Wb swm psp- main report final

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  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 1 ABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONSABBREVIATIONS AA Addis Ababa C&D Construction and Demolition (waste) CMA Central Municipal Account CRA Central Regional Account CSA Central Statistical Authority CSE Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPA The Environmental Protection Authority EPB Environmental Protection Bureau ERM Environmental Resources Management Limited GTZ German Development agency HSE Health, Safety and Environment MEDAC Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation MFA Ministry of Federal Affairs MFI Micro Finance Institutions MSW Municipal Solid Waste MSWM Municipal Solid Waste Management NGO Non-Government Organisation PR Public Relations PSP Private Sector Participation PPP Public Private Partnership PWC PricewaterhouseCoopers SBPDA Sanitation Beautification and Parks Development Agency SWM Solid Waste Management TOR Terms of Reference USD United States Dollars ($) WB World Bank
  • 2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 2 1111 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 1.11.11.11.1 BBBBACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT AND AAAAIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THIS RRRREPORTEPORTEPORTEPORT This report is for the project: Regulatory and Institutional Reform in the Municipal1 Solid Waste Management Sector, Ethiopia, which is for the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) of Ethiopia sponsored for by the World Bank (Contract Number 8001837). The aim of this project is to improve the enabling environment for private sector participation (PSP) in municipal SWM in Ethiopia. This report presents a summary of the current SWM practices in Ethiopia, and also contains an indicative waste inventory of selected cities / towns in the country. Some socio-economic indicators for Ethiopia are also listed. The objective of the report is to identify sufficient information on current practices in order to be able to develop the PSP strategy. The report is therefore more of an overview of current practices rather than a detailed review. There is a strong commitment to the improvement of solid waste management and the strengthening of PSP from the EPA and other key stakeholders. 1.21.21.21.2 LLLLAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORT The report is divided into seven sections: • Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic situation in Ethiopia and the regional administrative structure; • Section 3 presents an overview of waste generation and current practices in solid waste management (SWM), including an indicative waste inventory of selected towns; • Section 4 summarises the institutional frameworks relating to SWM; • Section 5 contains an overview of SWM / environmental legislation; (1) 1 Municipal Solid waste in the context of this project is: generally, non-hazardous solid waste generated from households, commercial and business establishments, institutions and industry (non-process waste only). In this context, municipal solid waste excludes domestic waste from sanitary facilities, i.e. sewage and human excreta.
  • 3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 3 • Section 6 provides an overview of the financial and cost recovery aspects of SWM in the country; • Section 7 summarises the public awareness and community relations activities in SWM; • Section 8 provides a general overview of the key issues and other activities related to the development of a framework for PSP in SWM; • Section 9 contains a list of the reference materials /working meetings that have been used in producing this report. Annexes: The report is supported by the following annexes: • Annex 1 – Socio-Economic Data; • Annex 2 – Summary of Waste Management in Selected Regional Cities of Ethiopia; • Annex 3 – Typical example of Waste Pre-Collection Service Agreements with customers; • Annex 4 – Summary of Federal and Regional legislation relating to SWM; • Annex 5 – Glossary of Solid Waste Management Terms.
  • 4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 4 2222 BACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUND This section presents an overview of the socio-economic situation in Ethiopia, and the regional administrative structure. Figure 2.1 contains a map of Ethiopia and its Regions. 2.12.12.12.1 SSSSOCIOOCIOOCIOOCIO----EEEECONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMIC BBBBACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ON EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA 2.1.12.1.12.1.12.1.1 Overview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of EthiopiaOverview of the Economy of Ethiopia Ethiopia is a developing country with a gross domestic product (GDP) of USD 6 billion in 2002 and per capita average income of USD 100/year. The economy of the country is dominated by agriculture. About 90% of the population earn their living from the land, mainly as subsistence farmers. Agriculture is the backbone of the national economy and it accounts for about 45% of Ethiopia’ s GDP. The principal exports from this sector are coffee, oil seeds, vegetables, sugarcane, animal hoof, hides and skin, and beeswax. Up to 60% of the country’ s foreign earnings come from coffee. Another major export earner is the chat plant (an evergreen shrub that produces a natural and mildly intoxicating stimulant). Other socio-economic indicators relating to Ethiopia are listed in Annex 1. 2.1.22.1.22.1.22.1.2 PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation The estimated population of Ethiopia in 2003 was over 69 million persons of which 58 million (84%) live in rural areas and 11 million (16%) live in urban areas. Of the total urban population, over 2.7 million (25%) live in Addis Ababa, the capital city. Currently the country is divided into 11 Regions. Table 2.1 provides information on the population in each region, as well as the number of towns and cities. Table 2.2 provides data on the population of the major cities of Ethiopia.
  • 5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 5 Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1Table 2.1 Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003)Total Population of the Regions of Ethiopia (2003) ((((1111)))) PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulationRegionRegionRegionRegion NumberNumberNumberNumber of townsof townsof townsof towns / cities/ cities/ cities/ cities MaleMaleMaleMale FemaleFemaleFemaleFemale TotalTotalTotalTotal PopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation PPPPopulationopulationopulationopulation densitydensitydensitydensity (persons /(persons /(persons /(persons / sqKm)sqKm)sqKm)sqKm) Tigray 74 1,972,000 2,034,000 4,006,000 - Affar 28 726,000 575,000 1,301,000 - Oromiya 375 12,174,000 12,221,000 24,395,000 69 Somali 69 2,157,000 1,845,000 4,002,000 - Benishngul - Gumuz 13 292,000 288,000 580,000 - Southern N/N & People 149 6,802,000 6,884,000 13,686,000 122 Gambella 7 116,000 112,000 228,000 8.8 Harari 1 90,000 88,000 178,000 572 Amhara 208 8,835,000 8,834,000 17,669,000 - Addis Ababa 1 1,310,000 1,415,000 2,725,000 5140 Dire Dawa 2 179,000 178,000 357,000 294 TotalTotalTotalTotal 927927927927 34,653,00034,653,00034,653,00034,653,000 34,474,00034,474,00034,474,00034,474,000 69,127,00069,127,00069,127,00069,127,000 (1) Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia,2002 - published March 2003: Figures are based on the October 1994 National Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia, which have been projected to the period 1997 – 2003.
  • 6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 6 Figure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia iFigure 2.1 Map of Ethiopia illustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003)llustrating the Regions and Zones (September 2003) ((((1111)))) (1) http://www.reliefweb.int/w/map.nsf/Country?OpenForm&Query=Af_Ethiopia
  • 7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 7 Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2Table 2.2 Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003)Population of the Main Cities of Ethiopia (2003) ((((1111)))) CityCityCityCity Total PopulationTotal PopulationTotal PopulationTotal Population NotesNotesNotesNotes Mekele 147,858 Capital of Tigray Region Ayisaita 20,197 Capital of Affar Region Gondar 170,372 Capital of North Gondar Zone Dessie 147,927 Capital of South Wello Zone Bahir Dar 146,322 Capital of Amar Region Debre Markos 74,875 Capital of East Gojam Zone Nekemte 73,376 Capital of East Wellega Zone Jimma 138,070 Capital of Jimma Zone Ambo 42,911 Capital of West Shoa Zone Nazreth 198,513 Capital of Oromiya Debre Zeit 113,883 Capital of Aada Woreda Shashemene 80,887 Capital of Shashemene Asela 73,494 Capital of Tiyo Woreda Zewaye 31,201 Capital of East Shoa Zone Jigjiga 85,654 Capital of Somali Region Asosa 17,616 Capital of Benishangul Region Awasa 108,828 Capital of South People Dilla 53,073 Capital of Wenago Woreda Arba Minch 62,968 Capital of Arba Minch Gambela 27,290 Capital of Gambela Region Harari 109,000 Capital of Harari Region Addis Ababa 2,725,000 Capital of the Country Dire Dawa 248,434 Capital of Dire Dawa A map of the main regional cities is shown in Figure 2.2 below. (1) Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia, March 2003.
  • 8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 8 FigureFigureFigureFigure 2222.2.2.2.2 Map showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of EthiopiaMap showing main regional cities of Ethiopia 2.1.32.1.32.1.32.1.3 IIIIndustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculturendustry and Agriculture The most important industry sectors to Ethiopia are listed in Box 2.1. The proportion of public and private sector owned enterprises varies for the different sectors. Manufacturing accounts for about 5% of the GDP. Box 2.1Box 2.1Box 2.1Box 2.1 Main IMain IMain IMain Industry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopiandustry Sectors in Ethiopia • Food and beverage • Tobacco • Textiles • Leather • Footwear • Wood • Furniture • Paper and printing • Chemicals • Non-metal and metal processing • Other manufacturing • Cement
  • 9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 9 The food and beverage and textile manufacturing sectors are important in terms of production volume; and the food, beverage and metal manufacturing sectors are the most important in terms of contribution to the gross value of production. Agriculture, services, construction, mining and tourism are important sectors for the future economic development of the country. The main products of mining are gold and tantalum, where gold contributes the highest value of mineral production 1 . The agriculture sector, which includes crop production, animal husbandry, livestock, forestry, fisheries, and apiculture, remains by far the most important sector of the country. Agriculture generates about 90% of the export earnings and supplies around 70% of the raw material requirement of agro-based domestic industries 2 . It is also the major source of food for the population of the nation and hence a priority. 2.1.42.1.42.1.42.1.4 Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)Infrastructure (Transport and Communications)3333 Roads There are about 4,100 kilometres of asphalt roads in Ethiopia with a further 19,000 kilometres of gravel and dry-weather roads. In 2002, the road density was just under 27 Km per 1000 sqKm, and the national network covers just 35% of the country. There is an ongoing major ‘ Road Sector Development Program’ , in partnership with 13 international developers and donors, with an overall target implementation date of June 2007. Railways A 778-kilometre railway line links Addis Ababa with Djibouti and carries both freight and passengers. 2.1.52.1.52.1.52.1.5 WelfareWelfareWelfareWelfare Ethiopia gets the most relief aid and the least development aid of any poor country in the world 4 . The population is estimated to be increasing by about 2.7% each year. (1) 1 Central Statistics Authority (CSA), Statistical Abstract Ethiopia, March 2003 (2) 2 National Meteorological Service Agency (NMSA), Initial National Communication of Ethiopia to the UNFCCC, June 2001 (3) 3 www.ethiopar.net/English/basinfo/Baicifo.htm (4) 4 BBC News – Ethiopia Fact File (http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/l/hi/programmes/th..)
  • 10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 10 2.22.22.22.2 OOOOVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCAL //// REGIONALREGIONALREGIONALREGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES IN EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA There are 11 regions in Ethiopia (including Addis Ababa and the Dire Dawa Provisional Administration). These regions report to the Ministry of Federal Affairs (MFA) of the Federal Government (Figure 2.3). Figure 2.3Figure 2.3Figure 2.3Figure 2.3 Regional AdministrationsRegional AdministrationsRegional AdministrationsRegional Administrations The institutional structures are regularly changing in Ethiopia and Addis Ababa. In Addis Ababa there are now 10 zones (sub-cities) and 203 Kebeles. Administratively, Kebele is the lowest organ with about 500 – 1000 houses (each house typically containing 5 – 8 people). Figure 2.4Figure 2.4Figure 2.4Figure 2.4 Administration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis AbabaAdministration Structure in Addis Ababa Federal Government Tigray Affar Oromiya Somali HarariGambella Southern N/N & PeopleBenishngul Gumuz Addis AbabaAmara Dire Dawa Addis Ababa Municipality 10 Sub City Administrations 203 Kebele Administrations
  • 11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 11 Key issues relating to the development of the PSP strategy • A significant proportion of the Ethiopian population (about 84%) live in rural areas – Any PSP approach for these areas will need to be tailored to suit the specific characteristics of this group. • The type of farming practices prevalent in the rural areas could influence the selection of SWM disposal / management operations. • The average income in Ethiopia is very low so the development of SWM improvements and the PSP strategy will need to include detailed analysis on affordability of options. • The size and distribution of the towns and cities will influence the scale and type of SWM infrastructure and there will be the need for inter-municipal cooperation to maximise economies of scale on projects and share experiences, lessons learned and appropriate practices.
  • 12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 12 3333 WASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION AND CURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACCURRENT PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTETICES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT This section of the report provides an overview of current waste management practices in Ethiopia, and also contains an indicative waste inventory of selected towns and cities. The needs for specific solid waste management policies and an overall SWM improvement / implementation strategy are also considered - these issues are addressed in more detail in Section 4 of the report. 3.13.13.13.1 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE GGGGENERATIONENERATIONENERATIONENERATION 3.1.13.1.13.1.13.1.1 Waste FactorsWaste FactorsWaste FactorsWaste Factors There is limited information available on waste quantities generated in Ethiopia. A brief review and analysis of existing studies on waste quantities is provided in Box 3.1. Box 3.1Box 3.1Box 3.1Box 3.1 Review and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in EthiopiaReview and Analysis of Existing Studies on Waste Generation in Ethiopia NorConsult carried out the first main study on waste generation in Ethiopia in 1982 (1). The results suggested that the per capita generation of solid waste was 0.15 kg per day per person with a 1% annual growth rate and approximate waste density of 370 kg/m3 . The second study was carried out by Louis Berger International (under a French Mission) in 1986 and the result was a rate of 0.20 kg per day per person. The third available study (2) was also carried out by Louis Berger International on solid waste generation rates in 1994 and 1995. According to the 1994 study, the average per capita generation of solid waste was 0.22 kg per day per person and the density about 336 kg/m3 . In the 1994 study, based on the income level, the unit of domestic waste generation of per capita per day was 0.35 kg, 0.28 kg and 0.17 kg for high medium and low-income groups respectively. The results of the 1995 study were 0.48 kg, 0.26 kg and 0.24 kg, respectively. Based on the only available study carried out to date, for Addis Ababa (the Louise Berger study), the percentage composition by weight for combustible materials (leaves, grass, etc) is estimated to be about 22%, for non-combustible (stone, etc) 3%, for fines greater than 10mm size (food waste, straws, etc) 34%, for fines (ashes) less than 10 mm size 28% and for recyclable materials (paper, wood, metals, plastics, rubber, etc) 13%. The organic component of the solid waste of Addis Ababa constitutes about 66% by weight. Although there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia,there are limited reliable data on waste generation in Ethiopia, it is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generatiit is possible to estimate waste generation to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level ofon to a sufficient level of (1) NorConsult, Addis Ababa Solid Waste Management Comprehensive Study, 1982. (2) Louis Berger International, Addis Ababa Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1994.
  • 13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 13 reliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancingreliability in order to inform the development of a strategy for enhancing PSP in waste managementPSP in waste managementPSP in waste managementPSP in waste management. For example, standard waste factors (kg/person/day) for urban and rural areas in African countries can be combined with population data to estimate the potential range in waste generation. (Typical estimates for urban solid waste generated in less developed countries range from 0.2 kg to 0.8 kg per person per day 1 ). Table 3.1 provides a summary of the data on waste generation from the studies described above. The estimated waste inventory for 2003 in this report has been based on a range of 0.17 to 0.48 kg/person/day for urban areas and 0.11 to 0.35 kg/person/day for rural areas. Table 3.1Table 3.1Table 3.1Table 3.1 Summary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste GeneratSummary of Data sets on Waste Generationionionion Waste factorWaste factorWaste factorWaste factor –––– UrbanUrbanUrbanUrban Kg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/day Waste factorWaste factorWaste factorWaste factor –––– RuralRuralRuralRural Kg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/dayKg/person/day Source / reference and notesSource / reference and notesSource / reference and notesSource / reference and notes 0.15 – 0.28 NorConsult 1982 Addis Ababa only 0.2 French Mission Study, 1986 for Addis Ababa 0.11 Addis Ababa University Study, 1993 for Addis Ababa 0.17 – 0.48 Louis Berger International 1994 Addis Ababa only 0.24 – 0.48 Louis Berger International 1995 Addis Ababa only 0.170.170.170.17 –––– 0.480.480.480.48 0.110.110.110.11 –––– 0.350.350.350.35 Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003Waste factors assumed for the 2003 waste inventorywaste inventorywaste inventorywaste inventory There are significant uncertainties in the estimated waste factors, and these are outlined in Box 3.2. Estimating a range of waste factors rather than a single data point has helped to take account of these uncertainties. The factors have also been compared with more recent data from similar countries in northern and eastern Africa. Box 3.2Box 3.2Box 3.2Box 3.2 Uncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste FactorsUncertainties in Waste Factors There are many sources of uncertainty related to the estimated waste factors, including: • Waste generation changes with time, particularly as a country develops and the population shifts location. • The waste factors are taken from old studies on Ethiopia that are out of date. • There is limited information on the types of waste included in the waste factors from the different studies. 1 H. Jumelet, IHE, DELFT, Haskoning Royal Dutch Consulting Engineers & Architects, May 1994
  • 14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 14 • There are often inconsistencies in the point of measurement of waste generation. For example, in many rural areas much of the household waste is burned in households, and the point of measurement could be before or after this stage. • Measurements of waste generation needs to be undertaken over long time periods in order to get a representative sample. • There is no data on waste generation in rural areas for Ethiopia (outside Addis Ababa). • The waste factors have been compared to data for other countries in north and east Africa, although these other countries are generally at different stages of development than Ethiopia. 3.1.23.1.23.1.23.1.2 Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory)Estimated Waste Generation (Indicative Waste Inventory) The estimated waste factors have been multiplied by the population to produce the estimated waste generation in Table 3.2 for regions, and Table 3.3 for selected cities. The total generation of MSW in Ethiopia in 2003 is estimated to be between 2.8 and 8.8 million tonnes. This can be split to approximately 0.6 – 1.8 million tonnes from urban areas and 2.2 – 7.0 million tonnes from rural areas. The estimated generation of MSW in 2003 for Addis Ababa is between 170,000 and 475,000 tonnes. Table 3.2Table 3.2Table 3.2Table 3.2 Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Regions in Ethiopia for 2003 RegionRegionRegionRegion Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- urbanurbanurbanurban Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- ruralruralruralrural Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- totaltotaltotaltotal tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year MinMinMinMin MaxMaxMaxMax minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax Tigray 44242 124918 132214 420681 176456 545598 Affar 6950 19622 47738 151895 54688 171517 Amara 119136 336384 632322 2011935 751458 2348319 Oromiya 189811 535937 856640 2725674 1046451 3261611 Somali 39836 112478 134904 429240 174740 541718 Benishangul 3351 9461 21119 67197 24470 76657 SNNPR 68813 194297 504967 1606712 573780 1801009 Gambella 2544 7183 7508 23889 10052 31072 Harari 6763 19097 2770 8815 9534 27912 Addis Ababa 169086 477420 0 0 169086 477420 Dire Dawa 16195 45727 3854 12264 20049 57991 TotalTotalTotalTotal 622486622486622486622486 1757606175760617576061757606 2211823221182322118232211823 7037620703762070376207037620 2834309283430928343092834309 8795226879522687952268795226 Note – the precision of the numbers in this table should not be taken as an indication of their accuracy. The numbers have not been rounded in the table to a more appropriate figure to ensure that the columns add to the total. Although there are major uncertainties, the estimates of MSW generation from the regions and selected cities provide an inventory that has sufficient accuracy to inform the development of a strategy for private sector participation. However, further work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve thefurther work is essential to improve the inventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposesinventory if it is to be used for more detailed planning purposes.
