Designing for motivation


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This is the Supportive Narrative I wrote for everybody who might be interested in the story behind my Graduation Project: "Designing for Motivation". It also explains why my final product called Wilson managed to increase motivation for specific household tasks like doing the dishes.

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Designing for motivation

  1. 1. Designing for MotivationUsing prototypes to increase motivation. Fin Kingma Interaction Design Supervisor: Marinka Copier Academic Year: 2011/2012 1
  2. 2. ContentsSummary ................................................... 3 Prototype #2 - The Random Cabinet ....... 14Introduction ............................................. 4 Prototype #3 – The Iron Man ................... 14 I am Fin Kingma........................................... 4 The missing link…..................................... 15 I want to understand motivation ............... 4 I will conduct an experimental study ....... 4 …Interest..................................................... 16Understanding motivation .................... 5 Prototype #4 - Wilson ................................ 16 Introduction .................................................. 5 Social Actor................................................. 16 Energy............................................................ 5 A new study ............................................... 17 Self Determination Theory ......................... 5 Insights ........................................................ 18 The six levels of motivation ........................ 6 Can we increase the motivation of tasks that people perform in their free time, How can tasks damage our motivation? .. 8 through the use of Motivational Conclusion .................................................... 8 Principles?................................................... 19Diary Study .............................................. 9 Conclusion .................................................. 19 Introduction .................................................. 9 Conclusion .............................................. 20 What are Research Diaries? ........................ 9 Resources ................................................ 21 Method .......................................................... 9 Attachments ........................................... 22 Analysing .................................................... 10 Occurances of the four classes in Insights ........................................................ 10 motivation................................................... 22 Which interactions in daily routine tasks Occurances per motivation level ............. 23 decrease our motivation? .......................... 12 Occurances by time of the day................. 24 Conclusions ................................................ 12 Insights from Wilson ................................. 25Experimenting with Motivation......... 13 Introduction ................................................ 13 Prototypes ................................................... 13 Prototype #1 - The SleepRecorder ........... 13 2
  3. 3. SummaryMotivation is energy. It is our most basic fuel to get The last phase of my study involved building andanything done. But that also makes it an important experimenting with several prototypes that werefactor in design. If the user has low motivation, he focused on tasks that were triggered by level 2,will not interact with a product at all. Introjected Motivation. These prototypes were built to increase motivation for these tasks.Over a year ago, I got intrigued by this subject anddecided to conduct a study on: ‘How does the One prototype, called Wilson, managed to increaseinteraction in daily routine tasks that people perform the motivation of various participants from level 2,during their free time, decrease their motivation and can we Introjected Motivation, to level 3, Identifiedincrease these low motivations?’ Motivation, and sometimes even higher, showing influences of Intrinsic Motivation.Most people are familiar with the difference betweenIntrinsic Motivation, and Extrinsic Motivation. ButExtrinsic Motivation can be divided into fourdifferent levels. The higher levels are moreinternalized, more focused on yourself, which givesyou a stronger motivation.5 Intrinsic Motivation.4 Integrated (Extrinsic) Motivation.3 Identified (Extrinsic) Motivation.2 Introjected (Extrinsic) Motivation.1 External (Extrinsic) Motivation.To conduct a qualitative Diary Study, I used these Figure 1. Wilson.levels of motivation to find out what kind of tasks are Wilson is a Social Actor, based on principles fromresponsible for a decrease in motivation. Many tasks Persuasive Technology.have potential to trigger higher levels of motivation,but are stuck in the lower levels. The Diary Study Social Dynamics increase motivationshowed the most apparent reasons for lower levels of While conducting several experiments with Wilson,motivation during daily routine tasks that people the looks of the Social Actor appeared not to be a keyperform in their free time: factor to motivate the user, but the Social Dynamics1. Frustrations. that were integrated in the design. During the2. Negative Interruptions. experiment, Wilson only responded by moving on3. Algorithmic tasks. sound, but if more Social Dynamics were implemented, by making him answer, the motivational effect should be higher as well. The implemented Social Dynamics should be identical to the behaviour of the user. 3
