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National wm strategy and poa sa National wm strategy and poa sa Document Transcript

  • PMG 130 PSC 69 NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLANS SOUTH AFRICA STRATEGY FORMULATION PHASE NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY version D 15 October 1999 Danced Reference No: M123 - 0136 Job. 970296 Ref No. Reports 4.1.19 NWMS Ver C Prep. Strategy Team Ed. Version D Contr. HW Date. 15/10/99 Appd. PMG
  • Table of contents Executive summary * Acknowledgments * Ttable of contents * 1. Introduction * 1.1 General Introduction * 1.2 Structure and Content of the NWMS * 1.2.1 Part 1: National Waste Management Strategy * 1.2.2 Part 2: Background Information to the National Waste Management Strategy * 1.3 Crosscutting Issues * 1.3.1 Institutional Arrangements * 1.3.2 Resource Requirements * 1.3.3 Time Schedules * 1.3.4 Economic Instruments * 1.3.5 The Law Reform Process * 1.3.6 Treatment Technologies * 1.3.7 Government and Private Sector Responsibilities * 1.3.8 Sewage Sludge * 1.3.9 Radioactive Waste * 1.3.10 Waste Minimisation * 2. Background to the NWMS *
  • 2.1 Environmental Policy and Legislative Developments * 2.2 Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy * 3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY * 3.1 Scope of Strategy * 3.2 Definitions * 3.3 Waste Categorisation * 3.4 Principles * 3.5 Strategic Goals and Objectives * 3.6 Approach and Methodology * 4. PRIORITY INITIATIVES * 4.1 Criteria and Rationale for Developing Priority Initiatives * 4.2 Priority Initiatives * 4.2.1 Integrated Waste Management Priority Initiatives * 4.2.2 Implementing Instruments * 4.2.3 Time Schedules and Responsibilities * 4.3 Prioritisation of Priority Initiatives * 4.4 Short-Term Priority Initiatives * 4.4.1 Integrated Waste Management Planning * 4.4.2 Waste Information System * 4.4.3 Waste Minimisation * 4.4.4 Recycling * 4.4.5 Waste Collection and Transportation * 4.4.6 Waste Treatment * 4.4.7 Waste Disposal * 4.4.8 Implementing Instruments * 4.4.9 Cost Estimates for Implementation of Short Term Priority Initiatives * 4.5 Medium to Long-Term Priority Initiatives * 5. THE WAY FORWARD * 6. introduction * 7. Integrated Waste Management Planning *
  • 7.1 Priority Initiatives * 7.1.1 General Waste * 7.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 7.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 7.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) * 7.1.5 Medical Waste * 7.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 7.1.7 Reconditioning of Drums used for Hazardous Materials * 7.2 Time Schedule * 7.3 Requirements and Implications * 7.3.1 Institutional * 7.3.2 Capacity Building * 7.3.3 Legal Issues * 7.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 7.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership * 7.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 7.5 Short-term Strategic Initiative * 8. WASTE INFORMATION SYSTEM * 8.1 Priority Initiatives * 8.1.1 Preparation of the WIS * 8.1.2 WIS Guidelines * 8.1.3 Data functions * 8.1.4 Implementation and Operation of WIS database * 8.2 Time Schedule * 8.3 Requirements and Implications * 8.3.1 Institutional * 8.3.2 Capacity Building * 8.3.3 Legal Issues * 8.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 8.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership * 8.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives *
  • 8.5 Short-term initiative * 9. WASTE MINIMISATION * 9.1 Waste Minimisation Initiatives * 9.1.1 Organisational and Planning Initiatives * 9.1.2 Appropriate Legal and Policy Framework * 9.1.3 Information, Education and Demonstration Projects * 9.1.4 Public-Private and Private Sector Initiatives * 9.2 Time Schedule * 9.3 Requirements and Implications * 9.3.1 Institutional * 9.3.2 Capacity building * 9.3.3 Legal Issues * 9.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 9.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 9.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 9.5 Short-term Initiative * 10. Recycling * 10.1 Priority Initiatives * 10.1.1 General Waste * 10.1.2 Domestic Waste * 10.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 10.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) * 10.1.5 Medical Waste * 10.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 10.2 Time Schedule * 10.3 Requirements and Implications * 10.3.1 Institutional * 10.3.2 Capacity Building * 10.3.3 Legal Issues * 10.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 10.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships *
  • 10.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 10.5 Short-term Initiative * 11. Waste Collection and Transportation * 11.1 Initiatives * 11.1.1 General Waste * 11.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 11.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 11.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides) * 11.1.5 Medical Waste * 11.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste * 11.2 Time Schedule * 11.3 Requirements and Implications * 11.3.1 Institutional * 11.3.2 Capacity Building * 11.3.3 Legal Issues * 11.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 11.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 11.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 11.5 Short-term Initiative * 12. Waste Treatment * 12.1 Priority Initiatives * 12.1.1. General Waste * 12.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste * 12.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 12.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides) * 12.1.5 Medical Waste * 12.1.6 Sewage Sludge * 12.1.7 Mining and Power Station Waste * 12.2 Time Schedule * 12.3 Requirements and Implications * 12.3.1 Institutional *
  • 12.3.2 Capacity Building * 12.3.3 Legal Issues * 12.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 12.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 12.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives * 12.5 Short-term Initiative * 13. WASTE DISPOSAL * 13.1 Priority Initiatives * 13.1.1 General waste * 13.1.2 Domestic Hazardous Waste * 13.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry * 13.1.4 Agricultural and Forestry Wastes (Pesticides) * 13.1.5 Medical waste * 13.1.6 Sewage Sludge * 13.1.7 Mining and Power Station Wastes * 13.2 Time Schedule * 13.3 Requirements and Implications * 13.3.1 Institutional * 13.3.2 Capacity Building Implications * 13.3.3 Legal issues * 13.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives * 13.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 13.4 Dependency on other NWMS activities * 13.5 Short-term Priority Initiative * 14. Implementing Instruments * 14.1 Institutional Development * 14.2 Capacity Building Requirements * 14.2.1 Formal Capacity Building Programme * 14.2.2 Communication Strategy * 14.2.3 Staff estimates * 14.3 Legislative Requirements *
  • 14.4 Financial Requirements * 14.4.1 Estimated Costs of the NWMS Priority Initiatives * 14.5 Public Participation and Partnerships * 14.6 Awareness and Education * References * Annexure 1 * Definitions and Terms * Annexure 2 * Abbreviations * Annexure 3 * Summary of Existing Key Legislation on Waste Management Issues * As described in section 14.3, the approach that will be adopted to integrate and amend the above (and other related) legislation will be dependent upon decisions that are agreed to during the environmental Law Reform Process. Critical to this process will be the decisions that are taken regarding the institutional structures relating to environmental management in South Africa. * Annexure 4 * Existing Institutional Arrangement are set out in the attached table * Annexure 5 * Acknowledgements * Executive summary
  • This National Waste Management Strategy presents Government’s strategy for integrated waste management for South Africa. The Strategy presented in this document was compiled by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, including: government at all levels, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations, labour, business, industry, and the mining sector. Financial support for the project was given by the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development. This National Waste Management Strategy presents a long-term plan (up to the year 2010) for addressing key issues, needs and problems experienced with waste management in South Africa (1997/8). The strategy gives effect to the Bill of Rights, Constitution of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, on the basis of which the people of South Africa have the right to an environment that is not detrimental to their health. Furthermore, the strategy translates into action Government’s policy on waste as set out in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (published in 1998). The objective of integrated pollution and waste management is to move away from fragmented and uncoordinated waste management to integrated waste management. Such a holistic and integrated management approach extends over the entire waste cycle from cradle to grave, and covers the prevention, generation, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal of waste. Integrated waste management thus represents a paradigm shift in South Africa’s approach to waste management, by moving away from waste management through impact management and remediation and establishing instead a waste management system which focuses on waste prevention and waste minimisation. The strategy aims to reduce both the generation and the environmental impact of waste. It presents a plan for ensuring that the socio-economic development of South Africa, the health of its people and the quality of its environmental resources are no longer adversely affected by uncontrolled and uncoordinated
  • waste management. It establishes a waste management system that concentrates on avoiding, preventing and minimising waste and makes provision for waste management services for all by extending an acceptable standard of waste collection, as well as transportation, treatment and disposal services to all communities. While the long-term objective of the strategy is waste prevention and minimisation, a number of remediative actions such as improved waste collection and waste treatment are required in the shorter term due to prevailing inadequate waste management practices. To achieve the long-term objectives of the strategy, about 50 major integrated waste management initiatives (and many more sub-initiatives) with their associated financial and human resource requirements will need to be implemented. In addition, institutional changes and new legislation will have to be introduced and enforced and capacity building requirements will need to be addressed and realised. Attention must also be given to raising public awareness on waste management issues and promoting and delivering environmental education. The final phase of the National Waste Management Strategy process will entail the development of detailed action plans for implementation. The National Waste Management Strategy is a first generation strategy, which will initiate action both by government and civil society and will culminate in the implementation of an integrated waste management system for South Africa. Critical factors affecting the successful implementation of the strategy will be securing the necessary financial and human resources, and receiving the commitment, support and input of all stakeholders. Government accepts that this strategy will have to be reviewed periodically as and when appropriate (e.g. on a five year basis) and may need to be adapted to address practical realities, changing needs and new priorities. Acknowledgments
  • The Ministries and Departments of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and of Water Affairs and Forestry acknowledge the contribution that South Africans have made in developing a National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa. The role played by the Project Steering Committee, which steered the process and the contributions of the drafters of the Strategy, is also acknowledged. A complete list of persons who contributed to the process is given in Annexure 5. Below is set out a short list of officials, government departments and organisations, which have played a key role in developing this National Waste Management Strategy. Ministries Minister Z Pallo Jordan Minister Kader Asmal Deputy Minister Peter R Mokaba, who chaired the Project Steering Committee Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Provincial Environmental Departments Eastern Cape Department of Economic Affairs and Environment Free State Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment KwaZulu Natal Department of Traditional and Environmental Affairs Mpumalanga Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism North West Department of Environmental Affairs Northern Cape Department of Health, Welfare and Environmental Affairs Northern Province Department of Agriculture, Land and Environment Western Cape Department of Environmental and Cultural Affairs MINMEC: Environment and Nature Conservation The Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED)
  • National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa PART 1 1. Introduction 1.1 General Introduction The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) states that the people of South Africa have the right to an environment that is not detrimental to human health, and imposes a duty on the state to promulgate legislation and to implement policies to ensure that this right is upheld. Steps taken to date to ensure the environmental right include: the publication of the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (1998); the preparation of the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (1998); the National Water Act (1998); as well as the promulgation of the National Environmental Management Act (1998). A further step is the development of this National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa. During 1997, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) and the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), with financial support from the Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development (Danced), initiated a project for the development of a National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) for South Africa. The overall objective of this strategy is to reduce the generation of waste and the environmental impact of all forms of waste and thereby ensure that the socio-economic development of South Africa, the health of the people and the quality of its environmental resources are no longer adversely affected by uncontrolled and uncoordinated waste management. In
  • order to achieve this objective the following goals were agreed for the NWMS project: The development of strategies for integrated waste management. The development of action plans to implement the identified strategies. Capacity building within DWAF and DEAT to implement the action plans. Consultation with a wide range of stakeholders on the waste management situation in South Africa (1997/8) identified the following as key issues and needs that had to be addressed by this National Waste Management Strategy: To bring about a paradigm shift from end-of-pipe control to waste prevention and minimisation. To provide basic waste management services for those sections of the population who do not have access to waste collection services or who do not receive adequate services. To ensure that public health and occupational health issues receive due consideration in all waste management practices. To initiate a system of integrated waste management through the implementation of instruments such as legislation, capacity building, institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms. To ensure integration of waste management initiatives with other governmental initiatives, programmes and administrative systems, e.g. Integrated Development Forums (IDFs) and Land Development Objectives (LDOs), the Masakhane campaign and job creation projects. To integrate waste management with the over arching process of environmental planning, management and protection. 1.2 Structure and Content of the NWMS The National Waste Management Strategy is presented in two parts. Part 1 documents the full strategy in which the initiatives have been categorised as short, medium or long-term priority initiatives with an emphasis on the requirements for the implementation of the short-term priority initiatives. Part 2 describes all the priority initiatives and the implications of implementation in terms of human and financial resources and the institutional arrangements. 1.2.1 Part 1: National Waste Management Strategy
  • This part sets out the motivation for a NWMS, describes the background of its development, explains the strategy development process, identifies priority initiatives, details the short-term priority initiatives (in terms of criteria for selection, implications and requirements and implementing instruments), identifies medium to long-term initiatives and charts the proposed way forward. 1.2.2 Part 2: Background Information to the National Waste Management Strategy This part provides detailed background information on all the priority initiatives identified in Part 1. It deals in detail with the priority initiatives, proposed time schedules, requirements and implications. This information is provided for each of the components of the waste hierarchy, and inter alia includes certain elements of the following: Integrated waste management and planning Waste information system Waste minimisation/prevention Recycling Waste collection and transportation Waste treatment Waste disposal Implementing instruments. 1.3 Crosscutting Issues Stakeholders have highlighted a number of crosscutting issues on which government’s position is clarified. To facilitate understanding of the strategy, the crosscutting issues of concern are addressed in this section and the stated position of the government that will apply throughout Parts 1 and 2 of this Strategy. 1.3.1 Institutional Arrangements The National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) represents the vision of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) for an integrated approach to waste management. This long-term strategic plan addresses the problems, needs and issues relating to waste management, which were identified during consultation with a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. other government departments, NGOs, CBOs, business, labour and industry and mining).
  • The government’s policy on integrated waste management, as set out in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, was formalised into a strategy in the form of the NWMS. Stakeholders have identified the elimination of the duplication and overlap of waste management regulatory activities as a key requirement. There is no intention to override any existing legislation or duplicate the requirements of other government departments. In taking cognisance of the legal mandates of the relevant government departments, wherever any provisions in the NWMS (and Action Plans) appear to inadvertently be in conflict with existing legislation, the requirements of the legislation will prevail. In the context of co-operative governance, the same interpretation applies to cases of inadvertent duplication of legislative requirements. At present the Draft White Paper on IP&WM is a guideline document until formal Cabinet approval is received. Development of the Action Plans has highlighted legislative requirements, which are required to give effect to the government policy on waste management. The legislative requirements will be reviewed within the ongoing DEAT Law Reform Process. It is expected that this law reform process will take into consideration any amendments to the draft White Paper, suggested by Parliament. The law reform process may however also result in changed legislation and legal mandates. The NWMS (and Action Plans) represent a first generation plan for addressing South Africa’s waste management problems that will be continually updated to meet practical realities. The duties, roles and responsibilities assigned to the various government departments outlined in the Strategy are therefore only an initial proposal, which will be discussed, clarified and agreed to during inter- governmental discussions. The allocated responsibilities will be amended where necessary and implemented within the context of co-operative governance with the support of the role players. Cognisance will be taken of the legal mandates of government departments. A phased approach to implementation of the NWMS is envisaged to integrate the waste management functions to ensure an efficient and effective system that meets the requirements of all stakeholders.
  • The ultimate aim of the NWMS is to implement a co-ordinated integrated waste management system to ensure "cradle to grave" management of waste. To meet this objective will require the commitment, support and co-operation of all stakeholders in the implementation of the NWMS and the associated Action Plans. Ongoing discussions are being held with other national departments and provincial government to develop a framework of future division of functions and responsibilities and to agree on the way forward. Where the term ‘provincial government’ is used in this Strategy, it refers to those departments within the provinces that are responsible for environmental activities. According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996), responsibility for waste management functions is to be devolved to the lowest possible level of government. Where appropriate this policy has been applied in this Strategy. However, concern has been expressed about the limited resources that are available at the provincial and local government level to assume the additional waste management responsibilities. Before responsibilities and obligations for each tier of government are finalised, discussions will be held with all concerned parties. In addition, the process of devolving responsibility to the lower levels of government will utilise a phased approach to allow provincial and local government to meet their new waste management obligations. Responsibility for hazardous waste management in the strategy has been placed at the provincial level of government, although co-operation and input from local government will also be promoted. Provision is made within NEMA (1998) for the establishment of a Committee for Environmental Co-ordination (CEC). However, it is not the intention of this strategy to propose the formation of additional committees to meet the requirements of integrated waste management. Thus, it is proposed that the existing Mintech Workgroup 3 for Pollution and Waste be the mechanism for co- ordination and discussion of integrated waste management. 1.3.2 Resource Requirements
  • The approach adopted in this strategy has been to make preliminary estimates of the personnel requirements and financial resources required to implement the priority initiatives. It is recognised that it is not possible at this stage to present definitive figures, but rather to use indicative numbers to assist in the categorisation of the initiatives. All personnel requirements that are given are an indication of the total number of staff members that will be required to fully implement the initiative, thereby allowing the relevant government departments to budgets for these staff requirements. Staff numbers are the total required to perform the initiative and do not consider the staff members currently employed in the government. Furthermore, cost estimates are only order of magnitude estimates based on the information readily available at the present. Resource requirements will be investigated in greater detail during the development of the Action Plans for the NWMS Priority Initiatives. 1.3.3 Time Schedules Priority initiatives have been categorised in the strategy as either short-term (1999 to 2002), medium-term (2003 to 2006), or long-term (2007 to 2010). During the development of the short-term initiatives for the Waste Information System (WIS), Integrated Waste Management Planning, and General Waste Collection, it became apparent that implementation could not commence until the middle of 1999 at the earliest. Budget allocations had also not been made for implementation during 1999/2000. It was therefore decided that the implementation period be extended by two years for each category. Thus, short- term initiatives will be implemented by the year 2004. The original time frames for short, medium and long-term implementation will be retained in this Strategy document, but these time frames will be developed in greater detail and refined to a more realistic time schedule during the development of the NWMS Action Plans. As the Strategy will be reviewed and updated periodically, timeframes will be revised, based on practical realities. 1.3.4 Economic Instruments
  • Availability of funds is crucial to the successful implementation of the NWMS. Two distinct economic instruments could be applied for funding waste management initiatives, firstly a tax for raising revenue and secondly user charges, e.g. through the implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle. It is not the intention of this Strategy to propose additional taxation for waste management but rather investigate various economic mechanisms to fully recover the cost for sustainable waste management. Any future investigations made into the application of economic instruments for generating funds for the implementation of the NWMS, will be undertaken by the DEAT in collaboration with the Department of Finance and the Department of Trade and Industry. 1.3.5 The Law Reform Process The DEAT is currently undertaking a process of legal reform, which will include reviewing, developing and implementing legislation dealing with integrated waste management. In the interim current legislation will be fully implemented to address as far as possible the objectives and the goals of the NWMS. The problems currently encountered with monitoring compliance and the enforcement of waste management legislation will be consolidated during the development of Action Plans and be reviewed as part of the Law Reform Process. If, however, the Law Reform Process were not able to fulfil its terms of reference timeously, DEAT would initiate a process of review and development of NWMS specific legislation. 1.3.6 Treatment Technologies The DEAT’s responsibility is to develop the framework within which waste must be managed. This includes ensuring that the appropriate legislation and standards are promulgated and enforced, and the development of a programme of implementation to allow waste generators to make provision for compliance. Legislation will be promulgated based on a comprehensive and focused assessment of appropriate treatment technologies that make provision for the safe treatment of the waste.
  • It is not the intention of the DEAT to prescribe the technology that the waste generator must implement to comply with the legislation. However, where appropriate, DEAT has the prerogative to investigate any technology that is proposed to ensure that they meet the required standards, that the technology can be monitored for compliance and that the standards can be enforced. 1.3.7 Government and Private Sector Responsibilities Several waste management initiatives, such as recycling and hazardous waste treatment and disposal, are undertaken by the private sector. It is not the DEAT’s intention to take over responsibility for those initiatives that are within the private sector domain, but rather to monitor their operation to ensure compliance with government’s environmental policy. 1.3.8 Sewage Sludge The management of sewage sludge is currently regulated by the Water Services Act and will therefore not be addressed as part of the NWMS, with the exception of sludge that is disposed at landfill sites. 1.3.9 Radioactive Waste The development of a strategy for the management of radioactive waste is still in the process of being developed jointly between the DEAT and the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) and will not form part of this document. It is government’s intention to include the new radioactive waste strategy in the next version of the NWMS. 1.3.10 Waste Minimisation Waste minimisation includes any activity to reduce or prevent the volume and environmental impact of waste. Waste minimisation in this Strategy also implies waste prevention. It is intended that waste minimisation will form part of a broader national cleaner production strategy. 2. Background to the NWMS 2.1 Environmental Policy and Legislative Developments The Consultative National Environmental Policy Process (CONNEPP) resulted in the development of the White Paper on Environmental Management Policy for
  • South Africa (1998) and the promulgation of the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA). This Act provides for co-operative environmental governance by establishing principles for decision making on matters affecting the environment. An important function of NEMA is to serve as an enabling Act for the promulgation of legislation to effectively address integrated waste management. Environmental policy and legislation in all fields of governmental activity have been under active review since 1994. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, the Department of Minerals and Energy, the Department of Health, the Department of Constitutional Development and the Department of Trade and Industry have all been involved in this legal review process. Policies and legislation which directly or indirectly impact on waste management have been developed and published, or are in the process of being published, and in some instances have been implemented by the relevant departments. The integration of all these individual efforts is one of the main objectives of the integrated waste management policy. 2.2 Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy Whereas the Environmental Management Policy delineates government’s broad policy on environmental management, the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP&WM) for South Africa (1998), details government's policy on pollution and waste management and has formed the point of departure and framework for the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS). The over-arching goal of the IP&WM policy is to move away from a previously fragmented situation of uncoordinated waste management to a system of integrated waste management. The Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa defines government’s "cradle to grave" approach to the management of waste. This is an holistic and integrated management approach extending from the feasibility and planning stages of a project, through waste prevention and
  • minimisation, as well as the generation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal of waste. The IP&WM policy represents a paradigm shift in South Africa’s approach to waste management. Historically, pollution control focused primarily on impact management and remediation of pollution. To ensure sustainable development the focus has moved to pollution prevention. Subsequently, the NWMS process was undertaken to ensure that the IP&WM policy is translated into practice. Central to the development of the strategy for integrated waste management has been pollution avoidance/prevention and waste minimisation approach that focuses on the source of waste and moves away from the ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions. At the same time, the present state of waste management is far from perfect, and the Strategy recognises that a paradigm shift cannot be implemented without a concurrent improvement of existing management systems. The Strategy therefore also deals with the need to raise waste collection, waste transportation, treatment and disposal services to an acceptable standard for all communities and to provide waste management services for the whole country. The NWMS Strategy follows the waste hierarchy approach (see Figure 1.1), which is internationally accepted as a rigorous approach to integrated waste management.
  • Figure 1.1: Steps in Waste Hierarchy 3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 3.1 Scope of Strategy The National Waste Management Strategy presented in this document was compiled by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders. The stakeholders include: government at all levels, non- governmental organisations (NGOs), community based organisations (CBOs), labour, business and industry (including mining). It represents a far reaching plan for addressing key issues, needs and problems experienced with waste management in South Africa (1997/8). The plan comprises a number of short, medium and long-term priority initiatives. The Strategy covers the period up to the year 2010.
  • The successful implementation of the Strategy will be critically dependent on the following factors and activities: Political will, enthusiasm and commitment on the side of the government to secure the necessary resources. Commitment, support and input from stakeholders. The availability of human and financial resources at all levels of the government and within civil society. Rapid capacity building in both government and civil society. The integration of waste management into the cradle to grave environmental planning and management process. This is a first generation Strategy which aims at initiating action both by government and civil society that will eventually result in an integrated waste management system for South Africa. Government accepts that this Strategy will have to be regularly reviewed (e.g. every five years) and adapted to address practical realities and changing needs and priorities. However, such periodic changes will not compromise the attainment of the overall goal of the Strategy, i.e. integrated and sustainable waste management. 3.2 Definitions The key terms and concepts used in this document are defined below while a more extensive glossary of terms (Annexure 1) and list of abbreviations (Annexure 2) are given at the end of the document. Strategy is used in this document to mean a broad course of action designed to make the best use of resources and opportunities and to offer the best prospect of achieving the defined objectives whilst dealing with the risks that may be involved in the course of action. Action Planning is the process of drawing up a scheme for defining targets, methods, tasks, responsibilities, timing, control procedures and the results expected. Waste is an undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, or residue of any process or activity that has been discarded, accumulated or been stored for the purpose of discarding or processing. Waste products may be gaseous, liquid or solid or any combination thereof and may originate from domestic, commercial or
  • industrial activities, and include sewage sludge, radioactive waste, building rubble, as well as mining, metallurgical and power generation waste. Integrated Waste Management Strategy is a holistic and integrated course of action, which specifies the institutional, infrastructural and technological support, as well as human and financial resources required to establish and implement an integrated waste management strategy commits all the people of South Africa to preventing and minimising waste generation at source in order to protect human health and the environment and to develop resources in a sustainable manner. 3.3 Waste Categorisation For the purposes of this document, waste has been categorised as either general or hazardous. Within these two categories, waste is categorised according to its source namely, domestic, commercial or industrial (Figure 1.2). General waste is sub-divided into paper, metals, glass, plastic, organic and inert materials (which includes builders rubble). Due to its composition and characteristics general waste does not pose a significant threat to public health or the environment, if managed properly. Hazardous waste is waste that has the potential, even in low concentrations, to have a significant adverse effect on the public health or the environment. It is categorised according to the nine classes and four hazardous ratings, as described in the DWAF Minimum Requirements documents (Second edition, 1988).