  • 15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 15 The solid waste generation in Addis Ababa is expected to increase by at least 30% by the year 2010. Wastes from households will make up a large proportion of this due to the rapid increase of population in the city. Solid waste generation in other capital cities of regions and zones is also expected to increase with the rapid increase of their population and fast expansion of their urban settlements. The agricultural extension package that brings some improvements in the standards of living of rural Ethiopia is also expected to contribute to the increase of waste generation. The strategy for private sector participation should take into account the projected increases in waste generation. Table 3.3Table 3.3Table 3.3Table 3.3 Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003Estimated Waste Generation for Selected Cities in Ethiopia for 2003 RegionRegionRegionRegion Selected Major CitiesSelected Major CitiesSelected Major CitiesSelected Major Cities Waste generationWaste generationWaste generationWaste generation ---- selected citiesselected citiesselected citiesselected cities tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year tonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/yeartonnes/year minminminmin maxmaxmaxmax Tigray Axum 2544 7183 Adigrat 3537 9986 Mekele 9183 25930 Affar Ayisaita 1241 3504 Dubti 807 2278 Amara Kombolcha 3723 10512 Gondar 10549 29784 Dessie 9183 25930 Bhir Dar 9059 25579 Debre Brhan 3661 10337 Oromiya Jimma 8563 24178 Nazreth 12348 34865 Shashemene 5026 14191 Asela 4530 12790 Nekemte 4530 12790 Goba 2730 7709 Zewaye 1936 5466 Ambo 2668 7534 Somali Jijiga 5336 15067 Gode 2730 7709 Benishangul Assosa 1117 3154 SNNPR Hosaena 3103 8760 Dilla 3289 9286 Sodo 3537 9986
  • 16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 16 Arba Minch 3909 11038 Awasa 6763 19097 Gambella Gembella 1675 4730 Harari Harar 6763 19097 Addis Ababa Addis Ababa 169086 477420 Dire Dawa Dire Dawa 15388 43450 Note – the precision of the numbers in this table should not be taken as an indication of their accuracy.
  • 17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 17 3.23.23.23.2 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOOOOLLECTION ANDLLECTION ANDLLECTION ANDLLECTION AND TTTTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORT 3.2.13.2.13.2.13.2.1 Overview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection PracticesOverview of Waste Collection Practices Figure 3.1 illustrates the flow of household waste to the municipal dumpsite. Residents have been traditionally required to deposit their waste in large containers, which are collected by the municipal trucks operated by the sub-city. These containers serve as mini transfer stations and are located at communal points. Figure 3.1Figure 3.1Figure 3.1Figure 3.1 Household Waste FlowsHousehold Waste FlowsHousehold Waste FlowsHousehold Waste Flows Over the last 5 years, many micro-enterprises have been set up to carry out waste prepreprepre----collection servicescollection servicescollection servicescollection services, receiving payments from households to collect waste and transport it to the municipal waste containers. These micro-enterprises have taken the initiative to start these services, recognising the previous shortfall in this step of the system. There are clear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and itclear successes in this part of the system and it represents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participationrepresents a good starting point for building private sector participation and realising the associated benefits. The micro-enterprises collect waste from houses using a variety of transport methods ranging from wheelbarrow to donkey and cart, tractor and trailer to a waste collection truck. Some of the more basic forms of transport are more appropriate for the many streets of Addis Ababa that have difficulty in terms of accessibility (particularly in the rainy season). Many of the micro-enterprises provide bags, buckets or other containers to households for waste storage (e.g. 25-30 litres capacity). Most of these micro-enterprises are very small in scale and only transport waste to the municipal containers. These smaller companies obtain their licence from the Sub-City Administrations. A few of these companies own larger transport vehicles and are allowed to transport the waste to the dumpsite. These companies obtain their licence from the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency. However, the activities of these micromicromicromicro----enterprises have not beenenterprises have not beenenterprises have not beenenterprises have not been organised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Suborganised and monitored by the Sub----city administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficientcity administrations in sufficient detaildetaildetaildetail, and, as the number of start-up companies increases and the competition for collection of waste from households intensifies, the system is starting to show signs of inefficiencies and there is a strong need for improved control. Households Municipal Waste Containers/ Skips Municipal Dump Site
  • 18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 18 There is a shortfall in collection points / containers in the sub-cites, and therefore these containers often overflow with waste, which limits the activities of pre-collection companies. The containers / skips are generally metal and most are 8m 3 in size. There are also a few 1.1m 3 containers. In Addis Ababa, it is estimated that there are a total of 512 x 8m 3 size and about 500 x 1.1m 3 size containers. Some of the municipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficientmunicipal collection services are inefficient due to the lack of resources. The collection from containers and transport to the dumpsite is operated by the Sub-city Administrations. This lack of resources is resulting in a shortfall of vehicles available for collection, mainly because of the lack of ability to buy spare parts and a shortage in the number of vehicles. This is another reason why many of the containers / skips are over-flowing. The skips are emptied at an average of one to three times per day in highly populated and high waste generation areas, but on average containers are expected to be emptied once every 3-4 days. The door-to-door collection service is carried out once or twice in a week. The coverage of waste collection services is estimated at 50-60% of the total waste generated in different cities. It is reported that an estimated 65% of waste is collected in Addis Ababa. Although the paragraphs above describe the typical practices for collection, there are some other practices. For example in a few areas compactor trucks operate, involving residents bringing out their waste to the truck at specific times. Overview of waste collection practices in regional areas In many of the cities in Ethiopia the Municipality is responsible for waste collection. The Municipality owns waste skips and containers with a capacity of 4 m 3 , which are located at various points in the city. The main container location points are roadsides, open spaces and market places. The Municipality vehicles collect the waste at irregular intervals. There is a wide variation in performance in relation to waste collection in cities of Ethiopia. In many cities there are not enough skips to cover the population and vehicles are typically poorly maintained and out of service for long periods of time. An integrated urban-rural development study undertaken by NUPI et al in 1988 showed that among 11 project towns (Addis Ababa, Akaki, Assela, Ambo, Arssi negele, Goba, Mizan Teferi, Robe, Woliso, Ziway, Shashemene), only Addis Ababa had a centralized waste disposal system. This study also
  • 19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 19 revealed that most of the towns do not have waste collection trucks. Four of the municipalities assigned other vehicles to collect waste once or twice a week. Among those who provide a service, the coverage is very low, usually being limited to street sweeping and market cleaning. For example, in the city of Jimma collection covers only about 16% of the population. The main problems are poor micro-routing for collection, lack of equipment and personnel, lack of budget, and poor disposal site selection. BoxBoxBoxBox 3333.3.3.3.3 Case Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areasCase Studies on waste collection practices in regional areas DireDireDireDire Dawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative CouncilDawa Administrative Council Dire Dawa is located in the east of Ethiopia and has an estimated population of over 350,000. The Health Office is responsible for solid waste management in Dire Dawa (DD). There are 137 street cleaners and one sanitarian involved in the delivery of services. There are also 4 sanitary guards who supervise operations. There are two main types of collections systems: (a) 8m3 skips (about 84 in total), are located in communal areas – these are picked up by the Council and emptied at the dump site. A few smaller skips (6m3 ) are also used in more congested areas, where there is limited space. The Council has 3 skip lift trucks for emptying the skips. (b) Waste is also collected directly from households by a side loader truck. The Council has one truck for this purpose (about 8 years old), which travels to all Kebeles periodically. Nazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery DepartmentNazreth Waste Management and Greenery Department Nazreth is a regional town about 100 Km to the south-east of Addis Ababa, with a population of about 200,000 people. The Environmental Health Department is responsible for SWM in Nazreth. Waste collection is by means of skips / containers located at communal points. The Department has a total of about 30 skips / containers, of which only about 15 are in service. The remainder of the skips are not being used due to a lack of collection vehicles. The Department has 3 dump trucks which are almost always out of service due to their age (over 20 years old) and lack of repair and maintenance. Only one container loading vehicle / skip lift truck (about 3 years old) is currently available to service the waste collection containers. The vehicle is only able to service about 7 skips a day. Dukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda TownDukem Woreda Town –––– Health and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services DepartmentHealth and Social Services Department Dukem is a small rural town in Akaki Woreda of the Oromiya region. The town has a population of about 10,000 people. The Health & Social Services Department performs the SWM functions in the town. It employs 10 temporary staff who use push-carts (wheel barrows) to collect waste from households along the main streets. The waste collected is deposited in open dumps on the outskirts of the town.
  • 20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 20
  • 21. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 21 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.2.2.2.2 Waste Collection SkipsWaste Collection SkipsWaste Collection SkipsWaste Collection Skips ---- Nazreth Town CentreNazreth Town CentreNazreth Town CentreNazreth Town Centre FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.3.3.3.3 Skip lift trucksSkip lift trucksSkip lift trucksSkip lift trucks ---- Dire DawaDire DawaDire DawaDire Dawa
  • 22. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 22 Table 3.4 provides an indication of the number of waste trucks used in Addis Ababa and their state of repair. Waste collection and transport are carried out in Addis Ababa by three types of truck. The door-to- door collection and transport service is provided by side loader dump trucks, and the communal (container) service is provided by detachable container lift and empty trucks. In most other regional/capital cities waste collection and transport are carried out by container lifter and simple dump trucks for communal (container) and door-to-door services. Although there is a centralised vehicle parking and garaging service for the repair and maintenance of the vehicle fleet in Addis Ababa, the services provided are not very efficient. Each Sub-city tends to use the garages provided by supplier companies for regular repair and maintenance. The central facility tends to be used mainly for refuelling. Table 3.4Table 3.4Table 3.4Table 3.4 Addis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck InventoryAddis Ababa SW Collection Truck Inventory Truck Service YTruck Service YTruck Service YTruck Service Year/Ageear/Ageear/Ageear/Age QuantityQuantityQuantityQuantity Year ofYear ofYear ofYear of manufacturemanufacturemanufacturemanufacture AvailabilityAvailabilityAvailabilityAvailability Rate (%)Rate (%)Rate (%)Rate (%) <6 years old: • 1.1m3 container emptier (Renault) 10 1999 70 • Route packer(Iveco) 5 1999 70 6-12 years old: 8m3 container lifter (Volvo) 28 1994 40 8m3 container lifter (Nissan) 10 1996 60 Side loader (Nissan) 16 1996 60 Compactor (Hino) 10 1996 60 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.4.4.4.4 Waste Collection VehicleWaste Collection VehicleWaste Collection VehicleWaste Collection Vehicle ---- Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa (showing uncovered skip load being transported to the dumpsite, resulting in spillages during the transfer journey).
  • 23. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 23 IllegIllegIllegIllegal dumpingal dumpingal dumpingal dumping of waste is a significant problem in some areas of Addis Ababa, particularly at riverbanks, although this problem is a lot worse in cities in many other countries. The source of illegal dumping is likely to include some of the uncontrolled pre-collection companies. In addition several commercial and industrial enterprises are likely to be illegally dumping, rather than taking their own waste to the dumpsite and paying tipping fees or paying extra for the municipal collection service. LitteringLitteringLitteringLittering is a problem in some areas of the city, although the centre of Addis Ababa is relatively clean with respect to litter. There is a significant lack of available data on waste generationavailable data on waste generationavailable data on waste generationavailable data on waste generation, numbers of pre-collection companies, waste flows, etc. However, the new reporting guidelines developed by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency of the Addis Ababa Municipality, implemented through the Sub-city Administrations, is likely to generate much improved data over the next year. Health and safety procedures and practices are weak with respect to protection of workers from health impacts. Basic personnel protective equipment, such as protective gloves, is needed, especially for dumpsite operators and street cleaners. The main source of waste in streets is littering in the open spaces and roads. The number of litter bins in the streets of Addis Ababa and other cities are not sufficient. There are about 150 bins (of 20-40 litre size) in a few streets of Addis Ababa. Most of the litter bins are old and in need of repair. There are no waste collection & transport operational procedures and there is limited direct monitoring and enforcement of waste collection and transport practice in the country by regulatory bodies like the Federal & Regional Offices of the EPA. Quite often, inspection of waste operators is only carried out after illegal dumping has been reported.
  • 24. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 24 FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.5.5.5.5 Street LitterStreet LitterStreet LitterStreet Litter ---- Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa Box 3.4Box 3.4Box 3.4Box 3.4 Examples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in RegionalExamples of planned MSWM improvements in Regional areasareasareasareas In the city of Adama (Nazreth), the Municipality is trying to increase the collection coverage by implementing the following measures: • Introduction of private sector participation into pre-collection; • Improving the accessibility to and fencing of the disposal site; • Organizing workshops to raise public awareness on SWM; • Conducting exposure visits and experience sharing with Addis Ababa city, as part of the sector reform program. (The cities of Bahir Dar and Dire Dawa are also considering the introduction of PSP into pre-collection activities). Jimma and Gondar towns are also carrying out similar activities. For instance, the mayor of Jimma Town has invited professionals at the school of Environmental Health of Jimma University to carry out a study on sanitation facilities, solid waste being the major component. A new disposal site has been selected and the municipality has just bought an additional refuse collection truck.
  • 25. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 25 3.2.23.2.23.2.23.2.2 Organisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste CollectionOrganisations involved in Waste Collection Pre-collection Companies There are estimated to be about 75 small scale pre-collector companies operating in Addis Ababa collecting solid waste from households and from institutions including offices, restaurants, hotels, etc, within a residential area. Most pre-collector companies dump or store wastes that they collect from households and institutions in 8m 3 municipal skips. In Addis Ababa, only one micro-enterprise has its own truck(s) for direct transport and disposal at the dumpsite – see Figure 3.6 below. Four other enterprises transport waste to the dumpsite using rental trucks. Disposal at the dump is free and the only reason micro-enterprises engage in this transport activity is to avoid waiting for the municipal skips to be emptied. (There are no similar waste transfer practices by micro-enterprises in other regional cities of Ethiopia). Most pre-collectors employ persons that might otherwise be unemployed, and each enterprise averages about 20 employees for waste collection. Pre-collectors have very small catchment areas and provide waste collection services in a very limited capacity in Addis Ababa City. Their contribution to the total waste collection is estimated to be less than 5%. Few pre-collectors have a capacity to expand their service. In many cases, their operations are inefficient as they collect waste from a small proportion of houses in different streets. There are currently two pre-collection companies operating in Nazreth, each charging householders about 10 Birr/month (about 1.2 USD). Table 3.5 gives a case study on two pre-collection companies (one of which is relatively large).
  • 26. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 26 Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5Table 3.5 Case studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing PreCase studies / profiles of existing Pre----Collector companiesCollector companiesCollector companiesCollector companies Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE)Dynamic Youth Enterprises (DYE) Dolphin ServicesDolphin ServicesDolphin ServicesDolphin Services Summary overview Local micro-enterprise company, which started operations in 1998. The company was founded by Ms. Eden Melke Beka, initially with the primary objectives of providing employment for street children and youth and also to fill the gap in the provision of solid waste collection services. (The main employees are aged between 15 and 25 and priority is given to individuals who live in the project / operations area). Commenced operations with 6 staff, 14 clients and a rental vehicle. Local micro-enterprise company which started operations in about 1999, providing door-to-door collection of household waste. Self-sufficient and profitable but not highly lucrative. Overview of operations Door-to-door collection of waste from households and businesses; transfer to municipal skips/dump site. The company also carries out open-windrow composting and is in the process of developing a composting / digester facility. Door-to door collection of waste from households. Also provide extra/ additional collections from houses (e.g. after a party) for an additional fee. Method of operations Collects waste in push-cart and skips (for businesses – 1.1, 4.0 and 8.0 m3 capacity). Households are issued with orange straw sacks / bags for storing waste – the bag is emptied directly into the pushcart, and reused several times before being changed. The pushcarts take the collected waste to a truck for onward transfer to the dumpsite – the use of the municipality’ s containers / skips is being phased out. The enterprise has a pilot project in 1 kebele – black sacks for organic waste and red sacks for recyclables (plastics – sold at 4.5 Birr /kg to factory for reuse, bottles) Collects waste in push-cart and donkey carts. Households are issued with 25 litre plastic containers for storage of waste - the container is emptied directly into the pushcart, and reused several times before being changed. The pushcarts take the collected waste to a skip provided by the municipality, from where the waste is transferred to the dumpsite. Equipment 28 Pushcarts (3 operatives per cart), 3 trucks (2 x. 21m3 compactor trucks, one that can service 1.1 & 5m3 skips). Vehicles were bought second-hand and have been in operation for about 2 years. 8 small pushcarts (wheelbarrows – purchased from the market) and 1 donkey. Frequency of collection 2 – 7 times a week 3 times a week. Capacity (Employees / offices) Main office building with several rooms, computing facilities, telephone, backyard composting and space for storage of pushcarts. Depot for trucks. 84 field staff and 5 office based staff. 2 small satellite offices (makeshift huts), built on land provided by the Municipality / sub-city. Manager’ s Mobile Phone. 15 field staff and 3 office based staff. Fees / charges 5 – 20 Birr /house/ month for households, depending on perceived affordability. 25– 30 Birr/m3 for businesses/organisations with skips. 10 Birr / house /month Fee collection Door-to-door cash payments with > 90% of clients paying regularly. Some business clients pay directly into the company’ s bank account. Door-to-door cash payments with > 90% of clients paying regularly. Other income sources / support Income from sale of compost (compost is sold to clients for 1 Birr/kg, in 25Kg sacks). CRDA (an Ethiopian NGO) provided support for the purchase of one truck. One of the other vehicles was also purchased with support from the Finland Govt. None, except land for offices provided by the municipality. Contracts / Agreements One year renewable agreements with businesses and households. (See example in Annex 3) Simple annual agreements with households. Areas of operation Bole (6 kebeles), Vatican, Kirkos (3 kebeles) sub-cities. The company has about 95% coverage in 3 kebeles in the affluent area on Bole Sub-city. Bole sub-city: 500 houses (2 skips x 8m3 emptied twice a week by the municipality) – 4 pushcarts and 1 donkey. Lafto sub-city: 200 houses (4 push carts) Data collection and reporting Computer database to monitor and record quantities of waste and fees collected. A book register is filled in daily by hand to record quantities of waste and fees collected. Problems and challenges Lack of integration with services provided by SBPDA (i.e. there are several overlaps) – in some areas the vehicles are under-utilised. Unable to meet demand for service in all areas. Lack of land to expand composting activities. Competition with other companies in the same area offering their services – undercutting. Skips not emptied quickly by the municipality thus limiting ability to collect from households. No running water source to wash /clean out carts – water is purchased from vendors (very expensive).