  4. 4. Introduction motivation: design products with the intention ofI am Fin Kingma increasing our motivation. That was the momentJust like most people, I have always struggled to find when I discovered that this is the field I want tomy own drive, my own passion. I knew a few people explore in my graduation study.who were always driven to a cause. They wanted to During this graduation study, I focused on answeringaccomplish something… the following research question: ‘How does theI have always been fascinated about these people. interaction in daily routine tasks, that people performWhat triggers them? What keeps them going? And do during their free time, decrease their motivation and can wethey ever get exhausted? But this also demotivated increase these low motivations?’.me, knowing that I did not have that same drive. I made it my goal to discover the daily tasks that areThrough my own interest in the Romantic period in responsible for a big decrease in motivation. Forthe 18 century, I got introduced to the topic th which I will then use motivational principles to come‘motivation’. Because most Romantics were, and still up with a solution that can increase motivation. Thisare intrigued by the reason behind a specific action, is called an experimental to trigger people to perform . Unfortunately,back in the 18th century, Romantics were not really I conducted an experimental studyfond of research, so there is not much information I translated my research question in three subabout motivation back then. However, nowadays you questions and each chapter will cover one of thesecan find several interesting psychology studies on this questions:topic. The more books I read, the stronger myfascination grew and the more I learned about what 1. How can tasks decrease our motivation?motivation is, the more I discovered my own drive, 2. Which interactions in daily routine tasks that peoplemy own motivation. I found out that this is what I perform in their free time, decreases their motivation?want to learn. This is what I want to focus my life on. 3. Can we increase the motivation of tasks that peopleAnd now, I am finally driven to a cause! perform in their free time through the use of Motivational Principles?Now I sit here before you, to tell you what I havelearned during my graduation study. During my graduating study, Research Diaries were used as my primary research method to capture andI want to understand motivation identify the factors that decrease our motivation throughout our daily life. focusing on findingI am an Interaction Designer, which means I design patterns that can be used when designing forproducts, focusing on the interaction between a motivation.device and its user. You can say that it is my job to Based on the insights from the diary studies, severalmake sure that the interaction between a device and prototypes were built that aim to increase theits user is perfect. motivation of the participant, using severalIt was two years ago when I started reading about motivational methods. The final phase of mymotivation. And during those two years, I have read a graduation study involved experimenting with theselot more on this topic. I discovered that a lot of our prototypes to discover what the effect was that themotivation is lost through poor interactions in our prototypes had on the participants.daily life. The books I read even provided several Were the prototypes able to increase motivation?methods that can be translated and used to design for 4
  5. 5. Understanding motivation Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation. IntrinsicIntroduction Motivation means everything you do for yourself.This first chapter focuses on the first sub question These are the most internalized actions and give the‘How can tasks decrease our motivation?’. The answer highest personal satisfaction. In all cases thewas found during my, still ongoing, literature study experience of performing the task is rewardingwhich started around two years ago. This chapter enough on its own. People who are intrinsicallyfocuses on the difference between Extrinsic motivated do not need a reward. If you give them aMotivation, and Intrinsic Motivation. Discovering reward, you will only focus them more on the rewardhow a task can actually decrease a person’s and less on the task, making them extrinsicallymotivation. motivated. Examples of Intrinsic Motivation include hobbies and personal interests.Energy Self Determination Theory provided three psychological needs that influence our IntrinsicLook at motivation as a form of energy (Deci and Motivation (Edward Deci, 2002, p. 391): Autonomy,Ryan, 1985). It is our most basic fuel to get anything Competence and Relatedness. Two years ago, Daniel H.done. Without motivation you won’t even be able to Pink published his book ‘Drive’ (Pink, 2009) where heget yourself out of a chair, no matter how strong you presented three new needs for Intrinsic Motivation.are. But with the proper motivation you can take on Although these needs barely differ from the needsand successfully complete any challenge. from Self Determination Theory, I personally find theSo what is this holy grail to keep ourselves needs that Pink presented more usable whenmotivated? Because if motivation is energy, it means designing a product:we can lose, replenish it and even train it. • Autonomy. The freedom to direct our own lives. • Mastery. The urge to get better at somethingSelf Determination Theory meaningful.Two men named Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, • Purpose. Our drive to add meaning to our life.came up with the Self Determination Theory (Deciand Ryan, 1985). This theory states that the key is Extrinsic Motivationcalled Intrinsic Motivation and is about internalizing Extrinsic Motivation, on the other hand, meansour actions. everything you do for an outside force. These are the least internalized actions and give us less personalInternalization satisfaction, sometimes even decrease it. ExtrinsicInternalizing an action means performing the action Motivation therefore decreases our internalization.for yourself and not for an outside force. By Which can be understood as a decrease in motivation.internalizing our actions, we draw our motivation The Carrot and Stick principle is a good example ofcloser to ourselves (Deci and Ryan, 1985), making it Extrinsic Motivation. It means giving someone anstronger. This is the first piece of the puzzle: by external reward for correct behaviour and punishinginternalizing our actions we increase our motivation. that person for what is considered incorrectBy externalizing our actions we decrease our behaviour. This is a basic form of conditioning and ismotivation. in many cases still the way that businesses operate (Pink, 2009). The danger is, that children and workers,Intrinsic Motivation in time will learn that what they have to do isThis is where Self Determination Theory draws a line worthless on itself and that its only justification is thebetween two very distinct motivations: Intrinsic 5