  • Figure 1.2: Waste Categorisation 3.4 Principles The principles used in the development of the NWMS are inter alia those of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996), the Bill of Rights contained in the Constitution, the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa (No. 18894 of 1998), the Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998) and the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). Some of the principles on which the NWMS is based are – Accountability; Affordability; Cradle to Grave Management; Equity; Integration; Open Information; Polluter Pays; Subsidiarity; Waste Avoidance and Minimisation; Co-operative Governance; Sustainable Development; and Environmental Protection and Justice. 3.5 Strategic Goals and Objectives The wide variety of initiatives that need to be considered in order to realise the proposed integrated waste management system are detailed in Chapters 7 to 14 in Part 2 of this Strategy. The strategic goals of the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998) are the following: Effective institutional framework and legislation; Waste minimisation, impact management and remediation; Holistic and integrated planning; Participation and partnerships in IP&WM governance; Empowerment and environmental education; Information management; and International co- operation. The table below summarises in broad terms the key elements of the existing waste management approach as practised in South Africa (1997/8), compared to the proposed future situation after implementation of the strategic objectives of the NWMS. Existing Waste Management Approach Strategic Objectives for Integrated Waste Management
  • Limited focus on control mechanisms Focus on sustainable environmental protection Inadequate waste collection services Adequate waste collection services for all Adverse effect on the environment and public health Sustainable protection of the environment and public health Fragmented approach with single media focus Consolidated multimedia approach Conflict of interests Transparency in conflict resolution Insufficient information Integrated Waste Information System Inadequate environmental planning Holistic integrated environmental planning and capabilities Inadequate R&D programmes Focused investigations that take cognisance of cross-cutting implications Fragmented regulatory approach Integrated regulatory approach Regulations inadequately Enforcement facilitated
  • enforced Full waste management costs not realised Polluter Pays Principle and total cost accounting 3.6 Approach and Methodology The draft National Waste Management Strategy was developed for all the people of South Africa. The document sets out a long-term strategy with a time horizon of the year 2010. It outlines the functions and responsibilities of the three levels of government. It does not, however, specify in detail how the proposed strategy will be implemented, since this aspect of the Strategy will be dealt with during the next phase of its development i.e. the development of detailed action plans. The development of the NWMS is seen as a dynamic process that will be regularly reviewed (e.g. every 5 years) to take account of progress made, changing needs and priorities, as well as the realities of practical implementation. Where possible, firm plans and targets are specified. Where, due to a lack of information or other constraints this approach was not possible, a more qualitative approach has been taken. The NWMS Project comprised four phases: Phase I, The Inception Phase: During the Inception Phase, final detailed planning for the NWMS project was undertaken. Sectoral workshops were held during October and November 1997 where stakeholders were consulted about the project objectives, project schedule and project planning. Five tasks groups were formed, to deal with waste minimisation, the waste information system, hazardous waste, general waste and strategic planning respectively. The Inception Phase was completed during December 1997. Phase II, The Situation/Baseline Analysis Phase: Each of the four specialist task groups, i.e. waste minimisation, the waste information system, hazardous waste, and general waste, undertook a situation/baseline analysis that
  • identified waste issues, problems and needs in their specialist fields. The strategic planning task group synthesised these findings into an integrated Situation/Baseline Analysis Report, which addressed the seven strategic goals set out in the IP&WM policy. The Synthesis Report was workshopped with stakeholders during April and May 1998 and the waste management needs and issues which had to be addressed in the strategy formulation phase were identified. This phase was completed in May 1998. Phase III, The Strategy Formulation Phase: The strategy formulation phase commenced immediately after finalisation and acceptance by the stakeholders of the Situation/Baseline Synthesis Report. At a series of sectoral workshops and one multi sectoral workshop, each task group debated the key issues identified during the Situation/Baseline Analysis Phase and developed them into a broad range of strategic options and scenarios. The sectoral workshops were held during August 1998 and a multi sectoral workshop was held during September 1998. A draft NWMS (Version ‘a’) was compiled based on these inputs and direction from the Project Steering Committee (PSC). This draft NWMS was workshopped with stakeholders at a multi sectoral workshop held on 23 November 1998. ‘Version ‘b’ of the draft NWMS was compiled at the request of the workshop attendees and the Project Steering Committee, and was used as a basis for broad comment over a period of two and a half months (mid December 1998 to the end of February 1999). The input received was integrated into the NWMS, (Version ‘c’), Further stakeholder input was incorporated into the NWMS, which has been updated to Version ‘D’. Phase IV, Action Plans: This NWMS (Version ‘D’) identifies a number of strategic priority initiatives that need to be addressed as a matter of urgency. Action plans are being developed for their implementation. This process was initiated in January 1999. 4. PRIORITY INITIATIVES
  • The NWMS process described in the previous section was used to progress from policy to strategy. The NWMS project, through a process of consultation with a wide range of stakeholders developed the following outputs: A baseline situation analysis report, which identified problems, needs and key issues. Identified strategic options as possible mechanisms to address the key issues. Narrowing the focus of the strategic options to a set of specific priority initiatives that address the key issues raised by stakeholders. 4.1 Criteria and Rationale for Developing Priority Initiatives The criteria used to develop the priority initiatives were those stipulated in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). These criteria and the rationale for using them were the following: • Prevention and minimisation of waste Prevention and minimisation is the first approach to waste management according to the waste management hierarchy. The implementation of this approach will initiate the paradigm shift from end-of-pipe control to waste prevention and raise awareness of integrated waste management. Implementation of cleaner technology and waste minimisation within South Africa will also contribute to maintaining the country’s competitive position in the technological market place and enable South Africa will to meet the increasing demands from the developed world market to provide sustainably produced products. In addition, successful implementation of waste minimisation/prevention initiatives will strengthen the relationship between the public and private sector. • Direct and visible reduction in the impact on public health and environment This criterion has been recognised as one of the key objectives of the NWMS and supports the Constitutional right to an environment that is not detrimental to human health. This criterion is also stressed in the National Environmental Management Act, the Draft White Paper on Integrated
  • Pollution and Waste Management and the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998). • Improve the quality of life of all South Africans, particularly the previously disadvantaged communities Provision of waste management services will improve the living standards of those communities that were previously unserviced. Giving effect to this criterion will increase public awareness of the benefits of integrated waste management, encourage payment for service provision and create funds to implement additional waste management initiatives. • Potential for job creation This criterion supports the RDP and the government’s drive to create employment. Integrated waste management has the potential for creating jobs in both the public and private sector. • Potential for rapid and visible results Implementation of initiatives that result in rapid and visible results will promote support for the NWMS and facilitate the implementation of the medium to long-term initiatives. • Optimum Utilisation of Available Resources Available human resources, current institutional arrangements and existing legislation will be optimally utilised and applied to address the short-term initiatives. • Sustainable Integrated Waste Management In order to bring about integrated waste management, the initiatives that have been selected focus not only on short-term results and impact, but also long-term sustainability. This criterion requires that the waste management process be cost, particularly for the waste generator. 4.2 Priority Initiatives This section summarises all the priority initiatives that have been developed for the seven main elements of the waste management hierarchy (Chapters 7 to 13
  • in Part 2) and the implementing instruments (Chapter 14 in Part 2). Each summary in this section includes a title for each initiative and indicates milestones, i.e. important results or products expected during the course of development of the initiative. Since this chapter is a summary, in some cases, the title of the initiative does not correspond precisely with the longer title description given in the background document (Part 2). However, any slight change in title does not indicate any change in the content of the initiatives. Short-term milestones are defined as those waste management results and products planned within current resource constraints for delivery before the end of 2002. Medium term milestones are those defined for delivery during the period 2003 to 2006, and long term milestones are those that will be realised during the period 2007 to 2010. Proposed responsible institutions are listed in Table 4.1 at the end of this section. The timeframes indicated below are DEAT’s estimate of the earliest possible dates for the implementation of the various proposed priority NWMS initiatives. As mentioned previously (Section 1.3.3), practical realities may necessitate a review and adaptation of these timeframes, e.g. short-term may have to be extended to the year 2004. 4.2.1 Integrated Waste Management Priority Initiatives The section below describes the priority initiatives developed for the seven elements of integrated waste management. Integrated Waste Management Planning • Regulations and guidelines for the compilation of waste management plans, covering all types of waste, will be drafted by the DEAT, in consultation with provincial government, and promulgated by the year 2000. Special consideration will be given to waste management in rural and farming areas. • For general waste, first generation plans will be compiled by local government in 2001, for submission in 2002. Final plans will be submitted and approved in 2003 and be implemented by 2006. Compilation of first generation integrated general waste management plans in the short-term is part of a phasing-in process. • For hazardous industrial waste, first generation plans will be compiled by provincial government in 2001, for submission in 2002. Final plans will be submitted and approved in 2003 and be implemented by 2006.
  • • All integrated waste management plans will be subjected to public consultation, prior to submission to the provinces and to national government. • Provincial government will prepare summaries of the plans received from local government for managing general waste so that they can be incorporated to their provincial environmental management plans for submission to the CEC. • Provincial integrated hazardous waste management plans will be compiled, with stakeholder input, for submission to the CEC. The integrated waste management plans will be discussed at the CEC to facilitate inter provincial co-ordination, particularly in relation to provision of facilities for disposal and treatment of both hazardous and general waste. • Plans for non-hazardous and hazardous mining and power station waste will be developed and submitted to the provinces by the mine and power station owners according to an agreed time schedule. Provincial government will incorporate the plans in summarised form in their provincial environmental and waste management plan for submission to the CEC. • Final plans for both general and hazardous waste will be regularly revised (e.g. every 5 years). Waste Information System • The database and guidelines for the Waste Information System (WIS) will be developed by the end of 1999, and will include the development of a WIS prototype. The development of the prototype forms part of the NWMS project. • The WIS database will become operational once the necessary regulatory requirements are in place and operations are envisaged to commence in the year 2000. • The phased implementation of the WIS database, including receipt of data, processing and dissemination and regular system updating, will take place from the year 2001. Waste Minimisation • Planning for, and initial implementation of, a National Waste Minimisation Programme will take place from 1999 to 2000, following the development of DEAT waste minimisation policies throughout 1999. • DEAT will implement waste minimisation strategies in its own operations during 1999, for example, the inclusion of waste minimisation/cleaner production clauses within government procurement requirements. • DEAT will implement demonstration projects and encourage the use of co- regulatory waste management instruments like the use of government/industry agreements. • DEAT will initiate a process of identifying a list of priority wastes during 1999. Once a priority list has been agreed upon, affected sectors will be encouraged to enter into discussions with DEAT on specific waste minimisation strategies.
  • • Waste minimisation strategies will be integrated within an overall sustainable development framework. Recycling • Promotion of waste recycling will be incorporated in pollution and waste legislation, to be drafted during 1999. • A number of successful recycling initiatives have been initiated by the private sector. The DEAT will identify all current recycling initiatives and will consult with the responsible bodies in order to ascertain the most appropriate approach to conduct research and development projects. It is envisaged that this process will run from 1999 to 2003. Policy instruments like section 35 of the National Environmental Management Act will be used to support and enhance current recycling initiatives. Although the process will be facilitated by the DEAT, the involvement of local government in the recycling initiatives is essential and provides environmental focus. An Action Plan for supporting and extending recycling initiatives will be developed and implemented by 2006. • DEAT will enter into discussions with the mining and power generation industry to develop action plans to investigate, promote and extend recycling of wastes generated by these industries. Waste Collection and Transportation • Waste collection services are to be established throughout South Africa starting in 1999 and being fully realised by the end of 2006. Priority has been given to establishing general waste collection services in unserviced and poorly serviced residential areas according to a phased implementation with the target of securing basic waste collection services for approximately 300 000 households in high density unserviced areas by the end of 2002. • A safe collection and transportation system for hazardous waste will be developed. This system will include the registration and certification of transporters (by 2000), implementation of the waste manifest system (by 2001) and the development of a network of collection points (by the end of 2002). • The DEAT will develop guidelines for the safe management of medical waste by 2001 which will include guidelines for the sorting of the waste at source into infectious waste that requires incineration (according to the Human Tissues Act) and non-hazardous medical waste that can be disposed of by alternative methods. • A carefully developed implementation plan for both general and hazardous waste collection and transportation will be implemented in the medium to long-term. • The DEAT, in the medium to long-term, will prepare guidelines for the collection and transportation of general waste, taking into account the regionalisation of waste disposal sites. • The DEAT will prepare guidelines for provincial government for the collection and transportation of hazardous waste that will ensure integration of all regulations relating to the transportation of hazardous materials.
  • Waste Treatment • The DEAT will review and revise existing air emission standards on thermal treatment facilities to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. The initial objective is that by 2002 all thermal treatment facilities will have been upgraded to comply with the revised standards, or will have been decommissioned. • The planning for a system of well-functioning medical waste treatment plants will be completed by the year 2002 and additional treatment plants established thereafter. Medical waste treatment systems in rural areas will be in place during the period 2006 to 2010. • The DEAT will initiate national surveys to identify the amount and categories of hazardous waste requiring treatment throughout the country. • The DEAT will facilitate an investigation as to the desirability and feasibility of a national hazardous waste treatment facility. This investigation will involve all relevant stakeholders. Waste Disposal • All landfill sites will be registered, permitted and operated in agreement with the DWAF Minimum Requirements (Second Edition, 1998) by 2005. A system of regional landfills will be promoted. Salvaging on landfills will be formalised and controlled by 2003 and will be phased out completely in the longer-term. • The DEAT, in collaboration with all the relevant government departments, will initiate a process to identify suitable areas for the establishment of hazardous waste treatment and disposal sites. Sites will be established with the full involvement of local and provincial government and the private sector and private enterprise will be involved in for the operation and management of these sites. Co-disposal will be gradually phased out as new waste treatment and disposal technologies are developed and implemented. • During the short-term period, disposal of mining and power station waste will comply with a permitting process that is integrated with the Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) process. A development programme for integrated management of mining and power station waste will start in 2002. At the same time, new closure requirements will be promulgated, and abandoned mine waste sites will be placed on an inventory and assessed, in accordance with the DWAF programme for remediation. This programme will establish an integrated waste management plan for remediation of abandoned mine sites that will be implemented by 2004. • The DWAF Minimum Requirements will be reviewed every five years, or more often if considered necessary. 4.2.2 Implementing Instruments
  • Institutional Development • The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) assigns responsibility for refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal to local government. Provincial government has the exclusive responsibility to ensure that local government carries out these functions effectively. • Integrated waste management functions will be concentrated in national departments of environmental affairs and provincial and local government by 2006. • The DEAT, together with other relevant government departments, will investigate mechanisms to ensure that financial provision is made for the initiation and implementation of a regulatory system regarding waste disposal sites. This system will ensure that the permit holder has made financial provision for the closure, long-term monitoring and rehabilitation of waste disposal sites. Capacity Building • Capacity building for implementing and administering integrated waste management strategies in the public sector will be planned during 1999 and implemented throughout the strategy period. Capacity building activities around waste management must form part of a capacity building plan and be co-ordinated with other environmental capacity building initiatives of other departments. Legislative requirements • South African environmental law will be reviewed and assessed in the light of the NWMS Strategy, as well as against the requirements of the Constitution (1996); the National Environmental Management Act (1998); the Environmental Management Policy for South Africa ((1998); and the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998), in a Law Reform Process, which will be initiated and managed by the DEAT. • Legislative support, which is required before the completion of the Law Reform Process, will be based on the enforcement of existing legislation. The DEAT will ensure that the legislative requirements for the implementation of the short-term initiatives are dealt with as a priority in terms of the Legal Reform Process. • Existing legislation should be used and if necessary, appropriately amended, rather than new laws being created. Funding • Two distinct funding mechanisms will be used, viz.: o Financial pricing mechanisms - based on a cost recovery approach. o Economic approaches - which introduce economic instruments into the pricing structure of integrated waste management in order to achieve specific waste management objectives.
  • Implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle is an integral component of both approaches. • Funding set out in this Strategy will come from a variety of sources depending on the allocation of responsibility for waste management. In the case of national and provincial government, departmental budgets will be used and supplemented where appropriate by donor funding for specific initiatives. In the case of local government, funding will come from the introduction of appropriate cost recovery mechanisms for services delivered. The potential for utilising the Municipal Infrastructure Investment Fund to assist with the establishment of facilities will be investigated. • The DEAT will develop a national pricing strategy to assist local government with the introduction of appropriate user charges that will be legislated as part of the Law Reform Process, to be completed by 2000. The development of this Strategy will be undertaken in consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, and the Department of Finance. • The DEAT will investigate the use of economic instruments to promote the expansion and adoption of waste minimisation and recycling initiatives. • The Polluter Pays Principle, which is a principle of the National Environmental Management Policy (1998), will in the immediate future be implemented for the most part through regulations. Possibilities to supplement this income with dedicated economic incentives will be investigated by DEAT in conjunction with stakeholders. Public Participation and Partnerships, Education and Awareness • A range of public participation facilitation mechanisms will be considered. • The implementation of the NWMS necessitates ongoing environmental education, public awareness and public participation programmes. • Public awareness programmes will be developed in the short-term and implemented in such a way as to meet the requirements of the individual waste management initiatives. The requirement of public awareness will necessitate activities at national level to create general public awareness, as well as require supporting activities at local/community or industrial sector levels, e.g. in the case of introducing new waste collection schemes or sector-based waste minimisation projects. Programmes on waste management will be integrated into and co- ordinated with other environmental projects, programmes and campaigns. 4.2.3 Time Schedules and Responsibilities The priority initiatives are summarised in Table 4.1. This table gives a description of priority initiatives, and time frames and indicates the levels of government that will take the responsibility for specific initiatives. Detailed background is given in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13.
  • Table 4.1: Priority Initiatives Table 4.1 Priority Initiatives (cont.)
  • Table 4. 1 Priority Initiatives (cont.)
  • 4.3 Prioritisation of Priority Initiatives To fully address the identified priority initiatives in an integrated manner will require the implementation of about 50 major priority initiatives (Table 4.1) (and many more sub-initiatives) with their associated resource requirements (financial and human), required institutional changes, new legislation and capacity building requirements. In order to develop a strategy that can be effectively implemented, the priority initiatives have been categorised into short- term (by the year 2002), medium- term (by the year 2006) and long-term (by the year 2010) priorities. The criteria used for this categorisation process are those stipulated in Section 4.1 but with a specific emphasis on what could be achieved practically in the short, medium and long-term. The priority initiatives identified as short-term were analysed to assess their broad requirements (institutional, legislation, capacity building and financial requirements) and implications for their implementation. Once further input is received from stakeholders on these proposed short-term priority initiatives, re-
  • prioritisation may be necessary to ensure that these initiatives can be realised by the year 2002. The finalised short-term initiatives will be developed into Action Plans for their implementation. The broad requirements and implications for the priority initiatives were identified in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13. Detailed requirements and implications and associated activities will be investigated and developed following the development of action plans for the short-term initiatives. 4.4 Short-Term Priority Initiatives The following seven short-term priority initiatives have been identified for urgent consideration and implementation using the selection criteria described in Section 4. The degree of compliance (both in the short and also in the longer-term) with the selection criteria is tabulated qualitatively for each identified short-term initiative. The implications and requirements of instruments for implementing these priority initiatives are also summarised and include a cross-reference to the detailed discussion of the requirements in Part 2, Chapters 7 to 13. Medium and long-term priority initiatives are briefly addressed in Section 4.5. Cost estimates will be refined as these initiatives move into the phase of Action Plan development and implementation. 4.4.1 Integrated Waste Management Planning The DEAT will draft and promulgate regulations and guideline documents for integrated waste planning, and will develop and implement capacity building plans and public awareness campaigns. Provincial government will develop and submit first generation hazardous waste management plans and prepare final plans for submission. Local government will develop and submit first generation plans for integrated general waste management and prepare final integrated general waste management plans for submission. Waste management plans for business and industry with on-site waste treatment facilities will be prepared by
  • developers/owners and be submitted to provinces according to a mutually agreed time schedule. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment  Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities  Potential for job creation Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management    Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangements (Section 7.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to issue regulations and guidelines to ensure
  • implementation of an integrated waste planning system Provincial Government to compile first generation waste management plans for hazardous waste and prepare for submission of final plans Local Government, with assistance from provincial government, to compile first generation waste management plans for general waste and prepare for submission of final plans Legislation (Section 7.3.3 Part 2) Regulations to be promulgated by the year 2000 Integrated with LDO and IDPs by the year 2000 according to the Development Facilitation Act Financial (Section 7.3.4, Part 2) Funding to be secured partly from the fiscus, partly from payment for services Estimated cost: DEAT 1999/2000 2.3 million Rand Regulations etc. 2000/2002 6 million Rand Awareness campaign Provincial Government 2001/2002 8 million Rand/year First generation HW plans 1999/2002 10 million Rand/year Capacity Building Local Government 1999/2002 16 million Rand Capacity building 2001/2002 8 million Rand/year First generation GW plans
  • Staff and capacity building (Section 7.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirement: 2 staff in DEAT 40 staff in Provincial Government (3 to 6 per province) 800 staff in Local Government (part time) which may reduce to approximately 350 if re-structuring of the local authorities takes place The above mentioned staff will be capacitated according to Capacity Building Plan (Part 2, Section 14.4.2). Costs for capacity building are included in the above costs Public participation and partnerships (Section 7.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered General waste plans compiled by local government in consultation with provincial government and district councils Inter-municipal/regional partnerships to be developed Public awareness and waste management education (Section 7.3.5 Part 2) Promote understanding of integrated waste management, including solid waste management and the importance of integrated waste management planning 4.4.2 Waste Information System The DEAT will develop a National Waste Information System and adopt a phased approach for its implementation. The implementation will focus on and address the short term waste information needs i.e. data required for integrated waste planning
  • and waste disposal. Integral to the WIS will be the development of key performance indicators and an annual reporting system. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources Sustainable Integrated Waste Management    Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangements (Section 8.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to promulgate legislation required for implementation of the WIS, and develop and co-
  • ordinate implementation of the Waste Information System Provincial government to be responsible for data processing and quality assurance Local government, with assistance from Provincial Government, to be responsible for data collection Legislation (Section 8.3.3 Part 2) New legislation and regulations on the WIS to be promulgated by the end of 1999 Regulations on waste classification to be drafted in terms of Section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act, or within new IP&WM/WIS legislation based on inter alia the DWAF Minimum Requirements Financial (Section 8.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured partly from the fiscus and partly from the private sector Estimated cost: DEAT 1999 5 million Rand WIS development 1999/2000 5 million Rand Capacity Building 1999 6 million Rand Hardware Ongoing 0.5 million Rand/year Operating costs Provincial Government 2000 or 2001 1.5 million Rand/year Operating costs Local Government 2000 or 2001 9-10 million Rand/year Operating
  • costs Staff and capacity building (Section 8.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements: 2 to 4 staff in DEAT 50 staff in Provincial Government (part time) 800 staff in Local Government (part time) which may reduce to approximately 350 if re- structuring of the local authorities takes place Expertise to be developed as part of the DEAT Capacity Building Programme Information suppliers to be capacitated regarding operation of the WIS Public participation and partnerships (Section 8.3.5 Part. 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered The establishment of regional computer centres for use by those local authorities that do not have access to computer facilities will be investigated Public awareness and waste management education (Section 8.3.5 Part 2) Regular distribution of information through all forms of media to promote public awareness of the WIS 4.4.3 Waste Minimisation Following a review and assessment of current waste minimisation initiatives, the DEAT, together with the private sector, may develop and implement a National Waste Minimisation Programme. This Programme will be integrated with relevant environmental initiatives of other national, provincial and local government departments, and
  • will include the development of guidelines, and the introduction of legislative incentives for waste minimisation. The Programme will also include the implementation of one or more demonstration projects. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste    Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment   Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results Optimum utilisation of available resources  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management   Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements
  • Institutional arrangement (Section 9.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to be the lead agent for managing waste minimisation initiatives (The possibility of establishing a National Centre for Waste Minimisation/Cleaner Production to be investigated) Provincial and local government to implement initiatives and to promote co-operative approaches, such as waste minimisation clubs Private sector to assist in development of guidelines and environmental agreements, and to monitor the effective implementation of waste minimisation initiatives Legislation (Section 9.3.3 Part 2) New legislation and amendments to existing legislation will be required Regulations will be issued in terms of sections 21 and 24 of ECA, and section 35 of NEMA, or as part of the new IP&WM legislation as appropriate Chapters 3, 5 and 8 in NEMA are relevant Financial (Section 9.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured from the fiscus, donors, development funding and the private sector Estimated expenditure for National Waste Minimisation Programme National Budget 1999/2001 2 million Rand Guidelines, campaign, awards, databases 1999/2001 3 million Rand Prioritisation of streams, initial implementation of Programme
  • 1999/2001 2 million Rand Demonstration project 1999/2001 0.8 million Rand Legislation, policy 1999/2002 0.5 to 1 million Rand/year Administration 1999/2001 5 million Rand Capacity building Private Sector 1999/2001 3 million Rand Development of sectoral waste minimisation guidelines/participation in demo projects/development of agreements and waste min clubs/contribution to NW Min Centre Donor Funds 1999/2001 16 million Rand Sectoral guides, demo projects, Waste Min Centre / info campaigns Staff and capacity building (Section 9.3.2 Part 2) DEAT 1999/2002 5 staff required 2001-2012 2-3 staff required 2-3 additional staff in total required for all the provinces Public participation and partnerships (Section 9.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered Public/private implementation of demonstration projects, environmental agreements and waste minimisation clubs All sectors represented on NEAF, and contribute to policy initiatives through structured participation processes. Public awareness and waste management education (Section 9.3.5 Part 2) The establishment of Waste Minimisation Centre/s to be investigated Consumers to be informed about the benefits of waste minimisation
  • 4.4.4 Recycling The DEAT will identify and co-ordinate ongoing recycling initiatives in South Africa. In consultation with stakeholders, the DEAT will investigate the most appropriate way for promoting and implementing waste recycling. Private sector proposals will be solicited. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste   Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment   Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities Potential for job creation   Potential for rapid and visible results  Implementing instruments already in place  Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  
  • Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 10.3.1 Part 2) DEAT will be the lead agent for investigating recycling initiatives Legislation (Section 10.3.3 Part 2) New legislation will only be required once appropriate mechanisms for implementation have been identified Financial (Section 10.3.4 Part 2) Funding to be secured form the fiscus DEAT 1999/2002 0.2 million Rand/year Operating costs Costs will only be incurred for implementing medium to long-term strategies Staff and capacity building (Section 10.3.2 Part 2) Two staff at national level will be used Designated person at provincial level Existing staff in public and private organisations will participate on an ad-hoc basis Public participation and partnerships (Section 10.3.5 Part 2) A range of facilitation mechanisms will be considered Future public/private partnerships to be investigated Recycling initiatives will only be sustained by the active participation of communities Public awareness and waste management education The concept of separation at source will have to be
  • (Section 10.3.5 Part 2) promoted through an effective public awareness campaign 4.4.5 Waste Collection and Transportation The DEAT, in collaboration with provincial government, will develop guidelines and standards for collection of general waste. Provincial government will draft provincial regulations in consultation with local government for general waste collection services. Local government will initiate the phased implementation of waste collection services for high-density, unserviced areas. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste  Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation    Potential for rapid and visible results    Implementing instruments already in place   
  • Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 11.3.1 Part 2) The DEAT will develop guidelines and standards for collection services for general waste Provincial government will draft provincial regulations in consultation with local government Local Government to implement collection services for general waste Legislation (Section 11.3.3 Part 2) Regulations in terms of Section 24 of the ECA will be enforced Legislation will be promulgated to establish new guidelines for basic waste collection services Financial (Section 11.3.4 Part 2) Funding will be acquired partly from the fiscus and partly from the payment for services. Estimated cost for waste collection from 300 000 service points: DEAT /Provincial Government 0.2 million Rand/year Personnel costs 1 million Rand/ year for 3 yrs Awareness campaign Local Government
  • 4 million Rand/year Personnel costs 28.8 million Rand/year Collection costs (R8/m/point) Staff and capacity building (Section 11.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements: 2 staff at DEAT 30 to 60 staff at local government level (cost calculated using 50) Capacity building concentrating on implementing collection services for general waste to be focused at local government and communities Public participation and partnerships (Section 11.3.5 Part 2) Appropriate public/private partnerships to be encouraged Explore public-private partnerships in the development of facilities to serve both sectors Community-based small contractor systems to be investigated Public awareness and waste management education (Section 11.3.5 Part 2) Initiate public awareness campaign to promote payment for services Link waste collection awareness campaign to the Masakhane campaign Create an awareness of the negative impact on health and the environment caused by the non-collection of waste 4.4.6 Waste Treatment
  • Standards for medical waste incinerator air emission, as well as classification of all waste treatment facilities, will be reviewed, revised and enforced. A public awareness and waste management education campaign will be introduced to focus on the hazards of medical waste and the legal responsibilities of medical waste generators. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation  Potential for rapid and visible results    Implementing instruments already in place   Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Implications and Requirements
  • Instruments Institutional arrangement (Section 12.3.1 Part 2) The DEAT to review and revise air emission standards and incinerator classification system Provincial government to enforce new standards for medical waste incinerators and other hazardous waste facilities Legislation (Section 12.3.3 Part 2) Update relevant regulations (and associated guidelines) issued in terms of section 44 of Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (Act 45 of 1965) Financial (Section 12.3.4 Part 2) Staff to be funded from the fiscus Estimated cost for staff requirements 0.15 million Rand per annum DEAT 1.35 million Rand per annum Provincial government Staff and capacity building (Section 12.3.2 Part 2) Estimated total staff requirements 1 staff at DEAT 1 staff for each province (part time) Promote sorting of medical waste at source Public participation and partnerships (Section 12.3.5 Part 2) Co-ordinated planning between provinces for regionally based facilities Explore public-private partnerships in the development of facilities to serve both sectors Public participation essential with regard to the siting of new facilities
  • Public awareness and waste management education (Section 12.3.5 Part 2) Increase the awareness of all sectors of society with regard to necessity for incineration of medical waste 4.4.7 Waste Disposal A process will be initiated to register all landfill sites. Plans will be submitted for remediation and/or meeting the DWAF Minimum Requirements. In addition, permit conditions will be enforced for those sites currently permitted through regular monitoring and auditing. A new permitting process that is integrated with the EMPR process will be initiated for mining and power stations. New hazardous waste disposal sites will be established. Criteria Relevanc e Prevention and minimisation of waste Direct and visible reduction in the impact of waste on public health and the environment    Improve the quality of life of all South Africans with the emphasis on the previously disadvantaged communities    Potential for job creation   Potential for rapid and visible results 
  • Implementing instruments already in place    Sustainable Integrated Waste Management  Implementing Instruments Implications and Requirements Institutional arrangement (Section 13.3.1 Part 2) DEAT to undertake registration of waste disposal sites Permitting and enforcement of permit conditions devolved to the provincial government Regional/local government to undertake regional planning and landfill site management Legislation (Section 13.3.3 Part 2) Regulations issued in terms of section 24 of ECA, or as part of the new IP&WM legislation Minimum Requirements required as part of permit conditions Financial (Section 13.3.4 Part 2) Landfill owner to be responsible for submitting of plans Additional staff to be funded from the fiscus and partly through payment for services Estimated cost for staff requirements 1.5 million Rand per annum DEAT 8 million Rand per annum Provincial government 2 million Rand per annum Regional/local government Staff and capacity building Estimated total staff requirements:
  • (Section 13.3.2 Part 2) 10 staff at DEAT 6 staff at each province (54 total) 1-2 staff at each regional/local government Waste site operators to fully understand the DWAF Minimum Requirements Regulatory authority staff to hold tertiary qualification Public participation and partnerships (Section 13.3.5 Part 2) Local governments to form partnerships to investigate the establishment of regional landfills Task team to be established to develop permit guidelines for mining and power station waste landfills Review public participation requirements for the DWAF Minimum Requirements Public awareness and waste management education (Section 13.3.5 Part 2) Awareness to be promoted about landfill site management and the need for compliance to the DWAF Minimum Requirements 4.4.8 Implementing Instruments The DEAT, together with other relevant government departments, will develop the necessary implementing instruments to facilitate the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy, both in the short-term and in the medium to long term. A prerequisite for the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy is the availability and proper functioning of the following instruments: • Institutional framework • Legislation Funding and funding mechanisms • Capacity building • Public participation and partnerships • Waste management education and public awareness programmes.