  • 27. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 27 Sub-city does not have enough resources for effective monitoring, illegal dumping is therefore widespread. Provides good service and contributes to employment – would therefore like credit assistance (micro-finance). Would welcome assistance to purchase trucks. Future plans Would like to expand and replicate the service elsewhere Other points Does not pay business tax as < 300/Birr month threshold. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.6.6.6.6 Dynamic YouthDynamic YouthDynamic YouthDynamic Youth EnterprisesEnterprisesEnterprisesEnterprises ---- Waste Collection TrucksWaste Collection TrucksWaste Collection TrucksWaste Collection Trucks FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.7.7.7.7 Dolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste PreDolphin Services: Solid Waste Pre----collection pullcollection pullcollection pullcollection pull----cartcartcartcart
  • 28. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 28 Future plans for extending pre-collection service provision by micro- enterprise companies In Dire Dawa, pilot trials have recently been carried out on using small enterprises for pre-collection of solid waste. This was funded and supported by the Ethiopian Social Rehabilitation and Development Fund, and indicated a willingness to pay for the services at an estimated tariff of 2 Birr /month or household and 10 Birr /month for businesses. The Health Office of Dire Dawa Administrative Council has since prepared a project proposal on the provision of pre-collection services by small scale micro-enterprises. The intention is to pilot the system in two kebeles initially, before replicating the service in the remaining 23 kebeles. The strategy is based on the creation of self-help community based enterprises that would create employment and also relieve the burden on the municipality for the delivery of adequate services. The proposal document is now being circulated to potential sponsoring organisations for support. In Dukem Woreda town (located in the Akaki Wored of the Oromiya Region), the Health and Social Services Department is trying to organise about 56 unemployed “ street children / youth” into pre- collection micro-enterprises. Six pushcarts have been purchased so far, and it is expected that some basic training in business operations will be provided by the Federal Government’ s Small Scale Business Agency. The fees for the services that will be provided are expected to be about 2-3 Birr/month for households and about 10 Birr/month for businesses (i.e. hotels, etc). Municipal Collection and Transport Sub-city Administrations of Addis Ababa each have a unit in charge of waste collection, transport, and street sweeping. These have an average 150 employees for waste operation in the field including street sweeping. (1) The Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification and Park Development Agency is responsible for waste management in the city and is trying to register and monitor enterprises participating in waste collection services. Other cities /towns of regional states have a unit in charge of solid waste management under the Municipality, but most have no pre- collectors or private waste management companies. (1) Sanitation, Beautification & Park Development Agency, Addis Ababa, Reports, 2003.
  • 29. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 29 Several NGOs are also participating in practices that will help to raise community awareness to facilitate proper waste handling at the point of source. Future Plans in Organising Waste Collection and Transport The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency state that they are regularly approached by private companies that are hoping to expand their operations into waste management. The Agency is currently planning to engage the private sector in as much of its operational remit as possible. This has indirectly been started through the increase in participation of the private sector over the last five years in pre-collection (although pre-collection is not strictly part of the Agency’ s operational remit, as a waste management activity it does come under the authority of the Agency). The Agency intends to encourage the direct provision of services by the private sector, so that it can focus more on management and monitoring activities. The lack of resources at the Agency, (i.e. financial resources and manpower) is one of the key problems at present and this is the main reason why it is encouraging PSP. The Agency is, however, working hard to strengthen the capacity of its resources through training and capacity building, as well as raising awareness in the Municipality of the need for increased budgets. There is potential for pre-collection companies to combine and form larger enterprises. It is reported that about 45 pre-collection companies have formed a union recently, so that practices are improved as well as communication. The Agency recognises that the pre-collection system is currently successful, although it should be better organised and controlled. It has been decided that future plans should build on the pre-collection system. The pre-collection companies have a significant role to play in the reduction of unemployment in Addis Ababa – something that is a high priority for the Municipality. The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency has re- categorised the pre-collectors into 3 levels of business: • Small - the small pre-collectors that take waste from households to municipal containers (licensed by the Sub-city Administrations); • Medium – the pre-collection companies that also have one vehicle that they use to take waste to the dump site (licensed by the Agency);
  • 30. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 30 • Large – the pre-collection companies that also have several vehicles that they use to take waste to the dump site (licensed by the Agency). The Agency hopes that this categorisation will encourage the pre- collection companies to aim to move up a level and expand their services, potentially collecting more revenues. The plans that the Agency is currently finalising are positive in terms of cost-effective actions, some of which are already being implemented. However, it should be noted that encouraging PSP does not obviate the need for the Agency to have access to resources – if it is responsible for the private sector contractor, including payment of the contract, then it will need the financial resources to do this. An important aspect of involving the private sector is that it reveals the full costs of the operations being undertaken. As these will often be higher than existing perceived costs, the government or its agency will be forced into generating additional revenue with which to finance the contract.
  • 31. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 31 3.2.33.2.33.2.33.2.3 Contracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste CollectionContracts and Arrangements for Waste Collection The 10 Sub-city Administrations of Addis Ababa are responsible for waste collection in their area. Although there are no formal contracts with the pre-collection companies, they are required to obtain a licence from the Sub-city Administration (larger companies are issued a licence by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency). The companies now have to renew their licence each year under a wide range of new plans being introduced by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency. These plans include an increase in the reporting requirements of the pre-collection companies through the Sub-city Administrations, and improved communication with the companies. All pre-collection micro enterprises are now reporting on a monthly basis to the Sub-city Administration’ s Sanitation & Beautification Units. More details on reporting are provided in Section 4 of this report. 3.33.33.33.3 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE RRRREEEE----UUUUSESESESE,,,, RRRRECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING AND CCCCOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTING The extensive nature of agricultural farming across Ethiopia presents significant market opportunities for composting of organic waste. Based on the 1994/95 study 1 of the total waste generated in the Addis Ababa City, about 60-70% is estimated to be organic. Several composting initiatives have been initiated in Addis Ababa - for example, the Municipality has provided land for the pre-collection micro- enterprises, Dynamic Youth Enterprises, to carry out composting activities. The operators of the composting facility are now in the process of developing sample products, which will undergo market testing in Addis Ababa in April – May 2004. An outlet is also being planned in the Kara Kore area (at the border of Addis Ababa), in addition to distribution to Addis Ababa residents. Long-term plans include the large scale production of compost and sale to farmers in Addis Ababa and surrounding areas. The cost of the compost is expected to be about 1 Birr per kg. In addition, there are significant informal recycling activities in Addis Ababa, including in some cases, the collection and re-use of plastic bottles, metal, glass bottles and containers. Over 200 waste pickers (1) 1 Louis Berger International, Addis Ababa Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1994
  • 32. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 32 are collecting valuable materials at the Rappi dump site on a daily basis. They collect plastics, metals, glass, rubber, bottles, firewood and other combustible materials for supply to some recyclers in the city / reuse as a fuel source. Some NGOs, including ENDA-Ethiopia, Bio-Village, are also working on encouraging household level composting to promote urban agriculture. The current policy of the Addis Ababa Municipality is to encourage waste recycling and composting. 3.43.43.43.4 WWWWASTASTASTASTEEEE TTTTREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT AND DDDDISPOSALISPOSALISPOSALISPOSAL There is one official dump site in Addis Ababa, operated by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency of the Addis Ababa Municipality. The dump site is at Rappi, in the South-west of Addis Ababa, 13Km from the city centre. The site occupies an area of about 25 hectares and has been in operation since 1968. The operational performance at the dump site is poor in relation to environmental impacts, for example: • There is no covering of waste, which results in odours, wind- blowing of waste, and leachate run-off during rains; • There is no leachate management, and there is no lining to the landfill, resulting in potential leaching of heavy metals and other toxic pollutants into the ground water, as well as surface run-off of these pollutants; • There is no fencing and there is limited security at the dump site - there are many unorganised waste pickers working on the site, etc. • The dump site which was once in the periphery of the city is now well within the boundaries of the city centre, due to the expansion of Addis Ababa. There are no operational procedures in place at the existing dump site. Monitoring and inspection of waste operations by Federal and Regional EPA offices is limited. Addis Ababa is a very spread out city. The fact that there is only one dump site means that the collection vehicles from some of the sub-city zones are travelling very long journeys. Current long-term planning includes construction of more than one landfill site, which would improve the efficiency of waste transport and allow more opportunities for more frequent collection from containers. The Addis Ababa City Masterplan makes provision for the development of three new landfills, each about 10-20 Hectares in the eastern, western and southern parts
  • 33. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 33 of the city, namely: Bole Arabssa (15 Ha), Filidora (20 Ha), and Dertu Mojo (10 Ha). In addition, there are plans to improve operations at the existing Rappi site, including use of construction and demolition waste as cover material. Some enterprises, companies and factories in Addis Ababa choose to take their waste to the dump site using their own transport. These pay tipping fees at the dump site of 4 Birr per cubic metre. Some of the wastes from these enterprises are hazardous (e.g. waste from tanneries). There are no other major waste treatment practices like controlled incineration in Ethiopia. There are numbers of illegal dump sites at river banks and open spaces in urban centres of Ethiopia and some institutions and companies are practicing illegal dumping. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.8.8.8.8 Addis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal FacilityAddis Ababa Waste Disposal Facility ---- Rappi DumpsiteRappi DumpsiteRappi DumpsiteRappi Dumpsite (showing unorganised waste pickers, leachate, uncovered waste - poor site management). Box 3.5Box 3.5Box 3.5Box 3.5 Overview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practiceOverview of waste management practices in rural areass in rural areass in rural areass in rural areas In most rural areas of Ethiopia solid waste management is not carried out in an organised manner. Many of the people are very poor, and appropriate waste management is not a priority. However, the social situation does mean that these people view waste as a resource, and composting practices are widespread, for example. In addition, many bottles, containers and other items would typically be kept
  • 34. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 34 by people for re-use. Open burning, open dumping and spreading on farmlands of waste is widely practiced. There are generally no formal solid waste management programs in the rural areas of Ethiopia. In most areas there is no waste management service and people therefore do not pay charges. Each household is responsible for their own SWM – in most cases household waste is burned in the backyard of houses. Members of the household are sometimes provided with advice by Health Centre staff during outreach programs. The other source of information about solid waste disposal is the mass media. However, this is also irregular and not well coordinated.
  • 35. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 35 Waste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and townsWaste disposal / management practices in regional cities and towns In most regional cities waste is disposed in one of several open dump sites. These are operated with different levels of performance related to environmental management, but generally the impacts from these dump sites on ground water, surface water and health of nearby residents is potentially serious. Some dump sites are just open sites with little or no management or security. Most sites only have a very basic level of management and have no fencing, a lack of appropriate site operating vehicles and compactors, limited registration of arriving waste loads, extensive uncontrolled waste picking practices, and none or limited application of cover material. Some towns also use dump pits, in which waste is burned once they get filled up. Most institutions like hospitals, schools and enterprises in Ethiopia widely use small scale (onsite) purpose built brick chambers for burning waste (see Figure 3.9 below) – this is primarily to reduce the volume of the waste, and the ashes of the burned waste are usually disposed of with other wastes. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.9.9.9.9 Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber)Waste disposal unit (waste burning chamber) ---- Nazreth Health CentreNazreth Health CentreNazreth Health CentreNazreth Health Centre
  • 36. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 36 Waste Disposal in Nazreth In Nazreth (population 200,000), the Health Centre encourages the use of on-site dump pits by households, to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be collected and disposed of by the municipality. There is only one dumpsite for the municipality, which is located about 8Km form the city centre. The facility, Argoe Adam dumpsite, has been in operation for about 6 years. The site has some basic fencing (but not secure), and is located adjacent to a waste stabilisation pond for sewage treatment. The facility has a thriving population of dogs, baboons, wild birds (Marabou – stork family), and a few human scavengers (see Figure 3.10). FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.10.10.10.10 Nazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facility –––– Argoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama DumpsiteArgoe Adama Dumpsite
  • 37. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 37 Waste Disposal in Dire Dawa There is only one solid waste disposal facility in Dire Dawa town (population 250,000) – the Sheneley Cemetery Dumpsite. The facility is located about 5 Km from the city centre, within the premises of a cemetery. The site has been in operation for about 40 years. The site is partially fenced and the only vehicular access to the premises is via the entrance to the cemetery. There are no scavengers at the site and it is generally well laid out, sandwiched between different sections of the cemetery. There are plans to cease the operations at the current site and relocate the dumpsite to an area about 7Km further away from the current facility. FigureFigureFigureFigure 3333.11.11.11.11 Nazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facilityNazreth Waste Disposal facility ---- Sheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery DumpsiteSheneley Cemetery Dumpsite
  • 38. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 38 Waste Disposal in Dukem Woreda Town (Oromiya Region) At present, there are no dedicated waste disposal facilities for this area. Collected wastes are deposited in open dumps scattered around the outskirts of the town, where the waste is subsequently burned. A potential dumpsite, about 5 Km from the town has been identified by the Health Centre. However, there is no road access to the premises at present and there is no means of waste transportation as the only collection system currently available is by pushcarts (wheel barrows). Other key SWM issues in regional cities Other key issues related to the management of solid waste in regional cities, include: • Municipalities do not feel responsible for managing solid waste - indeed some are unaware of their responsibilities and do not make any provisions for SWM in their budgets; • Most municipalities have a limited budget and low capacity for SWM activities; • There is generally a low level of public awareness of the issues relating to SWM; • There is often an overlap of roles and responsibilities between the Health Centre in the city, the Municipality Zonal Health offices; • Poor Town Planning – insufficient provision for SWM facilities and sites. 3.53.53.53.5 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING SWMSWMSWMSWM PPPPLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS AND OOOOTHERTHERTHERTHER RRRRELEVANTELEVANTELEVANTELEVANT FFFFINDINGSINDINGSINDINGSINDINGS There are several important SWM plans being developed at present by different stakeholders for Addis Ababa. However, these activities are not currently being centrally co-ordinated and communicated. These include: • Plans to strengthen the organisation of operations and reporting at sub-city level, being developed by the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency and implemented through the Sub-city Administrations. These plans include improving the quality of information on the numbers of pre-collection micro-enterprises and their activities. Other initiatives also include: o The Addis Ababa Municipality will give full responsibility to the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Agency to manage solid waste; o Re-organizing Kebele areas into small sub-sections to deal with their own waste management problems; o Food for work programs are to be organized;
  • 39. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 39 o Study to be commissioned on waste composition and generation rates; o Review of resource allocation to improve the efficiency of waste collection and transfer; o Plans to rehabilitate Rappi dump site and also construct new landfills; o Public awareness programs on television and radio; o Improving river banks; o Improving the streets and greenery of open areas; o Expansion of composting activities; o Strengthening the capacity of informal recyclers. • Plans to restructure responsibilities for waste management operations in Addis Ababa and to launch a ‘ client’ company, being developed by the Chamber of Commerce and the Municipality. The plans, which will include strengthening the capacity of the private sector and formulating public-private partnerships are being funded by the German development agency (GTZ). The plans also include actions to improve Rappi dump site. Further details of this project are summarised below.
  • 40. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 40 Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6Box 3.6 Outline CasOutline CasOutline CasOutline Case Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removale Study of the Addis Ababa Solid Waste Collection, Removal and Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Projectand Utilisation Project –––– Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: FebruaryAddis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: February 2002200220022002 It will be very important for the strategy for PSP developed in this project to compliment the above existing plans and other existing plans, such as: o Plans to restructure other city administrations in a similar manner to the Addis Ababa City restructuring (MFA). o Assisting regional cities in urban planning (National Planning Institute (under MFA)). Project Overview • The project plan was developed to address the SWM problems in Addis Ababa. The plan essentially involves the development of an improved SWM system based on a conceptual Public Private Partnership (PPP) between the business community and the Addis Ababa municipality. • The project plan appears to have been developed in consortium with the previous AA municipality administration, i.e. prior to the creation of the SBPDA. Proposed SWM System • The proposed SWM system solution(s) are not very clearly defined and the means of cost recovery are not apparent. • The focus of the project appears to be the development of an improved waste collection service from businesses and some households, and transfer of waste to a refurbished waste facility (to include the installation of a gas turbine and electricity generation) at the existing Rappi dumpsite. • The project is based on the transfer of the Addis Ababa municipality’s SWM budget, personnel and equipment to a new Management Organisation. • An assessment of the potential to develop a debit-credit agreement based on the UN Kyoto Protocol will also be carried out. Approach • The project would entail the establishment of a full-time professional managed office within the AA Chamber of Commerce. This office would later become the Project Office, and the base of a joint autonomous project executing and managing office. The initial tasks of the project office would be to: • Prepare Memoranda and Articles of Association • Investigate the feasibility of a Management Contract • Explore alternative governance arrangements, including the development of bylaws. • The project development was initially expected to take about 2 years and is scheduled for completion in December 2004. Current Status The project office staff (Project Manager, Engineer and Secretary) are being recruited.
  • 41. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 41 o Planning guidelines, standards, system development, capacity building, contract administration, landfill operation (Addis Ababa Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Agency). o Standards and guidelines development (EPA). o Hygiene & Sanitation Package (MoH, NGOs).
  • 42. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 42 3.5.13.5.13.5.13.5.1 Key Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management PracticesKey Points on Current Waste Management Practices • Solid Waste Management in Addis Ababa is in a poor state, but is improving slowly. Momentum is building at present for planning and implementing improvement (e.g. organisation of pre-collection companies). • However, if the momentum and initiatives for improvement continue without strengthened organisation and control then there is a potential risk that they could start to result in greater harm than good in some aspects of waste management (e.g. increased dumping), or at least it is likely that the improvements will not be as effectively implemented as would be possible. This is particularly important with respect to the need for organisation of the private sector pre-collection companies. • The launch of the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of the Addis Ababa Municipality, responsible for overall co-ordination of waste collection services and for operation of the Rappi dumpsite, is a positive step in improvement of SWM. • There is significant potential for increasing the efficiencies of waste collection through improving organisational aspects. • The Federal government is also giving due attention and prioritisation to the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa City. There is support and commitment for the strengthening of PSP and the improvement of institutional arrangements to increase solid waste collection coverage.