  6. 6. grade or pay check they get in the end(Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). So on short notice, externalrewards work really well, but in the end they willonly decrease a person’s motivation.The six levels of motivationExtrinsic Motivation is not just about externalrewards. Within Self Determination Theory a subtheory was created, called Organismic IntegrationTheory (OIT). This theory divided ExtrinsicMotivation into various levels of internalization (Deciand Ryan, 1985) in which external rewards are thelowest level. There is an important distinction to Figure 2. Flowmake between Extrinsic Motivation, and ExternalMotivation: Extrinsic Motivation is every outsideforce that influences you, and External Motivation is But once you focus on the reason or the goal behindthe use of rewards and punishments to force you into the task, your motivation becomes extrinsic andwhat is perceived as correct behaviour. enters the next level, Integrated Motivation.This means that external rewards are the worst type Level 4 - Integrated Motivationof Extrinsic Motivation. Figure 3 shows the six Integrated Motivation is the highest level of Extrinsicdifferent levels of motivation. From having no Motivation. These are the tasks that have personalmotivation at all to the high internalised Intrinsic value to you and are performed for a specificMotivation. All tasks can be categorized in this table. outcome. For instance, studying. In most cases, the experience isn’t satisfying enough on its own, so thatLevel 5 - Intrinsic Motivation is why you focus on a specific outcome. If you areThe most internalized action, being Intrinsically playing a game and someone asks for your help, ifMotivated, is an autonomous motive, which means you respond that you want to find out how the gamethat the action is voluntarily. Imagine playing a ends, your motivation becomes Integrated. You add amusical instrument or playing a game. The key to specific outcome to the task that you are interested in.recognizing Intrinsic Motivation is that the experience Even though the task previously triggered Intrinsicof performing the task is satisfying enough on its Motivation, it now decreased a level in motivation.own. The three needs autonomy, mastery andpurpose are essential to experience Intrinsic Pink claims that Extrinsic Motivation makes you lessMotivation (Pink, 2009). capable in solving creative puzzles (Pink, 2009), because you focus on a specific outcome, while theIf the need of mastery is properly attuned to the user, path towards that outcome is not linear. However,it is possible to enter a state of flow Pink does not make the distinction between Extrinsic(Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). Csikszentmihalyi explains Motivation and External Motivation. So it is stillflow as the most optimal experience. Attuning the unclear if Pink included Integrated Motivation in histask means that the challenge level of the task is statement.synchronised to the skill level of the user itself. If thechallenge level of the task is too high the user will When focusing on tasks that do not require anyexperience anxiety and if the challenge level is too creativity, Integrated Motivation is still a very stronglow, the user will experience boredom. motivation, because it focuses people on an end goal. 6
  7. 7. Figure 3. The six levels of motivation. else will and very soon you will find your kitchenLevel 3 - Identified Motivation being a mess. You indirectly punish or rewardIdentified Motivation is everything you want to do yourself to take action.for something or someone else. The experience itselfis not rewarding, but because the task has a certain Level 1 - External Motivationvalue to you, you perform it. You still don’t feel much As already mentioned, keep in mind the distinctionsatisfaction from the task because you don’t do it for between External Motivation and Extrinsicyourself. Imagine a friend asking you to help him out Motivation. This level, the bottom of all Extrinsicby carrying something heavy. This is the level of Motivation, is called External Motivation. This level ismotivation that advertisement often use to influence about being controlled by somebody else by the usecustomers in buying their products (Zimbardo, 1991). of rewards and punishments. If you can remember a time you really needed money, you can probablyLevel 2 - Introjected Motivation remember tasks you performed just to make money.Introjected Motivation is the first motivation with a Remember the Carrot and Stick principle?forced motive. This means somebody is controllingyou. Either consciously or unconsciously. These are Multiple motivationsthe tasks that you do not want to perform for Keep in mind that getting paid does not necessarilyyourself. put you in this low level of motivation. It is stillIn this level, Introjected Motivation, you are forcing possible to perform the action for a friend whileyourself to perform a task. You are aware that if you getting paid. You often will be faced with differentdo not perform the task, nobody else will. Doing the levels of motivation to perform a single action. Onlydishes is a good example of this level of motivation. If one of them, often the highest, motivates you toyou do not force yourself to do the dishes, nobody perform the action (Deci and Ryan, 1985). 7
  8. 8. How can tasks damage our Conclusionmotivation? This chapter focused on answering the question ‘How can tasks decrease our motivation?’. Self DeterminationI have collected all the information needed to answer Theory made a clear distinction between Extrinsicthe first sub question: ‘How can tasks decrease our Motivation and Intrinsic Motivation. The moremotivation?’. There are two ways to increase internalized an action is, the more it is focused onmotivation. The most logical way is to increase the yourself and the higher your motivation is. Intrinsicintensity of the motivation. By making the reward or Motivation is the most internalized action.punishment more intense, you can increasemotivation. There is a second option, which I Organismic Integration Theory divides Extrinsicpersonally find more interesting and will focus on Motivation in four levels of motivation. Five levels ofmore closely during my study. This second option is motivation can be recognized and sorted onabout internalizing your actions. internalization:The more internalized the action is to perform a task, 5 Intrinsic Motivation.the higher your motivation is. If you perform a task 4 Integrated Motivation.that has the potential to intrinsically motivate you, 3 Identified Motivation.your motivation will decrease if a person adds any 2 Introjected Motivation.motivation that is less internalized, like Identified 1 External Motivation.Motivation. By using a lower level of motivation on a task thatImagine watching television at home and all of a currently runs on a higher level, you decreasesudden you like to help a friend who is staying over. motivation.But before you start, he asks you if you can help himwith something. You still are motivated to performthe task, but your motivation just dropped two levelson the table, from Intrinsic Motivation to IdentifiedMotivation. 8