  • The conversion of the IP&WM policy into law is an ongoing process. Amongst other things, the legislation will support the development of an institutional framework as well as the funding mechanisms for implementation of the NWMS. The implementation of the NWMS is dependent upon promulgation of the required legislation according to the proposed time schedule. Some of the short term priority initiatives can be implemented using the existing legislation, whilst others e.g. integrating waste management planning, implementation of the Waste Information System, and regulations supporting waste minimisation and recycling initiatives, have weak or no legal support at present. Ongoing negotiations are being conducted regarding the development of a sustainable institutional framework. The timing and outcomes of these negotiations will have substantial effect on the implementation of the Strategy as initiatives have been allocated to specific institutions. Once political decisions have been made, any deviations from the proposed institutional structure will be amended in the draft NWMS. Furthermore, budget allocations to support the Strategy can then be secured and departmental planning for staff allocation/reallocation and capacity building programmes can be initiated. The estimated timeframe for implementation of many of the initiatives is short. Should the timeframes be unrealistic, a political decision will be taken on setting new time frames and parameters for the Strategy implementation process. Full implementation of the Strategy as proposed in this Strategy will require political and governmental flexibility and commitment. The DEAT, as part of its day to day functions and in line with the departmental business plan, will in co-operation with other relevant departments, develop action plans and schedules, allocate staff and funds for the development and implementation of the seven short-term priority initiatives through a comprehensive capacity building programme. Furthermore, the DEAT will also plan for the implementation of medium to long-term initiatives. 4.4.9 Cost Estimates for Implementation of Short Term Priority Initiatives
  • Integrated Waste Management Planning To implement an integrated waste management planning system in South Africa will require new regulations and guidelines as well as implementation of a comprehensive waste management/environmental education and capacity building programme. The drafting of regulations and guidelines is scheduled to take place in 1999 and 2000. Two staff members of the DEAT, with a workload of three years, will be responsible for drafting these regulations and guidelines. The estimated cost of drafting regulations is 1 million Rand and 0.8 million Rand for drafting guidelines. The total estimated cost for undertaking these activities for the period 1999 and 2000 is 1.8 million Rand. A comprehensive waste management/environmental education and capacity building programme will be initiated. Capacity building programmes in the period 1999 to 2001 are estimated to cost 16 million Rand at local government level, and 10 million Rand at provincial government level. The capacity development programme will be co-ordinated with the DEAT Capacity Building Programme and with ongoing capacity building initiatives in provincial and local government. The compilation of first generation hazardous waste management plans at provincial government level is estimated to cost 8 million Rand per year in 2001 and 2002. Three to six staff members per province will be employed to carry out the planning activities (calculated as 40 staff nationally). The compilation of first generation management plans for general waste will be carried out by local government in 2001 and 2002 and is estimated to cost 8 million Rand per year or an average of R10 000 per local authority. One person per local government will be occupied for 20 percent of their time, which is equivalent to 160 person years. During the implementation of the integrated waste management planning process, public awareness campaigns will be initiated at an estimated cost of 6 million Rand for the period 2000 to 2002. Waste Information System
  • The cost for the development of the waste information system in 1999 is estimated to be 5 million Rand, which includes the cost for tendering. Computer hardware costs are estimated to be 6 million Rand in the years 1999. The capacity building costs for 1999 and 2000 is estimated at 5 million Rand. By the year 2000 the WIS will be ready for implementation. Four full-time staff at DEAT will be responsible for its implementation and supervision. Personnel costs are estimated to be 0.5 million Rand per year. From the year 2000 the staff in the provinces will be required to process and undertake the quality assurance of the waste data collected by local government. The estimated cost for personnel is 1.5 million Rand per year in 2000 and 2001, assuming that 50 staff members in the provinces are occupied for 50 percent of their time. The level of data collected in the first phase of implementation of the WIS will be limited to that from the main waste producers and those generators who are identified as producing wastes of concern, as well as the major waste transporters and disposers. This will limit the number of waste producers, transporters and disposers to be approached by the local government staff. The first waste data that is collected will be used for planning purposes as well as for the enforcement of waste disposal regulations. The cost to local government is estimated to be between 9 and 10 million Rand, assuming that one staff member at each local government is occupied 25 percent of their time for data collection activity. Only one cycle of data collection will take place in the short term (up to the year 2002). Waste Minimisation The initial implementation of a National Waste Minimisation Programme requires five full time staff at the DEAT who will be responsible for the development of guidelines, introducing waste campaigns, the prioritisation of waste streams, the supervision of demonstration projects and ensuring that relevant waste management regulations are promulgated. A total of two to three staff members at provincial level in total, together with DEAT staff, will be responsible for the
  • implementation of the initiatives. The cost of administration is estimated to be 0.5 to 1 million Rand per year and implementation costs between the years 1999 to 2002 are 7.8 million Rand. Participation by the private sector in demonstration projects and assisting in the development of sectoral guidelines is estimated to cost 1 million Rand per year. To facilitate implementation of waste minimisation initiatives, such as demonstration projects, donor funding of 4 million Rand per year would be required in the short-term. WIS staff capacity building between 1999 to 2001 is estimated to cost 5 million Rand. Recycling The DEAT, in consultation with stakeholders, will investigate the most appropriate way of promoting and implementing recycling initiatives. It is anticipated that 2 staff members will be required for implementing the short-term recycling initiatives. The staff members will be responsible for facilitating investigations and feasibility studies, as well as be responsible for the development of legal and financial mechanisms to promote recycling. Waste Collection and Transportation The DEAT will improve the collection of general waste in South Africa by upgrading waste collection services in high-density, unserviced areas. Implementation and upgrading of general collection services in these areas will be phased in. Initially collection services for 300 000 households will be implemented before the end of 2002. The estimated cost for local government to administer the new collection services will be 4 million Rand per year (assuming an average total of 50 staff members per year). The basic collection service cost is assumed to be R8/month per service point, which is therefore equivalent to 28.8 million Rand per year for 300 000 households. The inadequate payment and collection of service fees for the funding of operating costs of waste collection must be urgently addressed. Payment for waste collection should inter alia be promoted through the
  • Masakhane and other public awareness campaigns. Provision will however be made for situations of genuine financial hardship. Two staff members at the DEAT, in collaboration with provincial government staff, will draft guidelines for general waste collection services, the hazardous waste manifest system as well as hazardous waste collection/transfer facilities. This process will cost 0.8 million Rand per year over the period 1999 to 2002. The cost for implementing a waste manifest system and sorting of medical waste will be borne by the waste generator and will be enforced by the provincial government. The cost of implementing a public awareness campaign for waste collection and transportation is estimated to be 1 million Rand per year for the years 2000 to 2002. Waste Treatment The waste treatment classification system and the air emission standards for medical waste in the short-term will be revised and regulations will be enforced. One staff member will be appointed at the DEAT and one in each province. The estimated cost for the personnel is 0.15 million Rand per year at the DEAT and 1.35 million Rand per year for provincial government. Waste Disposal Waste disposal regulations, and landfill site registration and permitting, will be enforced by appropriately capacitated staff in national, provincial and local government. Ten staff members at national level corresponding to a cost of 1.5 million Rand per year, six staff members (working for 50 percent of their time) in each province corresponding to 8 million Rand per year and approximately 80 staff members (working for 25 percent of their time) in local government corresponding to 2 million Rand per year. Tables 4.2 and 4.3 summarise the capacity and financial requirements respectively, which are required for implementing the short-term priority initiatives in the period 1999 to 2002. The tables represent a consolidation of the initial estimates of cost implications and the capacity requirements. These cost estimates will be further refined during development of the Action Plans.
  • Table 4.2: Summarised Capacity Requirements for 1999 to 2002 Table 4.3: Summarised Cost Estimate for Short-term Initiatives 4.5 Medium to Long-Term Priority Initiatives
  • The broad requirements and implications for the medium-term priority initiatives (up to 2006) and long-term priority initiatives (up to 2010) (see Table 4.1) have been identified in Chapters 7 to 13 in Part 2 and are summarised in Section 9.2 of Part 1. Detailed requirements and the associated Action Plans will be investigated and developed subsequent to the development of Action Plans for the short-term initiatives. Based on these more detailed requirements, the DEAT will develop a business plan to secure the required human and financial resources, as well as develop an overall strategic plan to secure government and civil society commitment to the implementation of these initiatives. Medium-term priority initiatives (up to 2006) and long-term priority initiatives (up to 2010) will be implemented as and when the resources have been acquired. Government, in partnership with civil society, will on a regular basis review the progress with the implementation of the short-term priority initiatives. Implementation and scheduling of the medium and long-term initiatives will be reviewed at the same time. Some of the short-term priority initiatives (Section 9.4) which start in mid 1999 also have a medium to long-term dimension and will be executed in parallel with the medium to long-term initiatives. 5. THE WAY FORWARD A strategy implementation process will be initiated which will address the urgent administrative and other related issues set out below: • Action Plans, which may include proposals for conducting pilot projects, will be developed as part of the implementation of the NWMS. Action Plans for short- term priority initiatives will be compiled by September 1999 and Action Plans for the medium to long-term priority initiatives thereafter. • Capacity will be developed within the DEAT, and other national departments, provincial departments and local government departments dealing with the environment, to undertake the functions associated with the integrated waste management, and encourage relevant capacity building in civil society. Integrated waste management issues will be co-ordinated through the National Environmental Advisory Forum (NEAF) in terms of the National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998). Ongoing structured consultations and negotiations with provincial environmental and other national government departments will be conducted to resolve the future division of waste management
  • roles, functions and responsibilities. The process and functions of integrated waste management will be introduced to all spheres of government, with particular attention being given to functions related to: o Co-ordination of authorisations o General and hazardous waste management o A uniform approach to international conventions o A uniform approach to standard setting, and o A uniform approach to compliance monitoring. • The objectives of Agenda 21 with regard to integrated waste management issues will be promoted and effected. • A programme of pilot projects for the practical implementation of integrated waste management will be launched. • Funding mechanisms for the sustained implementation of the NWMS will be investigated and developed. • Periodic review of this first generation National Waste Management Strategy will be conducted at appropriate time intervals. National Waste Management Strategy for South Africa PART 2 6. Introduction Based on the Key Issues identified in the Situation Baseline Phase of the Project, detailed investigations were undertaken to develop waste management priority initiatives, according to the selection criteria detailed in Chapter 1 Part 1 of the NWMS (Version ‘c’). The approach taken was to investigate seven elements of integrated waste management with a view to developing priority initiatives to meet the objectives of the NWMS, as well as to investigate their associated
  • requirements and implications for implementation. A period of about twelve-years has been allocated for the full implementation of the NWMS (1999 to 2010). A phased approach is proposed for the implementation of integrated waste management. In Part 1 of the NWMS, (Version ‘c’), the initiatives have been categorised as short, medium and long-term priority initiatives in order to develop a waste management strategy that can be effectively and efficiently implemented. Part 2 of the Strategy describes all the priority initiatives and indicates specifically which priority initiatives have been selected for implementation in the short-term (1999 – 2002). For each priority initiative identified the implications in terms of human and financial resources and the institutional arrangement are presented. This information will be used by the DEAT for long-term business planning. Should additional resources be made available over and above those required for the implementation of the eight short-term priority initiatives, action plans can be developed for implementation of the remaining medium to long-term initiatives identified in Chapters 7 to 14. It should be noted that all cost estimates in this Strategy are gross (total) costs. This approach was taken in order to fully cost the strategy and because the budget and resources already in place for these detailed aspects are not known in full detail. Any proposals regarding tax and pricing strategies put forward in this Strategy will be further developed in conjunction with the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department of Finance. This will ensure co-ordination and integration with these departments, the policies, strategies, activities and legislation. In addition, other government departments, e.g. the Department of Minerals and Energy and the Department of Health, will be consulted when appropriate. The input of all interested and affected parties, including key stakeholders such as generators of waste, will also be solicited.
  • The next eight Chapters set out in detail the strategies developed for the various elements of the waste hierarchy, as well as implementing instruments. The waste hierarchy elements and aspects covered are: • Integrated waste management planning. • Waste Information System. • Waste Minimisation. • Recycling. • Waste collection and transportation. • Waste treatment. • Waste disposal. • Implementing instruments. This detailed description of the above eight elements form the basis for the abbreviated priority initiatives presented in Part 1 of the Strategy. 7. Integrated Waste Management Planning (Go to the Action plan) The primary objective of introducing an integrated waste management planning system is to integrate and optimise waste management so that the efficiency of the waste management system is maximised and the impacts and financial costs associated with waste management are minimised, thereby improving the quality of life of all South Africans. The integration will be both horizontal and vertical within the institutional arrangement. Furthermore, integration will also be addresses in all waste generating sectors and throughout the "waste life-cycle". A number of stages are addressed in the integrated waste management planning process, which takes into account the need to develop clear objectives, while maintaining the existing system and investigating possible alternatives and selecting the most appropriate waste management system. The stages that will be followed in implementing the waste management planning process include: identifying baseline needs; review of existing legislation; establishing objectives and system components; and developing and implementing a waste management plan. 7.1 Priority Initiatives
  • The waste hierarchy, as well as the principles of regionalisation, setting long-term targets, minimising environmental impact and maximising social benefit at minimal cost will guide integrated waste management planning. The implementation of the waste management plans will be executed according to the initiatives described in Part 2, Chapters 9 to 13. This implementation will take into account the National Environmental Management Act (1998), the Development Facilitation Act (1995) and other relevant planning legislation such as the Physical Planning Act (1991), the Local Government Transition Act (1993), the National Water Act (1998) and the Organised Local Government Act (1997). Integrated waste management plans will form an integral part of the National Environmental Strategies and Action Plans (NESAP). The following priority initiatives within the area of Integrated Waste Management Planning have been identified: • The drafting and promulgation of regulations and guidelines for compiling general and hazardous waste management plans by the DEAT. • The compilation and submission of first generation and final hazardous waste management plans by provincial government • The compilation and submission of first generation and final general waste management plans by local government. • Plans for mining waste and power station waste to be developed and submitted to provincial government by the developer or owner. Integrated waste management planning will be implemented at the three levels of government, as follows: • Detailed planning for general waste and hazardous domestic waste will be done at the local government level and integrated with the detailed local government environmental planning process. • Framework planning and planning for: hazardous industrial waste, agriculture and forestry waste (pesticides), medical waste, mining waste, power station waste, radioactive medical waste and radioactive mining waste will be done at the provincial government level. • Guidelines for planning will be provided by the DEAT. • Waste management plans, which have been submitted to the CEC for approval, will be reviewed regularly, approximately every four years, in order to provide input to, and be integrated with, the provincial environmental implementation plans and the detailed local government environmental plans.
  • 7.1.1 General Waste An effective and integrated waste management planning system for general waste will be developed, implemented and enforced. The waste management plans will include all aspects of waste management, i.e. waste minimisation, recycling, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal and will include for example the siting of new landfill sites and treatment facilities, waste disposal targets and the time frames for each waste related activity. In order to achieve integrated waste management planning for general waste, the following initiatives will be implemented: • Integrated waste management plans will be compiled based on requirements and priorities in the interest of the public. • These plans will be integrated with the Land Development Objectives and Integrated Development Plans. Local authorities, through a process of public participation and in consultation with the relevant district councils and provincial governments, will develop the waste management plans. Final waste management plans, together with strategies for ensuring compliance, will be submitted to the provincial government by the year 2003. 7.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste The policy for hazardous domestic waste management will concentrate on the education of the consumer to encourage waste minimisation and sorting of the waste at the domestic level rather than treatment of the waste. It is not cost- effective to treat mixed waste as hazardous, just in case it should contain some hazardous components. 7.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry National government will determine strategies and develop guidelines for the management of hazardous waste. These guidelines will enable provincial government, in consultation with metropolitan structures and local authorities, to plan for hazardous waste management.
  • The long-term goal is to phase out co-disposal of hazardous waste with general waste. However, before this can happen, alternative treatment technologies will be evaluated, in consultation with stakeholders. The following alternatives to co-disposal will be investigated: • Alternative treatment technologies, e.g. thermal and non-thermal technologies, which meet pre-determined regional requirements, as well as alternatives to establish a system for collection and appropriate treatment processes. The best practicable option will be identified. When investigating short-term and long-term costs, consideration will be given to such factors as: the costs of disposing of toxic by-products; the costs to government of actively monitoring and strictly enforcing standards and guidelines; remediation; whether money spent and/or generated remains within the affected community or whether it leaves the community; and potential positive or negative effects of the activities on the surrounding communities. In addition to considering environmental risks and financial costs, consideration will also be given to prospects for job creation. • Disposal sites designated for inorganic wastes. The compilation of national guidelines for hazardous waste will be completed by the end of 2000, and provincial plans will be completed by 2003. 7.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) The DEAT, in collaboration with other relevant government departments, will identify the requirements for pesticide handling and treatment facilities, including the registration of generators of these wastes. In addition, provision will be made for the identification of stockpiles of pesticide wastes. Provincial government will be responsible for planning the collection and transportation of these wastes and the location of treatment facilities. Guidelines for the management of pesticide waste will be compiled by the DEAT before the end of 2000 to enable provincial governments to plan regional strategies by 2003 for the collection, storage and transportation, treatment and disposal of pesticide wastes and the enforcement of the waste management process. 7.1.5 Medical Waste National government, in co-operation with the medical waste generators, will develop guidelines and strategies before the end of 2000 to assist provincial
  • government to plan for the management of medical waste. The guidelines will deal with the minimisation, sorting, recycling, re-use, treatment, and final disposal of medical waste. The guidelines will stipulate that medical waste be sorted into general waste and hazardous waste and that the hazardous waste be further separated into biological and chemical wastes, infectious waste and materials that have come into contact with infectious matter. The time frame for the implementation of the guidelines for medical waste is 2001. The provincial plans will be submitted by 2003 for urban areas and by 2007 for rural areas. 7.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste Planning for mining and power station waste management is specific to each sector and is the responsibility of the developer/owner. Provincial government will ensure that planning for disposal of mining and power station waste is undertaken in a responsible manner and according to the DEAT standards and guidelines. Guidelines for planning of waste facilities by developers or owners will be prepared by the DEAT before the end of 2000 to enable provincial government to compile plans for these wastes by 2003. These plans will be regularly revised, e.g. every four years. 7.1.7 Reconditioning of Drums used for Hazardous Materials National government, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, will investigate mechanisms to ensure that drums contaminated with hazardous material are not re-used to ensure the protection of public health. 7.2 Time Schedule Initiatives Initiation Date Completion Date National Drafting and promulgation of general waste planning regulations and a guideline document mid 1999 end of 2000
  • Drafting and promulgation of guidelines and regulations on hazardous industrial waste, agricultural waste, medical waste and sewage sludge end of 1999 end of 2000 Drafting guidelines on waste planning for mining waste, power station waste and radioactive waste 1999 end of 2000 Provincial Submission of mining and power station waste plans by developer or owner On going Submission of mining and power station waste plans to the CEC On going 2003 On-going every 4 years Compilation of first generation hazardous waste plans, including hazardous industrial waste, pesticide waste, medical waste and sewage sludge to the CEC 2000 2001 Submission of approved final hazardous waste plans, including for hazardous industrial waste, pesticide waste, medical waste and sewage sludge 2001 2003 Revisions of hazardous waste plans On going every 4 years Local Submission of first generation general waste plans to province 2001 2002 Submission of final general waste plans to province 2002 2003 Revised general waste plans including hazardous 2006 2007
  • household waste Revision of general waste plans Ongoing every 4 years 7.3 Requirements and Implications 7.3.1 Institutional The DEAT, in consultation with other affected government departments, will be responsible for drafting legislation and providing provincial and local government with guidelines for planning general, hazardous, mining and power station waste management. Provincial government will participate in the drafting process. Two staff members with tertiary qualifications will be required for 1.5 years (equivalent to three- person years). The intention is to use existing staff for this function. The numbers of staff indicated are an indication of the ideal total resource component to undertake this activity. Provincial Government will be responsible for - establishing a detailed inventory of all potentially polluting sites within their province; and, developing hazardous waste management plans to ensure that all industries have access to and use hazardous waste disposal facilities. The plans will make provision for regional recycling and treatment facilities and will facilitate their implementation at local level. Provincial government will assist, where necessary, with the drafting of general and hazardous waste management plans, which will be compiled by local government. Furthermore, it will participate on co-ordinating committees e.g. the CEC and Mintech Workgroup 3; it will review the general waste management plans; and it will assist the DEAT in the drafting of regulations and guidelines. Provincial government will be responsible for monitoring and enforcement functions relating to waste management and where appropriate will develop its own legislation and implementation strategies to meet its specific needs. Between three to six staff members with tertiary qualifications will be required, per province, amounting to a total of about 40 staff members.