  • 43. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 43 Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP Strategy • There is a need for the development of an overall waste management strategy for Ethiopia, to serve as an umbrella for all waste management initiatives. Such a strategy should include overarching policies, objectives, targets and programmes which would in turn inform the development of regional and local SWM plans and projects. • A Federal Strategy is necessary to ensure that all the ongoing and planned SWM improvement projects operate within a common framework, are complementary wherever possible, and are joined up, to improve the overall situation in the country. A Federal Strategy would further provide direction and context to all waste management initiatives. • One of the first steps in the development of a National Solid Waste Management Strategy (NSWMS) should be a comprehensive survey of waste management in Ethiopia (in both urban and rural areas), to include: determination of the quantities of various waste streams, waste generation rates, typical waste compositions, and an inventory of facilities and equipment. This information is necessary for the effective planning and development of waste management facilities and projects. • The PSP Strategy should ideally be implemented within the framework of a Federal Waste Management Strategy. • The PSP Strategy should build on and complement the success of the existing pre-collection companies, and enhance current plans of the SBPDA.
  • 44. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 44 4444 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKSORKSORKSORKS This section provides an overview of the current institutional frameworks for environmental management generally, and solid waste management where applicable, in Ethiopia. 4.14.14.14.1 EEEENVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL AND WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY AND SSSSTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGY 4.1.14.1.14.1.14.1.1 The Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for EthiopiaThe Environmental Policy for Ethiopia The Environmental Policy for Ethiopia was published in April 1997 by the EPA and Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation (MEDAC). The report defines the guiding principles and policy objectives for the cross-sectoral and sectoral issues defined in the National Conservation Strategy. As such, municipal solid waste managed is not treated as a separate policy, but is covered under “ Human Settlement, Urban Environment and Urban Health” . The Policy seems to give more weight to municipal solid waste management than the Conservations Strategy. MSWM policy objectives include: • To provide municipal waste collection services and facilities for safe disposal; • To promote the collection of sewerage and waste by private firms; • To identify suitable sanitary landfill sites in the major cites and towns of Ethiopia; • To recycle liquid and solid wastes into fertilizers and to recover energy from waste. Policy objectives for the “ Control of Hazardous Materials and Pollution from Industrial Waste” component include: • To adopt the precautionary principle and the "polluter pays" principles; • To ensure that enterprises, municipalities and Woreda councils provide their own appropriate pollution control facilities; • To develop cost-effective guidelines for waste disposal, to translate these guidelines into legislation, and to enforce this legislation; • To formulate and implement a country-wide strategy and guidelines on the management of wastes from the medical, agriculture and other sectors that may use potentially hazardous biological organisms, their fragments or chemicals, to issue the necessary regulations and to enforce these regulations; • To promote waste minimization and recycling.
  • 45. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 45 4.1.24.1.24.1.24.1.2 The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE)The National Conservation Strategy for Ethiopia (CSE) The CSE Report was prepared 1 by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and MEDAC. The Strategy was published in April 1996 and contains 5 volumes: • Volume I contains an evaluation of the state of the natural resources, the environment and development in Ethiopia; • Volume II presents a policy and strategy framework aimed at ensuring the sustainable use and management of natural resources; • Volume III deals with institutional issues to implement the strategies defined in Volume II. (However, given that in 2002 a proclamation was issued on the establishment of environmental protection organs, this particular objective of the CSE is no longer relevant); • Volume IV presents a plan of prioritised actions within the framework of 11 cross-sectoral and 11 sectoral programmes; • Volume V gives a listing of projects, some funded and being implemented, and others only proposed, with estimated costs. The projects have not been fully evaluated and prioritised in the context of the strategies defined in Volume II. The policy and strategy framework outlined in Volume II distinguishes 11 cross-sectoral, and 11 sectoral issues. For each issue, prioritised strategies have been defined. The cross-sectoral issues include Public Participation in Environmental Management, Environmental Economics, Environmental Information Systems, Environmental Research for Sustainable Development, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Education and Awareness. The 11 sectoral issues include Forest Management, Biodiversity Conservation, Water Resources Management, Energy Resources Management, Human Settlements Urban Environment and Environmental Health and Control of Pollution from Industrial Waste and of Hazardous Materials. Municipal solid waste is not covered explicitly, though some issues are covered under the “ Human Settlements Urban Environment and Environmental Health” component, namely: 1 The Strategy was prepared with the technical assistance of the IUCN and the World Conservation Union and with financial aassistance from SIDA, ODA, UNSO, NORAD..
  • 46. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 46 • development of partnerships with local citizen groups and neighbourhood centres to provide essential services, such as sanitation, improve road access to residential areas to allow the efficient provision of sanitation and other environmental and social services; • undertake studies to identify suitable sanitary landfill sites in the major cites and towns of Ethiopia. Industrial and Hazardous waste management is covered under the “ Control of Pollution from Industrial Waste and of Hazardous Materials” component. The actions in Volume IV for the human settlements, urban environment and environmental health, are divided in three components, for each of which immediate priorities have been defined. The components with the immediate priorities relevant for waste management are: • Improving Urban and Rural Sanitation Facilities; a) Undertake research and surveys into the needs for, and socio-economic aspects of, urban and rural sanitation facilities and services. b) Develop a Federal Sanitation Strategy clearly setting out appropriate types of, and technologies, for sanitation facilities, sanitation delivery systems, priorities in terms of urban and rural population densities and climatic conditions, and the institutional framework for implementation. c) Undertake sanitary landfill surveys in Addis Ababa and all major urban centres. • Improving the Habitation Environment; Capacity Building and Institutional Support: Clarify the institutional structure and mandates for urban sanitation, latrine emptying, sewerage, solid waste disposal, water supplies, public health and hygiene, sites and services and the urban environment. The Strategy is a comprehensive document that provides a basis for the sustainable use and management of the country’ s natural resources. However, the strategy is mainly declaratory and is essentially a list of “ good intentions” . Overall, considerable weight is given to the establishment of the appropriate legal and institutional framework.
  • 47. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 47 Municipal solid waste management is not covered in any depth as such, but some of the relevant issues are covered under the urban and rural sanitation component. More attention is given to the prevention and control of pollution from industrial and hazardous waste. The majority of the Ethiopian industries are old and use outdated technology. While they are small in number, they are important in terms of environmental impact. According to the State of the Environment Report for Ethiopia (2003), 90 % of the industries located in Addis Ababa, discharge their waste without any treatment into rivers and open spaces. 4.1.34.1.34.1.34.1.3 State of the Environment ReportState of the Environment ReportState of the Environment ReportState of the Environment Report The EPA published in August 2003 the “ State of the Environment Report for Ethiopia” . The Report provides an overview of the Environment, Development (the state of the economy, the state of poverty, employment), and of Natural Resources Management and Utilization (natural resources management and utilization, the human environment and laws and policies). 4.1.44.1.44.1.44.1.4 Urban planningUrban planningUrban planningUrban planning Most towns in Ethiopia do not have master plans and are established and managed haphazardly. As a result, they are often characterized by chronic social and environmental problems. However, urban planning which takes into account, at least to some extent, environmental issues, is currently increasing. Solid waste management is addressed in the Addis Ababa city development plan. Waste collection and disposal schemes form part of the plan especially in the expanding areas of the city. The development plans of some of other cities and regions also include urban waste management plans and the improvement of household waste collection and disposal. 4.1.54.1.54.1.54.1.5 Summary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWMSummary of Policies and Strategies relating to SWM While some municipal solid waste management issues are covered in the above cited policy documents, there is no defined central strategy for the planning and development of the sector. It is important that an overall waste management strategy is developed for Ethiopia, within which all regions of Ethiopia would have the flexibility to plan and operate.
  • 48. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 48 4.24.24.24.2 FFFFEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL AND RRRREGIONALEGIONALEGIONALEGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THE DDDDECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATION PPPPROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESS Ethiopia has a Federal structure, with a Federal government and regional governments, the latter being largely autonomous. Each of the 11 regional states is divided into Woredas (districts), which in turn are divided into Kebeles (local communities), the lowest administrative unit. Each Woreda has a “ capital” and several other towns. The Woreda administration is responsible for the administration of the overall Woreda and of the rural areas outside the towns. The towns within the Woreda also have a municipal government. With the devolution of power to the regional governments, implementation of economic policies and development programs have, to a large extent, been shifted from the centre to the regional states. A second wave of decentralization is going on, which aims to render the Woreda administrations responsible for socio-economic development and to further empower the Kebeles, the lowest administrative unit. With respect to fiscal policy, a single system of taxation is applied for the country, which allows some revenue collection by the regions and some revenue sharing with the Federal government while putting the majority of the revenue under the central authority. It also provides budgetary subvention to the regions, and grants the regions full autonomy in budgetary expenditures. The Government is also allocating directly, through the regional government, financial resources and autonomy in budgetary expenditures to the Woredas in 4 regions which are perceived to be administratively stronger, i.e. Tigray, Oromiya, Amara and Southern N/N & People. The resources should be used to provide for services such as education and health care, and to support the development of economic activities. Measures are also being taken in the area of capacity building, as technical capacity limitation is believed to be the major constraint in the course of implementing the decentralization process. Effective decentralization and empowerment should create room for tackling poverty more effectively and directly at the grass root level.
  • 49. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 49 4.34.34.34.3 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RELATION TOELATION TOELATION TOELATION TO WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT 4.3.14.3.14.3.14.3.1 Overview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional FrameworkOverview of the SWM Institutional Framework General The institutional framework in terms of roles and responsibilities has significantly changed over the past years because of the decentralisation process, and is still changing, especially in Addis Ababa. In general, roles and responsibilities for environmental management and for SWM are not well defined. Where they are well defined, the administrations lack knowledge of their roles and responsibilities, especially in the smaller towns and in the rural areas. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main institutional structures related to environmental management and to SWM. Table 4.1 summarises the roles and responsibilities of the main institutions involved in SWM. Proclamation N° 295/2002 provides for the establishment of the environmental protection organs, namely: • the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA); • the regional Environmental Agencies; and • the Sectoral Environmental Units.
  • 50. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 50 Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1Figure 4.1 Illustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWMIllustration of the Current Institutional Framework relevant to SWM 9 Regional States Zonal Administration Municipalities of major Cities Woreda Administration for Rural areas Sanitation & Park Unit 9 Other Regions of Ethiopia SBPD Agency Addis Ababa City Municipality Sanitation &Park Unit 10 Sub city Administrations Kebele Administration Addis Ababa Note that the structure of Dire Dawa City Municipality (which, along with Addis Ababa, is one of the 11 regions of Ethiopia) is similar to that for Addis Ababa above. Regional Environmental Agencies (to be established in each State) Council Members: Prime Minister or rep. – Chairperson Federal Government Members Rep from each Regional State Rep from Ethiopia Chamber of Commerce Rep from local environmental NGOs Rep from Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions Director General of the EPA Council to the EPA Prime Minister Ministry of Federal Affairs Sectoral Environmental Units Federal Environmental Protection Authority Keble Administrations
  • 51. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 51 Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1Table 4.1 Overview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWMOverview of Roles and Responsibilities in SWM Stakeholder OrganStakeholder OrganStakeholder OrganStakeholder Organisationisationisationisation Current RoleCurrent RoleCurrent RoleCurrent Role (Regulatory)(Regulatory)(Regulatory)(Regulatory) Current RoleCurrent RoleCurrent RoleCurrent Role (Operational)(Operational)(Operational)(Operational) CommentsCommentsCommentsComments Federal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental ProtectionFederal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA)Authority (EPA) • Development of national environmental policies, and national laws, regulations and standards for pollution control. • Development of National Conservation Strategy. • Technical and financial support to the Regions. • Research and study. (Operational) • Enforce implementation of policies and strategies • Development of environmental protection action plans • Produces a periodic report on the state of the environment for the country • Policy and regulations are not fully implemented / enforced. • No clear (specific) strategy for Solid Waste Management. • There is a lack of operational guidelines. Council to the EPACouncil to the EPACouncil to the EPACouncil to the EPA • Review proposed environmental policies, strategies and laws • Review and approve directives, guidelines and standards prepared by the EPA Sectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (notSectoral Environmental Units (not yet established)yet established)yet established)yet established) • Co-ordination and follow up of activities relating to the environmental policies for their sector RegioRegioRegioRegional EPAs:nal EPAs:nal EPAs:nal EPAs: • EPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis AbabaEPA of Addis Ababa • EPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other RegionsEPBs for other Regions • Development of regional regulations for pollution control. • Development of Regional Conservation Strategies. • Provision of technical support. • Research and study. • Raising awareness on SWM. • Environmental monitoring, protection and regulation; enforcement of standards • Organise and train environmental clubs in schools, etc. • Regional regulations on SWM have mostly not yet been ratified. • Regional Conservation Strategies mainly focus on soil erosion and deforestation, but not SWM. • There is a lack of qualified professionals to provide technical support. • There are no major awareness raising awareness activities • Research mainly focuses on liquid waste rather than solid waste. Municipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsibleMunicipal Department responsible for SWMfor SWMfor SWMfor SWM:::: • Sanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification andSanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency forParks Development Agency forParks Development Agency forParks Development Agency for Addis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis AbabaAddis Ababa • Sanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (forSanitation and Parks Division (for other cities)other cities)other cities)other cities) • Development of standards, regulations and other requirements on SWM. • Technical support. • Research and study. • Provision of licences to the larger pre-collection companies in Addis Ababa (the ones that have trucks transfer waste to the dump site). • Management of waste collection in Addis Ababa is through the Sub-City Administrations. • Operation of the dump site(s). • A SWM strategy (and regulations) for Addis Ababa has been developed but is not yet ratified. • Accountability for SWM is a constraint. • Poor operational practices at dump sites. • The Agency / Bureaus cover transport and disposal costs. SubSubSubSub----City Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of AddisCity Administrations of Addis AbabaAbabaAbabaAbaba • SanitatiSanitatiSanitatiSanitation and Parks Uniton and Parks Uniton and Parks Uniton and Parks Unit • Provision of licences to the smaller pre-collection companies in Addis Ababa (the ones that collect waste from households and deposit in containers / skips). • Responsible for collection and transport of solid waste from households, markets, institutions and industries to the dump site. • Provision of waste containers / skips. • Ineffective and inefficient services in many cases. • Pre-collection companies operate in many areas of Addis Ababa, collecting waste from households and small enterprises and transfer the waste to containers / skips (some take waste to the dump site).
  • 52. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASELINE REVIEW OF SWM IN ETHIOPIA 52 • Sanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit ofSanitation and Parks Unit of major citiesmajor citiesmajor citiesmajor cities • Responsible for collection and transport of solid waste from households, markets, institutions and industries to the dump site. • Ineffective and inefficient services in many cases.
  • 53. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 53 The Federal EPA The Federal EPA is responsible for policy development, regulatory control and technical support to regional environmental agencies that should be set up by each of the regional states. The EPA has a Council which reviews the development and implementation of environmental strategies and legislation. The Council is chaired by the Prime Minister or his representative and further has representatives from the Federal government, each regional state, industry, trade unions and NGOs. Sectoral environmental units The sectoral environmental units, provided for by the above cited proclamation, have to be established within each sectoral ministry, such as agriculture or mining, and will be responsible for the alignment of the ministry’ s policy with the relevant environmental policies and legislation. None of these sectoral units have been established so far. Ministry of Federal Affairs The Ministry of Federal Affairs (MFA) is another main stakeholder organisation at Federal level. This not only because it is the ministry to which the regional states are accountable, but also because it has recognised that solid waste management is a priority area for urban areas. Ministry of Health The Ministry of Health has developed some guidelines, which include solid waste handling from a hygiene & sanitation practice point of view. Regional Environmental Agency Each regional state has to establish an independent regional environmental agency or designate an existing agency that will develop an environmental policy and legislation. The only limitation is that a regional environmental agency cannot adapt standards which are less stringent than the Federal standards. The regional environmental agencies, while independent from the Federal EPA, have to submit a report on the state of the environment of their respective states to the Federal EPA.
  • 54. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 54 So far, only three regional states have established their own environmental agency. 1 Municipalities The Public Health legislation of 1943 and 1950 makes the municipalities implicitly responsible for municipal solid waste collection, whilst a more recent Year 2000 Proclamation on environmental pollution control, provides that all “ urban administrations” must ensure the collection, treatment, recycling and safe disposal of municipal waste though the establishment of an integrated municipal waste management system. However, the Proclamation does not define an “ urban administration” . One possible interpretation is that “ urban administrations” are “ towns” as defined by the Central Statistical Authority (CSA). According to the CSA, any settlement with a population of over 2000 is a town. Using this criterion, the CSA identified more than 500 towns in its 1994 census. There is no specific legal provision that assigns the responsibility for waste management in rural areas, i.e. areas with populations less than 2000. In most regions, SWM is the joint responsibility of both the municipality and the Health Bureau. In Woreda towns, Health Centres are the institutions that take on the primary responsibility for SWM. 4.3.24.3.24.3.24.3.2 Municipal framework in Addis AbabaMunicipal framework in Addis AbabaMunicipal framework in Addis AbabaMunicipal framework in Addis Ababa Restructuring of the municipal framework in Addis Ababa was implemented at the beginning of 2003. Most stakeholders have stated that this has improved the organisational framework in Addis Ababa. The main aspects relevant to this project are: • The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of the Addis Ababa Municipality was launched in March 2003. This Agency has responsibility for overall co-ordination of the waste collection services carried out by the Sub-city Administrations, and also waste disposal and management services generally. However, the Agency and the Sub-city Administrations currently apply separately to the Finance and Economic Bureau department of the Municipality for their budgets, and the Agency currently appears to have little influence on the budgeting process for the Sub-city Administrations. The Agency also has responsibility for operation of the Rappi dump site and has attempted to develop a guideline for SWM service delivery improvement at Sub-city level. 1 page 104, State of the Environment Report for Ethiopia, EPA, August 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • 55. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 55 • The removal of one level of administration in the Addis Ababa municipality so that there are now three, rather than four levels, namely: o The Municipality o 10 Sub-City Administrations within the Municipality o 203 Kebele Administrations (i.e. about 16 - 25 per Sub-City) • The Sub-City Administrations are relatively new, and are responsible for municipal services in their area, including waste collection and street sweeping. • The Kebele Administrations are also involved in the day-to-day monitoring of waste collection activities (i.e. the pre-collectors & street sweepers). 4.3.34.3.34.3.34.3.3 Current Plans for Institutional Improvements in Addis AbabaCurrent Plans for Institutional Improvements in Addis AbabaCurrent Plans for Institutional Improvements in Addis AbabaCurrent Plans for Institutional Improvements in Addis Ababa In the past, there has been a lack of co-ordination and integration between pre-collection companies and the collection services of the Sub-City Administrations in Addis Ababa. Improved co-ordination (e.g. timings of collection) would result in less instances of container overflow and a reduction in illegal dumping - it has been suggested that some illegal dumping by pre-collection companies is taking place because the containers are full. The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency, in close working with the Sub-city Administrations, are planning methods to improve co-ordination. A large part of improved waste collection in Addis Ababa is the implementation of a reporting and communication system on solid waste management by the Agency. The key institutional aspects of the current plans of the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (1) are: • Identification of the number of pre-collection companies in operation -each Sub-City Administration issues licenses to the pre-collection companies. However, there has been no overall co-ordination in the past, and many of these companies do not stay long in business. • Meetings to improve communication, reporting and exchange of information: o Meetings between the Sanitation and Parks Units of Sub-City Administrations and the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency are now held every 2 weeks; o Meetings between the Sanitation and Parks Units of Sub-City Administrations and the pre-collection companies in their area are held every month. (1) A Framework for Action for the Improvement of Addis Ababa City Cleaning and Beautification – Addis Ababa City Government - December 2000
  • 56. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 56 • Monthly reporting by pre-collection companies is now required (Box 4.1). • Monthly and quarterly reporting by Sub-City Administrations on SWM (Box 4.2). • Development of minimum operational standards for private companies involved in SWM. • Development and implementation of public awareness programs that target participation of residents and enterprises. • Organisation of scavenging groups at the dump site. • Longer-term plans to expand outsourcing of operations. Full implementation of the reporting mechanisms described in Boxes 4.1 and 4.2, should result in the development of a comprehensive database on waste management operations and waste quantities, over a period of time. Such a database will be of great benefit in planning future waste management operations and setting performance standards for contracts with the private sector. Box 4.1Box 4.1Box 4.1Box 4.1 Elements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by pre----collection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Sub---- CityCityCityCity • Number of employees. • Number and type of vehicles. • Number and types of other equipment. • Number of clients (households and institutions / enterprises). • Types of service provided (e.g. household to container or container to dump site). • Amount of waste collected (households and institutions / enterprises). • Street sweeping activity (number of Km). • Problems encountered and solutions. • Support needed from the Sub-city Administration. Box 4.2Box 4.2Box 4.2Box 4.2 Elements of monthly and quarterly reporting by SubElements of monthly and quarterly reporting by SubElements of monthly and quarterly reporting by SubElements of monthly and quarterly reporting by Sub----City AdministrationsCity AdministrationsCity AdministrationsCity Administrations (to the SBPDA) on SWM(to the SBPDA) on SWM(to the SBPDA) on SWM(to the SBPDA) on SWM • Average number of vehicles in operation / day (for different vehicle types). • Average number of daily trips. • Total delivery to the dump site (average m3/day). • Number and types of containers. • Street sweeping activity (number of Km). • Training provided. • Education programmes provided (including educational material). • Details of truck maintenance (and average stay in garage). • Number of licensed pre-collection companies. • Activities to monitor pre-collection companies. • Meetings held with pre-collection companies. • Number of drivers working / day. • Total crew on duty / day.