  9. 9. Diary StudyIntroductionThis chapter focuses on the second sub question:‘Which interactions in daily routine tasks that peopleperform in their free time, decreases their motivation?’.The table from the previous chapter was used toperform a qualitative diary study among tenparticipants. This chapter will explain what has beendiscovered during this qualitative diary study andconclude with the tasks and interactions that aredecreasing our motivation. Figure 4. Photos of my diary study.What are Research Diaries? on. They were also asked to put their hand in theJ. Lazar explains in his book that “A diary is a picture, raising the amount of fingers equal to thedocument created by an individual who maintains level of motivation.regular recordings about events in their life, at thetime that those events occur” (J Lazar, 2010, p. 126). For the participants to understand the levels, a sheetThis diary study looks for shifts in motivation with the most vital knowledge about recognizing thethroughout a person’s life and the exact moments that motivation levels was send to them. In most casesthese shifts occur are unpredictable. This is why they were also asked for a short meeting in whichResearch Diaries are the most obvious choice for this they could ask any remaining questions aboutdiary study. motivation. The technique that was used proved to be very usefulMethod because of two aspects:The diary study is an experimental study. There are 1. If participants send in the photos the timestampsmany uncertainties about what will work and what were already present, so respondents did notnot. This is why I will use Research Diaries for a have to worry about much information they hadqualitative study. This way I can dig deeper into the to send, they only had to make a snapshot withdata and find more interesting insights to work with. the right amount of fingers.In most cases Research Diaries are documented using 2. Visual representatives are easier to remember fora notebook. When a specific event occurs, for instance participants. When a snapshot was send back toswitching to another task, the participant writes down one of the participants asking for more detailedthe time and what happens. This diary study handles information about that specific task, they couldthese things differently. easily remember what they were doing at that exact moment.Participants were asked to document on a 24-hourbasis during a free day. This to focus the study onwhat people do in their free time.Instead of a notebook, they were asked to use asmartphone or other photo capturing device. Tenadult respondents were asked to make snapshots ofthe moments they changed what they were working 9
  10. 10. Figure 5. Heuristic, Algorithmic, Frustrations andInterruption occurrences during the diary study. thinking, which Intrinsic Motivation supports. Algorithmic tasks require a more focused mind,Analysing which Extrinsic Motivation supports. This could also203 tasks were recorded for this diary study. To work answer my question if Daniel Pink includedwith the data, a clear distinction was made between Integrated Motivation in his previous statements.four different categories for the recorded tasks: The second reason is that when the 203 recorded tasks• Algorithmic tasks. Tasks that have a clear path and were categorized, Interruptions and Frustrations a clear end goal, you only have to perform it proved to be useful additional categories. (Dictionary). You can find all the important graphs in the• Heuristic tasks. Tasks that do not have a clear path attachments pages. or end goal. You need to think creatively to perform these tasks (Dictionary).• Frustrations. This turned out to be a major factor Insights in decreasing motivation and cannot be put We want to learn and do new things under either algorithmic or heuristic. Figure 5 shows that within Intrinsic Motivation (level• Interruptions. A different reason why you are 5) and Integrated Motivation (level 4), more tasks are currently not performing a task. labelled as heuristic than algorithmic. The moreThese categories were used because of two reasons. internalized the motivation becomes, the moreFirst, the difference between algorithmic tasks and participants focus on heuristic tasks. Heuristic tasksheuristic tasks proves to be an important difference are about doing and learning new things. So thatwithin motivation (Pink, 2009) and during this study I means that the more internalized your motivation is,wanted to learn more about this difference. DanielPink describes that heuristic tasks require creative 10
  11. 11. the more you will focus on learning and doing new Identified tasks add relatednessthings. This basically is what Pink explained. There are eight tasks recorded in total that are labelled as being heuristic within IdentifiedIf we cannot learn or do new things, we Motivation. Out of these eight tasks, five arewill need an Extrinsic Motivation performed for another person: ‘Start MotivationWhat figure 5 also shows is that the centre levels are Research’; ‘Cycle to a friend’; ‘Read progress projectfocused on algorithmic tasks. Within Identified group’; ‘Socializing with friend’; ‘Call girlfriend’.Motivation 70% of all tasks are labelled asalgorithmic. In Introjected Motivation this percentage This factor is called relatedness and is connected tois even higher, 77%. Algorithmic tasks are tasks that Intrinsic Motivation in Self Determination Theoryhave a clear pattern and destination, so you will not (Edward Deci, 2002, p. 391). Relatedness seems to bebe able to learn anything from performing the task. So an important factor in Identified Motivation.if people are not able to learn or do new things, theywill need another extrinsic motivation.Integrated Motivation overlaps IntrinsicMotivationFigure 5 shows that Integrated Motivation andIntrinsic Motivation are not that different. IntrinsicMotivation has a higher tendency towards heuristictasks, focused more on creativity. This is exactly whatPink mentioned, but Integrated Motivation still has59% of heuristic tasks.If Intrinsic Motivation is focused on heuristic andExtrinsic motivation is focused on algorithmic, itmeans