  • For the twelve-year period of the NWMS (1999-2010) as planning will only take place periodically, an estimated 280 person years will be needed. Local Authorities will be responsible for the compilation of general waste management plans with assistance from provincial government. Local authorities will develop the necessary capacity within their existing staff complement. The staff requirement for local government during the period 1999 to 2010 is estimated to be an average of three person months per annum, or a total of 2 400 person years. At the local government level, a liaison committee forum could be a management tool to facilitate the duties and functions given to both province and local government. 7.3.2 Capacity Building Within national and provincial government, there is currently limited solid waste management capacity, both with regard to the number of personnel available as well as their expertise of the existing staff. Capacity development will be co- ordinated with the DEAT general capacity building programme and will also be co-ordinated with similar capacity building initiatives for implementation and enforcement of environmental plans. Staff participation in national and international courses, seminars and symposia on environmental issues and integrated waste management specifically will be encouraged and budgeted for. Programmes, such as the waste management training courses run by Danced for the Gauteng and Mpumalanga Provinces, will be extended to other provinces. The UNEP/Basel Training Centres, to be opened at Vista University in 1999, may also be used. The initial funding for the Basel Training Centre will be coming from Denmark. Personnel from all levels of government will be encouraged and given the opportunity to attend courses at Universities or Technikons on basic waste management skills. Provincial authorities will assist the local authorities with their capacity building programmes. The use of local knowledge is essential. The selective sourcing of international expertise can augment this knowledge. The DEAT will investigate establishing forums for the exchange of information and experiences with waste planning.
  • 7.3.3 Legal Issues To ensure that integrated waste planning takes place, regulations that enforce waste management planning will be drafted and promulgated. Guidelines to assist local and provincial government in compiling waste management plans will be developed. The legislation will take into account and promote inter- municipal/inter-regional partnerships. The development of co-ordinated waste management plans will be integrated with the environmental implementation plans that are required in terms of the National Environmental Management Act (1998), and other planning regulations. The means to enforce compliance will be provided by addressing the requirements of the waste management plans as part of the Law Reform Process. Furthermore, the issue of enforcement will be addressed during Action Plan development and implementation. 7.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives The following cost estimates have been made for the waste planning initiatives for the period 1999 to 2010: These costs are budget estimates that will be further developed and refined during the Action Plan phase of the project. Strategy Cost (Rand) Drafting planning regulations 1 million Drafting planning guideline documents 0.8 million Capacity building and waste management education programmes at provincial level 10 million Capacity building at local government level 16 million
  • Compile and implement hazardous waste planning at provincial level 8 million/year Compile and implement general waste management plans at local government level 8 million/year Awareness campaigns and public participation 11 million The cost of compilation of hazardous waste plans by provincial government has been estimated to be 8 million Rand per year. This estimate is based on the employment of 3 to 6 staff members per province to undertake this activity. The compilation of general waste management plans at local government assumes an estimated cost of 8 million Rand per year, which is equivalent to an average of R10 000 per local government. Further investigations will be carried out to determine the specific needs of each local authority so that funds can be allocated accordingly. 7.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership Public participation will take place during the development of legislation and guidelines, in compliance with NEMA. During the development of hazardous waste management plans and throughout planning for hazardous waste treatment facilities, the provinces will make provision for appropriate public participation. Multi-sectoral workshops, public hearings and presentations may be used to ensure the participation of a broad spectrum of the public. It is crucial that stakeholders are involved during the development of waste management plans, particularly at the level of the local government by those communities that will be directly affected, and appropriate public participation programs will be initiated for this purpose. Understanding of the principles of solid waste planning is a pre-requisite for effective participation. To achieve this aim, information and public awareness campaigns will be developed by the DEAT and implemented by the local authorities.
  • Partnerships in waste management planning will be encouraged and facilitated. The formation of public-private partnerships for the planning and development of hazardous waste management facilities may be investigated. Neighbouring local authorities will be encouraged to form public-public partnerships for the development of waste management plans and regional waste treatment facilities. Within the local government level, a liaison committee or forum can be an extra management tool to facilitate the public participation function given to both the provincial and the local government. 7.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives Holistic planning is essential and should include consideration of waste generation, minimisation, recycling, treatment and disposal. Planning relies on the availability of adequate and accurate data and is therefore dependent on the waste information system (WIS) (Chapter 8, Part 2). The information required for general waste plans includes the waste category, i.e. domestic, commercial or industrial, as well as the amount of waste generated, collected, transported, recycled, treated and disposed of. The WIS will also supply information on the amount of hazardous waste generated to assist in the planning and the siting of hazardous waste treatment facilities. However, availability of data is not a prerequisite for initiating the planning process. By 2001 data should be available for the compilation of plans for general waste and hazardous waste for metropolitan areas; and by 2002 data should be available for all other areas. A database on mine and power station waste sites and the inventory of old abandoned polluting waste sites, will be incorporated in the WIS. Co-ordinated planning is required for the waste minimisation demonstration projects. These demonstration projects could for example, cover waste from hospitals, dry cleaning businesses and electroplating factories, or include a project in a sector producing a high volume of waste and/or toxic waste. The waste minimisation objective of introducing mandatory targets for identified priority pollutants, will be co-ordinated with general waste and hazardous waste
  • planning and will be co-ordinated with the development of the DEAT’s hazardous chemical management system. 7.5 Short-term Strategic Initiative The integrated waste management planning initiative selected for short-term implementation is: The DEAT will draft and promulgate regulations and guideline documents for integrated waste planning, and will develop and implement capacity building plans and public awareness campaigns. Provincial government will develop and submit first generation hazardous waste management plans and prepare final plans for submission. Local government will develop and submit first generation plans for integrated general waste management and prepare final integrated general waste management plans for submission. Waste management plans for business and industry with on-site waste treatment facilities will be prepared by developers/owners and be submitted to provinces according to a mutually agreed time schedule. 8. WASTE INFORMATION SYSTEM (Go to the Action Plan) This section describes the Waste Information System (WIS), which is being developed in support of the NWMS. Entities supplying information to the WIS include waste generators, transporters and disposers. A phased approach is envisaged with complete implementation of the WIS by 2002. The initial output from the system will however be available by the end of 1999, using modelling to provide the information not yet available. It is not the intention to develop software from scratch but rather to specify the database and invite companies to bid for the contract or tender basis. There are a number of existing packages that can be tailored to fit the requirements of the
  • WIS such as SAP. A Geographical Information System (GIS) output from the system is not a short-term goal and will only be addressed when required. A process needs to be initiated to investigate the implementation of the waste information requirements of the Basel Convention, and which may include or be integrated into the development and initiation of certain of the NWMS Action Plans. It is not the intention in the short-term to develop a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) as part of the NWMS Waste Information System, but rather to lay the foundation for its future development. A PRTR will be established as a long-term goal of the NWMS. 8.1 Priority Initiatives The priority initiatives for the WIS are: • Development of a WIS based on the prototype NWMS WIS. • Preparation of guidelines for WIS user groups. • Ensuring data functions/information flow. • Implementation/operation of the WIS database. These initiatives are described below and summarised in Figure 8.2. 8.1.1 Preparation of the WIS At present a WIS prototype is being developed that will be tested by a representative sample of data suppliers. The prototype, together with the experiences obtained during testing, will form the basis for the development of tender documentation for the WIS database. Through the tender process, an agency or company will be identified to develop and install the WIS at all tiers of government and to ensure that available baseline information sets are entered into the database. Preparation of the WIS includes capacity building within government and the private sector to ensure that the operational requirements of the WIS are met. The WIS will also be introduced to the general public as part of the NWMS public awareness campaign. 8.1.2 WIS Guidelines Guidelines have been prepared for WIS user groups that describe the details and operation of both the WIS database and its reporting structures. The guidelines
  • have been developed to be easily read and understood. They contain sufficient technical detail for data suppliers to understand what system requirements they will need to comply with and to meet the WIS reporting requirements. The WIS guidelines and prototype will be refined and will be used in conjunction with the WIS database. The guidelines will be revised regularly to ensure that they are up to date and take cognisance of any changes that have to be made to the WIS. All entities supplying information to the WIS will be familiarised with the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998). 8.1.3 Data functions All generators, transporters and disposers of waste, i.e. information suppliers, will be required to register with the DEAT, provincial and local government, and report waste specific information on an annual basis. The level of detail on the waste-specific information will be reviewed and revised by the stakeholders, as required. Waste generators will submit information to the local authorities who will be responsible for ensuring that all information suppliers in their area of jurisdiction report to the WIS. The raw data collated by the local authorities will be forwarded to the provincial authorities, which have the responsibility for data processing and quality assurance, e.g. through spot checks and audits. Certificates will be issued to information suppliers once their information has been checked (Figure 8.1). The provincial authorities will forward quality assured data will be forwarded to the DEAT. The DEAT will be responsible for data aggregation, calculation of specific indicators, and information dissemination. Information dissemination may be via a variety of media to ensure the information will be made available to all stakeholders and other I&APs. The DEAT will also ensure that the information placed in the public domain meets stakeholders requirements and other I&APs. Figure 8.1: Flow of information in the WIS
  • 8.1.4 Implementation and Operation of WIS database Policy decisions regarding the development and operation of the WIS will be managed by the DEAT, who will be responsible for its implementation and operation and for establishing WIS help-lines. 8.2 Time Schedule Figure 8.2: Schedule of WIS Initiatives 8.3 Requirements and Implications 8.3.1 Institutional The Mintech Workgroup 3 will be tasked with the initial responsibilities of: • Encouraging and soliciting stakeholder involvement. Finalisation and maintenance of the WIS Guidelines. Establishing a network of contacts within government, waste generators, transporters and disposers; academia; NGOs; labour; research institutions, industry affiliates and other stakeholders.
  • Once operation of the WIS has commenced, the Mintech Workgroup 3 will advise on and facilitate: • Securing funds through normal governmental budgeting procedures for WIS activities. Monitoring the overall performance of the system. Taking decisions about the future development of the WIS. Provision of guidance and guidelines for the development and promulgation of local government by-laws in order to ensure countrywide uniformity and consistency. The DEAT will co-ordinate: • Data collection that is managed by local authorities Verification of the data collected • Activities associated with its Chemical Substances Database Public access to data. The DEAT will assist the provincial and local authorities to capacitate staff who will be responsible for the operation of the WIS. At DEAT, an initial staff complement of two persons, increasing to six persons is envisaged as necessary for undertaking WIS related tasks (equivalent to approximately 70 person years over the period 1999 to 2010). The experience and qualifications of the staff needs to include data capturing, data management, information management and information technology. Figure 8.3: Structure for WIS Decisions, Operation and Development Provincial Government will be responsible for data processing and quality assurance. An additional 20 to 50 staff members will be needed at the provincial level, or an estimated 355 person years over the implementation period.
  • Local Government will be responsible for data collection. It is estimated that an average of one staff member per local government will be required, equivalent to a total of 8 000-person years annually over the period of 1999 to 2010. It is recognised that a large staff complement will be required for the collection and verification of annually submitted data. In the short-term, the amount of data collected will be limited to that from the main waste producers and those generators identified as producing wastes of concern (mainly hazardous waste), and the main waste transporters and disposers. (Section 4.4.9, Part 1) Hence, in order to address gaps in the database, a number of approaches have been proposed for filling these gaps, including modelling and initialising the database with existing information sets. 8.3.2 Capacity Building Sufficient capacity is currently not available in government for the implementation and operation of the WIS, although limited capacity for data collection does exists in some national, provincial and local government departments, as well as in the private sector. The DEAT will define the responsibility and the competency profile required for staff who will be involved with the WIS, as well as identify the shortfall of skills and develop an appropriate capacity development programme. The necessary skills may be acquired through attendance at specialised courses, international exchange programmes as well as through the transfer of expertise by, for example, the seconding of trained staff between the three tiers of government. A core team of experts, including representation from all stakeholder groups will be driving the capacity building process. Capacity building will also be required within the commerce and industry sector to create a greater awareness of integrated waste management and to elicit support for the WIS. The focus of the WIS Guidelines is to ensure that all people submitting information to the WIS understand why they are being required to report, what their responsibilities are, the format for the information, and what will happen to the information. It is estimated that up to 200 000 information suppliers may require capacity building.
  • Appropriate communication mechanisms will be developed to meet the education and awareness requirements. Non-governmental organisations and the general public will also be informed about the WIS, to enable them to understand the issues of integrated waste management. Public awareness programmes may include the regular distribution of reports on the WIS in the printed media and broadcast media, as well as on the Internet, and by sponsoring school projects and distributing posters (Section 8.3.5). 8.3.3 Legal Issues Legislation relating to the implementation of the WIS will be incorporated in the IP&WM Legal Reform Process, and will include the following: • Transportation, generation, storage, reuse, recycling and disposal of waste. • Waste generation processes (ultimately addressing cleaner production). • Classifications of waste based on the risk to human health and the environment. • Legal mandates, functions and duties of all tiers of government. • Reporting requirements and frequency. • Enforcement clauses. • Provisions for waste information management and dissemination. • Public access and public rights to information, with the proviso that the responsible person of a reporting entity will have an opportunity, within specified time limits, to provide an interpretation of entity specific information before it is released to the public. • Definition of the integrated waste management terms, such as waste generator; waste transporter; waste disposer; storage and recycling; and waste minimisation. • Prohibiting the wilful submission of false data. • Crosschecking of the amount of waste generated to the amount of waste transported and disposed of. Legislation should provide for: • The DEAT to design the WIS. • Waste data suppliers to receive feedback after verification of their data. • A method to ensure that the constitutional rights of both the public and the waste generator are protected with regard to issues of trade confidentiality. • Communication channels for requesting additional information form the entities. • A single submission to the WIS by entities that are part of a larger organisation that undertakes a single integrated environmental management system. Separate records should be kept on each individual entity. • Classification of medical waste according to its sector of origin. • The submission of information by either e-mail, the Internet or other electronic form, or in print.
  • • Annual publication of WIS reports. • Capacity building for the development and implementation of the WIS. • Promotional activities regarding the WIS • Waste producing entities to be given legal recognition after the implementation of auditable environmental management systems. Legislation will enforce: the planning, execution, implementation and auditing of the WIS by the appropriate levels of government, as well as provide for reporting, administrative funding, modelling, and the administration of fines by the appropriate spheres of government. The legislation will also enforce registration, updating of registration data, annual reporting, resubmission of lost data, and allow government to inspect and audit records as well as the maintenance of records by waste data suppliers. It will also enforce the maintenance of computer backups. Legislation will define the form and frequency of reporting to the WIS as well as the details of waste classification. The legislation will require that all entity- specific information be reported in its entirety from the commencement of the WIS. The required waste-specific information, which will be required, will include: • Categorisation of the waste • The mass/volume of waste generated, transported and disposed of • The category of the waste according to the nine classes of waste and four hazard ratings, as well as the chemical and patent name of waste categorised as hazardous, where possible. • Information required by the Basel Convention. As a minimum requirement, the legislation must require all entities to report annually. Provision must be made to modify this frequency for specific entities or classes of entities, as and when required. The establishment of a final legislative approach to achieve an efficient and effective WIS, will form part of the Legal Reform Process. A summary of the above legal instruments with a proposed timetable for implementation is provided in Table 14.2, Part 2. Some of the required legislation already exists, e.g. in the National Water Act (36 of 1998). 8.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives
  • WIS development costs are estimated at 15 million Rand and include costs for tendering, costs associated with the actual development of the WIS, as well as costs for capacity building within government. Table 8.1: Cost breakdown of the required amount of money Investment costs for WIS hardware and software are estimated at 6 million Rand. The operating cost is estimated at 57 million Rand per year assuming that data will be collected every year and that the approximately a total of 200 000 waste generators, transporters and disposers (identified in related NWMS initiatives), are required to report. In order to reduce costs to feasible levels, a phased implementation of the WIS is proposed. The level of data required would initially be identified for the short-term period and data will only be collected from the main waste producers and those generators who are identified as producing wastes of concern. The main transporters and disposers will also be identified and required to report to the system. The aim of the first reporting cycle will be to collect the data required for integrated waste management planning and for waste disposal initiatives. The phased implementation process will also allow for: • The gradual implementation and revision of service costs to maintain an affordable service at a local level. • Overcoming the problems of budgetary constraints (motivations are required one to three years ahead of implementation) for purchasing computer hardware (negotiations with computer companies), computer software, and for funding personnel and training. • Consideration to be given to the securing of funds for local and provincial government computer infrastructure.
  • • Bridging finance or subsidies to local authorities as seed finance and not for routine maintenance. This funding could be sourced at national or provincial level. In some cases, computer hardware will be available for implementing the WIS. Funding for the development of reporting software must be investigated and consideration should be given to supplying this software free of charge. WIS centres may be allocated computer hardware, for example at provincial offices, where local authorities that do not own or have access to facilities, can capture their information. Four full-time DEAT staff are required and are estimated to cost 0.5 million Rand per year. The processing and quality assurance of data by provincial governments is estimated to require 50 staff members at a total cost of 3 million Rand per year. 8.3.5 Public Participation and Partnership The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa states that everyone has the right of access to information held by the government. During the development of the WIS it will be necessary to create public awareness as to why the WIS is being developed and what it will deliver. The WIS guidelines will ensure that public participation in the development and implementation of the WIS is given a high priority. WIS information will be aggregated and will be subjected to an independent quality control process to ensure that inaccuracies are detected and dealt with before the information is made public. The data that will ultimately be available through the Internet, as well as at facilities such as libraries. In addition, a printed format will be produced for instances where computer access is not available. Public awareness campaigns, such as road shows, will be used as a method of disseminating information in outlying areas. The WIS will give special attention to the issue of language and language usage in designing a format for the information, so that the information can be easily understood by the majority of the public. Where companies consider information to be confidential, they will be allowed to petition the DEAT to restrict the access to such information. All
  • company and site specific information will be available from the relevant provincial government, although site specific, detailed information for hazardous waste disposal sites, priority pollutants and high profile industries will also be available from DEAT. 8.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives The WIS is designed to contain the information that will underpin the strategies of the other priority initiatives in the NWMS. The WIS relies on the other priority initiatives within the NWMS to specify the level of detail they need from the WIS. The time schedule of the WIS will be co- ordinated with other NWMS initiatives. 8.5 Short-term initiative The waste information system initiative selected for short-term implementation is: The DEAT will develop a National Waste Information System and adopt a phased approach for its implementation. The implementation will focus on and address the short term waste information needs i.e. data required for integrated waste planning and waste disposal. Integral to the WIS will be the development of key performance indicators and an annual reporting system. 9. WASTE MINIMISATION (Go to the Action Plan) Waste minimisation comprises any activity to prevent the formation of waste or reduce the volume and/or environmental impact of waste that is generated, treated, stored or disposed of. For the purposes of this strategy, minimisation refers to activities taken by a generator of waste relating to source reduction and/or internal recycling. Initiatives for the external recycling of post-consumer material – such as packaging waste, glass and paper – are presented in Chapter 10, Part 2. The aim of the waste minimisation strategy is to ensure that waste minimisation procedures and practices are adopted by all sectors of society, with a special initial focus on the principal generators of waste particularly those producers who generate a high volume of waste and low volume of waste with a high environmental impact.