  • 57. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 57 • Number of part-time workers. • Costs of fuel, lubricants, maintenance, tyres. • Problems encountered and solutions. • Other points on performance. 4.44.44.44.4 OOOOVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OF TTTTENDERING ANDENDERING ANDENDERING ANDENDERING AND CCCCONTRACTUALONTRACTUALONTRACTUALONTRACTUAL AAAASPECTS OFSPECTS OFSPECTS OFSPECTS OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTION There are currently no tendering processes for SWM in Addis Ababa, and it is thought that there are no such processes in other cities of Ethiopia. However, the Civil Code outlines the administrative procedure that should be followed when public organisations tender for service contracts. Pre-collection companies in Addis Ababa are required to operate with a licence, which should be renewed each year. The companies are then allowed to compete for any clients (i.e. households) and their operations are not limited to specific streets or areas. At present, this leads to inefficiencies as several companies serve the same street, all making journeys to and from that street. The Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification Park Development Agency has prepared requirements and specification for licensing pre- collectors. The requirements on the pre-collection companies include: • Preparation and submission of an operational plan. • Provision of information on the vehicles, containers, and other items or materials to be used in the operation. • Notification of the number of employees. • Provision of a monthly report to the Sub-city Administration. 4.54.54.54.5 CCCCAPACITY OFAPACITY OFAPACITY OFAPACITY OF SSSSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERS Most municipalities operate waste management services at a poor standard and with low levels of service coverage. In some cases the collection, storage, transport and disposal operations contribute to the problems of improper waste management rather than solving the problems. In smaller municipalities and in rural areas, there is quite often no waste collection service provided at all. There is a need to strengthen the capacities for planning, monitoring and implementing waste management improvements in Municipalities. The Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification Park Development Agency recognises the importance of training and capacity building and is trying
  • 58. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 58 to train its planning staff and build capacity within Sub-city Administrations, although this will take time. 4.64.64.64.6 KKKKEYEYEYEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT IIIINSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONAL FFFFRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORK • The causes of many of the waste management problems in Ethiopia are related to organisational and institutional problems, as well as inadequate resources and a low capacity. • The Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification Park Development Agency was set up in 2003 and is taking sensible initiatives to work closely with Sub-city Administrations to improve the organisation of waste management. Much of this relates to improving the organisation of pre-collection companies, starting with gathering more information on the number and types of companies through to improved reporting requirements. • A major constraint is the lack of resources to carry out the required roles, and this needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to monitoring and enforcement.
  • 59. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 59 Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP Strategy • The PSP Strategy should build on current good practices, in particular: o Further development of the licensing regime for pre-collection companies to improve operational control and performance standards; o Clear definition of monitoring and reporting parameters and collation of data to provide a basis for the review of services and planning of future operations and contracts. • There is a need to improve the capacities of the various organisations involved in SWM. This requires higher levels of funding, recruitment of skilled staff for key positions and training in several aspects of SWM.
  • 60. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 60 5555 LEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENTRCEMENTRCEMENTRCEMENT This section of the report contains an overview of the legal structure in Ethiopia and a summary of the legislative provisions relating to solid waste management and the enforcement of environmental regulations. 5.15.15.15.1 HHHHIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS IN EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA The “ Constitution” is the supreme law of the land. The Parliament issues “ Proclamations” which are next in line. Where Proclamations give such powers to the Council of Ministers, the Council issues “ Regulations” implementing the Proclamations. All of the above are published in the official "Negarit Gazetta". Proclamations may provide for “ Directives” to be issued by an organ of the Government, usually a Ministry. Such laws are not generally published in the official gazette. Regional laws generally follow the same sequence and hierarchy. 5.25.25.25.2 SSSSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATION 5.2.15.2.15.2.15.2.1 Overview ofOverview ofOverview ofOverview of SWM legislationSWM legislationSWM legislationSWM legislation In Ethiopia, the laws adopted since the 15 th century have had provisions with environmental implications. For example, the Fetha Negest (the Law of the Kings) prohibited the emissions of smoke from a lower place to a higher place. These laws are not comprehensive, and to date there is no comprehensive environmental or waste management specific legislation. Some basic regulatory provisions for waste management are embedded within public health legislation, some of which date from 1942, and some more recent health and environmental pollution control proclamations. Only a few regional states, such as Tigray and Amara, have developed or are developing regional waste legislation, often by merely replicating the Federal legislation. In Addis Ababa, a city pollution control regulation is under development. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the main Federal and regional laws that relate to the management and regulation of solid waste management activities.
  • 61. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 61 Further details of the relevant articles and proclamations in Table 5.1 are provided in Annex 4.
  • 62. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 62 Table 5.1: Summary of Federal and Regional LegislationTable 5.1: Summary of Federal and Regional LegislationTable 5.1: Summary of Federal and Regional LegislationTable 5.1: Summary of Federal and Regional Legislation FEDERAL LEGISLATIONType of Instrument Name of Instrument Summary of the main provisions of the legal instrument. The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation Proclamation No. 1/1995 Rights of individuals to a clean and healthy environment Legal Notice (Public Health Rules 1943 Legal Notice No. 25/1943 Responsibility of householders and the public to dispose of waste in an appropriate manner. Legal Notice (Municipal Public Health Rules 1950, issued with regard to refuse) Legal Notice No. 148/1950 Provisions for the use of municipal facilities for collection of refuse and appropriate storage of waste Environmental Health Proclamation Proclamation No. 200/2000 Article 12 - Provisions for waste handling and disposal Environmental Protection Organs Establishment Proclamation Proclamation No. 295/2002 Establishment of the EPA as an autonomous public institution of the Federal Government and definition of the roles / duties and objectives of the Environmental Council, EPA (Federal and Regional) and the Sectoral Environmental Units. Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation Proclamation No. 299/2002 Requirements of an Environmental Impact Assessment for development projects. Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation Proclamation No. 300/2002 Duties of the municipalities, EPA and Environmental Inspectors with respect to SWM, including development of standards for waste management and monitoring of operations and enforcement of standards. REGIONAL LEGISLATIONType of Instrument Name of Instrument Summary of the main provisions of the legal instrument. The Addis Ababa City Government Revised Charter Proclamation Proclamation No. 361/2003 Powers and functions of the City Government and the City Manager with respect to SWM; jurisdiction of the Kebele Social Courts with respect to the City’ s hygiene and public health Regulations; legal authority of the City Government to fix and collect fees for services and licenses. Establishment of the Executive and Municipal Services Agencies of the Addis Ababa City Administration Proclamation Proclamation No. 2/2003 Powers and duties of the EPA and the SBPDA, including: regulating the operations of private sector contractors; development and enforcement of standards; control of dump sites. Region 14 Administration Hygiene and Environmental Sanitation Regulations Regulation No. 1/1994 Provisions for the proper storage and disposal of solid waste; powers and duties of the Health Bureau; obligations of Health and Sanitation Inspectors. 5.2.25.2.25.2.25.2.2 Overview of Draft Waste Management Legislation for Addis AbabaOverview of Draft Waste Management Legislation for Addis AbabaOverview of Draft Waste Management Legislation for Addis AbabaOverview of Draft Waste Management Legislation for Addis Ababa The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of The Addis Ababa City Administration has prepared draft regulations relating to the handling, collection and disposal of solid waste (1). The Agency has further confirmed that these draft regulations are under (1) A Framework for Action for the Improvement of Addis Ababa City Cleaning and Beautification – Addis Ababa City Government December 2000
  • 63. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 63 consideration for enactment. (More details of the institutional aspects of the Agency’ s current plans are provided in Section 4.3.2 of this report). An overview of the document shows that the regulations are intended to deal with: • Duty to properly handle solid waste at the source; • Duties of providers of collection services; • Waste reduction, separation and recycling; • Disposal of solid waste by type (vegetable markets, spoil, industrial and hospital waste); • Use of solid waste storage containers, incineration and transportation; • Littering; • Temporary transfer stations, disposal sites; • Composting; • Private sector participation and licensing; • Waste Collection and Disposal Agency; • City sanitation Council; • Inspection; • Sanitation service charges; • Safety of waste handlers; • Incentives; • Offences and penalties. 5.35.35.35.3 PPPPOOOOWERS TO CHARGE FEESWERS TO CHARGE FEESWERS TO CHARGE FEESWERS TO CHARGE FEES //// KEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICES Article 52(14) of the Revised Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003 stipulates that the Addis Ababa City Government may exercise the power to “ fix and collect fees on licenses issued, and services delivered, by itself” and Article 52 (15) authorises the Municipality to "levy municipal taxes and duties as well as fix and collect service charges thereof". The Revised Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003 does not provide for keeping separate accounts from or for separate services. The revenue generated by the City Government is re-allocated in accordance with the budget prepared by the administration [Article 59].
  • 64. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 64 5.45.45.45.4 LLLLEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATION RRRRELATING TOELATING TOELATING TOELATING TO PPPPRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION AND PPPPRIVATERIVATERIVATERIVATE SSSSECTORECTORECTORECTOR DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT 5.4.15.4.15.4.15.4.1 Legislation RelatinLegislation RelatinLegislation RelatinLegislation Relating to Privatisationg to Privatisationg to Privatisationg to Privatisation In Ethiopia, "Privatisation" is defined as a means of transferring, through sale, of a government owned enterprise or its unit or asset or government share holdings in a company to private ownership. Transfer of the management of a government owned enterprise also falls under "privatisation". It is unlikely that these will be considered as part of the strategy for enhancing private sector participation (PSP) in solid waste management. In view of this, current legislation relating to "privatisation" has not been reviewed in detail at this stage. 5.4.25.4.25.4.25.4.2 Legislation Relating to Private Sector DevelopmentLegislation Relating to Private Sector DevelopmentLegislation Relating to Private Sector DevelopmentLegislation Relating to Private Sector Development General (Background Context) Private enterprises in Ethiopia are still in their early stage of development. However, there is a strong government commitment to promote private sector development as the growth engine for sustainable development and poverty reduction. The private sector is also showing increased confidence in the government’ s commitment. The challenges remain enormous though and include: lack of resources, infrastructure, institutions, skills, and organizational capabilities for developing Ethiopian enterprises. The government recognizes that there is a need for institutional, policy, legal and economic reforms, and to promote private sector development, and has taken a number of legal initiatives, starting with the Investment Code. This code was adopted in 1992 to enable private investments, which were out ruled under the previous communist regime. A wide range of policy and legal initiatives are being taken to promote private sector development, including the establishment of Investment Offices at Federal and regional levels to coordinate and facilitate private sector investment. These are general institutional reforms and do not relate to the waste management sector specifically, however this sector would benefit from the general improvement of the investment climate. Nonetheless, the constraints on private sector development remain significant, as was shown by a study carried out by the Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce, and published in a “ Red Book” .
  • 65. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 65 In the World Bank report “ Doing Business in 2003” , Ethiopia stood out as the third most expensive country in the world to do business. In 2003, the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MoTI) put in place some measures to reduce the time and fees for business registration. A one- stop arrangement was also implemented to reduce the cost of doing business and expedite private investment implementation. Proclamations and regulations relating to PSP Proclamations and regulations relating to private sector activities, include: • Investment Code, issued in 1992, aimed at enabling private investments and has since then been revised several times to improve the investment climate; • Investment Proclamation: No 37/1996 and No 27/2002; • Investment Incentives and Investment Areas reserved for Domestic Investors Council of Ministers Regulations No. 84/2003; • Proclamation No 98/1998 to provide for business mortgage; • Tax withholding scheme application, Council of Ministers regulation N° 75/2001; • Excise tax Proclamation N° 307/2002; • Turn over tax Proclamation N° 308/2002; • Licensing and supervision of micro-financing institutions Proclamation N° 40/96; • Commercial registration and licensing Council of Ministers Regulations N° 133/1997; • Trade Practice Proclamation (Competition policy) – 17 April 2003. Areas open for private sector participation It is generally accepted that unless otherwise specifically legislated, the private sector may involve itself in any lawful undertaking in Ethiopia. To mention a few examples, banking, insurance, forwarding and shipping agency, broadcasting and air transport (using aircraft of up to 20 seats) are open only to Ethiopian nationals. In relation to investment, only a few areas are not open to all for participation. For example, transmission and supply of electrical energy through the Integrated National Grid System, and Postal Services are exclusively reserved for the Government of Ethiopia. Manufacturing of weapons and ammunitions and telecommunications services may be undertaken only in joint venture with the Government. Areas of investment reserved for Domestic Investors are listed in the above- cited Investment Incentives and Investment Areas reserved for Domestic Investors Council of Ministers Regulations No. 84/2003.
  • 66. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 66 None of the above prohibits private sector participation (domestic or foreign) in waste management. 5.4.35.4.35.4.35.4.3 Land TenureLand TenureLand TenureLand Tenure Article 40(3) of the Constitution affirms that "the right of ownership of rural and urban land ... is exclusively vested in the State and in the peoples of Ethiopia ... and shall not be subject to sale or to other means of exchange." Urban land is currently issued to individuals on a lease basis, the duration varying according to the use it is intended to be put to. Expedient access to land is necessary to enhance investment. The government recognizes that significant constraints remain related to access to land for private sector investment. Such constraints include high land lease rate, bureaucratic hurdles to secure land and absence of infrastructure services. In consideration of these constraints, the Government is taking steps to considerably reduce the minimum lease rate and increase the supply of land to minimize escalation of prices during auction, streamline the bureaucracy involved in the identification and delivery of land, and prepare/develop infrastructure on plots to be offered for lease. The Ethiopia land lease system is fairly typical of most African States where citizens lack property rights. This is an issue, because without title deeds and a reliable system for ascertaining who owns what, land assets cannot be used as collateral. The main impact of this system is that it limits entrepreneurship – asset backed lending is a crucial element in the dynamism of western economies, where the most common way for an entrepreneur to raise start-up capital is by mortgaging the family home. In relation to this, the Ethiopian government has identified collateralization of land held under lease as an issue for further consideration. The potential effect of the land tenure system on the development of PSP in SWM is that most new local entrants into the waste industry in Ethiopia will rely on the Government for funding / financial support and allocation of land for building facilities. 5.55.55.55.5 MMMMONITORINGONITORINGONITORINGONITORING,,,, EEEENFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT AND LLLLICENSING OFICENSING OFICENSING OFICENSING OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT 5.5.15.5.15.5.15.5.1 Roles and ResponsibilitiesRoles and ResponsibilitiesRoles and ResponsibilitiesRoles and Responsibilities The Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation No.300/2002 obligates The Federal Environment Protection AuthorityThe Federal Environment Protection AuthorityThe Federal Environment Protection AuthorityThe Federal Environment Protection Authority to formulate
  • 67. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 67 practicable Environmental Standards, including waste management standards. National regional states may, based on their specific situation, adopt environmental standards, that are no less stringent than those determined at Federal level. Pursuant to this proclamation, the Federal EPA has drafted "Provisional Environmental Standards" which are under discussion prior to adoption. The Federal EPA or the relevant environmental agency is required to assign Environmental Inspectors, to monitor and enforce the standards. Powers and duties, punishable offences and the corresponding penalties are also prescribed. The Federal EPA , however, does not yet have any inspectors though it has trained environmental auditors who could possibly be deployed as inspectors at a later stage. The Federal EPA has further confirmed that it does not carry out any monitoring on its own initiative, except the environmental audit of certain Public Enterprise being prepared for privatisation. Monitoring is generally only carried out following specific requests or when complaints are filed. Article 22 of The City Administration's Proclamation No. 2/2003 empowers The Addis Ababa Environmental Protection AgencyThe Addis Ababa Environmental Protection AgencyThe Addis Ababa Environmental Protection AgencyThe Addis Ababa Environmental Protection Agency with authority to set standards, on the basis of those established by the Federal Environmental Protection Authority, develop the ways and means of protecting the environment and ensure that industrial waste, by-products and other waste are disposed of in compliance with the law. Article 47 of the same Proclamation puts responsibility on TheTheTheThe Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development AgencySanitation, Beautification and Parks Development AgencySanitation, Beautification and Parks Development AgencySanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency to monitor and regulate disposal of waste. All of the above are fairly new institutions and the required rules, codes and standards are not yet completely in place. In view of this, none of the institutions has as yet fully undertaken the task of monitoring and enforcement. Trade licensing is the responsibility of the Trade and Industry Bureau. When the activity to be licensed has a potential environmental impact, the Trade and Industry Bureau will seek the opinion of the Federal EPA, which could impose a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or simply recommend the refusal of the license application.