that Integrated Motivation relates more toIntrinsic Motivation than to Extrinsic Motivation.The only thing that makes Integrated Motivation,Extrinsic is that it focuses on a goal, a specificoutcome. If Integrated Motivation enables you toperform creative tasks, Integrated Motivation would Figure 6a + Figure much more usable when performing tasks thanIntrinsic Motivation because it still focuses people on We have less motivation in the morninga specific outcome. Pink described in his book that As Figures 6a and 6b show, 92% of all heuristicIntrinsic Motivation is how businesses should operate Intrinsic Motivation occur after 11 o’clock, and 58% ofnowadays (Pink, 2009), but this insight shows that all algorithmic Introjected Motivation occur before 11Integrated Motivation would be a much better option o’clock. This means that we barely experience highfor businesses, because it is the focused version of motivation before 11 o’clock. We have to get our ownIntrinsic Motivation. However, only if people are still mind working in the morning, before we can becomecapable of performing creative tasks when Intrinsically Motivated.experiencing Integrated Motivation. But I will notfocus on this during my study. 11
  12. 12. Which interactions in daily routine Conclusionstasks decrease our motivation? Heuristic tasks are tasks that require creative thinking in order to perform the task. Such tasks occur moreWe have learned in the previous chapter to decrease often during a higher level of motivation.our motivation, we have to add a lower level ofmotivation than your current level of motivation to a Algorithmic tasks are tasks with a clear path and endtask. goal. These tasks occur more often during a lower level of motivation.To answer the second sub question, we need to take alook at the insights and the graph to see what types of Daniel H. Pink wrote in his book that businessesinteractions in tasks occur more often in lower levels should focus more in Intrinsic Motivation to motivatethan in the higher levels of motivation. We can their employees. Integrated Motivation carriesassume that these tasks are responsible for these heuristic influences from Intrinsic Motivation, but stilllower levels of motivation. focuses on an end goal. This would make it an interesting level of motivation for businesses, perhaps1. Frustrations mainly occur in the first two levels of even more interesting than Intrinsic Motivation. motivation. Interactions that cause frustrations are dangerous to our motivation. The answer to the second sub question ‘Which2. Interruptions only occur in the lowest two levels interactions in daily routine tasks are the most of motivation. But one could argue that if an dangerous to our motivation?’ resulted in the Interruption would be positive (a good friend following three answers: calls you), people would not label this as an 1. Frustrations. interruption. So I rephrase that into: negative 2. Negative Interruptions. interruptions decrease our motivation. 3. Algorithmic tasks.3. Algorithmic tasks can be understood as decreasing our own motivation, especially because they But since algorithmic tasks are more efficient than mainly occur in Introjected Motivation. Still, heuristic tasks, they could still be used. We should algorithmic tasks are by definition easier and use them with caution. more efficient to perform than heuristic tasks, because we already know how to perform them. I will state that the interaction with algorithmic tasks can decrease our motivation, so they should be implemented with caution. 12
  13. 13. Experimenting with MotivationIntroduction Prototype #1 - The SleepRecorderThis final chapter focuses on the last sub question: Method‘Can we increase the motivation of tasks that people In a book about the study ‘persuasive technology’perform in their free time through the use of Motivational (Fogg, 2003), persuasive design was used forPrinciple?’. Several prototypes were built to find the computers. I got interested to try this out. In this bookanswer to this. These prototypes are based on theories Fogg gives three different approaches how towithin psychology and other domains that have persuade a user using computers as: Persuasivealready been focusing on motivation in the past Tools; Persuasive Media (Simulation); and Persuasivedecades, like Self Determination Theory or Persuasive Social Actors. This concept uses computers asDesign. Persuasive Tools. Next to that, the concept alsoThis chapter is written in a more more linear style, to focuses on the need for autonomy to raise Intrinsicshow you how an experimental study can have an Motivation.impact on someone. Because experimental studies donot always work out for the best. Concept This concept was focused on the task of sleeping,Prototypes because the last chapter showed that people have a low motivation in the morning.This chapter will often refer to the word ‘prototype’.This term has been used in various ways in different The concept is called ‘The SleepRecorder’ and it is anbusinesses. To prevent any miscommunication, I will application that records all sounds in your bedroom,give a definition of what I mean when referring to a from the moment you start the application until the‘prototype’: an unfinished product build to understanda specific experience, before realizing the product.It is a test model, focusing on a specific experience,which in this case is increasing motivation. If aprototype cannot trigger this experience, a realproduct will not trigger it either. A more vital reasonto use prototypes is time. It can take months or evenyears to build finalized products, but prototypes canbe built within a few days.All the following prototypes are built to increasemotivation for a specific tasks, for a specificparticipant. Most of these products will not appeal to Figure 7a. The SleepRecorder.everyone, they were focused to motivate a specificparticipant of my study, who I will keep anonymous. moment you need to wake up. It then filters out allThe methods, concepts and conclusions from the noise and plays all the recorded material as anexperiments will be briefly discussed in this chapter. alarm clock, waking you up. The idea behind this is to record the motivation that prevented you from sleeping and returns that motivation to you, when you have to wake up. 13