  • As a means of achieving this goal, a number of priority initiatives have been proposed. These initiatives seek to ensure that the generators of waste, within both the public and private sectors: • Have sufficient incentive to adopt waste minimisation practices. • Have access to information on the benefits and technique for waste minimisation. • Have sufficient capacity within their organisation to implement the waste minimisation initiatives. To facilitate the structured implementation of these initiatives, a National Programme for Waste Minimisation will be developed. In the medium term this programme will be extended from its initial focus on solid waste to also provide for the minimisation of emissions to air, soil and water, and will include issues relating to improved use of resources and energy efficiency. This waste minimisation programme will require integration with related inter-departmental activities, and will form part of a broader strategy aimed at promoting cleaner production and sustainable consumption patterns. 9.1 Waste Minimisation Initiatives While the actual implementation of most waste minimisation practices will be carried out primarily by the private sector (as the principal generator of waste), it is the duty of the public sector to take a leading role in providing the right structure, incentives and information to facilitate the implementation of these waste minimisation practices. In so doing, the public sector will ensure that there is an appropriate balance between the use of directive-based ("command-and- control") measures and co-regulatory initiatives. (NEMA Chapter 8, 1998) The introduction of co-regulatory instruments should be undertaken in consultation with affected representatives of civil society, and in accordance with mutually agreed procedural mechanisms. The proposed Waste Minimisation priority initiatives have been divided into the following subject areas/themes: • Programme development and administration • Legislative and policy initiatives • Information and awareness initiatives • Demonstration projects • Public/private partnerships initiatives
  • The detailed initiatives are described below. 9.1.1 Organisational and Planning Initiatives To ensure the effective implementation of the proposed initiatives, it is important that these initiatives be undertaken in a structured and co-ordinated manner. The DEAT, as the governmental lead agent for the National Waste Management Strategy, will be responsible for developing and implementing a National Programme for Waste Minimisation following a full review and assessment of current provincial and local government waste minimisation initiatives. Stakeholders will play a role in co-ordinating and implementing a waste minimisation programme, including civil society and labour. A central element of this programme will be the development of a list of priority pollutants and waste streams. The possibility of setting specific industry waste minimisation targets will be discussed in consultation with the relevant sectors. The compilation of a list of identified priority pollutants will also form the basis for identifying pollutants that need to be phased out and eventually banned, and will form the basis for setting waste minimisation targets for all waste generators. To ensure that these initiatives are effective, the DEAT will be responsible for managing their integration with other national, provincial and local governmental activities. The initiatives have a number of institutional implications, one of which is the possibility of establishing one or more National (or Provincial) Waste Minimisation Centres. 9.1.2 Appropriate Legal and Policy Framework An appropriate legal and policy framework comprising both legal sanctions and financial incentives is essential if waste generators are to have sufficient incentive to implement waste minimisation incentives. The appropriate control and incentive-based mechanisms need to be applied to waste minimisation programmes, cleaner production and packaging. To support these mechanisms, the DEAT will provide for waste minimisation as a positive consideration within environmental impact assessments (EIAs), as well as require waste minimisation assessments as part of license approval procedures. Government will set an example, not only by implementing waste
  • minimisation within its own departments but also through its procurement policies. The feasibility of introducing economic instruments and product take- back legislation as one specific example of waste minimisation will be formally investigated in collaboration with relevant government departments and waste generators. A study will be undertaken to investigate and ensure that all legislation is compatible with the goals of waste minimisation, and measures will be taken to ensure that waste minimisation considerations are provided for in departmental activities. 9.1.3 Information, Education and Demonstration Projects An important means of promoting waste minimisation is to provide waste generators with information and training on the techniques for conducting waste minimisation assessments and on the possibility of saving costs through waste minimisation. In addition to developing a database of locally relevant case studies, government will work with industrial organisations in developing sectoral specific guidelines for waste minimisation, and in promoting the use of management tools such as total cost accounting, environmental performance indicators, environmental auditing, and life cycle assessment. Such guidelines could include information on how to make products more durable, re-usable, recyclable and less toxic, as well as specifying the substitution of hazardous/toxic materials with safer substances when alternatives exist. As a longer-term goal, government will encourage the inclusion within secondary and tertiary educational curricula of subject courses, which focus on an integrated and strategic approach to environmental management. A key component of the DEAT’s waste minimisation programme will be the implementation of demonstration projects (outlined in Table 9.1, Part 2), the aims of which will be: • To demonstrate the cost-savings and techniques associated with waste minimisation. To build capacity amongst stakeholders including small, medium and micro-enterprises. To address an environmental issue of serious concern. To test the potential of innovative waste minimisation policy instruments. To
  • investigate methods which could make products more durable, re-usable, recyclable and less toxic. 9.1.4 Public-Private and Private Sector Initiatives The active participation of the private sector is essential to ensure the widespread implementation of waste minimisation practices. The private sector has already implemented a number of effective waste minimisation practices, on their own initiative. It is important that these initiatives are given further encouragement and that the advantages of implementing waste minimisation initiatives are publicised. In addition to encouraging the use of co-regulatory instruments (such as government/industry agreements), incentives will be provided to industry sectoral organisations in order to: • Develop and disseminate sector specific waste minimisation manuals and training courses. Establish effective networking structures (such as waste minimisation clubs). Co-operate with research institutes in developing and implementing effective waste minimisation technologies. Develop possible incentives, which may in the long-term include amending the tax regime, developing appropriate pricing strategies for wastes and resources, and providing high profile national and provincial waste minimisation awards. Incentives to undertake pilot/demonstration projects will be considered. Any proposals regarding tax and pricing strategies will be developed in conjunction with the Department of Finance. 9.2 Time Schedule Detail on the timing for implementation of the above initiatives is provided in Table 9.1. A graphical overview of the timing is also provided in Table 9.2, along with details on the estimated costs, responsibilities and funding sources for each of the initiatives. An overview of the integration of these initiatives with the other waste management programmes is provided in Chapter 14, Part 2. Table 9.1: Schedule of Waste Minimisation Initiatives Waste Minimisation Initiative Target Activity Target Dates Organisation & Planning
  • 1. Provincial and local initiatives assessment A full review and assessment of current provincial and local initiatives 1999-2000 1. Introduction of National Waste Minimisation Programme (NWMP) Structure and deliverables of NWMP to be defined in consultation with National Environmental Advisory Forum (NEAF) and the CEC 1999-2000 1. Development of Cleaner Production Programme NWMP to be integrated with relevant activities of other governmental departments into a structured Cleaner Production Programme. 2001 1. Prioritising pollutants & setting national waste reduction targets Consultative process completed for prioritising pollutants, and setting national waste minimisation targets. The targets are to be reviewed on a biennial basis 1999 Biennial review 1. Waste Minimisation / Cleaner Production advisory group Multi-stakeholder advisory group established to advise on the implementation of the waste minimisation programme. 1999 1. National Centre for Waste Minimisation Decision taken on establishing National Centre for Waste Minimisation, following investigation of its feasibility, mandate and structure. 1999 1. Inter- departmental and inter- provincial co- ordination Waste minimisation / Cleaner Production included as a consideration within Environmental Implementation & Management Plans and put on the agenda of the Committee for Environmental Co-ordination. 1999 1. Capacity- building initiatives Structured programme for building capacity within national, provincial and local governments to be developed and implemented. 1999-2001 Legislation & Policy 1. Legislative compatibility with waste minimisation objectives. Study undertaken of legislation and related policy instruments to ensure compatibility with waste minimisation objectives Review complete 1999
  • 1. Licensing / Permit requirements Government to develop agreed format for waste minimisation plans and to include requirement for submitting plans within identified licenses / permits 1999 - 2000 1. EIAs / SDIs Environmental Impact Assessment regulations amended to provide for waste minimisation and strategic evaluation, also ensuring inclusion in Spatial Development Initiatives. 2000 1. Governmental procurement Waste minimisation considerations within government procurement e.g. governmental procurement procedures 1999 - 2000 1. Economic instruments Workgroup (with participation of Dept of Finance) to examine feasibility and prepare proposal for introducing economic instruments (e.g. landfill site levies, amendments to the tax regime, deposit-refund schemes and so on) Decision & plan by 2001 1. Product-take- back legislation Workgroup (with participation of Dept of Trade & Industry) to examine feasibility and prepare proposal for product-take-back legislation. Investigation to be integrated with legal review recommended in Chapter 10, Part 2 – Recycling. Decision & plan by 2001 Information and Demonstration Projects 1. Information campaigns Structured government programme for increasing awareness on the need, benefits and techniques for waste minimisation – targeted at all sectors. Plan developed by 2000 40199. Directo ry of case- studies DEAT to have established directory of national and international waste minimisation / cleaner production case studies Operational by 1999 17. Sector-specific waste minimisation guides Practical, easily implemented sector-specific waste minimisation guides completed with participation of industry sectoral organisations First guide by 1999 18. Educational curricula Strategy in place – in collaboration with affected departments – to ensure that curricula are amended to reflect cleaner production approach. From 2000 19. Wastes minimisation award National waste minimisation award developed and presented First award in 2000
  • 20. Demonstration project: capacity building on tools & techniques Demonstration project within identified priority industry sector; results communicated; capacity built 1999 – 2001 21. Demonstration project: capacity building within government Project undertaken in government department 1999 – 2001 22. Demonstration project: waste issue of concern / SMMEs Project in sector with immediate identified waste problems; includes focus on SMMEs and serves as test case for innovative policy tools 1999 – 2001 Public/Private Initiatives 23. Negotiated Environmental Agreements Agreements concluded in key sectors, with clearly defined targets for priority wastes 3 sectoral agreements by 1999 23. Waste Minimisation Partnership Programme DEAT to establish partnership programme whereby large companies share waste minimisation expertise with smaller companies Programme operation by 2001 24. Waste minimisation clubs Local / provincial governments promoted waste minimisation clubs Clubs in place by 2000 1. Certifiable EMS Standards Strategy to include waste minimisation within certifiable EMS Standards 2000 9.3 Requirements and Implications 9.3.1 Institutional National Government: The DEAT will serve as the facilitator in the management and implementation of waste minimisation initiatives. Key responsibilities include: • Providing the central organisational and planning functions. • Developing a list of priority waste streams and setting targets for their reduction. • Introducing appropriate legislative and economic instruments. • Ensuring appropriate inter-ministerial and inter-provincial co-ordination. • Gazetting legal waste minimisation limits.
  • • Ensuring appropriate provision for monitoring and enforcement of compliance. • Providing budgets for training and awareness programmes. The DEAT will be active in co-ordinating the provision of information, education and capacity-building, in securing funding for the various waste minimisation initiatives, and in facilitating effective public-private partnerships. In developing and implementing the waste minimisation initiatives, the DEAT will consult with, and be advised by the National Environmental Advisory Forum. One of the initial tasks of DEAT will be to investigate the feasibility, and possible structure, activities and funding, of one or more National or Provincial Centres for Waste Minimisation. Pending this decision and a decision of the structure of a possible Centre, administration of the waste minimisation initiatives will be assigned to a designated and sufficiently resourced sub-directorate of the DEAT. A preliminary proposal of the costs, responsibilities, and fund source is presented in Table 9.2. A total of 47 person years for the implementation period 1999 to 2010 is estimated. Provincial and local government will implement and enforce appropriate national waste minimisation initiatives, and promote the development of voluntary partnerships with industry including the introduction of waste minimisation clubs. In addition, provincial and local government will be active in the collection of data required for the national waste information system. (Table 9.2) A total of 25 person years are estimated for the 1999 to 2010 period. The role of Civil Society, which comprises the private sector, (individual industries and business sectoral organisations) and other organisations (such as NGOs, CBOs, universities and research institutions), is pivotal for ensuring that waste minimisation procedures are effectively implemented. In terms of the national strategy the private sector has a particular role to play in developing environmental agreements, in producing sectoral based waste minimisation guides, and in participating in information networks such as waste minimisation clubs. Such initiatives will benefit greatly from the active participation of trade unions. Other members of civil society will be actively involved in demonstration
  • projects; in ensuring the inclusion of waste minimisation practices in high school and tertiary education curricula; in undertaking relevant research; in promoting membership of waste minimisation clubs; in monitoring the implementation of co- regulatory initiatives; and in serving on panels for the "waste minimisation awards". Representatives from civil society groups will sit on the National Environmental Advisory Forum (NEAF). The staff or person year requirements for implementation of the strategy have not been estimated for civil society. 9.3.2 Capacity building Capacity will need to be developed in all three tiers of government through the training of existing staff and by the appointment of new staff with appropriate qualifications and experience. Capacity building environmental programmes are currently in place in the Gauteng and Mpumalanga provincial governments, while local governments in Durban and Cape Town are pursuing waste minimisation initiatives. Future initiatives aimed at building capacity for developing and implementing waste minimisation policies and practices should be co-ordinated with other ongoing waste minimisation activities. It is also important to ensure that there is capacity amongst the waste generators. This issue will be addressed by demonstration projects, sector-specific manuals, training courses, and the promotion of networking through forums such as Waste Minimisation Clubs. 9.3.3 Legal Issues The principal legal implications associated with the above described waste minimisation initiatives include: • Identifying priority pollutants and waste streams before waste minimisation targets for these pollutants and wastes are set and periodically reviewed. • Promulgating regulations requiring waste minimisation assessments and plans as part of specified permitting requirements (to be adopted on a phased-in basis). • Amending the EIA regulations (and the IEM regulations anticipated in terms of Chapter 5 of the NEMA) to make specific provision for waste minimisation and strategic assessment. • Promulgating regulations/guidelines which require cleaner production considerations to be included in government procurement practices. • Facilitating the adoption of environmental management co-operation agreements by promulgating regulations in terms of sections 35 and 45 of NEMA (including in particular regulations on procedures for public participation).
  • • Introducing legislation on product take-back (The feasibility of such legislation will first be investigated and will only be introduced if viable). • Legislation requiring the phasing out and/or prohibition of the creation, use or transfer of certain priority pollutants will be investigated and detailed during the Law Reform Process. • Regulations regarding the labelling of products according to the recycled content, recyclability or toxicity of contents and packaging. • Regulations requiring the reduction of excess packaging and prohibiting the use of certain packages. • Regulations requiring the substitution of hazardous pollutants by safer substances when such safer alternatives exist. While it is possible to implement a number of the above initiatives by using existing legislation (such as section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act, No. 74 of 1983), some waste minimisation initiatives will require the promulgation of new legislation. The exact nature of this new legislation will be ascertained as part of the environmental law reform process recently proposed by the DEAT. It has been decided to promulgate a single Act on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management. The preamble of this Act should make specific provision for the waste management hierarchy and will emphasise the need for an integrated preventative approach to waste management, while formally recognising the benefits of using a broad range of regulatory, financial and educational instruments. The Act will include a specific section on waste minimisation that will: • Set out the guiding principles of waste minimisation and serve as the framework for prioritising waste streams and setting waste minimisation targets. • Provide the basis for any necessary institutional requirements. • Describe the obligations of governmental authorities, and ensure effective inter- departmental and inter-provincial co-ordination on waste minimisation by using for example the Environmental Implementation and Management Plans provided for in terms of the National Environmental Management Act (1998). • Empower the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism to make regulations and/or produce guidance documents relating for example to the procedure to be used for identifying priority waste streams and waste minimisation targets; the methodology for conducting waste minimisation assessments and for developing waste management plans; and the inclusion of waste minimisation considerations within government procurement programmes. • Provide mechanisms to ensure compliance.
  • Existing legislation relating to environmental impact assessments will be amended to ensure that specific provision is made for waste minimisation considerations within EIAs. Existing legislation relating to licensing requirements will be amended (initially only for prioritised industrial sectors and activities) to require that waste minimisation assessments are undertaken prior to receiving licensing approval. Guidance will be provided on the structure and content of the required waste minimisation assessments. The DEAT Legal Review Process will also need to ensure inter alia that existing and proposed legislation is consistent with the principles of waste minimisation (e.g. statutory controls relating to the storage, treatment and disposal of wastes should not impede the possibility of diverting material from the waste stream for re-use, recovery or recycling). In addition to this legal review, studies will be undertaken with the input of all affected government departments and in conjunction with other NWMS legal studies, to examine the feasibility of product take-back legislation and other economic instruments. Further details on the integration of these waste minimisation activities within the proposed process of environmental law reform are provided in section 14.3, Part 2. A summary of the above legal instruments with a proposed timetable for implementation is provided in Table 14.2. If waste minimisation assessments are undertaken prior to receiving licensing approval, criteria will need to be developed against which the operation can be assessed. These criteria should be developed with the full participation of the private sector. The development and implementation of industry-specific criteria will require considerable human and financial resources but general criteria are not likely to be effective due to the diverse range of waste minimisation activities. 9.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives Table 9.2 summarises the estimated public costs (development, investment and operational) of the initiatives as well as a breakdown of the allocation of costs amongst funding sources. Estimates have also been made for the costs incurred by industry for their contribution to co-operative projects with government, but not for costs incurred in implementing their own initiatives or for complying with legal
  • requirements. The mechanism of implementing initiatives, and hence the costs, will vary from project to project. For example, in the implementation of a Waste Minimisation Centre, the DEAT may provide office facilities and the private sector may provide salary and an operating budget for the project. The primary source of initial funds will be from the national budget, with supplementary funding from donors. It is important when examining these costs to bear in mind that many industries, particularly amongst the larger companies, are already investing resources in waste minimisation initiatives, many of which result in cost savings. While the total estimated cost is 69 million Rand for the period 1999 to 2010, the final overall cost will be dependent upon the prioritisation of the possible options. The availability of funding from user fees is dependent upon the outcome of the studies into economic instruments and the approval by the Department of Finance for the use of specific economic instruments. The distinction between economic instruments that are used primarily for raising revenue (taxes) and those for changing behaviour (charges) will be clarified in the Action Plans. The term "user fee" in this section is technically an economic instrument. 9.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships Successful implementation of the waste minimisation initiatives will involve the active participation of many sectors in society, including environmental NGOs, trade unions, research bodies and industry organisations. Each sector should be represented on the National Environmental Advisory Forum that will provide advice on the organisation and planning of the National Waste Minimisation Programme. In addition to being involved in prioritising waste streams, there will also be opportunities for sectors to participate in initiatives such as demonstration projects, the development of case-studies and guidebooks, the granting of waste minimisation awards, and the implementation of waste minimisation clubs. As the generator of considerable amounts of waste, the industrial sector has a particularly important role in ensuring the adoption of effective waste minimisation practices. It is important that there is close dialogue between
  • governmental bodies and industrial sectors in prioritising pollutants, setting targets and implementing supporting legislation, as well as in establishing information networks. Private-private partnerships as a mechanism for establishing waste minimisation demonstration projects will be encouraged. Through consumer purchasing power, and in their role as generators of waste, consumers have a significant potential impact on the development of cleaner products and on the adoption of upstream and downstream waste minimisation practices. By means of extended public awareness programmes, consumers will be informed of waste minimisation opportunities, made aware of the environmental impacts of particular products, and be consulted in the development of waste minimisation initiatives. 9.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives As waste minimisation is given the highest priority in terms of the waste hierarchy, it is important that minimisation considerations are provided for in almost every other aspect of the NWMS. Waste minimisation should form an important element of the waste management planning that is undertaken by provinces, local authorities and other responsible parties. For the waste minimisation initiatives to be effective it is important that information is available on the volume, composition and source of the waste. The data supplied by the Waste Information System (WIS) will therefore be supplemented with more detailed data relating to the composition and source of the waste, as well as with technical descriptions of production processes and raw materials. It is important that the activities of the WIS and the proposed Waste Minimisation Centre are co-ordinated with the information objectives of the other NWMS initiatives, with a view to ensuring that general information on waste minimisation is made available to the general public as well as to private and public-sector organisations. Initiatives for the external recycling of wastes will be appropriately co-ordinated with the waste minimisation initiatives, including for example demonstration projects, information campaigns and research into legal and economic
  • programmes such as Product and Packaging Take-back. As a general objective, legislation and policymaking will need to be integrated into all waste related activities. 9.5 Short-term Initiative The waste minimisation initiative selected for short-term implementation is: Following a review and assessment of current waste minimisation initiatives, the DEAT, together with the private sector, may develop and implement a National Waste Minimisation Programme. This Programme will be integrated with relevant environmental initiatives of other national, provincial and local government departments, and will include the development of guidelines, and the introduction of legislative incentives for waste minimisation. The Programme will also include the implementation of one or more demonstration projects.
  • 10. Recycling (Go to the Action Plan) Recycling of waste refers to the separation at source of recyclable materials from the general waste stream and the reuse of these materials. The objectives of recycling are to save resources as well as reduce the environmental impact of waste by reducing the amount of waste disposed at landfills. To meet these objectives, waste separation at source is proposed, as the quality of recyclable materials is higher when separated at source. In addition, recycling has the potential for job creation and is a viable alternative to informal salvaging at landfills, which is undesirable due to the problems of health and safety associated with salvaging. 10.1 Priority Initiatives
  • Government will publicise its support for waste recycling and its commitment to making recycling in South Africa more economically viable, and will encourage the private sector to undertake recycling initiatives. An investigation will be conducted, which will examine the feasibility of a range of recycling projects, with particular emphasis on projects that are already operating successfully. This investigation will be co-ordinated with other priority initiatives (such as those relating to extended producer responsibility, as proposed in Chapter 9, Part 2) and will be undertaken in consultation with affected government departments, for example the Department of Finance. The recycling priority initiatives are: • A tyre recycling project • Promotion of the recycling of oil, batteries and organic solvents • A feasibility study of potential sectors/generators of recyclable general waste materials, methods of recycling, and appropriate legislation, e.g. a refundable deposit system • Investigation of economic and regulatory incentives to promote recycling I • nvestigation into possibilities of reclaiming or recycling mining and power station wastes, including regulatory mechanisms for recycling. These initiatives are described in more detail in the sections below. 10.1.1 General Waste The strategy to promote recycling includes the following activities: • Promotion of separation at source. • Government commitment to promote the viability of general waste recycling through carefully researched legislation. • Provision of economic and regulatory incentives to promote recycling by 2002. • Conducting an investigation that will identify sectors or generators that generate abundant, marketable recyclable materials, and researching and developing appropriate methods of recycling e.g. source separation, composting and tyre recycling. This investigation will be addressed in greater detail during the NWMS Action Plan Development Phase. The information generated by this investigation will be used to set waste-recycling targets in the future. The investigation is scheduled to run from 1999 to 2002. A tyre-recycling project, aimed at alleviating the problem of disposing of tyres, was initiated in 1997 and will be implemented in 1999. • Recycling centres, following separation at source, will be promoted in order to discourage salvaging on landfills. An appropriate government or private sector
  • initiative will implement the tyre recycling project. The cost of recycling tyres could be financed through a levy system. • The problems associated with litter and its collection, recycling and disposal will be addressed during the development of Action Plans and as part of the Law Reform Process. This issue will be also be included in waste management awareness campaigns. • It is recognised that the success of the recycling initiatives of the NWMS Strategy will be dependent on compliance by all associated with waste, as well as appropriate enforcement of regulations. However, institutional measures to ensure compliance and the success of these initiatives still needs to be further investigated as part of the Action Plan development process. There are other approaches such as a negative publicity campaign against a company that does not comply with recycling regulations and a positive campaign highlighting good companies. Such publicity campaigns would cost a great deal less that administrating a fine system or having to take transgressors to court. These and other alternatives will be reviewed in the Law Reform Process and is outside the scope of the NWMS. • The use of targets in the implementation and further development of resource recovery and recycling strategies will be further investigated during the Action Plan Development Phase. 10.1.2 Domestic Waste Public awareness campaigns will promote separation at source for domestic waste. The DEAT will develop a programme for the expansion of industry initiatives to include domestic wastes. The long-term environmental impact of domestic waste also bears a cost that will be taken into account when reviewing the viability of recycling initiatives. 10.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry Specific initiatives to promote the recycling of oil, batteries and organic solvents will be implemented by the end of 1999. Some initiatives, such as the recycling of batteries and oil by industry, are already being implemented. The DEAT Recycling Team will develop a programme for expansion of these industry initiatives to include household generated waste, and to promote recycling on a national level. This programme will include consultation with currently successful recycling initiatives, as well as the National Recycling Forum.
  • 10.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (pesticides) Recycling of pesticide waste is not viable due to product quality requirements and the environmental risks involved. 10.1.5 Medical Waste Recycling of medical waste is not viable due to the potential health risks. Capacity building and waste management education programmes need to be implemented before medical waste recycling can become an option. This issue will be addressed in the Action Plans as a longer-term objective of the NWMS. 10.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste Research is to be undertaken to identify the possibilities of reclaiming or recycling mining and power station wastes and to investigate the formulating of necessary regulatory mechanisms for such reclamation and recycling. The results of these studies will be available by 2002. A Stakeholder Task Team, possibly comprising representatives of the DEAT (Recycling Team), DME, DWAF, CNS and industry, as well as I&APs, will be formed to co-ordinate this investigation. 10.2 Time Schedule Implementation of the recycling strategy will commence in 1999 and be implemented in accordance with the following time schedule. The time schedule below is preliminary and will be refined during Action Plan development with input from stakeholders. Initiatives Initiatio n Date Completio n Date Establish DEAT Recycling Team - 1999 Obtain adequate funding for investigations 1999 On going
  • Tyre recycling project On going 1999 Promote recycling initiatives for batteries, oil and organic solvents 1999 2000 Investigation into legislation, economic incentives etc. 1999 2001 Investigation of recycling methodologies, approaches etc. 1999 2002 Investigation of recycling of mining and power station waste 1999 2002 Carry out pilot recycling projects 2000 2002 Provision of incentives to promote recycling - 2002 Implement recycling of mining and power station waste 2002 2008 Government commitment and support On going 10.3 Requirements and Implications 10.3.1 Institutional
  • DEAT: A recycling team will be established in the DEAT during 1999 with the appointment of a staff member to promote the recycling strategy and facilitate investigations into those issues that directly impact on the decision making process. A full investigation of existing recycling initiatives will be undertaken, and the recycling strategy will build on these initiatives. The recycling team will be expanded over time by appointing additional members up to a maximum of five people (equivalent to 25 person years over the period of 1999-2010). The NEAF will be requested to assist in the process of promoting recycling initiatives. Participation of private sector employees in the process will either be on a representative advisory basis or secondment by agreement. Provincial Government: Institutional structures will be established at provincial level to give guidance to local government and administer the various waste management strategy components. The staff requirement over the next twelve years is estimated to be between one and four people per province, giving a total of about 20 staff members for the country as a whole over the 1999 to 2010 implementation period. Local Government: Institutional structures will be established at local level to implement an initiative for the establishment of recycling centres by providing the required transport, collection and delivery facilities. Where appropriate, communities will be encouraged to undertake the above functions themselves with local government facilitation. Between one to four of existing staff per local government will be required to perform this function. It is not possible to estimate at this stage the number of jobs that will be created in the private sector and through public-private partnerships by the implementation of the recycling priority initiatives. 10.3.2 Capacity Building Due to limited resources, capacity building will start with a "top downwards" approach. A team leader will be appointed for the recycling team at the DEAT. The team leader should have an appropriate three-year tertiary education qualification and must be familiar with the principles and practicalities of recycling. He/she must build team capacity by employing suitably qualified staff,
  • studying relevant literature (especially on recycling in developing countries) and researching local recycling successes and failures. Once capacitated at national level, the DEAT team will arrange workshops and training sessions to build capacity at the provincial and local government levels. Capacity building should also take place in the companies who implement various recycling initiatives. 10.3.3 Legal Issues Because many of the recycling initiatives under consideration are of a financial nature and some seem to be highly contentious, the legal issues to be addressed will be identified through a feasibility study. Based on the results of the investigation into recycling initiatives, legislation and regulations that promote recycling will be promulgated by 2002. Until this investigation has been undertaken, it is not possible to specify the specific legal implications of instituting the recycling priority initiatives. Legislation on recycling will form part of the Legal Reform Process. 10.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives In the short-term, existing government resources will be used to identify ongoing initiatives and, in consultation with recycling stakeholders, investigate the most appropriate way of further promoting and implementing waste recycling. The short-term cost will be 0.2 million Rand per year (Section 4.4.4, Part 1). Due to the resource constraints, only the most urgent issues, such as waste collection in unserviced areas, will be addressed in the short-term. As more resources become available, additional priority initiatives will be implemented. A maximum of 5 staff members in the DEAT Recycling Team will be responsible for facilitating investigations into recycling and promoting recycling initiatives in the longer-term. Capacity building at provincial and local government level, will cost an estimated 16.2 million Rand (two staff members in each of the 800 local governments and 20 provincial staff members, for the country as a whole, at about R10 000 per person over a period of three years). Although donor funding (seed money) could assist this initiative in the short-term, funding from the fiscus will be required in the longer-term. Awareness campaigns for recycling initiatives are estimated to
  • cost 5 million Rand. The total cost of specific investigations is estimated to be 13 million Rand, over the 1999 to 2010 period. Economic incentives such as rebates, dedicated to waste management, will be investigated. Government could demonstrate its commitment to recycling by providing seed funding and setting clearly defined incentives. The development of any economic instruments will be undertaken in consultation with the Departments of Trade and Industry and the Department of Finance, as well as with full stakeholder participation. A capital cost of 30 million Rand will be required for the tyre recycling project. The operating costs are estimated to be 20 million Rand. The economic value of recycling stems from the treatment and disposal costs which recycling avoids. However, recycling will not only be considered in cases where it is directly profitable. 10.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships Public participation and awareness campaigns are essential for the successful implementation of recycling initiatives, especially when separation at source is proposed. Stakeholder involvement will be encouraged through the NEAF. Awareness will be promoted through schools, the media, seminars and public workshops. The information and awareness campaigns could promote the labelling of products according to the recycled content, recyclability or toxicity of both the contents and the packaging. Most of the current successful recycling initiatives have been implemented by the private sector. It is necessary for government to monitor these waste management initiatives to ensure compliance with the government’s environmental policies. An existing DEAT/DWAF/private sector committee (public-private partnership) that will form a Section 21 Company, will administer the tyre-recycling project. Apart from the involvement of key stakeholders, the public will be encouraged to participate in the establishment and management of collection sites and transfer stations. At present this project is funded by industry and promoted by government.