  • 68. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 68 5.5.25.5.25.5.25.5.2 Effectiveness of Current Monitoring and EnforcementEffectiveness of Current Monitoring and EnforcementEffectiveness of Current Monitoring and EnforcementEffectiveness of Current Monitoring and Enforcement As with many countries, monitoring and enforcement of SWM practices in Ethiopia is weak. This is typically because of a lack of resources. However, the Municipality of Addis Ababa has recently taken the lead and established The Code Enforcement Service of the Addis AbabaThe Code Enforcement Service of the Addis AbabaThe Code Enforcement Service of the Addis AbabaThe Code Enforcement Service of the Addis Ababa MunicipalityMunicipalityMunicipalityMunicipality, which has the purpose of enforcing all rules, codes and standards issued by the City Administration. It is the organisation with the primary responsibility for monitoring and enforcement, with about 1500-2000 employees organised at Sub-city level. This Enforcement Agency carries out a wide range of enforcement activities including control of illegal dumping and illegal construction, tax collection, etc. There is no specific regulation related to the roles of the Enforcement Agency in Addis Ababa with respect to SWM activities – it is tasked with the monitoring and enforcement of a range of existing regulations. In addition, the street cleaners in Addis Ababa (about 2500 in total) are being trained to also act as monitors, reporting to the Sub-city Administrations. 5.65.65.65.6 SSSSTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAW COURTS AND JURISDICTCOURTS AND JURISDICTCOURTS AND JURISDICTCOURTS AND JURISDICTIONSIONSIONSIONS Two sets of courts are in existence: Federal and Regional (City Courts and Social Courts in the case of Addis Ababa). Federal Courts come under the Federal Supreme Court. The Federal Court of First Instance is the lowest, the next highest being the Federal High Court and then the Federal Supreme Court. Their first instance and appellate jurisdiction are fairly distinctly set. The Regional Courts also have similar level of courts with fairly distinct jurisdiction. Addis Ababa has City Courts the detailed powers of which are specified in Article 39 et seq. of the Addis Ababa City Government Revised Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003. 5.6.15.6.15.6.15.6.1 Jurisdiction regarding waste management mattersJurisdiction regarding waste management mattersJurisdiction regarding waste management mattersJurisdiction regarding waste management matters Infringement of the mandatory provisions of a regulation, order or decree lawfully issued by a competent authority is a “ petty offence” and such infringement is subject to penalties provided by law. Such offences are generally tried before the Regional Courts. The Revised Addis Ababa Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003 provides that “ petty offences” [Article 41(2)(b)] are within the jurisdiction of the Addis Ababa City Courts. Kebele Social Courts established under the Revised Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003 are intended to have specific jurisdiction “ over contraventions of the City's hygiene and public health Regulations and similar other petty offences” as determined by
  • 69. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 69 the law the City Council shall issue [Article 50(2)]. It does not appear that such powers are yet given to the Social Courts. Conflict of jurisdiction Article 42 of The Revised Charter Proclamation No. 361/2003 provides for resolution of conflict of jurisdiction. It stipulates that the Federal Supreme Court decides on conflict of jurisdiction that might arise between the Addis Ababa City Courts and Federal Courts. Penal provisions It needs to be noted that the penal provisions in the various laws dealing with waste do not present a clear scenario (Ref. Article 17 of the Region 14 Hygiene and Environmental Sanitation Regulations No. 1/1994, Articles 12 et seq. of Proclamation No. 230/2002 on Pollution Control and Article a20/2 of Proclamation No.200/2000 on Public Health). These differences are result of the absence of overall umbrella legislation on waste management.
  • 70. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 70 5.75.75.75.7 KKKKEYEYEYEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON LLLLEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION AND EEEENFORCEMENTNFORCEMENTNFORCEMENTNFORCEMENT • The overall regulatory framework is weak, particularly in terms of guidance and operational procedures. Monitoring and enforcement is currently particularly weak. • The existing laws are mainly declaratory / proclamatory. The specific responsibilities and principles that apply to the main solid waste management activities - collection, disposal and recycling – are not clearly defined. • A robust institutional and legal framework is essential for the development of an effective solid waste management system, and effective participation of the private sector in service delivery. A legal framework for waste management needs to be developed. Private sector participation in waste management cannot be successfully developed outside a policy and legal framework for waste management. • There are some initiatives in Addis Ababa to strengthen legislation, monitoring and enforcement, and these programmes could be replicated in other cities, if successful. For example, in Addis Ababa, the Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Agency has developed legislation for the improvement of Addis Ababa City. The draft legislation contains recommendations for action on solid waste management, including: policies and regulations; agency reorganisation; standard regulations and requirements; public awareness and the SWM infrastructure network. It is expected that the proposed legislation would be adopted by about June 2004. Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP Strategy • The basic provisions on solid waste management seem to be in place. However, there are no detailed guidelines for effective implementation. Specific directives and guidelines on SWM operations, monitoring and enforcement are required. • Guidelines relating to the criteria for licensing, and procedures and regulation of private sector participation in provision of services are also necessary.
  • 71. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 71 6666 FINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS AND COST RD COST RD COST RD COST RECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY 6.16.16.16.1 CCCCURRENT ANDURRENT ANDURRENT ANDURRENT AND FFFFUTUREUTUREUTUREUTURE CCCCOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THE SWMSWMSWMSWM SSSSYSTEMYSTEMYSTEMYSTEM This section provides an overview of the budgetary mechanisms, charges, charging and cost recovery mechanisms used for SWM in Ethiopia today. It also considers proposals for improving these mechanisms in the future. 6.26.26.26.2 BBBBUDGETUDGETUDGETUDGET MMMMECHANISMSECHANISMSECHANISMSECHANISMS Each sub-city administration in Addis Ababa submits a budget for its annual operational and capital expenditure requirements to the Municipal Finance and Economy Bureau. The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) submits a separate budget to cover its policy development, management and co-ordination and administrative functions. This also covers its budgetary requirements for operating the waste disposal site. It is understood that the total SBPDA budget reflects some 2-4% of the total municipal budget. The total municipal budget for 2004 is about 2 billion Birr (0.24 billion USD), of which about 65 million (7.7 million USD) (3.25%) is allocated to the SBPDA (including the sub-cities). Of the total SBPDA budget, some 12.75 million Birr (1.5 million USD) (20%) is allocated to waste management services (0.64% of the total municipal budget). This is very low by international standards, where 20-40% of the total municipal budget might typically reflect expenditures on all SWM services. It is noted that split responsibilities between the municipality and the waste management agency regarding funding decisions suggest that a low level of authority, responsibility and accountability rests with the waste management agency. In particular, the budget for the waste management agency reflects direct O&M and immediate investment requirements only; although concepts of full cost accounting and investment planning do not currently apply, the need for improvements in financial responsibility and accountability are well recognised. 6.36.36.36.3 CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT CCCCHARGES ANDHARGES ANDHARGES ANDHARGES AND CCCCHARGINGHARGINGHARGINGHARGING MMMMECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FOR SWMSWMSWMSWM All taxes and charges in Ethiopia are collected initially at the lowest level of government. For example, in Addis Ababa, licence fees payable by businesses and property taxes payable by private householders are collected at the Kebele level. These taxes and charges are then transferred to the central municipal account (CMA). In regions (where
  • 72. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 72 there is no municipality) these charges are collected by the Woreda administration and deposited in a central regional account (CRA). The CMA and CRA retain a pre-determined share of these funds (as specified in the constitution) for municipal use and deposit the balance in the central government account. These arrangements are set out in the Federal Government Financial Law. It follows that, even if a municipality establishes a full cost recovery policy, only a proportion of the funds so raised would remain at the disposal of the municipality (typically some 40% of funds would be retained, although allocations vary between different administrations according to the provisions of the Financial Law). 6.3.16.3.16.3.16.3.1 Charges to HouseholdsCharges to HouseholdsCharges to HouseholdsCharges to Households Nowhere in Ethiopia do domestic users (households) pay municipal charges directly for municipal waste management services. In some places, notably Addis Ababa, but also Dire Dawa, some households in the more affluent areas voluntarily pay small private sector (micro- enterprise) operators directly for pre-collection services. Charges typically range from 10-15 Birr/month (about 1.2 – 1.8 USD), although strengthened competition has recently led to charge levels falling. The charging system for households is shown in Figure 6.1. A property tax based on property values is imposed on privately owned houses in Addis Ababa (which constitute about 34% of the total), but this is not intended to recover the costs of SWM services provided to households.
  • 73. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 73 Figure 6.1Figure 6.1Figure 6.1Figure 6.1 Overview of Charging System for HouseholdsOverview of Charging System for HouseholdsOverview of Charging System for HouseholdsOverview of Charging System for Households Key:Key:Key:Key: Waste flows Payments 6.3.26.3.26.3.26.3.2 Charges to EnterprisesCharges to EnterprisesCharges to EnterprisesCharges to Enterprises Enterprises in Addis Ababa pay a municipal ‘ sanitation fee’ to cover SWM services. Fees pass directly to the central municipal account (see earlier in Section 6.3) and are not set aside specifically to be used for sanitation/SWM services. The fee of 180 Birr (21 USD) is included in the business licence fee, renewable annually. This entitles businesses to deposit their municipal-type waste into communal municipal skips for collection, transport and disposal to the dump-site. The annual 180 Birr charge to enterprises has remained unchanged for many years and bears little relationship to the costs of services provided. Any move by the SBPDA to submit to the Municipal Finance and Economy Bureau a clear and justifiable proposal to increase this fee or to introduce direct charges to households would need the approval of the Mayor. The Agency is currently undertaking a detailed cost and revenue assessment of all aspects of the SWM system in order to sustain a business case for increased charges. Any increase in charges to either businesses (or households) should be accompanied by an extensive awareness raising campaign. In addition to this service, enterprises can also choose to have their waste collected directly from their premises by the municipal waste collection agency. In using this service, the SBPDA provides on site bins (8 m3) for which businesses are charged 11 Birr/m3 (about 1.3 USD) for collection and disposal. Collection can be on either a regular, scheduled basis or on an ‘ as and when’ needed basis. Fees collected pass directly to the central municipal account. The collection fee includes disposal costs. Households Municipal containers / skips Dump Site Small pre-collection companies Municipal (Sub-city) collection Medium / large pre- collection companies … or householders deliver waste themselves (no charge) 10-15 Birr/month Addis Ababa Municipality No charge at present
  • 74. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 74
  • 75. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 75 Figure 6.2Figure 6.2Figure 6.2Figure 6.2 Overview of Charging System for Medium / Large EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Medium / Large EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Medium / Large EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Medium / Large Enterprises Key:Key:Key:Key: Waste flows Payments Smaller shops and enterprises simply use the common municipal waste containers and pay the 180 Birr waste management charge annually with licence renewal. Figure 6.3Figure 6.3Figure 6.3Figure 6.3 Overview of Charging System for Small EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Small EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Small EnterprisesOverview of Charging System for Small Enterprises Key:Key:Key:Key: Waste flows Payments Some enterprises in Addis Ababa choose to take their waste directly to the dump-site, making their own transport arrangements. Tipping fees at the dump-site are 4 Birr/m3 (about 0.5 USD). The tipping fee is paid only by commercial operators delivering waste directly to the landfill. It Medium / Large Enterprise Municipal containers / skips Dump Site Municipal (Sub-city) collection Medium / large enterprises are not meant to use municipal skips Addis Ababa Municipality 180 Birr / month ‘sanitary fee’ charged on licence fee 11 Birr / m3collection charge paid by purchase of coupons … or enterprises take their own waste to the dump site and pay a tipping fee of 4 Birr/m3 Small Enterprise Municipal containers / skips Dump SiteAddis Ababa Municipality 180 Birr / month ‘sanitary fee’ charged on licence fee No extra charge for municipal waste collection / disposal Small pre-collection companies … or enterprises deliver waste themselves (no charge) Municipal (Sub-city) collection Medium / large pre- collection companies
  • 76. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 76 is not paid on waste delivered through the normal municipal services (from communal bins or enterprise skips). Some of the wastes from these enterprises are hazardous (e.g. waste from tanneries). It is suspected that many of these larger enterprises are illegally dumping their waste. This assertion is partly borne out by the fact that total dump-site fees collected amounted to some 26,000 Birr only in 2003 (equivalent to 6,500 m3 of waste). It is noted that a disposal fee of 4 Birr/m3 (12 Birr or $1.4/tonne) is within the range of fees typically associated with a low-income country. 6.3.36.3.36.3.36.3.3 Other Charging mechanisms in the CitiesOther Charging mechanisms in the CitiesOther Charging mechanisms in the CitiesOther Charging mechanisms in the Cities The Addis Ababa municipality levies a fee of 2 Birr/tonne on traders bringing “ chat” into the city for selling 1 . This levy raises an estimated annual income of 20 million Birr (about 2.4 million USD) for the municipality, of which some 6 million Birr (0.6 million USD) is transferred to the waste management budget. This income is intended to cover the costs of cleaning up of the environmental pollution caused by the widespread consumption and improper disposal of leftover / chewed chat leaves. 6.3.46.3.46.3.46.3.4 Charging Systems in RegionsCharging Systems in RegionsCharging Systems in RegionsCharging Systems in Regions Regional waste charging mechanisms are similar to those for the cities. Households are not charged directly for waste collection and disposal services, although some do choose to pay for pre-collection services (about 10 Birr / month) where these are available. Enterprises pay a waste management charge added to their annual licence renewal fee, this ranging from 6-12 Birr/year (0.70 – 1.4 USD) in the town of Nazreth (compared to a fixed fee of 180 Birr (21 USD) in the capital city of Addis Ababa). Taking Nazreth as an example, the total budget available for combined solid and liquid waste management services serving a population of 200,000 in 2003 was 300,000 Birr (about 36,000 USD), or 1.5 Birr (0.18 USD) per capita per year. This figure represents about 1.8% of the total annual municipal budget of 28 Million Birr (about 3.3 Million USD). Key problems facing the waste management services are inadequate financial resources, fully depreciated waste collection vehicles resulting in high maintenance costs and long down times, and a lack of awareness about the health and economic costs of poor waste management practices.
  • 77. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 77 Waste management services are badly under-funded and the presence of large numbers of people on very low incomes makes the task of recovering costs from users especially difficult. People are charged directly for metered water and electricity supplies, and linking a waste charge to one of these utilities is therefore a possible means of covering the costs of improved waste management services. It is noted however that many people, particularly those living in Kebele rental housing, subsist on very low incomes. 6.46.46.46.4 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES IN CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY Stakeholder OrganisationStakeholder OrganisationStakeholder OrganisationStakeholder Organisation Responsibility in the SWM Cost Recovery System,Responsibility in the SWM Cost Recovery System,Responsibility in the SWM Cost Recovery System,Responsibility in the SWM Cost Recovery System, Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency - Addis Ababa • Development of Agency budget and submission to the Finance and Economy Bureau of the Municipality. • Collection of tipping fees and transfer to the municipal budget. • Data collection on waste generators. Sub-City Administrations • Development of Sub-city budget and submission to the Finance and Economy Bureau of the Municipality. • Data collection on waste generators. Finance and Economy Bureau of the Municipality • Approve budgets. • Approve charges. Pre-collection companies • No role at present outside collection of fees for their own services. The municipal Finance and Economy Bureau Revenue Agency • Administers the municipal revenue collection system, plans revenue sources, undertakes data collection and chases up delinquent debts. Credit and Savings Share Company • Finances micro-enterprise pre-collection services on a loan basis. NGOs (e.g., Pro-Pride) • Finance pre-collection services on a loan basis through micro-financing agencies. 6.56.56.56.5 FFFFEEEEEEEE CCCCOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTION (A(A(A(ADDISDDISDDISDDIS AAAABABABABABABABABA)))) Fees for pre-collection services are collected directly by the pre- collection companies. Fee collection rates from households served are high, but many choose not to use these service. The fee collection performance of the annual sanitation fee paid by enterprises is high as it is paid as part of the business licence renewal bill. Charges incurred directly by enterprises that arrange to have an independent municipal waste collection service are paid through a coupon system. The fee collection procedure is as follows: • The client contacts the sub-city waste collection agency and arranges for his waste to be collected. The vehicle driver completes
  • 78. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 78 a coupon in duplicate, specifying the amount of waste collected and the charge. The coupon is signed by the client, who keeps one copy. The driver submits the coupon to the sub-city administration. The sub-city then invoices the client monthly, consolidating all coupons for that month. Landfill tipping fees are also collected via a coupon system: • Coupons are collected from the sub-city administration by the enterprise and completed in duplicate by the landfill operator (the SBPDA). The transport operator retains one copy and the other is forwarded to the sub-city. The sub-city then invoices the client monthly, consolidating all coupons for that month. Fees collected are subsequently lodged at the central municipal account. Records are kept of the amount of waste disposed of at the dump site. In 2002, a total of 472,722 m3 were deposited, equal to about 43% of estimated total waste arisings. As noted earlier, only 6,500 m3 were charged directly. 6.66.66.66.6 CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY Not enough data is available to carry out a detailed assessment of the exact level of cost recovery, although the SBPDA is in the process of collecting and analysing more data to give a better indication of existing service costs and revenues. The main generator of municipal waste, households, currently pay no charges directly for waste collection services. It is clear that the amount of fees collected covers only a small percentage of costs. Work being undertaken by this project in association with the SBPDA aims to provide better estimates of the full costs of the existing municipal waste management services in Addis Ababa, and indicative costs per tonne and per household for the collection and disposal services. It is expected that this will assist the SBPDA in presenting a justifiable case for an increase in its annual budget and for introducing new charging mechanisms. As noted in Section 6.3, however, only a proportion of charges and taxes collected at the municipal level are retained, with the balance being transferred to the national budget for redistribution within the country. It is for this reason that the SBPDA supports the creation of a ‘ Sanitation Fund’ , described below.