  14. 14. Conclusion The concept is called the ‘Random Cabinet’ and itThe participant that was selected for this prototype, combines dressing up with a fruit machine. Theenjoyed the application itself, and he used it quite prototype exists of a cabinet with five drawers and aoften. But that was because he got intrigued by the large lever next to it. Every time you pull the lever aidea itself and wanted to work on it as well. When I different drawer opens. So instead of always gettinggave him the program, he build his own application. the top piece of clothing, you now will get a randomThe participant even created a ritual of five minutes piece of clothing every time you pull the lever.while listening to the application itself. Unfortunately The participants first has to put several clothinghe did not experience the increase of motivation that pieces into the Random Cabinet.the The SleepRecorder should trigger. ConclusionPrototype #2 - The Random Cabinet My expectations were quite high through the use of Gamification, but also this concept failed poorly. TheMethod extra effort of putting the clothes into the cabinetThe second prototype used Gamification to make a decreased the persons motivation. I did however findtask more interesting. Gamification is about taking an out that the interaction itself became more interesting,ordinary task and turning it into a game, making it but the task itself remained Introjected.more interesting. But often, also making it more time-consuming to perform. Next to Gamification, the need Prototype #3 – The Iron Manfor autonomy was used to raise Intrinsic Motivation,in an attempt to get the participant to play with the Methodprototype. The third attempt focused on persuasive design once again, but this time using Computers as PersuasiveConcept Media (Simulations). Games are very capable inThis concept focuses on the task of getting dressed. simulating an environment convincingly enough forThis time I selected two participants instead of one. the user so that he will associate aspects of the gameBoth were male and experienced Introjected with the real thing (Fogg, 2003, p. 67). The need forMotivation for this task. Dressing up is not supposed both autonomy and mastery were used in thisto be an algorithmic task and therefore should not concept.exist in this level of motivation. These participantsgrabbed the piece of clothing they saw and turneddressing up into an algorithmic task.Figure 7b. The Random Cabinet. Figure 7c. The Iron Man Game 14
  15. 15. ConceptThis concept focused on a single participant onceagain. The participant had a really low motivation forironing and he sent a list of reasons why he did notlike performing the task. He was never satisfied andalways saw more creases that still had to be removed.The concept is a flash game called ‘The Iron Man’ thathad identical interaction to Ironing (your left handwas your hand, your right was the iron itself). Asimple scoring system was used that should persuadethe user to not perform any of the reasons he gave,like always removing every crease. Multipliers wereadded if the user would wait before ironing all thecreases he saw.ConclusionAnd yet again, this game did not interest theparticipant at all. It was too much effort to play thegame several times or at least enough times for thepersuasive techniques to take effect.The missing link…So all three prototypes did not have the effect I washoping for. Different methods were used for eachprototype and each prototype I tried to apply some ofthe factors of Intrinsic Motivation. How couldeverything go wrong?But this was not just a little issue with the project. Forthe past few years I have focused on the topicmotivation. I had learned a lot about it and havemade it my goal for my graduation study tounderstand this piece of knowledge so I could use myknowledge after graduating. I wanted to tell peopleabout a new path in design: how we can applymotivation to products.But now, there was nothing to tell.I lost my own motivation.… 15
  16. 16. …Interest Design Blog, 2008) I started working on my fourth prototype.I have been focusing on motivation for a long time In Cast Away, Tom Hanks transforms a volleyballnow. But I am still human, I can also lose my into his own pet after getting stuck on an island. Hemotivation. The only difference is, is that I know the even starts talking to the volleyball. Hanks has gonebasics of how it works and how I can get myself back crazy in the movie, but this technique is a goodon the right track. I can fight it. example of how to add relatedness to a task. Ilooking back to my prototypes again and reflecting experienced this myself when a street cat suddenlyupon them, I realized that the problem was that I was walked into my house when I was doing the dishes.fixating on Intrinsic Motivation. The task themselves The cat raised my motivation.focused on Introjected Motivation. It is too difficult to Instead of buying my own AIBO or another pet-liketrigger Intrinsic Motivation for tasks that have sunk product, I decided to build my own ‘Wilson’. Thisso low. way it would be easier to focus on the simpleThe table from the first chapter, which shows the mechanics that can trigger an increase in motivation.different levels of motivation, visualizes perfectly If AIBO would be used to experiment withwhere the prototypes got stuck. Most of the participants, too many different variables would beprototypes were focused on Introjected Motivational present in the experiment. This would make it moretasks. But the prototypes never managed to raisemotivation unto the next level, Identified motivation.The prototypes never managed to make the actionvoluntarily, to interest the user.Identified Motivation focuses on the meaning of thetask and as concluded in the previous chapter onrelatedness. If you can relate the user to the taskmaking it interesting, the participant will willinglyperform the task without getting any reward. That isthe theory. Every prototype focusing on raisingIntrinsic Motivation without catching the interest of Figure 8. Wilsonthe user. The prototypes tried to force the users to dosomething fun. difficult to understand which variables can increase motivation.The fourth, and final prototype would focus onraising the motivation of a single task fromIntrojected Motivation towards Identified Motivation. Social ActorAnd to make the final prototype even more Persuasive Technology has a third method: usinginteresting, it did not focus on a single participant, computers as a Social Actor. This method is perfect tobut on a whole target audience: adults. get the most out of relatedness. This method is summarized in a graphic that still decorates myPrototype #4 - Wilson workroom. The graphic is shown on figure 9.Inspired by the movie Cast Away (Zemeckis, 2000)and some other products like AIBO (Interaction 16
