism - Discover Fingal
    59. 59. Apps4Fingal Awards
    60. 60. More Apps
    61. 61. Hit The Road
    62. 62. ParkYa
    63. 63. KidsMaps
    64. 64. Budget Visualisation
    65. 65. Semantic Processing of Urban Data
    66. 66. Who is my TD?
    67. 67. Walk on the Bright Side
    68. 68. UrbanRural
    69. 69. Street Trees, Fingal
    70. 70. Bring Banks
    71. 71. FixYourStreet
    72. 72. FixMyArea
    73. 73. FixMyStreet
    74. 74. Open Government
    75. 75. Government 2.0
    76. 76. Communicate
    77. 77. Share
    78. 78. Dialogue
    79. 79. Participate
    80. 80. Collaborate
    81. 81. Collaborate
    82. 82. Fingal Development Plan GIS
    83. 83. Development Plan Submissions
    84. 84. eParticipation
    85. 85. CiviQ
    86. 86. Digital Cities
    87. 87.
    88. 88.
    89. 89. Digital Masterplan for Dublin
    90. 90. Participatory Design
    91. 91. FixYourStreet
    92. 92. Miami 311
    93. 93.
    94. 94. OpenStreetMap
    95. 95. Data Quality Improvement
    96. 96. Greater Blanchardstown Initiative © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    97. 97. Greater Blanchardstown Initiative © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    98. 98. Greater Blanchardstown Initiative © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    99. 99. Greater Blanchardstown Initiative © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    100. 100. Walkability Analysis © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    101. 101. Walkability Analysis © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    102. 102. Blanchardstown Urban Structure Permeability Walkability Analysis © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    103. 103. Blanchardstown Urban Structure Permeability Housecount Within Permeability: Housecount Outside Permeability: 17,051 (48%) 18,220 (52%) Walkability Analysis © OSI – Licence 2009/24/CCMA Fingal County Council
    104. 104. Urban Hacking
    105. 105. Desire Line & Proposed Solution
    106. 106. Desire Line
    107. 107. Urban Hacking!
    108. 108. Walkability Analysis Software
    109. 109. Walkability Analysis Software
    110. 110. Cycle Network Proposal
    111. 111. Walkability Crowdsourced
    112. 112. Walkability Crowdsourced
    113. 113. Copenhagen Wheel
    114. 114. Copenhagen Wheel
    115. 115. Planning 2.0
    116. 116. Changing Behaviour with Technology
    117. 117. Changing Behaviour through Fun
    118. 118. Open Data & Social Challenges
    119. 119. Dublin City Beta Projects
    120. 120. Local Asset Mapping Project
    121. 121. Taking Action
    122. 122. HyperLocal
    123. 123.
    124. 124. CityCamp
    125. 125. Open Data Meetups
    126. 126. Code for All Ireland
    127. 127. Code for All Ireland Code for Ireland Brigade is an organizing force for local civic engagement a network with local chapters of civic-minded volunteers, who contribute skills toward using the web as a platform for municipal government and community service.
    128. 128. Fingal Open Data @fingalopendata Dublinked @dublinked
    129. 129. Open Data in Participatory Design and Governance @fingalopendata
    130. 130. Reading Code for America. 2013. Beyond Transparency Davies, Tim. Open Data Cookbook Davies, Tim. Open Data Impacts: Exploring the impact of opening up Government Data Lathrop, Daniel and Ruma, Laurel. 2010. Open Government: Collaboration, Transparency and Participation in Practice. Sebastopol: O’Reilly. Noveck, Beth Simone. 2009. Wiki Government: How Technology can make Government better, Democracy stronger, and Citizens more powerful. Washington, D.C.: Brookings. Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010-2012. Open Data Handbook Poikola, Antti, Kola, Petri and Hintikka, Kari A. 2010. Public Data: an introduction to opening information resources. Helsinki: Ministry of Transport and Communications. The Danish Government / Local Government Denmark, October, 2012. Good Basic Data for Everyone Scientific American, September 2011. Vol. 305. No. 3. A Brighter Future with Cities. Socrata. Open Data Field Guide
    131. 131. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License Use of any Fingal County Council or Fingal Development Board logos and brands are not covered by this license. Pictures as marked used under Creative Commons license. If you believe any content is infringing copyright, please contact us via