  • Composting initiatives will be developed and funded through partnerships between national and/or local government and CBOs. Other recycling programmes that may be considered include: transfer stations, drop-off centres for recyclable waste, pavement collection of segregated waste, government subsidisation of recycled products. 10.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives Wherever possible, the recycling initiatives will source waste data from the WIS for the specific areas of concern. However, the non-availability of WIS data will not preclude the initiation of waste recycling projects. The recycling investigation and related initiatives will be co-ordinated with the waste minimisation demonstration projects. Sector-specific waste minimisation guidelines will include recycling. Recycling will also be addressed in waste management planning, as well as waste collection and transportation. Charges for waste disposal that reflect the true cost of disposal should also promote recycling. 10.5 Short-term Initiative The recycling initiative selected for short-term implementation is: The DEAT will identify and co-ordinate ongoing recycling initiatives in South Africa. In consultation with stakeholders, the DEAT will investigate the most appropriate way for promoting and implementing waste recycling. Private sector proposals will be solicited. 11. Waste Collection and Transportation (Go to the Action Plan) Whereas current waste management strategies have focused on waste disposal, the NWMS will also give urgent attention to the collection and transportation of waste. Non-collection of waste impacts negatively on the quality of life, the environment and human health. The main objective of the National Waste Management Strategy is to improve the quality of life of all South Africans by
  • minimising the risk that waste poses to the human environment. Provision of waste services to all unserviced areas, especially previously disadvantaged communities, is a priority. The hazardous component of domestic waste is presently collected with the general domestic waste. The long-term strategy is to separate hazardous and general waste at source and recycle, in cases where recycling is appropriate, feasible and economically justified. The collection and transportation of industrial hazardous waste requires special attention. Hazardous waste is transported in vehicles that are owned by the waste generator, independent transporter or by the waste disposers. The introduction of a waste manifest system is proposed for tracking waste from the generator to the disposer. This waste manifest system will ensure that the principle of duty of care is upheld and enforced. 11.1 Initiatives The key initiatives for waste collection and transportation are: • Develop and implement guidelines, standards and feasibility studies for general waste collection and transportation. • Implement general waste collection services in unserviced or poorly serviced areas of South Africa. • Enforce the regulations for the transportation of hazardous substances of the waste through the waste manifest system, once it has been finalised. • Investigate economic mechanisms to finance the treatment and disposal of pesticide wastes. • Develop and implement guidelines for sorting and management of medical wastes. • Establish hazardous waste collection points according to determined needs and facilitate transportation of hazardous waste from SMMEs to disposal facilities The initiatives are described in the sections below. 11.1.1 General Waste A phased approach will be used to achieve the objective of general waste collection and transportation, which is to provide appropriate, sustainable and environmentally acceptable waste collection services for all South Africans. Various options will be investigated to achieve this objective and the results of that study will be published by the DEAT. The establishment of collection
  • services will be prioritised according to the environmental and health risks posed to the community by uncollected waste. The existing standards of waste collection will be maintained and improved where necessary in the areas currently being serviced. In future, all planned settlements will be provided with waste collection services from inception. Services will be established according to the following time schedule: • Unserviced residential areas with more than 5000 people and more than ten dwellings per hectare, by 2003. • Partly or poorly serviced residential areas, by 2005 • Unserviced low-density residential areas, after 2005. The historical problem of non-payment for services will be addressed inter alia through education and awareness programmes, for example through the Masakhane campaign. Awareness programmes will be used to promote an understanding of the importance of waste management, including the collection and how the service fees are used to fund this waste collection. The responsibility for providing general waste collection services will rest with the local authorities. Although waste collection systems, which promote job creation within the local community, will be promoted and public-private partnerships for general waste collection will be encouraged, the selection and implementation of a waste collection system will be undertaken in consultation with the community. 11.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste The long-term objective for hazardous domestic waste is to provide central waste collection facilities at the local level (See section 6.1.3 below). Separation of the hazardous component from domestic waste will enhance the sustainability of recycling projects and render domestic waste collection and disposal a safer process. Waste separation at source will be incorporated into the waste planning system by 2007 and be implemented in 2008. 11.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry The priority initiatives are: • Legislation to ensure safe collection and transportation of hazardous waste from generator to treatment/disposal facilities by enforcement of a waste manifest
  • system, will be promulgated. The Legal Reform Process will identify and propose appropriate legislation in this regard. • In order to encourage controlled hazardous waste collection, collection points/transfer points for hazardous waste will be established for waste from SMMEs, which may have problems in meeting the hazardous waste transportation regulations. The number of collection points required in South Africa is estimated to be about 1 000, concentrated mainly in industrialised and farming areas. The issue of establishing collection/transfer points is highly contentious and will be further debated with stakeholders. • Achieving compliance with the obligations of the Basel Convention and other international environmental/waste management agreements. 11.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides) The initiatives identified for hazardous waste from manufacturing and industry (See section 11.1.3 above) will also apply to agricultural and forestry waste. Due to the large stockpiles of pesticide containers and redundant pesticides, the DEAT has recently initiated an initiative for the collection of this waste and made funds available to send it abroad for treatment. The use of economic instruments will be fully investigated to determine their effectiveness in controlling the safe disposal of pesticide waste as well as the funding of collection and treatment facilities for this waste (Section 11.1.3). All investigations will be undertaken in consultation with stakeholders and will take into account relevant international experience. 11.1.5 Medical Waste Medical waste generators will be required to implement the guidelines (Section 7.1.5, Part 2) for sorting their waste to ensure that only the infectious waste, which must be incinerated (as required by the Human Tissues Act) is collected and subsequently treated. The guidelines will deal with all aspects of medical waste management. Consideration will be given to the health and environmental risks associated with sorting medical waste. It will be the responsibility of the medical waste generator to ensure safe destruction and/or disposal of their waste. The feasibility of phasing out specified toxic pollutants in the long-term in health care facilities will be investigated. 11.1.6 Mining and Power Station Waste
  • There is no strategic initiative for collection of mining and power station waste, as these wastes are treated on site by the mines and the power stations, in terms of their environmental permits. The owners/operators of these operations will be obliged to separate hazardous waste streams from non-hazardous waste. 11.2 Time Schedule Initiatives Initiatio n Date Completio n Date Investigate "Small Contractor" collection systems 1999 2000 Issue standards for general waste collection systems 1999 2000 Implement collection services for general waste in high-density, presently unserviced areas 2000 2003 Upgrade collection services for general waste in poorly serviced areas 2002 2005 Develop guidelines for waste management in unserviced areas 2002 2003 Maintain standards for general waste in serviced areas On going On going Enforce hazardous waste manifest system and 1999 2000
  • transport regulations Draft guidelines for collection points for hazardous waste for SMMEs, pesticide waste and domestic hazardous waste 2000 2001 Establish an information and permit system for transboundary shipment of hazardous waste in accordance with the Basel convention Existing Investigate and implement most appropriate economic mechanism for the collection and treatment of pesticide containers and redundant pesticides 2001 2003 Implement proper sorting of medical waste to avoid mixing of waste streams and minimise medical waste generation 2000 2001 Establish collection points for hazardous waste 2002 2004 11.3 Requirements and Implications 11.3.1 Institutional The DEAT will draft and publish guidelines, standards and regulations associated with waste collection and transportation. Investigations into "small contractor" collection systems, setting of standards for waste collection systems and development of guidelines for unserviced areas, will be instituted and co- ordinated by the DEAT and information will be disseminated to the local authorities. The DEAT will ensure that transport codes and practices for waste
  • are enforced, as well as audit the implementation of the waste manifest system. Guidelines will be developed for provincial initiatives, such as, collection and transfer facilities for hazardous waste, including - pesticides and medical waste separation and handling. Two staff members will be appointed by the DEAT for developing the waste collection and transportation guidelines, and the DEAT will provide a total input of seven person years during the period 1999-2010. The means of ensuring compliance of the guidelines will be investigated as part of the Action Plans. Provincial Government will be responsible for the registration and monitoring of hazardous waste transporters and the establishment and control of the hazardous waste collection/transfer facilities in their area. One staff member will be required for these functions in each province for the period 1999 to 2010, for the country as a whole. This is equivalent to 54 person years (assuming 50 percent of their time is used for this task). Local Government is responsible for the provision of general waste collection services within their area of jurisdiction. Private-public partnerships to assist with service delivery will be encouraged. About one staff member per 10 000 to 20 000 collection points will be required for administration purposes. It is estimated that in total 200 staff members will be required for the administration of the waste collection services for the unserviced, high density and poorly serviced areas. For the period 1999 to 2010 this staff requirement for administering the waste collection services equals an estimated 2 200 person years. In addition, there is a potential for job creation through providing waste collection and waste transportation services. 11.3.2 Capacity Building Staff members in national and provincial government environmental departments who are responsible for waste collection and transportation must have a suitable tertiary qualification and appropriate experience in the waste collection and transportation field. Capacity building relating to general waste collection services will be focused at the local government level, and will take the form of training courses on the organisation and implementation of sustainable waste collection
  • services, as well as the health and safety aspects of waste management. Staff who will be responsible for implementing the hazardous waste initiatives will be appropriately trained. A regional training centre on Basel Convention issues, which will serve English speaking African countries, is to be established in South Africa. Once established, this training centre will contribute considerably to capacity building in the region. 11.3.3 Legal Issues To implement the NWMS initiatives for waste collection, the following legislative actions will be undertaken: • Regulations to Control the Collection and Transportation of Hazardous Waste will be developed as part of the overall Legal Reform Process. • Greater effort will be taken to enforce the current legislation for the provision of general waste collection services by the local authorities within their areas of jurisdiction. Current legislation will be reviewed as part of the Law Reform Process. • Legislation will be developed to enforce the proposed Minimum Standards for waste collection as part of the Law Reform Process. • Legislation will be developed as part of the Law Reform Process to provide for implementation of the Basel Convention. Further details on the integration of these proposed legal reforms into the Law Reform Process are provided in section 14.3, Part 2. 11.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives The cost implications for the implementation of the initiatives for waste collection and transportation are summarised in the table below. All cost estimates are preliminary budgets and will be refined in the Action Plans. Strategy Cost (Rand) Staff members at national and provincial government level 1 million over 5 years
  • Six-month study of "small contractor "collection systems 0.5 million Introduction of waste collection services in unserviced high density and poorly serviced areas 300 million per year Public participation and awareness campaigns 5 million Establishing hazardous waste collection/transfer facilities 30 million for three years It is estimated that it will cost approximately 1 million Rand over 5 years to employ the staff required for the following waste management functions: to develop and maintain the Minimum Standards for general waste collection systems; to develop guidelines for waste management in unserviced areas; to enforce the hazardous waste manifest system; to draft guidelines for hazardous waste collection points; to establish an information and permit system for transboundary shipment of hazardous waste. The DEAT will develop and implement awareness campaigns to support public participation in the development and implementation of general waste services. These awareness campaigns are estimated to cost1 million Rand each year for five years. The DEAT will assist local government by undertaking a feasibility study of the small contractor collection system to ensure their sustainability. A budget cost of 0.5 million Rand is proposed for this. 11.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships Public participation and key stakeholder involvement is essential for the establishment and maintenance of appropriate general waste collection services, as well as for the development of collection and transfer facilities for hazardous domestic waste. Public awareness programmes will also promote payment for services by creating an understanding of the need for waste collection and waste
  • management, and what the service fees are used for example, as part of the Masakhane campaign, through awareness campaigns at schools, and through the media, seminars and public workshops. Arrangements will be made by local government to accommodate situations of genuine hardship and inability to pay for services. Public participation programmes directed at waste generators and transporters will be initiated. Entrepreneurial opportunities will be advertised. The formation of partnerships will be necessary to deliver the services envisaged, and could take the form of public-private or NGO/CBO partnerships. Local governments will be encouraged to consider the different types of partnerships, and to identify the most suitable option for meeting their needs. 11.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives Interaction is important with other components of the NWMS, particularly the Waste Information System component. Data from the WIS will be used to estimate the quantities of both general and hazardous waste that require collection, treatment and disposal, although initially previous experience will be used to provide the information required for developing waste collection and transportation initiatives. 11.5 Short-term Initiative The waste collection and transportation initiative selected for short-term implementation is: The DEAT, in collaboration with provincial government, will develop guidelines and standards for collection of general waste. Provincial government will draft provincial regulations in consultation with local government for general waste collection services. Local government will initiate the phased implementation of waste collection services for high-density, unserviced areas. 12. Waste Treatment (Go to the Action Plan) Treatment of waste before its final disposal is essential to minimise its environmental impact. At present, one of the treatment technologies used in
  • South Africa for general waste is composting; for hazardous waste treatment technologies include solidification, immobilisation and cementation, which reduce the leachability and mobility of hazardous constituents, as well as thermal treatment. Revision of air emission standards and the revision of the waste treatment classification system will be undertaken by the DEAT in consultation with stakeholders. As part of the investigative process, the DEAT will consider factors such as the detrimental effects on the environment and human health; resultant emissions; job creation prospects; capital outlay; operating costs; costs of disposing of toxic by-products; and the cost of monitoring and enforcing guidelines. The economic feasibility of energy generation from waste will also be considered. 12.1 Priority Initiatives The priority initiatives regarding waste treatment are: • To revise the existing air emission standards and waste treatment classification system of South Africa • To assess existing incinerators and either decommission or upgrade waste treatment plants • To establish an adequate number of well operated medical waste incinerators, to decommission those that cannot meet the revised standards, and to promote regionally based facilities that are operated efficiently • To draft guidelines/standards for hazardous waste treatment plants • To assess and establish industrial wastewater treatment plants, e.g. for the metal finishing industry to ultimately reduce the heavy metal concentrations in sewage sludge • To promote regional hazardous waste treatment facilities, using technology appropriate to South African conditions, in order to phase out hazardous waste disposal at co-disposal landfill sites The initiatives are described in the sections below. 12.1.1. General Waste At present, those general waste incinerators, which are in operation, are small and generally inefficiently operated. These incinerators will either be upgraded to meet the revised national air emission standards (based on international standards) before 2002, or will be decommissioned.
  • Since incineration of general waste with efficient air pollution control is an expensive treatment method, even with heat recovery, it will not be promoted. No further feasibility studies of general waste thermal treatment will be undertaken in the short term. 12.1.2 Hazardous Domestic Waste Refer to section 12.1.3 below. 12.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry By not later than 2004 planning for regional treatment facilities for hazardous waste, including stockpiled hazardous waste, will be developed to the feasibility stage. Such facilities will be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with generally accepted international standards and practices. The objective is to phase out co-disposal in H landfills. It is intended to have two treatment plants commissioned by 2008. The methods for monitoring air pollutant concentrations and operational requirements for such equipment will be prescribed. The DEAT will draw up the necessary guidelines/standards, which will include revised air emission standards for incinerators. Revised air emission standards will be finalised in 1999 and the guidelines/standards by the year 2000. Facilities for the treatment and possible recovery of heavy metal wastes from the metal finishing industry will be established in order to reduce the present high concentration of heavy metals in sewage sludge. These treatment facilities would facilitate the recycling of sewage sludge to the land as a soil conditioner and low- grade fertiliser. (See section 12.1.6 below). The first treatment plant should be in place in 2002, but the time schedule will depend on the results of a needs investigation. This initiative will be co-ordinated with waste minimisation initiatives. The establishment and management of hazardous waste treatment facilities will be the responsibility of the provincial government. Not all provinces generate sufficient hazardous waste to make facilities economically viable and hence co- operation between the provinces will be encouraged. 12.1.4 Waste from Agriculture and Forestry (Pesticides)
  • Pesticide waste will be included in the proposed strategy for Manufacturing and Industry Hazardous Waste (See section 12.1.3). 12.1.5 Medical Waste It is anticipated that the promotion of the sorting of medical waste (Section 11.1.5) will reduce the amount of medical waste that requires treatment. Medical waste incinerators currently in operation will be upgraded to comply with revised standards (Section 12.1) or decommissioned and replaced by new facilities. Should co-ordinated planning between the provinces find that large regionally- based facilities are more economically viable than a large number of small operating plants, the establishment of large regionally-based facilities will be promoted. Facilities that comply with the revised standards will be in operation by 2002 and a collection and treatment system will be implemented in the rural areas by 2008. 12.1.6 Sewage Sludge Pre-treatment facilities for the removal of heavy metals, e.g. from metal finishing works, will be encouraged (Section 12.1.3). Furthermore, the stricter enforcement of municipal by-laws will be implemented to enforce the treatment of toxic wastes rather than the discharge of such wastes into municipal sewers. 12.1.7 Mining and Power Station Waste These industries will investigate, develop and implement pre-treatment technologies to reduce the environmental impact of their wastes. 12.2 Time Schedule Initiatives Initiation Date Completio n Date Review classification system for waste treatment 1999 1999
  • Review air emission standards 1999 1999 Guidelines /standards on hazardous waste treatment 2000 2000 Identification and assessment of existing incinerators 1999 2000 Closure of medical waste incinerators not meeting new air emission standards, and planning and establishing modern facilities in urban areas 2000 2002 Closure or upgrading of general waste incinerators not meeting new air emission standards 2000 2002 Needs assessment for metal finishing industry waste water treatment 2000 2001 First metal finishing industry waste water treatment plant commissioned 2002 Feasibility study of organic hazardous waste treatment plants 1999 2004 Two organic hazardous waste treatment plants commissioned 2004 2008
  • Rural areas incorporated in medical waste collection and treatment schemes 1999 2008 12.3 Requirements and Implications 12.3.1 Institutional The DEAT will be responsible for the revision of air emission standards and the hazardous waste treatment facilities classification system. In particular, an assessment of a waste treatment facility for the metal finishing industry will be done, which will include the drafting of guidelines/standards for such a plant. The issuing of permits for treatment plants will also be undertaken by the DEAT. The DEAT will require four staff members to fulfil these responsibilities. Furthermore, 18 staff members for 50 percent of their time (equivalent to a total of 85 person years for the period 1999 to 2010) are required to enforce the current enforcement of air emission standards at the national level. As the function of enforcing of air emission standards will be devolved to provincial level, the intention is that the 18 national department staff members will in time be transferred to provincial government departments (see below). Provincial Government will support the DEAT in the planning and siting of hazardous waste treatment plants and medical waste treatment plants. Staff from the national level will in time be transferred to the provincial level to meet provincial responsibilities. Two staff members per province will devote part of their time to the enforcement of air emission standards. Local Government is currently not involved in the treatment of hazardous waste. . 12.3.2 Capacity Building DEAT staff should have a relevant tertiary level educational qualification. Staff duties will include the development of training courses for operators of treatment facilities for hazardous waste. 12.3.3 Legal Issues Implementation of the hazardous waste treatment priority initiatives will involve the following legislative activities:
  • • The promulgation and enforcement in 1999 of regulations on emission standards for all thermal treatment facilities. • The mechanism(s) to ensure compliance will be investigated during the Action Plans development. • The strict enforcement by the DWAF of the current industrial effluent discharge standards, developed within the National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998). Where viable, these standards will serve as incentives to industry to implement hazardous waste pre-treatment or minimisation. The issuing of guidelines for hazardous waste treatment facilities by 2000. Further details on the integration of these activities within the proposed Law Reform Process of environmental legislation are provided in Section 14.3, Part 2. A summary of the required legal instruments with a proposed timetable for implementation is provided in Table 14.2. 12.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives The estimated cost for the 18 staff members in national and provincial government who are responsible for the enforcement of air emission standards will be 3 million Rand per annum. This project will be phased in over the NWMS implementation period and will start with one staff member at the DEAT and one staff member in each province. The estimated cost in the period 1999 to 2002 will be 0.6 million Rand for the DEAT personnel and 5.4 million Rand for the provincial government personnel. The cost to replace the present medical waste incinerators to meet the revised standards is estimated to be 120 million Rand over the two-year period between the years 2000 and 2002. Based on the operating costs and depreciation cost of the facility, average treatment cost of R2 000 per tonne was assumed. Hazardous waste treatment plants require large-scale capital investment. Incineration plants for organic hazardous waste with a capacity of 30 000 tonnes/year are estimated to cost between 50 and 150 million Rand. It is estimated that one treatment plant will be required in 2003-2004 and another in the year 2007-2008. Based on the operating costs and depreciation cost of the facility, treatment costs of R1 000 to R6 000 per tonne are assumed. The first treatment plant for inorganic hazardous waste (wastewater from metal finishing plants) is planned to be operational by 2002. The estimated capital cost
  • for a plant for central Gauteng is 10 to 20 million Rand. Based on the operating costs and depreciation cost of the facility, average treatment costs of R1 000 per tonne are assumed. It is estimated that an investment of about 1 billion Rand will be required to finance the construction of treatment facilities for all the hazardous waste generated in South Africa, which will replace the practice of co- disposal of this hazardous waste to landfill sites. The further compilation of detailed cost estimates will form part of the Action Plans. More detailed cost estimates for waste treatment, including issues relating to efficiency and efficacy of alternative treatment technologies will be developed as part of the Action Plans and in subsequent feasibility studies. 12.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships Medical waste treatment facilities should be operated as either public-public or public-private partnerships. The development of shared waste treatment facilities, specifically between private and publicly owned hospitals, will be encouraged. An investigation will be conducted into the constitution of public-private partnerships (e.g. Section 21 companies) to establish hazardous waste treatment facilities. The DEAT is responsible for facilitating the establishment of facilities by the provision of information on hazardous waste generation. The DEAT EIA regulations will ensure that the public is involved in the decision making on the siting and management of hazardous waste facilities. A representative stakeholder committee, similar in composition to that required for general waste landfills, will be established to monitor the process of site selection, plant construction, as well as the commissioning and operation of hazardous waste treatment plants. 12.4 Dependency on other NWMS Initiatives Interaction with other components of the NWMS, particularly the Waste Information System component, is important. Data from the WIS will be used to estimate the amount and nature of hazardous waste generated, which will be treated at the hazardous waste treatment facilities. However, detailed information from the WIS is not a pre-requisite for implementing these initiatives, as they can
  • be based initially on general experience and existing inventories of hazardous waste generation within specific areas. In the medium to long-term, waste minimisation initiatives will reduce the amount of hazardous waste requiring treatment. However, overseas experience indicates that due to the large amount of stockpiled waste and the time that will be needed to develop and implement waste avoidance strategies, hazardous waste treatment facilities will be required for at least another 20 to 30 years. Co-ordination with waste minimisation demonstration projects will be essential. Such projects could include projects in the electroplating industry as well as a project in a sector producing a high volume of hazardous and/or toxic waste. 12.5 Short-term Initiative The waste treatment initiative selected for short-term implementation is: Standards for medical waste incinerator air emission, as well as classification of all waste treatment facilities, will be reviewed, revised and enforced. A public awareness and waste management education campaign will be introduced to focus on the hazards of medical waste and the legal responsibilities of medical waste generators. 13. WASTE DISPOSAL (Go to the Action Plan) According to the integrated waste management hierarchy, waste disposal is the last waste management option that should be considered. Although waste minimisation and recycling reduce the amount of waste that requires disposal, a portion of the waste stream will still require final disposal at a landfill site. 13.1 Priority Initiatives The key criteria applied for safe waste disposal are: • To minimise the environmental impact of all disposal sites by ensuring that these sites are permitted and controlled through regulations. Sufficient waste sites will be planned to meet all of South Africa’s disposal requirements and ensure that health and environment are not compromised. Suitable sites for treatment and disposal will be identified by the DEAT, in collaboration with all relevant stakeholders. • To ensure that each waste type receives the correct method of disposal and that the disposal is at a properly engineered landfill site.
  • • To phase out the co-disposal of specified hazardous wastes with general and other non-hazardous wastes. To ensure that the auditing of waste disposal operations is undertaken. • To review and update guideline documents for waste disposal operations on a regular basis. • To review and revise the closure plans for waste disposal sites on a regular basis. Abandoned waste disposal sites, including mine waste sites, will be placed on an inventory for assessment and a remediation programme for the abandoned sites will be developed and implemented. The following priority initiatives have been developed: • Promulgation of landfill site classification system and regulations. • Registration of all landfill sites and preparation of remediation plans. • Establish permit/audit plans for mining and power station sites. • Develop guidelines for inorganic hazardous waste disposal. • Develop an inventory and assessment programme for the remediation of abandoned mine and power station sites. • Permitting and management of all landfills in accordance with the DWAF Minimum Requirements. • Review the DWAF Minimum Requirements every 5 years. • Initiate feasibility study into mining and power station waste disposal. • Establish a process to review closure plans for mining and power station waste sites. • Formalise and control salvaging on general landfill sites. • Investigate the feasibility of establishing regional general waste landfill sites. • Establishment of an inorganic hazardous waste disposal site. • Management of mine and power station waste disposal facilities in accordance with the review process for permit requirements, auditing procedures and closure plans. • Remediation of abandoned mine and power station waste disposal sites. • Establishment of new hazardous waste disposal sites. • Phase out co-disposal of hazardous waste. Promote the disposal of sewage sludge in a condition suitable for landfilling. The initiatives are described in the sections below. 13.1.1 General waste To ensure that acceptable disposal practices are followed, a site specific permit system will be enforced on all existing landfill sites, as well as new medium to large size landfill sites. Standard regulations will be enforced to regulate small and communal waste disposal sites. In the future the responsibility for permitting
  • and control will devolve from national to provincial government, when provinces have the necessary resources to undertake this function. The following waste management activities will be undertaken: • All landfill sites will be registered and plans will be submitted (including time frame) for a remediation programme. Those landfill sites, which do not comply with the DWAF Minimum Requirements, will be required to submit plans that stipulate the process that will be followed to meet these Requirements. • Permitting and management of all large and medium sized landfill sites in accordance with the DWAF Minimum Requirements will be completed by 2004. • By 2005 small and communal sites will be managed in accordance with the DWAF Minimum Requirements and the promulgated regulations. • Promotion of co-operation between local authorities to establish regional landfill sites by 2003 so that disposal practices can be optimised and costs minimised. • Uncontrolled salvaging on landfill sites will be discouraged. Salvaging will be formalised and controlled by 2003, according to the DWAF Minimum Requirements, and will be phased out in the long-term. • All mechanisms of enforcement of the DWAF Minimum Requirements will be investigated during development of Action Plans. • The DWAF Minimum Requirements will be reviewed every 5 years. 13.1.2 Domestic Hazardous Waste Disposal of domestic hazardous wastes at landfill sites will continue in the short to medium term. Domestic hazardous waste should ideally not enter the general waste disposal site and this will be investigated as part of the Recycling and Recovery Action Plan. 13.1.3 Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing and Industry A sufficient number of permitted hazardous waste disposal sites will be planned and developed to meet the requirements of industry. Suitable sites for disposal will be identified by the DEAT, in collaboration with the relevant government authorities and where required these disposal sites will be established, with the full involvement of all stakeholders. The current permitting process for waste disposal sites will remain a national function in consultation with the province. Planning for the sites will be the responsibility of the province in close co- operation with industry. As with general waste, consideration will be given, in the long-term, to devolving permit control from national to provincial government.