  17. 17. Figure 9. Using Computers as Social Actors.Results need to be acquired fast, so there was notmuch time to build Wilson. Only the most basic A new studyattributes were implemented in Wilson. A short list of It took around a week to build Wilson to let himdemands was formed of attributes that should be respond on sound. The movements are minimalistic.incorporated within Wilson: It is the most basic Social Dynamic that could be• Wilson must convey emotions. Primarily humor. incorporate in the prototype on such a short notice. A minimalistic smiley face will be put on Wilson Of course it was still a prototype, so there were a few so that most users can still identify themselves issues to work with. Sometimes Wilson did not listen with him. to sound and sometimes he just went crazy after• Wilson is a pet. He cannot perform any task, he is hearing loud noises. But it was time for the next step: only available as emotional support. experimentation.• Wilson will use a very basic Social Dynamic, he During one week ten participants were scheduled to will respond to sound. experiment with, in which each participant• Wilson will be built within a ball, but smaller performed a ‘boring’, Introjected Motivational task, than a volleyball. This way he can easily move like dishwashing, at their own home. The participant around and remain symmetrical and thus performed the task for four minutes without Wilson attractive. and then four minutes with Wilson. Afterwards a short interview was conducted to find out if Wilson managed to motivate the participant and this is what came out… 17
  18. 18. Insights Three of the ten participants mentioned they started playing with various sounds to find out what theWilson increases motivation limits would be of Wilson’s interactions. These aresix out of ten participants said they would like to marks of Intrinsic Motivation. Wilson did increaseperform the ‘boring’ task again if they could use motivation to the level of Intrinsic Motivation, if onlyWilson. This means they would voluntarily perform for a short period. These participants even lostthe action, thus resulting in Identified Motivation. All consciousness of the end goal and focused solely onfour of the remaining participants said they would triggering to perform the action again, if there would be Social Dynamics are key when focusing onmore variation in Wilsons actions. relatedness The participants who said they needed more variation in Wilsons actions, explained these variations as types of Social Dynamics. A participant with a social job, explained she required more options to communicate with Wilson. A game designer explained he would like Wilson to play social games with him. A nice pattern emerged from these answers that shows that most participants require a different version of Wilson, focusing on Social Dynamics that are identical to their own. Persuasive Technology explains this by research, that similarity in personality does indeed persuade (Fogg, 2003, p. 99).Figure 10a.Another important factor to keep in mind is that outof the four participants that did not notice anyincrease in motivation, Wilson did not respondcorrectly during 3 of them. These issues were causedby:1 Inductive surfaces. Wilson was placed on a really inductive surface, responding too much on any sound or vibration around him.2 Distance. The participant was too distant from Wilson while performing the task.3 Loudness. The task did not make enough sound.With this in mind, it is fair to say that Wilson does Figure 10b.increase motivation. Even for the most boring tasks.The effect is only for a short time, after participantsget used to Wilson, the effect disappears. 18
  19. 19. Wilson is a positive distraction question, I say ‘yes, it is possible to increaseEight of ten participants explained that the task has motivation through the use of Motivationalremained the same. However, four out of these eight Principles!’.participants did mention that the interaction with thetask has gotten more interesting. Wilson became a Conclusionpositive distraction and turned the task into a tool to I have built prototypes using principles from variousinteract with Wilson. Because participants were not fields that focus on motivation: Self Determinationfocused on the task itself anymore, they also were not Theory, Persuasive Technology and Gamification.focused on their annoyance towards the task. Unfortunately my first three prototypes did not manage to increase motivation for the user at all,Can we increase the motivation of something was missing.tasks that people perform in their free But once I figured that the problem was getting taskstime, through the use of Motivational from Introjected Motivation up to Identified Motivation, I build a new prototype that did increasePrinciples? motivation for users. This prototype was calledAs we have learned in the first chapter, motivation Wilson and also used a principle from Persuasivecan be divided into five different levels: External Technology: using Computers as Social Actors.Motivation, Introjected Motivation, Identified Wilson used a basic Social Dynamics (responding toMotivation, Integrated Motivation and Intrinsic sound) and managed to increase the motivation ofMotivation. This study focuses on designing participants for Introjected Motivational tasks, likeprototypes that increase the level of motivation for a dishwashing.specific task. Experimenting with ten different participants,I have come to believe that the most difficult showed that:challenge in increasing the level of motivation is the • Wilson increases motivation whendifference between Introjected Motivation and performing Introjected Motivational tasks.Identified Motivation, the difference between forced • Social Dynamics are key when trying toaction and voluntary action. The challenge to add increase motivation through the use ofinterest for the user. This is especially difficult for relatedness.designers, because designers communicate indirectly • Wilson is a positive distraction.through the use of a product. But I managed to giveyou the first piece of the puzzle by adding relatednessto the task.Wilson, a prototype that responds to sound, managesto increase motivation for participants to performtasks they would normally only perform when beingforced. These tasks became voluntary actions for ashort period. Wilson increased motivation fromIntrojected to Identified. However, the key factor inmaking Wilson work, was adding Social Dynamics.With appropriate Social Dynamics, people would notbe able to relate to the prototype.I believe this is just a first step uncovering a wholenew area in design, but I also believe that this is avery important step. So to answer the final sub 19