  • 79. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 79 6.76.76.76.7 FFFFUTUREUTUREUTUREUTURE PPPPROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FOR CCCCHANGING THEHANGING THEHANGING THEHANGING THE CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY FFFFRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORK The SBPDA has been planning changes to the cost recovery system in Addis Ababa, with the aim of implementing these changes by mid-2004. The Agency is keen to have a separate Sanitation Fund created with the specific objectives of funding waste management services, and improving financial planning, management and accountability. Creation of the Fund depends on the introduction of a regulation under the Solid Waste Management regulations for Addis Ababa. This has been drafted but not yet ratified. The regulation would give the SBPDA responsibility to establish a ‘ Sanitation Fund’ . The sources of the fund are expected to be the municipal government, international development funds, NGOs and the private sector (and particularly the Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce, which was responsible for initiating the regulation). This is in accordance with the Addis Ababa Local Development Plan, and would act as a vehicle to help implement the waste management objectives of the Plan. The SBPDA has prepared some initial estimates of the charge rates it sees as applicable for funding the waste management services today. However, as noted above, the Agency is currently reviewing its cost analysis and, as such, it is not considered appropriate to include those preliminary figures here. Nevertheless, they are expected to be available to help inform the strategy development process of this project. It is known that the Agency favours the inclusion of a waste management charge on the electricity or water bills paid by households and enterprises. The option of linking the charge to housing rents was abandoned after the level of housing rent receipts was revealed (for example, 45% of Kebele Administration and Housing Rental Agency homes pay rents of as little as 10 Birr per month). The SBPDA is aware that any move to link waste management charges to water or electricity bills is dependent on the relevant authorities having the legal powers to enter into such arrangements. The Agency would also need to pay the utility a fee for administering the fee collection service. As noted, smaller enterprises (including shops) currently dispose of their waste in the communal municipal waste containers, the payment for which (180 Birr/year) is paid as part of their annual licence renewal fee. The Agency is, however, currently planning to charge these smaller enterprises an annual fee in addition to the existing sanitation fee. Current proposals are to add a charge 24-26 Birr/year (about 2.8 - 3 USD) to the electricity bill to cover use of the municipal containers, transport to the dumpsite and dump site operation. These charges and
  • 80. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 80 cost collection mechanism are indicative only and are in the process of being reassessed by the SBPDA. The current plans of the Agency also include the potential for generating income through fines. 6.86.86.86.8 MMMMICROICROICROICRO----FFFFINANCEINANCEINANCEINANCE IIIINSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONS There are several micro finance institutions (MFIs) in Ethiopia who mainly support small business start-ups, by providing loans at preferential interest rates. They are usually funded by shareholders, which include municipalities, individuals and NGO organisations. Each MFI tends to focus / support businesses in the particular industry sectors that are of relevance to its shareholders. There are currently six MFIs in Addis Ababa, the majority of which are supported / funded by local and international NGO organisations. The National Bank of Ethiopia audits the activities and operations of MFIs. An overview of one of the main MFIs in Addis Ababa is provided in Box 6.1 below. Several international donor agencies are also supporting the development of small and micro enterprises. A summary of these programmes is provided in Section 8.6.2 of this report.
  • 81. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 81 Box 6.1Box 6.1Box 6.1Box 6.1 Overview of Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution operationsOverview of Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution operationsOverview of Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution operationsOverview of Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution operations 6.96.96.96.9 SSSSUMMARY OF KEYUMMARY OF KEYUMMARY OF KEYUMMARY OF KEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY • At present there is no clear cost recovery structure related to MSWM in Ethiopia. • The charging system in Addis Ababa is currently mainly based on low municipal charges payable by enterprises for collection and disposal services. • Private pre-collection companies (micro-enterprises) charge their clients (households and some enterprises) directly for their services. The extent of service coverage is low, limited by willingness and ability to pay. The Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution is an MFI that supports business start- ups in solid waste management, dry foods processing, garments manufacture, metalwork and other allied businesses. It supports individuals planning to start small businesses in these industry sectors by providing small loans and business development training. The loans (and services) are only available to individuals resident in Addis Ababa, who must also be at least 18 years old. The Institution employs about 123 staff including field agents, who guide applicants through the application procedures and provide ongoing support and training during the initial operational period. The Addis Ababa municipality is the largest shareholder. Others include the AA Women Association, AA Youth Association and a few other NGOs. The Institution’ s annual budget is about 60 Million Birr (7 Million USD), of which the AA municipality provides about 30%. Interest rates charged for loans depend on the repayment mechanism: 10% for an instalment loan (for which the original capital loan and interest repayments are made at regular intervals); and 12% for a terminal loan (which is repaid in one or two instalments). The minimum and maximum repayment periods are 6 months and 3 years respectively. There are 3 main categories of loans: (a) Group lending – i.e. to a group of up to about 5 individuals who are each responsible to the others for repayment of the loan; (b) Personal lending – direct to an individual; (c) Association – lending to a large group of individuals. The average loan in 2003 was about 1213 Birr (143 USD). The Institution has recently reviewed its lending policies and the maximum loan that can now be granted is 10,000 Birr (about 1182 USD). The loans have also been categorised into “ small “ loans (5,000 – 10,000 Birr) and “ micro loans” (less than 5,000 Birr, about 591 USD). The AA Credit and Saving Institution has about 30,000 active clients at present. A total of about 154 solid waste management pre-collection companies have been assisted in starting operations to date. The current proportion of “ bad debts” is about 3%, which the institution considers too high and is taking steps to reduce.
  • 82. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 82 • Fees collected from user charges pass directly to the central municipal account from which the municipality deducts its share, forwarding the balance to the central government. No connection exists between the amounts of fees charged / collected and the size of the municipal waste management budget. Full cost budgeting and accounting is not practised. • There is little information on SWM charging in the regions. It has been indicated that many regional municipal administrations do not include SWM in their budget. For those that do, the amounts set aside for waste management are very small relative to the size of budget. • The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency of Addis Ababa has extensive plans to improve SWM, including improvements to the cost recovery system. Key Issues Relating to the Development of the PSP Strategy • There is an urgent need to identify the true costs of SWM services currently being provided by the municipalities and regions in Ethiopia. This is an essential first step towards improving the commercial management of these services and for assessing the potential role of the private sector. • The public needs to be made more aware of the real costs of these services and of how they can be funded – the potential for introducing fair and equitable charges to cover at least a portion of these costs has to be examined. • A policy of implementing the “polluter” or “user” pays principles to recover the full costs of solid waste management from business and commercial enterprises should be addressed urgently. • Whatever waste management services are introduced, and however these are provided and funded, it is essential that they are affordable to society. The high levels of household poverty in cities and the regions indicate a need for appropriate, low cost services, and funding mechanisms designed to protect the poor. A combination of municipal/ regional government transfers and user charges may be the best way forward. • This conclusion is valid whether services are provided by the public sector, the private sector or by a combination of the two.
  • 83. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 83
  • 84. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 84 7777 PUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPATIONTIONTIONTION Public awareness and community participation and engagement are vital to the success of solid waste management initiatives and plans, as members of the public are the ultimate service users. The public and other key stakeholder organisations should therefore be closely involved in the planning and decision making processes. 7.17.17.17.1 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FOR AAAAWARENESSWARENESSWARENESSWARENESS RRRRAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING AND CCCCOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATION The main organisations that are currently have responsibility for or are engaged in public awareness raising and communications on environmental and waste management matters are: • Federal EPA • Ministry of Education • Regional Environmental Protection Bureaus • Regional Mass Media Agency – At the Addis Ababa city level • Regional Information Bureaus – At the Regional Level In addition, some Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) are active in raising public awareness. These include: • The Clean and Green Society of Addis • ENDA/Ethiopia • Marry Joy • Integrated Holistic Approach/Urban Development Project (IHA/UDP) • Concern/Ethiopia • Plan Ethiopia • Pro Pride • Progynist • Women Aid Ethiopia • Gasheabera Molla Project • Dynamic Youth Service • CRDA • Wild Life Ethiopia 7.27.27.27.2 CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT AAAAWARENESSWARENESSWARENESSWARENESS RRRRAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING AND CCCCOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATION At present there are many initiatives to raise awareness, although there appears to be no clear overall co-ordination of these and there is a need for institutionalisation. The main public awareness raising and community initiatives related to solid waste management are summarised in Table 7.1. There is some scope for improved communication and coordination between stakeholders, both vertically
  • 85. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 85 and horizontally (Box 7.1 provides a summary of the current communication mechanisms). In Addis Ababa the Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency has recognised the importance of raising awareness and ensuring stakeholder participation. The Agency is now planning increased awareness raising initiatives in conjunction with key stakeholders. Awareness raising programs are particularly important if plans for increased fees are being developed. Table 7.1Table 7.1Table 7.1Table 7.1 Summary of Community RSummary of Community RSummary of Community RSummary of Community Related and Public Awareness SWM Initiativeselated and Public Awareness SWM Initiativeselated and Public Awareness SWM Initiativeselated and Public Awareness SWM Initiatives
  • 86. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 86 Box 7Box 7Box 7Box 7.1.1.1.1 Communication MechanismsCommunication MechanismsCommunication MechanismsCommunication Mechanisms Project TitleProject TitleProject TitleProject Title ObjectiveObjectiveObjectiveObjective ResponsibleResponsibleResponsibleResponsible organisationorganisationorganisationorganisation Method / approachMethod / approachMethod / approachMethod / approach ResultsResultsResultsResults achievedachievedachievedachieved CommentsCommentsCommentsComments Integrated solid waste management Raising awareness at household level and reduction of litter ENDA/ Ethiopia Participation through involving the young and household members. Household level composting and recycling & provision of dustbins on streets. Awareness increased, and waste management improved. Operates in three Woredas/kebeles Household Dust Bin provision Improve child environment at household level Plan/ Ethiopia Provision of standard dust bins for households, waste collection and transfer to municipal skips. Reduced environmental pollution and improved waste handling. Operates in four Woredas/kebeles Pre-collection Improvement Project Improve pre collection and waste handling at household level, facilitate solid waste collection by municipality Women Aid Ethiopia Door to Door waste collection, provision of waste collection equipment, organize unemployed youth and involve them in the process of waste collection and management. Illegal waste dumping reduced, employment opportunities created, environmental sanitation improved. On-going in Akaki sub-city SWM Project in Addis Ababa City Establish PPP Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce Establish project office Study on SWM completed & need for a PPP arrangement identified. Planned project on SWM, which will be implemented through public and private partnership. Street Up- grading and Beautification Raising public awareness to keep streets clean & make streets free of pollution Clean and Green Society of Addis Ababa Coordinate activities of other stakeholders. Society established, office opened, leaflets and posters produced and public awareness improved. Operates in Bole Road, Churchill Road and Haile Gebre Sselassie Avenue. Mobile urinals and Street Beautification Improve condition of streets Gasheabera Molla project Organize the youth, work closely with communities, NGOs and government offices. Improved street condition, and better environmental sanitation. Activities scattered in different parts of Addis; limited activities replicated to some regional towns. Clean Street Pilot project Stop (reduce) street littering & improve greenery Woreda 5 Project Committee Establish project committee composed of government institutions, business community, Kebele and Woreda 5 community representatives & leaders. Clean and Green Streets. Being implemented in Woreda 5, Merkato Area. Composting of household waste Raise awareness on the use of compost from SW & encourage urban agriculture. Bio Village Pilot project on household waste composting. Waste converted into a resource that can be used as an organic fertilizer. Practices Urban Agriculture using organic matter.
  • 87. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 87 • Parliament is one possible forum. Members of the parliament raise critical issues – including waste disposal management and environmental protection concerns. • Ministry of Federal Affairs serves as a bridge to link Regions with the Federal Government. The Ministry raises Regional issues, discusses them, shares best practices and disseminates relevant information to Regions as required. • Federal EPA works (in the area of environmental protection) with all Regions in raising public awareness through mass media – radio, television, newspapers, and organizing discussion forums. For example, EPA organizes discussion forums during the World Environment Day, Hidar 12 1 , etc. to raise public awareness. In addition, Regional States address SWM by involving “ environmental clubs” formed by high school students and youth clubs in all over the country. Messages convey through leaflets, posters, local radio stations and newspapers. • The Addis Ababa City Administration Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency works aggressively in awareness raising in Addis Ababa by disseminating relevant information through brochures, leaflets, TV and radio stations. • Mass media: organizes discussion forums (TV and radio), prepares articles on SWM in newspapers, leaflets, posters, etc. • National Environment Council: The Council is based in the Prime Minister’ s Office, and is responsible for all environmental issues/concerns. All regions are represented on the Council. 7.37.37.37.3 CCCCOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITY DDDDEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENT AAAACTIVCTIVCTIVCTIVITIES OF THEITIES OF THEITIES OF THEITIES OF THE IIIINTERNATIONALNTERNATIONALNTERNATIONALNTERNATIONAL DDDDONORSONORSONORSONORS Some of the international donors that support / fund community development activities in Ethiopia include: • The World Bank: all sectors – including sanitation development projects through the Federal Government; • GTZ: several projects all over the country including use of biogas. • UN Agencies: UNDP, UNEP, GEF (Global Environmental Facility), UNIDO; • JICA, DFID, USAID, Italian Cooperation, French Cooperation, SIDA, CIDA, ECA; and • Embassies: The Netherlands Embassy. All donors endeavour to raise public awareness by providing funds, organizing forums, supporting SWM initiatives, organizing volunteers’ day and cleaning festivals. 7.47.47.47.4 OOOOPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESS AND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONS There are a few opportunities that can serve to increase public awareness on solid waste management issues. The Addis Ababa City Administration structure is a good example - the City Administration 1 Once in a year on Hidar 12 – Ethiopian calendar (November 22 – in European Calendar), people collect all types of solid wastes and burn them. This has become a tradition, particularly in Addis Ababa, and has been practiced for over 100 years in Addis Ababa and its environs
  • 88. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 88 through its sub-city, woreda and kebele structures (and personnel) regularly seeks to improve public awareness on SWM . One of the mechanisms that has been adopted is to include solid waste management on the agenda for public meetings. In addition, public holidays, Idirs, and other social gatherings provide opportunities to raise public awareness and bring about behavioural changes on solid waste management and handling. On-going efforts on awareness raising can be further strengthened by dissemination of information, using the pre-collectors on a continuous basis. As pre-collectors collect solid wastes once or twice a week, they have regular contact with the general public and can serve as an avenue for awareness raising by conveying specific messages on solid waste management issues.
  • 89. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 89 8888 SUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PROJECT TOOJECT TOOJECT TOOJECT TO DEVELOP THEDEVELOP THEDEVELOP THEDEVELOP THE FRAMEWORK FOR PSPFRAMEWORK FOR PSPFRAMEWORK FOR PSPFRAMEWORK FOR PSP 8.18.18.18.1 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING SWMSWMSWMSWM SSSSYSTEMYSTEMYSTEMYSTEM Solid Waste Management in Ethiopia is generally in a poor state. For example, the collection services are often inefficient and do not cover all areas, most official dump sites are poorly managed and cause significant environmental impact, and illegal dumping practices are widespread. In rural areas and some regional cities, solid waste management services are particularly weak. However, there are some positive aspects of the existing system, such as informal recycling, composting initiatives and, in particular, the introduction and expansion of small private sector enterprises that carry out pre-collection services from households in Addis Ababa. These enterprises play an important role in improving waste collection and reducing unemployment. However, since the first small enterprises started pre-collection services about 5 years ago, the number of companies has rapidly increased, and there are several inefficiencies in the system. It is important that a degree of control on these enterprises is introduced so that the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations is optimised. There is also a need to improve service coverage, especially in the rural areas, and to increase the provision of adequate waste disposal (and recycling / composting) facilities. There is an urgent need for the development of an overall waste management strategy for Ethiopia (at the federal level), to provide an umbrella for all waste management improvement initiatives. The strategy would also provide a framework of policies, overall objectives, targets, programmes and standards to improve the sector. The PSP Strategy should be developed and implemented within the context of such a Federal Waste Management Strategy. 8.28.28.28.2 IIIINSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONAL AAAARRARRARRARRANGEMENTSNGEMENTSNGEMENTSNGEMENTS The Sanitation, Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA) of the Addis Ababa Municipality was set up in early 2003 with overall responsibility for waste management in the city. It has already started to build momentum for improved waste management and introduced
  • 90. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 90 several cost-effective organisational measures (for example, improved reporting systems for pre-collection companies). A few regional municipalities are now considering replicating the SBPDA structure. The strategy for PSP developed under this project should build on the plans of the authority in Addis Ababa and learn from the successes and good practices in Addis Ababa when planning for other cities. The institutional framework has been reviewed and outlined in this report. The major problems relate to the lack of resources, in terms of manpower and, particularly, finances. In addition, there are some overlapping roles in the regional towns and in some cases, municipalities are not aware of their responsibilities. There is a need to clearly define the roles and responsibilities of the organisations involved in the delivery of SWM services, including enforcement and regulation, and further build the capacities of the various institutions to fulfil their obligations and duties. 8.38.38.38.3 FFFFINANCE ANDINANCE ANDINANCE ANDINANCE AND CCCCOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERY At present most households pay very little for waste management services (and the majority of these are simply payments to the pre- collection companies). The private enterprises that generate waste pay for collection and disposal services. However, the levels of cost recovery and financing of SWM services are extremely low at present. In most municipalities, the proportion of the annual budget that is allocated to the delivery of SWM services is generally less than about 2%. There is an urgent need for the development of a cost recovery framework an improvement of the current charging mechanisms, which is very outdated. In particular, it is essential to identify the true cost of the services currently being provided by the municipalities and the regions, the levels of affordability of the urgently needed improvements to the systems, and the willingness to pay for the required improvements. Commercial management of the SWM services needs to be significantly improved to enhance an effective assessment of the potential role of the private sector. 8.48.48.48.4 SWMSWMSWMSWM LLLLEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATION Solid waste management legislation in Ethiopia currently only exists within the framework of broader environmental policies. Only Addis
  • 91. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 91 Ababa appears to be developing specific regional legislation on SWM practices. Existing SWM laws are mainly declaratory and there is a need for the development of a more robust legal framework, to support the development of an improvement solid waste management system. Legal guidance documents are also required to help in the step-by-step implementation of legislation. In addition, resources and capacity for monitoring and enforcement need to be strengthened, particularly in the regions - some degree of monitoring is happening at present in Addis Ababa. Priority legal instruments / guidance notes to enhance the development of SWM systems and PSP further need to be identified.. 8.58.58.58.5 PPPPUBLICUBLICUBLICUBLIC AAAAWARENESS ANDWARENESS ANDWARENESS ANDWARENESS AND CCCCOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITY PPPPARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATION There are some ongoing initiatives for raising public awareness on solid waste management issues. Central co-ordination and direction of these initiatives would strengthen their successful implementation. An increase in the levels of public awareness and effective engagement of community-based organisations is essential for the sustainable development of improved SWM practices and effective PSP. 8.68.68.68.6 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING PSPPSPPSPPSP IN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORS The private sector is already participating in the collection of sewage from sceptic tanks in Addis Ababa as outlined in the case study below. This outline case study demonstrates that there is an opportunity to learn from the experiences of the private sewage operators. These organisations should be consulted during the development of the PSP framework on SWM as they can provide a detailed insight into the practicalities of proposed arrangements.