  • Government will develop a programme, in consultation with stakeholders, for the phasing out of co-disposal of hazardous waste with general waste in the long- term. The onus will therefore be on the waste generator to implement alternative technologies that will comply with the revised legislation for the safe disposal of their waste. This may include: • The establishment of alternative regional treatment facilities by the private sector to treat new as well as stockpiled hazardous waste (Section 12.1.3, Part 2). • The establishment of alternative technologies by the private sector for the disposal of selected hazardous waste e.g. stabilised inorganic wastes. National government will revise and update guidelines, e.g. the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998), and auditing requirements for landfill sites as part of the overall process to develop new sectoral guidelines on waste management. 13.1.4 Agricultural and Forestry Wastes (Pesticides) Implementation of destruction technologies for pesticides will reduce the need to dispose of these wastes at landfill sites in the medium-term and will phase out such practices completely in the long term. 13.1.5 Medical waste Medical wastes will require treatment followed by disposal of ash or other residues at a permitted waste disposal site. Disposal of unsterilised infectious medical waste to landfill sites will not be allowed. 13.1.6 Sewage Sludge Where sewage sludge is disposed at landfill sites, the management of this waste will form part of the NWMS. 13.1.7 Mining and Power Station Wastes The mixing of different chemical waste streams at mining operations will be discouraged, particularly the dilution of hazardous wastes by large volumes of non-hazardous waste streams. This requirement will be included in the new permitting process that will also include a chemical classification component. The use of mine waste facilities for general waste disposal will be prohibited. Mine owners/operators will be required to assess waste minimisation processes, pre-treatment or stabilisation of waste, prior to disposal.
  • The requirements of the NWMS, as well as the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998), will be integrated with the Code of Practice for Mine Residue Deposits (1998) and the Code for Residue Deposits (1998). Duplication of reporting will be avoided. All requirements for auditing and permits in the NWMS will be integrated with the requirements of the EMPR process. The permitting process will be compatible with that prescribed for other industries. The permitting procedures will usually require the inclusion of: - waste classification and characterisation; an environmental impact assessment; engineering aspects; construction controls; management controls; closure requirements; compliance auditing; and a description of the public participation process undertaken. The NWMS will also address the current practice of different regulations applied to the disposal of mine wastes on mine property, compared to those regulations for other waste. A special task team will be established, comprising staff from the DEAT, DME, DWAF, CNS, as well as industry and other stakeholders, to evaluate current legislation, regulations, initiatives, guidelines and codes pertaining to mine and power station waste. The task team will identify the way forward and implement decisions, taking into consideration future as well as current operating facilities. Before the end of the year 2000 the team will have prepared a final document on permit/licence requirements for enforcing waste standards. Permit compliance will be enforced by 2004. The auditing process, as required in the permit/licence regulations, will be developed and will take into account the current auditing procedures already in place, and those that still need to be implemented. An auditing procedure will be established by the end of 2000 and implementation will take place by the end of 2004. The task team will take cognisance of on-going initiatives e.g. by the DME, that will form the basis for additional work. An investigation will be initiated by 2002 to evaluate current waste disposal technologies, and develop more effective, environmentally friendly, and affordable waste management techniques (including waste minimisation, waste pre-treatment, placement techniques, and engineering design). The task team
  • will evaluate the viability and the prioritisation of the investigative programmes and associated costs. A process will be established to review on a regular basis (for example every five years) the closure and post closure requirements for mine and power station waste facilities taking into account changes in technology, disposal methods, process technology and the condition of the local environment. The task team will review and investigate the inclusion of closure requirements into the permit and compliance with the auditing process. The closure review process will be established by 2002, with implementation by 2004. The DME is currently in the process if developing guidelines for mine closure. The DEAT will become involved in this development process to ensure that the principles of integrated waste management are met. Based on an inventory of abandoned mine and power station waste sites (i.e. those sites with no registered owner), which will be established through the WIS database, the special task team will define actions and the planning required for evaluation and remediation of these sites: e.g. investigation work; method of assessment; definition of hazards; cumulative impact assessment; and method of prioritisation. The development of this inventory and assessment programme will be completed by the end of 2002 and implementation will commence in 2004. Specific issues, such as asbestos dumps, will be addressed during the development of the NWMS Action Plans. 13.2 Time Schedule Initiatives Initiation Date Completio n Date Promulgation of regulations for control over small and communal landfill sites. 1998 1999 Registration of all landfill sites and submission of 1999 2000
  • plans for remediation and/or programmes for complying with DWAF Minimum Requirements. Establish a special task team and agree on permit/licence system for mine and power station waste disposal 1999 2000 Establish audit procedure for mine and power station waste management 1999 2000 Draw up guidelines for mining and power station waste disposal facilities 1999 2000 Draw up guidelines for waste disposal facilities for stabilised inorganic hazardous waste 2000 2002 Develop inventory of abandoned mine and power station waste sites and assess remediation actions required 2000 2002 Permitting and management of all medium and large landfill sites in accordance with the Minimum Requirements. 2000 2004 Management of small and communal waste disposal sites in accordance with the DWAF Minimum Requirements 2000 2005
  • Register all landfill sites 1998 1999 Establish new hazardous waste disposal sites 2000 2002 Establish legislation to ensure updating of guidelines is undertaken every 5 years 1999 2004 Formalise and control salvaging on general landfill sites. Phase this practise out in the longer term. 2001 2003 Implement permit requirements for mine and power station waste disposal 2001 2004 On going Implement audit procedure for mine and power station waste disposal 2001 2004 On going Investigate disposal options for mining and power station waste 2002 On going Establish a process to review mining and power station waste site closure plans on a regular basis (e.g. every 5 years) 2002 On going Promotion of co-operation between local authorities to establish regional general waste landfill sites 2002 On going
  • Establish an inorganic hazardous waste disposal site 2002 2004 Review closure plans for mine and power station waste disposal sites 2003 2004 On going Remediation of old abandoned mine and power station waste disposal sites 2004 Ongoing Phasing out of co-disposal of hazardous waste with general waste. 2004 2008 Review DWAF Minimum Requirements Every 5 years 13.3 Requirements and Implications 13.3.1 Institutional In the short term the DEAT will continue to enforce the landfill site permit system and the proposed regulations for existing and new landfill sites. This waste management responsibility will eventually be devolved to the provincial level once adequate staff capacity has been developed in the provinces. It is estimated that ten additional staff members are required at the national level to handle the issuing of permits for hazardous waste disposal. Guidelines will be developed that are integrated with the EMPR process for the disposal of mining and power station wastes. The drafting and implementation of guidelines, the issuing of permits for new and existing mines and power station waste disposal sites, and the auditing of sites will require 70 staff members in the DEAT and 10 staff members in the other national government departments. The
  • total staff requirement between 1999 to 2010 is estimated to be the equivalent of 90 person years. Provincial Government: To enforce the requirements of the waste management guidelines, six full time staff members will be required per province, which is equivalent to 648 person years for the period 1999 to 2010. The approach in all cases will be to use existing staff where possible. However, additional resources may be required to effectively perform additional waste management functions: such as the handling of permit applications and the implementation of the national guidelines for all waste generators, including mine and power station wastes. Local Government will take responsibility, where possible, for regional planning, and for the establishment and management of landfill sites particularly the regionally based general waste landfill sites. Each regional authority will require at least one to two staff members to meet this responsibility. Where possible the job descriptions of existing staff will be augmented to include responsibilities relating to landfill sites. The permit holder of a general waste landfill site will be responsible for formalising and controlling salvaging on that site. 13.3.2 Capacity Building Implications The staff of the regulating authority should have at least an appropriate three- year tertiary qualification with skills in engineering, chemistry and environmental management in order to enforce the DWAF Minimum Requirements and to permit waste disposal sites. Core expertise needs to be expanded and the promotion of entrepreneurial skills will be encouraged. Waste site operators will attend courses in waste management e.g. at technikons, to ensure that landfill sites are operated in accordance with the waste management practices specified in the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998). 13.3.3 Legal issues
  • The legislation required to meet the identified strategies, the date by which the legislation must be promulgated as well as legislative requirements which must be met are presented in the following table. Strategy Promulgati on Date Register all landfill sites 1999 Landfill classification system 1999 Regulations for small and communal landfill sites 1999 Dedicated fund for landfill site remediation after closure 1999 Division of responsibilities between government levels 2000 Registration, permit application and DWAF Minimum Requirement compliance 2000 Transfer environmental liability to new waste disposal facility owner 2000 Permitting, auditing and closure process for mining and power station waste disposal sites 2000 Guidelines for inorganic hazardous waste disposal 2002
  • sites DWAF Minimum Requirements to be updated every 5 years 2002 Phase out co-disposal by 2008 2004 Appropriate legislation and incentives to promote partnerships between local and regional authorities on general landfill sites will be investigated (see also section 14.4.5). The transition from the current fragmented legislation, which controls mining and power station waste disposal, to the proposed integrated pollution and waste management legislation will be addressed as part of the environmental Law Reform Process. The introduction of punitive measures to address illegal dumping of waste will also be investigated. Further details on the integration of these activities within the proposed environmental Law Reform Process are provided in section 14.4.3, Part 2. A summary of the required legal instruments with a proposed timetable for implementation is provided in Table 14.3, Part 2. As is indicated in Table 14.3, many of the waste disposal initiatives can be introduced and the mechanism for auditing and monitoring can be set up in terms of existing provisions, in particular section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act (1983). 13.3.4 Estimated Cost of Initiatives The cost for upgrading existing landfill sites to meet the Minimum Requirements is estimated to be between 0.6 and 1 billion Rand and will be phased in. The initial step is to employ sufficient qualified staff to ensure that enforcement is carried out.
  • The short term priority initiatives to enforce existing regulations, secure registration of all disposal sites and evaluate remediation plans, covering the period 1999 to 2002 will require ten staff members in the DEAT and six staff members in each province. A total of 11 million Rand will be required for implementing these priority initiatives. The cost for additional government staff to meet the needs for enforcement of environmental protection regulations at mining and power plants is estimated to be 12 million Rand/year. The permit holder or owner of the landfill site will meet the cost of upgrading the landfill sites. Upgrading of landfill sites during the period 2000 to 2005 is estimated to cost 150 million Rand per year. It is unlikely that this level of finance will be available, and phasing in of the upgrading process will have to be considered. Remediation of landfill sites during the period from 2005 onwards is estimated to cost 1.4 billion Rand. The owners of the landfill sites or the permit holders for both existing and new sites should establish dedicated remediation funds. These funds will be dedicated funds that cannot be pledged as collateral or re-invested by the owner. In situations where liability cannot be enforced, the remediation programme will be financed through state funding. The cost to formalise and control salvaging on a general landfill site is estimated to be approximately R25 000 per landfill site, although this amount may vary between sites. The costs of formalising and controlling salvaging will be borne by the landfill site owner. Historically the private sector has funded many of the existing hazardous waste disposal facilities. Since public ownership of the land and management of the landfill site by private companies on contract has been successful for general waste landfill sites, a similar process will be followed for hazardous waste landfill sites. It is estimated that three hazardous waste sites are required immediately (in 2000, 2001 and 2002), each requiring an initial capital cost of 15 million Rand.
  • The feasibility of such public-private partnerships will be investigated during Action Plan development. The source of funding for the establishment of task teams, technical working groups and the development of mining and power station waste legislation will be borne by the government. The estimated cost for this project is 4 million Rand over 9 years. The mine owners are responsible for developing and revising closure plans. Estimated clean up and remediation costs of polluted sites is estimated to amount to a total of 1 to 2 billion Rand 13.3.5 Public Participation and Partnerships The establishment of one regional general waste disposal site is more economically viable than establishing a number of small local sites. Public-public partnerships although voluntary, will be encouraged and promoted for the development of regional landfill sites. The development of public-private partnerships in the planning and operation of hazardous waste landfill sites is essential and will be pursued wherever possible. Public participation is vital in developing and monitoring landfill sites, and is required by the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998) and EIA (1997) regulations. The public participation process, as described in the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998), will be reviewed every five years. A specialist task team, comprising key stakeholders, will be established to develop guidelines and revise the permitting process for the mining industry and power stations. The review of management and closure plans for mining and power station waste sites will be communicated to the affected industries for feedback and input. 13.4 Dependency on other NWMS activities Timeous planning for waste disposal sites is important and will be facilitated by the registration of all sites through the Waste Information System by the year 2000.
  • Uncontrolled salvaging on general landfill sites will be phased out as soon as possible and formal recycling centres following separation at source will be promoted. . A database of all general, hazardous, industrial, mine an power station waste sites, including the inventory of old abandoned polluting sites, will be developed and captured by the WIS. 13.5 Short-term Priority Initiative The waste disposal initiative selected for short-term implementation is: A process will be initiated to register all landfill sites. Plans will be submitted for remediation and/or meeting the DWAF Minimum Requirements. In addition, permit conditions will be enforced for those sites currently permitted through regular monitoring and auditing. A new permitting process that is integrated with the EMPR process will be initiated for mining and power stations. New hazardous waste disposal sites will be established. 14. Implementing Instruments (Go to the Action Plan) This chapter presents the strategies associated with the essential instruments required for implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy. 14.1 Institutional Development The long-term vision of the NWMS is for an integrated approach to waste management by concentrating the regulatory functions within one environmental lead agent, the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) (including the provincial departments responsible for the environment), which will take responsibility for the integrated waste management processand, applying the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. devolving responsibility to the lowest possible level of government. . The existing institutional functions and responsibilities related to waste management in South Africa are not clearly defined, and are characterised by an overlap of functions and responsibilities, both horizontally and vertically, within government departments. Stakeholders have identified the elimination of the duplication and overlap of waste management activites as a key requirement.
  • The DEAT and the provincial environmental departments at present (1999) have limited jurisdiction over the functions relating to pollution and waste management. Section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act (1989) makes provision for waste management functions in the DEAT, but this provision excludes many waste streams. These waste streams are regulated by legislation that is administered by other departments e.g. mining waste (DME), radioactive waste (DME), hazardous waste (DWAF), landfill site permitting (DWAF), medical waste (DNH), and hazardous substances (DNH). There is therefore a need for integration and for the DEAT to take up its role as waste management lead agent. However, it is not intended to override existing legislation and the present legal mandates of the relevant government departments will be recognised. International experience has demonstrated that the integration of environmental functions, including waste management, through integrated functional, institutional and administrative approaches, results in more efficient and effective management of the environment and management of waste. This integrated approach has resolved the problems encountered with the conflict of interest between environmental protection on the one hand and the exploitation of resources and industrial development on the other hand. All waste management functions are to be consolidated within the DEAT (including the provincial departments responsible for the environment), the lead agent for the environment, subject to completion of negotiations between the DEAT and other departments which are currently responsible for waste. However, capacity, expertise and financial resources are currently (1999) limited in the DEAT and the provincial departments responsible for the environment. Generally, a period of five to seven years will be required to build the necessary capacity in this newly established lead agency. A phased approach over the next five to seven years will be implemented. Regulatory functions will be undertaken by either by concentration of duties in one department or the extension of these duties to other government departments. Waste management functions and responsibilities will be devolved to the lowest possible level of government as required by the Constitution (1996) and set out in
  • the Environmental Management Policy (1998), the National Environmental Management Act (1998) and the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). Provision will also be made for a transition period during which certain waste management functions will be executed by the extension of functions in government departments other than the DEAT and provincial environmental departments. National government will assume overall responsibility for the co-ordination of waste management and will ensure that a national waste management regulatory framework is put in place so that provincial and local government can operate within a structured environment. Specific functions to be carried out by the DEAT are: • Policy and strategy formulation. • Development of a regulatory framework that provides for consistent regulation of integrated waste management in South Africa. Monitoring and auditing of regulatory framework. • Funding to be secured for national programmes, incentive schemes, remediation and waste management investigations. • Setting of national standards for integrated waste management. • Development, implementation and maintenance of a national waste information system (WIS). Provincial and local government will operate within the national framework of integrated pollution and waste management, as spelt out in the Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998). Where necessary, provincial and local government will develop their own legislation and implementation strategies to meet their specific needs. Functions relating to waste management will be carried out by the sphere of government that will be most appropriate and effective. The provincial departments of environment will chair provincial integrated authorisation committees and act as the single entry point for authorisation applications within the province. These committees will also be responsible for
  • monitoring and enforcement functions relating to waste management. One of the primary functions of provincial government will be development planning which will ensure that waste management considerations are integrated into development planning and decision making. Directly or indirectly, the local authorities will be responsible for the provision of waste management services including waste collection, transportation, treatment and safe disposal, as well as the management of disposal facilities. Although the primary responsibility of local government cannot be delegated, aspects thereof may be contracted to third parties. Local government will play a vital role in the collection of local waste information, as well as the dissemination and maintenance of the national WIS data at the local level. The DEAT is currently negotiating the future division of functions and responsibilities with provincial environment departments and other national government departments. A discussion document outlining the vision of the DEAT and the provincial environmental departments, has been discussed with officials of the relevant national government departments. The duties, roles and responsibilites assigned to the various government departments outlined in this Strategy are only initial proposals. The need for further discussions with various government departments has been identified in order to discuss details of the proposal that the DEAT act as lead agent for integrated waste management and to agree how this proposal will be implemented. The allocated responsibilities will be amended where necessary and implemented within the context of co- operative governance with the support of the role players. Following meetings with various departments on an individual basis, a workshop for relevant central government departments, as well as all the provincial environment departments is planned. The outcome of this workshop will give clarity on the future division of functions between the DEAT, the provincial environmental departments and other national government departments. The combined vision of the DEAT and the provincial environmental departments is to move away from the current scenario of many different government Acts regulating waste management functions, fragmentation of responsibilities over
  • various government departments, overlapping and duplication of functions, cost and resource inefficiency, conflicts of interest and inaccessibility. The proposed future scenario is that of one policy, one pollution and waste management legislation and the NWMS, with the resultant consolidation of functions, cost and resource efficiency, reduction in conflict of interests, acceptance of responsibility and a consolidated regulatory system. The DEAT and the provincial environmental departments want to achieve these institutional changes in a spirit of co-operative governance and want to work with all organs of state to achieve sustainable development efficiently and effectively. Regulatory mechanisms e.g. legislation, regulations, minimum requirements, and permitting systems, will therefore be developed in collaboration with the relevant line function departments. The DME will play a key role in the formulation of a strategy for mining waste and developing Action Plans for implementing this strategy. 14.2 Capacity Building Requirements Historically, different government departments have been responsible for various aspects of waste management and the levels of skills in, and understanding of, waste management varies considerably between departments. It is obvious that there is a need to inform and capacitate all sectors of government, as well as the private sector and civil society to successfully implement the NWMS. The DEAT is currently drafting a Capacity Building Plan for Waste Management that includes capacity building requirements for the successful implementation of the NWMS. The Plan is being developed in collaboration with the NWMS Project Steering Committee and is expected to be finalised in1999. The Capacity Building Plan proposes the following initiatives: • Development of a formal Capacity Building Programme for the DEAT and DWAF, at national, provincial and/or regional and local government level. • Development of an awareness and communication strategy to complement the formal Capacity Building Programme by informing all relevant authorities, the private sector, civil society of the NWMS and associated waste management developments. 14.2.1 Formal Capacity Building Programme
  • The DEAT and DWAF will be responsible for determining capacity requirements once the scope of their roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the NWMS have been fully defined. A Learning Needs Analysis will be undertaken to determine the specific skills, knowledge and attributes required which can be used to identify the capacity building requirements. Capacity building requirements will be designed specifically for each tier of government as the learning needs may vary considerably. Throughout the capacity building process, however, a core curriculum will be applied to ensure standardisation. Capacity building programmes may be based on the following approaches: • "On the job training" with the emphasis on mentoring, performance management, teamwork skills development and competency, e.g. for participation in the NWMS designated task teams. • Formal training which will include discussion groups, study tours and technical courses. • Case studies and site visits. • Programme implementation, monitoring and evaluation. To ensure that skills and competencies are retained within the DEAT, personal development programmes and career mapping will be conducted within the parameters of the NWMS. Situation analyses and performance appraisals will be made to identify deviations from the development programme. The DEAT will promote formal waste management training programmes that are already available or under development, for the three levels of government. In parallel with the DEAT initiatives, a number of other capacity building activities are ongoing and must be integrated within the overall NWMS capacity building programme. The environmental departments in Mpumalanga and Gauteng are currently running NWMS relevant training courses and developing waste management manuals, which can also be used in the training programmes of other provinces. The DEAT is also in the process of setting up an Environmental Capacity Building Unit at national level. The objective of the Unit is to strengthen the waste management capacity in the public sector, and to implement environmental management policies and programmes through better trained, informed and
  • qualified staff. The Unit is a joint DEAT/donor funded activity. For the first three years after establishment, the Unit will facilitate capacity building activities within the DEAT and increase the national environmental capacity, especially within the areas of waste management and EIAs. The Unit is expected to play a major role in the implementation of the NWMS Capacity Building Action Plans, which are currently being drafted. 14.2.2 Communication Strategy The DEAT will promote the wide use of the Capacity Building action plans and other capacity building programmes, which will include developing training modules, initiating symposia and workshops, and designing curricula in environmental management integrated waste management. The DEAT, in consultation with stakeholders, will promote and facilitate the development of professional networks and waste management forums. The Internet, as well as other forms of media will be used to disseminate information and to ensure transparency and facilitate public participation. Information will include baseline data of waste generated, links to other waste management data sources, links to government waste management initiatives, contact names, applicable legislation and regulations as well as results of demonstration projects. South Africa has been selected to host the Regional Training Centre on the Basel Convention for the English speaking African countries. This development as well as other international waste management capacity building initiatives, will be promoted and encouraged for building the waste management capacity in South Africa. 14.2.3 Staff estimates Specific capacity building needs have been identified in Chapters 2 to 13, Part 2. Where possible, an estimate has been made of the number of staff required at all levels of government, and, in certain cases, the staff required for the private sector. A summary of the staff person-years required for a successful implementation of the strategy at national, provincial and local government level has been
  • estimated in Table 14.1. These figures highlight the need for capacity building within government. A complete assessment of the available capacity in the waste management sector has not been undertaken. However, investigations into the current human resources and expertise available will indicate what additional capacity building will be required. Table 14.1:Staff Requirements for Implementing the NWMS 14.3 Legislative Requirements The Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, which formed the basis for the NWMS is currently a guideline document until formal Cabinet approval is received. Development of the NWMS has highlighted the legislative requirements, which will be reviewed within the DEAT Law Reform Process. This process may result in changed legislation and departmental legal mandates. The main legal implications associated with the implementation of the NWMS are summarised below and in included in Table 14.2.
  • Table 14.2 indicates that several priority initiatives require legislative support by the end of 1999 or in the year 2000. The times indicated on this table refer to the timing of the promulgation of legislation and not to the implementation of the contents of that legislation (e.g. promulgation of a regulation requiring that all sites be permitted, is distinct from achieving the permitting of all sites). Many of the legal instruments referred to in the table may be implemented as part of a single revised Act. As outlined in Table 14.2, a number of the NWMS priority initiatives may be implemented in the form of regulations issued in terms of Section 24 of the Environment Conservation Act (1983) (this section has not been repealed by the National Environmental Management Act) or as regulations in terms of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (1965) or the Hazardous Substances Act (1973). While some of these provisions may be used in their current format, it is envisaged that most of the relevant provisions of these Acts will be consolidated and updated as part of the process of the Law Reform Process. During this process it will be necessary to undertake important amendments to existing legislative provisions, including for example: • Changing the legal definition of waste (as currently defined in Government Notice No 1986 of 1990 of the Environment Conservation Act) so as to be more inclusive of all waste streams for the purposes of integrated management and administration; • Changing the current emphasis of section 24 of the ECA on waste disposal issues to adopt a more holistic approach reflective of the waste management hierarchy; • Amending permitting requirements to allow for waste issues such as minimisation plans. • The development of enabling legislation for International Conventions and Declarations. The appropriate reporting and feedback mechanisms will be put in place for effective monitoring. Such reforms to existing provisions as described above will reduce the problem of legislative fragmentation and achieve integrated pollution and waste management. The full extent of the required reforms to existing legal provisions will be identified during the audit and review of environmental laws.
  • 14.4 Financial Requirements The availability of funds and the establishment of suitable funding mechanisms are a precondition for the implementation of the NWMS. The following table indicates the current situation as regards funding of waste management services and indicates the financial requirements for implementing integrated waste management. Current Situation Financial Objectives Insufficient funds available for waste management services Develop suitable funding mechanisms for waste monitoring, collection, treatment and disposal Economic imbalance between local authorities Socio-economic balanced implementation Limited accountability for waste management costs Full transparency and accountability Limited economic incentives to promote waste minimisation and recycling, and the collection and safe treatment of the waste produced Funding mechanisms and market-related incentives to promote waste minimisation, recycling, collection and environmentally sound treatment Financial hardship limiting the full implementation of the polluter pays principle Polluter pays principle to be introduced as the main funding mechanism for waste management The funding of services in South Africa, including waste management services, has been problematic over the last five to ten years. The reasons are complex, and include poverty, a lack of services or poor service provision and a past culture of non-payment. The challenge is to reverse this situation.