  20. 20. ConclusionIn my introduction I stated that I was completely More possibilities should be explored on how todriven to find the answers how we can use design for higher levels of motivation, for now Imotivation in design. This was completely true. But discovered two interesting follow-up studies:even with that passion I lost my own motivation 1. The product Wilson only uses one basic Socialduring the project. Luckily, in the end, I came out Dynamic to increase motivation. Experimentingstronger. with a few participants showed that adding more advanced Social Dynamics (identical to the user)How does the interaction in daily routine could improve this effect. This is an interestingtasks decrease our motivation and can we insight but has to be studied those low motivations? 2. Wilson managed to increase motivation for aThere are several levels of motivation, based on their short period. I still do not know how long thisinternalization. effect can hold, or if it is possible to increase the duration of the effect.5 Intrinsic Motivation.4 Integrated Motivation. This study was just a small step in uncovering ways3 Identified Motivation. of increasing motivation, but I believe it also is an2 Introjected Motivation. important step.1 External Motivation.Internalization means how much a task is performed I want to thank you for your interest in the subjectfor yourself. A strong, healthy motivation is motivation. I hope this article has been very clear andperformed completely for yourself, with no addition inspiring. If you have any remaining questions, pleaseof any extrinsic rewards. By using a lower level of send me an e-mail to on a task that is currently using a higherlevel, it is possible to decrease motivation.A diary study was conducted to discover what kind Before you close this article and go on with your life, Iof tasks decrease our motivation. Apparently want to ask you one thing:frustrations and negative interruptions always If you found this article interesting, if you think youdecrease our motivation. Next to that, algorithmic have learned something valuable by reading thisinteractions decrease our motivation as well, but are article, I would like to use the power of Identifiedmore efficient than heuristic tasks, because they still Motivation and ask you to send this article to at leastfocus on a specific end goal. We should only use another person. My goal with this article is to educatealgorithmic tasks with caution. as many people as possible and I cannot do thisThe last phase of the study, experimented with without your help. Please send it around.various prototypes, trying to discover how we can Thank you!increase motivation for tasks with a low level ofmotivation. The experiments showed that thechallenge when facing low motivation, is to trigger Let us find out if the world is ready for MotivationalIdentified Motivation. The final prototype, Wilson, Design.shows that relatedness can trigger this level ofmotivation by applying appropriate Social Dynamicsto the product. 20
  21. 21. ResourcesCSIKSZENTMIHALYI 1975. Beyong Boredom and Anxiety, Jossey-Bass.DECI, E. L. & RYAN, R. M. 1985. Intrinsic Motivation and Self Determination Theory in Human Behavior.1985 ed.DICTIONARY, T. F. Algorithmic, definition [Online]. The free Dictionary. Available:, T. F. Heuristic, definition [Online]. The free Dictionary. Available: DECI, R. R. 2002. Handbook of Self Determination Research. University of Rochester Press.FOGG, B. J. 2003. Persuasive Technology. Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do., San Francisco,Morgan Kaufmann.J LAZAR, J. H. F., H. HOCHHEISER 2010. Research Methods in Human-computer Interaction, West Sussex,John Wiley & Sons Ltd.PINK, D. H. 2009. Drive, New York, Riverhead Books.PINK, D. H. 2010. RSA Animate - Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Youtube.Available: Away, 2000. Directed by ZEMECKIS, R.NORMAN, D. A. 2004. Emotional Design, Cambridge, Basic BooksTHALER, R. H. & SUNSTEIN, C. R. Nudge. London, Penguin Group.ZIMBARDO P. G. & LEIPPE M. R. 1991. The Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence, USA,McGraw-HillLOWE, T. 2009, Motiveer! Utrecht, LeVSHELDON, K. 2010. Positief motiveren in 6 weken, Tielt, LannooInteraction Design Blog. 2008. Interaction design blog | How Aibo improves the lives of elderly | Interactiondesign. Available: 2012. Furby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | Wikipedia. Available: Fogg. 2009. Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process. Stanford University.Available: 21
  22. 22. AttachmentsOccurances of the four classes in motivation.The four classes are: Algorithmic, Heuristic, Frustrations, and Interruptions.This graph shows how algorithmic tasks occur often in motivation level 2 and 3, but occur less often in the higherlevels of motivation. Heuristic tasks take over in motivation level 4 (Integrated Motivation). 22
  23. 23. Occurances per motivation levelThe five motivation levels with the amount of occurances of the four different categories. In total 8 tasks were documented. In total 35 tasks were documented. In total 30 tasks were documented. In total 46 tasks were documented. In total 76 tasks were documented. 23
  24. 24. Occurances by time of the dayThis figure shows the hours in the day in the horizontal axis, and the amount of appearances of tasks within these hours on thevertical axis.58% of all documented tasks, were performed before 11 o’clock.This figure shows the hours in the day in the horizontal axis, and the amount of appearances of tasks within these hours on thevertical axis.92% of all documented tasks, were performed after 11 o’clock. 24
  25. 25. Insights from Wilson8 of the 10 participants said the task itself didn’t get more interesting by using Wilson.But 4 of them did mention that the interaction with the task did get more interesting.10 participants. 6 of them said that they would like to perform the task again, if theycould use Wilson. The other 4 claimed that he wasn’t interesting enough, but theywould like to perform the task if Wilson would interact more with them. 25