  • 92. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 92 8.6.18.6.18.6.18.6.1 Outline Case Study on Sewage Management in Addis AbabaOutline Case Study on Sewage Management in Addis AbabaOutline Case Study on Sewage Management in Addis AbabaOutline Case Study on Sewage Management in Addis Ababa • Private sewage collection companies operate in Addis Ababa, but it is not clear at this stage whether private companies operate in other cities of Ethiopia. • The private companies collect sewage sludge from sceptic tanks of households and businesses. • The companies are not organised into areas – they compete for clients in the same areas. • Charge rates vary, but are typically about 196 Birr/collection for households and significantly greater for businesses. • It is likely that these charges only just recover all costs and that these companies are not making good profits. This assumption is based on the fact that there used to be 4-5 of these companies operating in Addis Ababa, but now there are only 3 of them. • The frequency of collection varies – it might be quarterly in the dry season and monthly in the rainy season in some cases. • The companies enter into an agreement with the Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority to enable them to operate in the sector. • The companies pay for depositing the collected sewage at the wastewater treatment works operated by the Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority. • The private sector started to operate in these activities in 1995, and there has been no recorded incidence of illegal dumping since then. It is assumed that illegal dumping is not carried out because of the risk of losing the licence to operate. • There are some municipal vehicles operating sewage collection activities, managed by the Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority. However, these vehicles are in a poor condition and there is a significant backlog of requests for septic tank services. The charge from the municipal service is much lower than from the private services (69 Birr/collection). This charge is set by the Municipality, who cover the shortfall with subsidies to the Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority. • The major problems in the system are the low charge for the municipal service and the poor state of the municipal service. Otherwise the system is working reasonably well. • The incentive for households to phone the private companies for their more expensive service is that they will come quickly, whereas there is a large backlog for the cheaper municipal service. • The private sector companies advertising extensively to get business. 8.6.28.6.28.6.28.6.2 Overview of other PSP initiatives in EthiopiaOverview of other PSP initiatives in EthiopiaOverview of other PSP initiatives in EthiopiaOverview of other PSP initiatives in Ethiopia National / Federal and Regional Programmes There is a privatisation agency in Ethiopia, which is in charge of privatising government owned institutions and companies. The agency has been responsible for the privatisation of companies in the industrial,
  • 93. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 93 mining and agricultural sectors. At the Federal level, a few services such as telecommunications have also been outsourced. The Addis Ababa Municipality is in the process of outsourcing some of its services, such as transportation.
  • 94. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 94 International / Donor Organisations The international community is also taking several actions aimed at the development of the private sector in Ethiopia, with a strong focus on the development of small and micro enterprises. Programmes include: • Programme on Micro and Small Enterprise Development - European Commission, (2003-2005); • Support to Micro Finance Institutions, - Embassy of Ireland (2000-2003); • Support to Micro and Small Enterprises Development, - Italian Cooperation; • Micro Intervention Programme - Income generation for grassroots groups. - Belgian Embassy Fund (annual); • Loans to public-private ventures - Dutch Government (annual); • Public Private Partnership Programme, - UNDP (2003-2006).
  • 95. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 95 9999 REFERENCESREFERENCESREFERENCESREFERENCES Reference sources for the data and information contained in this report have been quoted as a footnote in each section of the main text of this report. However, a significant proportion of the information contained in the report is not recorded formally as text in a report / publication – these have been obtained either firsthand, directly, from discussions and working meetings with key individuals in several stakeholder organisations or from general reference material on Ethiopia. These data sources are listed below, for completeness: 1. Ethiopia & Eritrea – Lonely Planet Guide: 2 nd Edition, November 2003 2. Working meetings with the Ethiopian counterpart organisation (Federal EPA): December 2003 and February 2004 : Yigzaw Ayalew, Desalegne Mesfin, Shimelis Fekalu, Atto Wanderson). 3. Meeting with the World Bank in Ethiopia – Mr. Yitzbarek Tessema, December 2003. 4. Working meetings with the Addis Ababa Sanitation Beautification and Parks Development Agency (SBPDA), including tour of facilities: December 2003 and February 2004: Kebede Faris, Atto Haile, Atto Kenefe. 5. Meeting with Addis Ababa Regional EPA, 9 December 2004 – Mr. Getachew Eshete. 6. Meeting with Dynamic Sanitary Service and tour of facilities (small scale micro-enterprise company waste pre-collection): 11 December 2003 – Mr. Habte. 7. Meeting with Dolphin Services (small scale micro-enterprise company waste pre-collection): 11December 2003 – Ms. Zenebech Mezerssa. 8. Meeting with Christian Relief and Development Association (NGO): 12 December 2003 – Mr. Ginjo. 9. Meeting with Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce: 12 December 2003 – Mr. Belyae Chebssi. 10. Meeting with Nifas Silk Lafto Sub-City (Addis Ababa): 12 December 2003 – Mr. Tesfaye Zewede. 11. Meeting with Addis Ababa Credit and Saving Institution: 4 February 2004 – Mr. Awash Abitew. 12. Meeting with Addis Ababa City Administration – Finance and Economic Bureau (Revenue Collection Agency) – 4 February 2004. 13. Meeting with United Nations Development Programme – Private Sector Development Operations: 6 February 2004 - Ms. Daniella Zampini. 14. Working meetings with officials and tour of facilities of the Dire Dawa Administrative Council, 9 February 2004:
  • 96. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 96 Mr. Shimelis Zewde – Health Office; Ms. Lishan – Planning and Economic Development Office; Mr. Haile Meskel – Finance Office; Mr. Solomon Tsehai – Micro and Small Enterprise Development Agency. 15. Working meetings with officials and tour of facilities in Nazreth, 12 February 2004: Mr. Lullsegat – Health Centre; Mr. Bayssa – Waste Management and Greenery Department. 16. Meeting with Dukem Woreda Town, Health & Social Services Department: 12 February 2004 - Mr. Kebede. The currency values stated in this report as USD (US Dollars, $), have been based on an exchange rate of: 1USD = 8.46 Birr.
  • 97. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ETHIOPIA 97 List of Annexes Annex 1 Socio-Economic Data on Ethiopia Annex 2 Summary of Waste Management in Selected Regional Cities of Ethiopia Annex 3 Typical examples of Waste Pre-Collection Service Agreements with customers Annex 4 Summary of Federal and Regional legislation relating to solid waste management Annex 5 Glossary of solid waste management terms
  • 98. CONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTS 1111 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 2222 1.11.11.11.1 BBBBACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT ANDJECT AND AAAAIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THISIM OF THIS RRRREPORTEPORTEPORTEPORT 2222 1.21.21.21.2 LLLLAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORTAYOUT OF THE REPORT 2222 2222 BACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUNDBACKGROUND 4444 2.12.12.12.1 SSSSOCIOOCIOOCIOOCIO----EEEECONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMIC BBBBACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ONACKGROUND ON EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA 4444 2.22.22.22.2 OOOOVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCALVERVIEW OF LOCAL //// REGIONALREGIONALREGIONALREGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES INTRUCTURES IN EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA 10101010 3333 WASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION ANDWASTE GENERATION AND CURRENT PRACTICES ICURRENT PRACTICES ICURRENT PRACTICES ICURRENT PRACTICES IN SOLID WASTEN SOLID WASTEN SOLID WASTEN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT 12121212 3.13.13.13.1 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE GGGGENERATIONENERATIONENERATIONENERATION 12121212 3.23.23.23.2 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOLLECTION ANDOLLECTION ANDOLLECTION ANDOLLECTION AND TTTTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORTRANSPORT 17171717 3.33.33.33.3 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE RRRREEEE----UUUUSESESESE,,,, RRRRECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING ANDECYCLING AND CCCCOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTINGOMPOSTING 31313131 3.43.43.43.4 WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE TTTTREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT ANDREATMENT AND DDDDISPOSALISPOSALISPOSALISPOSAL 32323232 3.53.53.53.5 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING SWMSWMSWMSWM PPPPLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS ANDLANS AND OOOOTHERTHERTHERTHER RRRRELEVANTELEVANTELEVANTELEVANT FFFFINDIINDIINDIINDINGSNGSNGSNGS 38383838 4444 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKSORKSORKSORKS 44444444 4.14.14.14.1 EEEENVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL ANDNVIRONMENTAL AND WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY ANDANAGEMENT POLICY AND SSSSTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGYTRATEGY 44444444 4.24.24.24.2 FFFFEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL AND RRRREGIONALEGIONALEGIONALEGIONAL SSSSTRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THETRUCTURE AND THE DDDDECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATIONECENTRALISATION PPPPROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESS 48484848 4.34.34.34.3 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES IN RELATION TOELATION TOELATION TOELATION TO WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT 49494949 Box 4.1Box 4.1Box 4.1Box 4.1 Elements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by preElements of monthly reporting by pre----collection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Subcollection companies to the Sub---- CityCityCityCity 56565656 4.44.44.44.4 OOOOVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OFVERVIEW OF TTTTENDERING ANDENDERING ANDENDERING ANDENDERING AND CCCCONTRACTUALONTRACTUALONTRACTUALONTRACTUAL AAAASPECTS OFSPECTS OFSPECTS OFSPECTS OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE CCCCOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTION 57575757 4.54.54.54.5 CCCCAPACITY OFAPACITY OFAPACITY OFAPACITY OF SSSSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERSTAKEHOLDERS 57575757 4.64.64.64.6 KKKKEYEYEYEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT IIIINSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONAL FFFFRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORK 58585858 5555 LEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFOLEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMRCEMRCEMRCEMENTENTENTENT 60606060 5.15.15.15.1 HHHHIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS INIERARCHY OF LAWS IN EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA 60606060 5.25.25.25.2 SSSSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATIONT LEGISLATION 60606060 5.35.35.35.3 PPPPOWERS TO CHARGE FEESOWERS TO CHARGE FEESOWERS TO CHARGE FEESOWERS TO CHARGE FEES //// KEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUKEEP SEPARATE ACCOUNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICESNTS FOR SWM SERVICES 63636363 5.45.45.45.4 LLLLEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATION RRRRELATING TOELATING TOELATING TOELATING TO PPPPRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION ANDRIVATISATION AND PPPPRIVATERIVATERIVATERIVATE SSSSECTORECTORECTORECTOR DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT 64646464 5.55.55.55.5 MMMMONITORINGONITORINGONITORINGONITORING,,,, EEEENFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT ANDNFORCEMENT AND LLLLICENSING OFICENSING OFICENSING OFICENSING OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT 66666666 5.65.65.65.6 SSSSTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAWTRUCTURE OF THE LAW COURTS AND JCOURTS AND JCOURTS AND JCOURTS AND JURISDICTIONSURISDICTIONSURISDICTIONSURISDICTIONS 68686868 5.75.75.75.7 KKKKEYEYEYEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON LLLLEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION ANDEGISLATION AND EEEENFORCEMENTNFORCEMENTNFORCEMENTNFORCEMENT 70707070
  • 99. 6666 FINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS ANFINANCIAL ASPECTS AND COST RECOVERYD COST RECOVERYD COST RECOVERYD COST RECOVERY 77771111 6.16.16.16.1 CCCCURRENT ANDURRENT ANDURRENT ANDURRENT AND FFFFUTUREUTUREUTUREUTURE CCCCOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THEOSTS OF THE SWMSWMSWMSWM SSSSYSTEMYSTEMYSTEMYSTEM 71717171 6.26.26.26.2 BBBBUDGETUDGETUDGETUDGET MMMMECHANISMSECHANISMSECHANISMSECHANISMS 71717171 6.36.36.36.3 CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT CCCCHARGES ANDHARGES ANDHARGES ANDHARGES AND CCCCHARGINGHARGINGHARGINGHARGING MMMMECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FORECHANISMS FOR SWMSWMSWMSWM 71717171 6.46.46.46.4 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES INESPONSIBILITIES IN CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY 77777777 6.56.56.56.5 FFFFEEEEEEEE CCCCOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTION (A(A(A(ADDDDDISDISDISDIS AAAABABABABABABABABA)))) 77777777 6.66.66.66.6 CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY 78787878 6.76.76.76.7 FFFFUTUREUTUREUTUREUTURE PPPPROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FORROPOSALS FOR CCCCHANGING THEHANGING THEHANGING THEHANGING THE CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY FFFFRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORKRAMEWORK 79797979 6.86.86.86.8 MMMMICROICROICROICRO----FFFFINANCEINANCEINANCEINANCE IIIINSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONSNSTITUTIONS 80808080 6.96.96.96.9 SSSSUUUUMMARY OF KEYMMARY OF KEYMMARY OF KEYMMARY OF KEY PPPPOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ONOINTS ON CCCCOSTOSTOSTOST RRRRECOVERYECOVERYECOVERYECOVERY 81818181 7777 PUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPACOMMUNITY PARTICIPATIONTIONTIONTION 84848484 7.17.17.17.1 RRRROLES ANDOLES ANDOLES ANDOLES AND RRRRESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FORESPONSIBILITIES FOR AAAAWARENESSWARENESSWARENESSWARENESS RRRRAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING AND CCCCOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATION 84848484 7.27.27.27.2 CCCCURRENTURRENTURRENTURRENT AAAAWARENESSWARENESSWARENESSWARENESS RRRRAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING ANDAISING AND CCCCOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATIONOMMUNICATION 84848484 7.37.37.37.3 CCCCOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITY DDDDEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENTEVELOPMENT AAAACTIVITIES OF THECTIVITIES OF THECTIVITIES OF THECTIVITIES OF THE IIIINTERNATIONALNTERNATIONALNTERNATIONALNTERNATIONAL DDDDONORSONORSONORSONORS 87878787 7.47.47.47.4 OOOOPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPRPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESSOVE PUBLIC AWARENESS AND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONSAND COMMUNICATIONS 87878787 8888 SUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTSUMMARY OF KEY POINTS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PRS RELATED TO THIS PROJECT TOOJECT TOOJECT TOOJECT TO DEVELOP THE FRAMEWORDEVELOP THE FRAMEWORDEVELOP THE FRAMEWORDEVELOP THE FRAMEWORK FOR PSPK FOR PSPK FOR PSPK FOR PSP 89898989 8.18.18.18.1 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING SWMSWMSWMSWM SSSSYSTEMYSTEMYSTEMYSTEM 89898989 8.28.28.28.2 IIIINSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONAL AAAARRANGEMENTSRRANGEMENTSRRANGEMENTSRRANGEMENTS 89898989 8.38.38.38.3 FFFFINANINANINANINANCE ANDCE ANDCE ANDCE AND CCCCOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERYOST RECOVERY 90909090 8.48.48.48.4 SWMSWMSWMSWM LLLLEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATIONEGISLATION 90909090 8.58.58.58.5 PPPPUBLICUBLICUBLICUBLIC AAAAWARENESS ANDWARENESS ANDWARENESS ANDWARENESS AND CCCCOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITYOMMUNITY PPPPARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATION 91919191 8.68.68.68.6 EEEEXISTINGXISTINGXISTINGXISTING PSPPSPPSPPSP IN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORSIN OTHER SECTORS 91919191 9999 REREREREFERENCESFERENCESFERENCESFERENCES 95959595 AAAANNEXNNEXNNEXNNEX 1111 SSSSOCIOOCIOOCIOOCIO----EEEECONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMIC DDDDATA ONATA ONATA ONATA ON EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA AAAANNEXNNEXNNEXNNEX 2222 SSSSUMMARY OFUMMARY OFUMMARY OFUMMARY OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENT INANAGEMENT INANAGEMENT INANAGEMENT IN SSSSELECTEDELECTEDELECTEDELECTED RRRREGIONALEGIONALEGIONALEGIONAL CCCCITIESITIESITIESITIES OFOFOFOF EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA AAAANNEXNNEXNNEXNNEX 3333 TTTTYPICAL EXAMPLES OFYPICAL EXAMPLES OFYPICAL EXAMPLES OFYPICAL EXAMPLES OF WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE PPPPRERERERE----CCCCOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTIONOLLECTION SSSSERVICEERVICEERVICEERVICE AAAAGREEMENTS WITH CUSTOGREEMENTS WITH CUSTOGREEMENTS WITH CUSTOGREEMENTS WITH CUSTOMERSMERSMERSMERS AAAANNEXNNEXNNEXNNEX 4444 SSSSUMMARYUMMARYUMMARYUMMARY OFOFOFOF FFFFEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL ANDEDERAL AND RRRREGIONAL LEGISLATIONEGIONAL LEGISLATIONEGIONAL LEGISLATIONEGIONAL LEGISLATION RELATING TORELATING TORELATING TORELATING TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMESOLID WASTE MANAGEMESOLID WASTE MANAGEMESOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTNTNTNT AAAANNEXNNEXNNEXNNEX 5555 GGGGLOSSARY OF SOLID WASLOSSARY OF SOLID WASLOSSARY OF SOLID WASLOSSARY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TERMSTE MANAGEMENT TERMSTE MANAGEMENT TERMSTE MANAGEMENT TERMS
  • 100. TTTTHEHEHEHE WWWWORLDORLDORLDORLD BBBBANKANKANKANK EEEETHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIATHIOPIA:::: RRRREGULATORY ANDEGULATORY ANDEGULATORY ANDEGULATORY AND IIIINSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONALNSTITUTIONAL RRRREFORM IN THEEFORM IN THEEFORM IN THEEFORM IN THE MMMMUNICIPALUNICIPALUNICIPALUNICIPAL SSSSOLIDOLIDOLIDOLID WWWWASTEASTEASTEASTE MMMMANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENTANAGEMENT SSSSECTORECTORECTORECTOR:::: PPPPRIVATERIVATERIVATERIVATE SSSSECTORECTORECTORECTOR PPPPARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATIONARTICIPATION PPIAFPPIAFPPIAFPPIAF AAAACTIVITYCTIVITYCTIVITYCTIVITY NNNNOOOO.A080102/L/WD/RF/ET.A080102/L/WD/RF/ET.A080102/L/WD/RF/ET.A080102/L/WD/RF/ET June 2004June 2004June 2004June 2004 Prepared by:Prepared by:Prepared by:Prepared by: Olabode, Mike, Peter, Wim,Olabode, Mike, Peter, Wim,Olabode, Mike, Peter, Wim,Olabode, Mike, Peter, Wim, Fikru, Mesel, Israel, AlemayehuFikru, Mesel, Israel, AlemayehuFikru, Mesel, Israel, AlemayehuFikru, Mesel, Israel, Alemayehu For and on behalf ofFor and on behalf ofFor and on behalf ofFor and on behalf of Environmental Resources Management:Environmental Resources Management:Environmental Resources Management:Environmental Resources Management: Approved byApproved byApproved byApproved by :::: P FletcherP FletcherP FletcherP Fletcher SignedSignedSignedSigned :::: P FletcherP FletcherP FletcherP Fletcher
  • 101. PositioPositioPositioPositionnnn :::: PartnerPartnerPartnerPartner DateDateDateDate :::: 14 June 200414 June 200414 June 200414 June 2004