  • The phased implementation of the NWMS will be funded primarily according to the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP). The PPP is a basic financial and environmental management principle included in the NEMA. PPP is an internationally accepted key principle applied in environmental management and is part of the Rio Declaration. The PPP is defined as: "Those responsible for environmental damage must pay the repair costs, both to the environment and to human health, and the costs of preventive measures to reduce or prevent further pollution and environmental damage". In the context of the NWMS, the producer of waste, e.g. private persons, government or industry is usually the polluter who must be responsible for costs associated with the safe collection, treatment and disposal of waste. Costs include not only direct costs, but also management costs associated with the waste, as well as costs related to the prevention and remediation of future problems (arising, for example, from old waste sites, or tailings dams). It is accepted that situations may arise where the polluter cannot meet the total waste management cost and therefore the economic capacity of the polluter and society as a whole must be carefully considered. The waste management priority initiatives included in the strategy all fall within a domain where the PPP can be easily applied. The PPP can be implemented either through: • "Command and control" i.e. administrative regulations that instruct the polluter on what is required, and how to comply. This option ensures that the polluter pays the relevant cost. • Economic incentives that change the cost and/or price structure of the collection, treatment and disposal of waste in a way that is expected to promote alternative behaviour, such as the minimisation of waste, recycling, and treatment. The PPP is presently usually implemented through administrative regulations, together with service payment systems. The feasibility of successfully introducing additional economic incentives will be further investigation. The implementation of the NWMS will also be guided by other principles for environmental management, including social equity and ecological sustainability, as well as economic efficiency and financial viability; all of which are included in
  • the NEMA (1998). The consequences of implementing the PPP within the framework of these principles includes: • The establishment of "Lifeline" systems for basic needs such as subsidisation of waste collection services for communities that cannot afford to pay for basic services. Lifeline tariffs and how they should be funded will form part of a waste pricing strategy. • The possible phasing out of substances that result in ecologically hazardous waste. • Prioritisation of initiatives that will be implemented when funding becomes available. The Department of Finance has indicated as a starting point that the priority initiatives should be funded, or co-funded by the private sector as far as is possible, and where government funding is required, this funding must be applied for from the fiscus through the normal budgetary channels. The Department of Finance has also indicated that waste charges, levies and taxes as well as tax incentives are not likely to be approved. Payment for services is, however, fully acceptable, although the extent to which administrative costs and other overheads can be included in the payments still needs to be investigated. Additional investigation is required to establish firm guidelines for payment for services e.g. in the case of mandatory waste collection, treatment and disposal. It should be borne in mind that payment of waste management costs from the fiscus, without a corresponding increase in revenue being collected from the waste generators, is not consistent with the Polluter Pays Principle. To implement the NWMS according to the PPP in the short-term will only be possible via administrative regulations, i.e. the command/control/punishment approaches, combined with payment for services, and aided to some extent by donor funding (e.g. as seed money for initiatives) and subsidisation, in order to support the principle of social equity. Strong enforcement mechanisms have to be in place when using the command and control approach. These initiatives need to be investigated together with other mechanisms of implementing the PPP, such as market-based initiatives, and dedicated economic incentives. This
  • work should also be strongly integrated with considerations and approaches of environmental resource economics. The Department of Trade and Industry together with private sector currently manage some economic incentives, which promote development e.g. for small and medium-sized industries. These incentives may be applicable to promote waste management and will therefore be further investigated. Cost estimates for the implementation of all the NWMS priority initiatives are assessed and summarised in Table 14. 3, Part 2. Table 14.3:Summary of Cost Estimates for the NWMS Priority Initiatives
  • Note: These are 1998 Rand estimates 14.4.1 Estimated Costs of the NWMS Priority Initiatives
  • The estimated financial requirements for the NWMS priority initiatives are presented below and in Table 14.3. The cost estimates cover the cost of implementation of all the priority initiatives. Private investments and contributions are, in general, not taken into account, but will be estimated during the compilation of Action Plans. The staff estimates are presented as full time or in equivalent person years. A detailed explanation of the relation between staff and person years is given in Table 14.2, Part 2. More detailed cost estimates can be found in relevant sections in Chapters 7 to 13, Part 2. Costs Estimations for the Implementation of the Integrated Waste Management Planning System The estimated cost to implement waste management planning has been based on the human resources required to implement a series of initiatives, starting with drafting regulations and guidelines for waste management planning (1999-2000), the training of staff members involved with the planning initiative, and implementing education and awareness campaigns. The first generation general waste and hazardous waste plans are scheduled for submission in 2003. The final plans will be submitted four years later. Drafting of planning regulations and the compilation of guidelines for waste management planning and investigations into appropriate waste treatment and disposal technologies is estimated to cost 2.3 million Rand over the period 1999 and 2000. Although some capacity already exists, considerable development is required to develop the national, provincial and local waste management planning capability. A rough estimate of 10 million Rand is required to meet the needs at provincial level in the year 2000 and 16 million Rand is required over the years 2000 and 2001 at local level for capacity building, education and awareness building (Section 4.4, Part 1). To ensure proper public participation processes and sound
  • awareness campaigns for the implementation of the waste management planning system, an additional 11 million Rand is required over a ten-year period. As waste management planning in the future will be part of the environmental planning procedures scheduled in the National Environmental Management Act, it is difficult to estimate the human resources needed for implementation of the waste planning process. The staff requirements are estimated as full time staff for conducting planning activities during the years 1999 to 2010. The human resources required during the total twelve-year period are estimated to be equivalent to approximately 2 683 person years. Cost Estimations for the Implementation of a Waste Information System The development of the Waste Information System (WIS) will be carried out at national level. The development costs include the cost for personnel to develop the WIS (5 million Rand), as well as capacity building, WIS education and awareness programmes, estimated at 10 million Rand. The capital costs for hardware, e.g. computers and information technology is estimated to be 6 million Rand to be spent by the year 2000. Operating the system is estimated to cost 57 million Rand per year. This is a rough estimate and assumes full implementation from inception as well as comprehensive data capture. The short-term implementing initiative (Section 4.4.8, Part 1) has reviewed this estimate and reduced data requirements according to immediate needs. Salaries for full implementation of the data capture are 50 million Rand a year (1 000 data collectors with a monthly salary of R4 000 per month). Detailed planning for the implementation of the system is needed, since full operation will start in 2001. Special consideration will be given to confirm that annual data collection is really necessary. It has been assumed that operating costs for the system in the future will be recovered through a registration fee imposed on the waste entities. Such financial mechanisms will have to be developed in consultation with the Department of Finance.
  • Cost Estimations for the Implementation of the Waste Minimisation Initiatives The promotion and implementation of waste minimisation initiatives will require capacity building in national, provincial and local government. The cost of implementing the waste minimisation initiatives is estimated to be 49 million Rand. The phased implementation of these initiatives is anticipated to start in 1999. Operating costs are estimated at 2 million Rand per year for the twelve-year period, calculated from the number of staff specified in Table 9.2, Part 2. Cost Estimations for the Implementation of the Recycling Initiatives Promotion and implementation of recycling is accorded a high priority. The estimated cost for the investigation is 13 million Rand. Phasing in of the implementation of the initiatives will require 2 million Rand in 1999, 4 million Rand in 2000-2001 and 3 million Rand in 2002. Funding mechanisms and funds will have to be found for the recycling development programme. Considerable capacity building will be required, especially at provincial and local level. A cost of 16.2 million Rand is estimated for capacitating two staff members in each of the 800 local governments and 20 provincial staff members, over a three-year period (2002 to 2005). The recycling team at national level is estimated to cost 9 million Rand over the planning period. The estimated cost for the implementation of the tyre-recycling project is 30 million Rand to be financed jointly by industry and government. The estimated operational costs of 20 million Rand over the ten years period (2 million a year) has to be funded and suitable funding mechanisms have to be developed. Cost Estimations for the Implementation of the Waste Collection Initiatives Provision of waste collection services to all South Africans will require capacity development and utilise experience gained from existing schemes. These experiences (successes and failures) have to be incorporated in a development project carried out by DEAT and funded by seed money. The cost is estimated to be 0.5 million Rand to be used in 1999. To provide standards for general waste
  • collection systems, staff have to be in place at national and/or provincial level. The cost to employ two staff members to implement the waste collection planing activities during a five-year period (1999 to 2004) is estimated at 1 million Rand. The cost of provision of collection services in poorly and non-serviced areas is calculated by assuming that 3 million households at a cost of R8 per household per month need a collection service. A phased implementation can be foreseen. Although the full cost of 288 million Rand does not need to be financed immediately, a pricing policy must be developed urgently. Additional administrative staff in local government will be needed and capacity building and training programmes implemented. Full implementation of collection services in unserviced high-density and poorly serviced areas is estimated to cost 300 million Rand per year. Carefully planned funding mechanisms based on the specified principles and criteria must be developed. Cost estimates for raising public awareness, i.e. giving guidance to how private individuals can assist in the implementation of the national waste management strategy, is estimated at 5 million Rand over a five-year period (2000 to 2005). The cost of establishing and operating a number of hazardous waste transfer stations/collection points is estimated at 90 million Rand, to be spent during the years 2002 to 2004. Operating costs are estimated at 3 million Rand per year from the year 2005. Appropriate funding mechanisms for waste collection services need to be developed. Cost Estimations for the Implementation of the Waste Treatment Initiatives It is assumed that in the short, medium and long-term one staff member will be required at DEAT and one staff member in each province for reviewing the classification system for waste treatment, reviewing emission standards and updating of guidelines for hazardous waste treatment. 18 staff members at a cost of 3 million Rand per year are required to assess existing facilities at national/provincial government.
  • The cost for establishing one regional medical waste facility to replace present medical waste incinerators is estimated to be 120 million Rand, (40 million per year, starting in the year 2000). Investment is budgeted for two hazardous waste treatment facilities (the first in 2003/4 and the second 2007/8) assuming that appropriate alternative hazardous waste treatment technologies (alternatives to co-disposal) are in place. The new facilities have an estimated cost of 50 to 150 million Rand per facility. An inorganic hazardous waste treatment facility (e.g. for treating wastewater from the metal finishing industry), for operation by 2002, is estimated to cost 20 million Rand. Operating costs are estimated to be 2 million Rand per year from the year 2002. Cost Estimations for the Implementation of the Waste Disposal Initiatives The cost of initiatives related to the investigation of alternative methods for disposing of waste from the mining and power generation sectors is estimated to be 4 million Rand over 9 years starting in 2002. Upgrading of existing general landfill sites to meet the DWAF Minimum Requirements is estimated to be between 0.6 and 1 billion Rand. A phased implementation is suggested, starting in the year 2000 by using 150 million Rand every year over 6 years. The establishment cost of three new hazardous waste disposal sites is estimated to be 15 million Rand and is scheduled for operation in 2000, 2001 and 2002. Clean up and remediation costs of polluted sites is roughly estimated to cost between 1 and 2 billion Rand. The remediation scheme is scheduled to start in 2004 with provision of 200 million Rand per year during the rest of the planning period. The waste disposal initiatives will require additional staff at all tiers of government. It is estimated that 164 specialists are required to enforce existing and additional regulations, resulting from the implementation of the NWMS. The staff at provincial government responsible for hazardous waste disposal,
  • including waste from mining and power stations, and for general waste disposal is estimated to cost 23 million Rand per year from the year 2000. The staff requirements to implement the priority initiatives in the short-term (Section 4.4 in Part 1) are estimated to be ten members in the DEAT, six in each province and 20 at local government. The total personnel cost is estimated to be 11 million Rand per year. 14.5 Public Participation and Partnerships The promotion of public participation in environmental governance is one of the national environmental management principles stated in Section 2(4)(f) of the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) (Act 107 of 1998). Requirements and structures for public participation, including the establishment of a National Environmental Advisory Forum (NEAF) and a Committee for Environmental Co-ordination (CEC), are contained in Sections 3, 4, 7, 8, 23(1) (d), 35 and 47 of the NEMA. In line with this legal requirement, appropriate public participation will take place where necessary during the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy. Public participation is closely linked with education and public awareness. The significant difference between awareness programs and public participation is that public awareness focuses on disseminating information, whereas public participation aims at obtaining participation, comment, input and feedback from the public. All public participation programs contained in the NWMS will involve as wide a range of stakeholders as possible, and commence at the earliest possible stage of development of the policy, program, project, etc. Public participation will be facilitated in accordance with the prevailing legislation. Mechanisms that may be used include: multi-sectoral workshops; public hearings; open-days; publishing draft documents for comment and soliciting feedback; and convening stakeholder committees. Public participation will take place at national level during the development of national legislation, guidelines, policies and strategies, as well as in the setting of national targets and objectives. Public participation programs pitched at
  • provincial level will form part of the development of provincial legislation and provincial planning e.g. the development of provincial Hazardous Waste Management Plans. Public participation focussed at local level will take place during the development (and periodic revision) of Waste Management Plans by the local authority, and during all stages of the lifecycle of waste management facilities (e.g. treatment and disposal facilities). Public participation during the planning, development, operation, decommissioning and closure of waste facilities will be structured to facilitate extensive community level involvement. Transparency at these forums must be ensured at all times and mechanisms should be in place to discourage counterproductive activities by any of the parties involved in the participation process. The development of partnerships has been identified as an important mechanism for providing the facilities and services contained in the NWMS. For the purpose of the NWMS, partnerships are defined as a contractual arrangement to deliver services or develop facilities. Partnerships will be encouraged as a means of implementing the NWMS, wherever they are both environmentally and economically advantageous. The primary categories of partnerships that were identified as flexible and viable mechanisms for implementing the NWMS are: • Public-public partnerships, which are contracts between the public sector and public service providers to perform management services, assume commercial risks or even provide long-term investments in municipal services. Public-public partnerships that will be promoted as part of the NWMS are combined initiatives by local government structures or local and provincial government to develop regional waste treatment and disposal facilities. • Public-private partnerships are contracts between public and private sector bodies entered into to access outside sources of long-term financing for infrastructure investment and management, operation and maintenance expertise. In such partnerships, the private sector body may assume commercial risks and responsibility for service fee collection. • NGO/CBO partnerships are contracts between public sector and non-profit non- government organisations (NGOs) or community-based organisations (CBOs), usually aimed at supporting the delivery of services. Although NGO and CBO groups generally assume minimal risk, their close community links are valuable in development initiatives.
  • • Private-private partnerships are agreements between private sector bodies, and may also provide business opportunities. In terms of the NWMS, government will encourage and, where necessary, facilitate such initiatives. A number of different types of partnerships can be developed, including but not limited to those listed below. • Co-operation • Contracting out of management and/or service functions • Leases • Concessions, including for example BOT "Build, operate and transfer" • Privatisation / transfer of ownership • Management / employee buy-out or concession • Joint venture • Private sector financing of public sector debt. The NWMS does not specify types of partnerships to be entered into, since partnerships generally require high levels of stakeholder consultation and participation, project risk management and risk mitigation before they are concluded. Instead, the strategy requires that opportunities for the formation of partnerships be investigated and that such partnerships be pursued in the implementation of the Strategy. The Department of Finance has a policy of encouraging private sector involvement in and financing of capital intensive projects, such as the development of waste treatment and disposal facilities. The Department of Constitutional Development has recently reached a framework agreement with the South African Local Government Association setting conditions for private sector involvement in the provision of municipal services. A draft document has been prepared entitled "Municipal Service Partnerships", which may be consulted to provide guidance on the development of all types of partnerships. The Development Bank of South Africa may also be approached to provide assistance with the formation of public-private partnerships. Specific proposed initiatives are described in Chapters 7 to 13, Part 2. 14.6 Awareness and Education The successful implementation of the NWMS will require that all South Africans are aware of waste issues as an integral part of the creation of a healthy
  • environment, and are empowered to play their specific role in the development and implementation of the waste management initiatives. The first element of awareness building will be the development of a NWMS awareness programme. This programme, comprising activities at three levels of government, will be a prerequisite for the implementation of the strategy and will be designed at an early stage in the development of Action Plans. Firstly a general awareness campaign will be designed and conducted, in co- ordination with the other on-going waste campaigns and other relevant campaigns, e.g. the Masakane Campaign. This programme will be implemented primarily by the DEAT. Secondly, campaigns at the relevant levels of government that will be needed as part of the implementation of those priority initiatives that are directed at local communities, such as the initiation of waste collection services. This campaign will involve the local government and I&APs and may be initiated through workshops to organise the campaign and disseminate awareness. Thirdly, initiatives that involve specific sectors, such as waste minimisation initiatives, will need to direct the awareness campaign at the relevant sector through sector associations, development institutions labour organisations etc. Awareness activities at all levels will be co-ordinated and facilitated by the DEAT as the national lead agency, assisted as appropriate by other national departments. Since funding will form part of the individual initiatives, the awareness campaigns at national level will be funded primarily via the DEAT budget. The DEAT has already launched a National Waste and Pollution Management Campaign aimed at building the culture of responsibility in communities with regard to Integrated Pollution and Waste Management. The ultimate goal of this campaign is to sensitise communities, to encourage them to think creatively about solving the problems of waste and to motivate them to establish projects, which will alleviate pollution and waste problems and thereby improve the quality of life of the community. Both provincial and local governments have adopted the campaign.
  • The short-term initiative for waste collection will begin with an ongoing public awareness campaign. In the long-term, improvements in the field of environmental management must be brought about through educational programmes, which will result in systematic capacity building through the formal education system. Activities directed towards the educational system, such as development of teaching materials for schools and the development of training courses for tertiary educational institutions will need to be developed as part of the implementation of the strategy. The DEAT is actively involved with the Department of Education and with schools to introduce environmental education into the school system. This schools project will be planned and implemented in parallel and in close co- operation with the capacity building components of the NWMS. References The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, (1996), The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108, Pretoria. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, (1998), Draft White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa, Notice 1686, Pretoria. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, (1998), White Paper on Environmental Policy for South Africa, Notice 749, Pretoria. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, (1989), The Environment Conservation Act, No. 74, No. 74, Pretoria. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, (1998), The National Environmental Act, No. 107, Cape Town. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, (1998), The National Water Act, No. 36, Pretoria. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, (1998), Minimum Requirements for the Handling, Classification and Disposal of Hazardous Waste, Second Edition, Pretoria.
  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, (1998), Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by Landfill, Second Edition, Pretoria. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, (1998), Minimum Requirements for Water Monitoring at Waste Management Facilities, Second Edition, Pretoria. Annexure 1 Definitions and Terms Action Plans Action Planning is the process, which defines, targets, methods, tasks, responsibilities, time frames, control procedures and the results expected for a specific activity or range of activities. Cleaner Production The continuous application of an integrated preventative environmental strategy to processes, products and services so as to increase eco-efficiency and reduce the risks to humans and the environment Cleaner Technologies Production processes or equipment with a low rate of waste production and/or high levels of resource efficiency. Treatment and recycling plants are not classed as cleaner technologies Co-disposal Co-disposal is the mixing and joint disposal of Hazardous (H) and General (G) waste in the same landfill site. The co- disposal of general waste with hazardous waste as a means of facilitating disposal on a hazardous waste landfill site is acceptable, whereas the co-disposal of any significant quantity of hazardous waste with general waste on a general waste landfill site is unacceptable.
  • Disposer A waste disposer is any entity that is involved in the disposal of waste, whether this entity is the original generator of the waste or an outside contractor. Disposal is not exclusively landfilling but inter alia includes recycling, incineration, and stabilisation in cement. Duty of Care This principle requires that any entity that generates, transports, treats or disposes of waste must ensure that there is no unauthorised transfer or escape of waste from its control. Such an entity must retain documentation describing the waste and any related transactions. In this way, the entity that generates, transports, treats or diposes of waste retains responsibility for the waste generated or handled. End-of-Pipe Treatment Treating pollutants at the end of a process, for example, by filters, catalysts and scrubbers, instead of preventing waste at the outset. Entity-Specific Entity-specific information is the information that describes the information supplier. EMPR The environmental aspects of the mining process must form part of an Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) that is a requirement under the Minerals Act (Act 50 of 1991) prior to obtaining mining authorisation. External Recycling Where materials are re-used or reprocessed outside the
  • operation where the materials were originally produced; the recycled materials may or may not return to the company of origin. Final Waste Management Plan A final waste management plan involves a thorough description of: • The waste management status quo, including data on the waste stream, comprising generation, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal, of all waste produced within an area of jurisdiction. • Setting targets for integrated waste management and procedures for compliance. • Developing four-year action plans and a twelve-year macro development plan. First Generation Waste Management Plan A first generation hazardous and/or general waste planning procedure comprises a description of the baseline situation, and an analysis of the problems and needs and sets priorities and targets for the implementation of the waste management plan. Generator A generator of waste is seen as any entity, which produces waste. In this sense all households can be classified as waste generators, as are all hospitals and other industrial and commercial ventures. It is not reasonable for all households to report their wastes and these will be aggregated on a local government level. In the NWMS, generators (or sources of waste) are divided into domestic, commercial and industrial. Hazardous Waste Landfill Site A landfill site that is specifically designed for accepting hazardous waste. Sites are defined as HH or Hh sites in
  • terms of the DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998). Incineration Incineration is both a form of treatment and a form of disposal. It is the controlled combustion of waste materials to a non-combustible residue or ash, and exhaust gases such as carbon dioxide and water. Information Supplier An information supplier is any entity that is classified as a waste generator, waste transporter or waste disposer. In this respect a local government is an information supplier in the same way as an industrial enterprise or a landfill site contractor. Identification Number (Registration number) Is a unique number assigned to an information supplier and is unique to each such reporting entity, comprising a company number and a site-specific number. Internal recycling Recycling that takes place within the process or operation that has generated waste. Leachate A leachate is the liquid formed when waste comes into contact with water (or another liquid). Potentially hazardous chemicals from the waste dissolve in the water and could pose a serious risk to the environment. Life Cycle Assessment A systematic compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs, and the potential environmental impacts of a production system throughout its life cycle (i.e. from raw material acquisition to final disposal). Minimum Requirements In referring to Minimum Requirements in this document reference is being made to "Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 1998. Waste Management Series. Minimum
  • Requirements, Second Edition (1998)" which stipulates the minimum standards that have to be fulfilled in the management of hazardous wastes. Modelling Modelling encompasses a number of approaches for the mathematical description of a process. These approaches range from very simplified approaches such as linear extrapolation to more detailed approaches such as the modelling of a generic process. Modelling is used to infer the potential performance of a technology or process according to the required level of detail using the smallest possible data set. This objective differentiates modelling from synthesis, which is an exhaustive and accurate mathematical detailing of everything that takes place in a process. Polluter Pays Principle Those responsible for environmental damage must pay the remediation costs, both to the environment and to human health, and the costs of preventive measures to reduce or prevent further pollution and environmental damage. Stabilised Waste A solid waste, usually inorganic hazardous waste, is said to have been stabilised when it has been treated to minimise its leachability and hence it’s hazardous properties and impact on the environment. The method for the determining the hazard rating of a waste is included in the DWAF Minimum Requirements for the Handling, Classification and Disposal of Hazardous Waste. Standard Industrial Classifications These are the Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) as formulated by the Central Statistical Services of South Africa according to the requirements of the United Nations.
  • They differ in some respects from the International Standard Industrial Classifications (ISIC) as they have been developed for the South African situation. The SIC codes contain a precisely defined hierarchical classification of industrial activities. Strategy Strategy is used in this document to mean a broad course of action designed to make the best use of resources and opportunities and offering the best prospect of achieving the defined objectives whilst dealing with the risks that may be involved in the course of action. Subsidiarity Devolving responsibility to the lowest possible level of government. Transporter A transporter of waste is any entity, which moves waste from the point of generation to the point of storage, recycling, treatment or disposal, be this temporary or permanent movement of the waste. Waste Waste is an undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, or residue of any process or activity that has been discarded, accumulated or been stored for the purpose of discarding or processing. Waste products may be gaseous, liquid or solid or any combination thereof and may originate from domestic, commercial or industrial activities, and include sewage sludge, radioactive waste, as well as mining, metallurgical and power generation waste. Waste Manifest A waste manifest is a document that must be completed by the generator, the transporter and the disposer of hazardous waste. It is used to control the movement of
  • these wastes to ensure that all loads reach their destination in terms of the "Duty of Care" Principle. Waste Minimisation Waste minimisation comprises any activity to prevent or reduce the volume and/or environmental impact of waste that is generated, treated, stored or disposed of. Waste Minimisation Assessment The systematic collection of information to identify opportunities for reducing or eliminating waste. A waste assessment should result in the identification of the origin, quantity, and composition of all wastes that are generated, and usually will involve the derivation of a material mass balance. Waste Minimisation Plan A systematic strategy for the proper management, handling and disposal of wastes, with a particular emphasis on the opportunities for waste minimisation. Waste-Specific Waste-specific information details the waste stream generated, transported or disposed of by the information supplier Annexure 2 Abbreviations AEC Atomic Energy Corporation CBO Community-Based Organisation CEC Committee for Environmental Co-ordination
  • CNS Council for Nuclear Safety CONNEPP Consultative National Environmental Policy Process CP Cleaner Production DANCED Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development DEAT Department of Environment al Affairs and Tourism DME Department of Minerals and Energy DoH Department of Health DTI Department of Trade and Industry DWAF Department of Water Affairs and Forestry ECA Environment Conservation Act (Act 74 of 1983) EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EMPR Environmental Management Programme Report EMS Environmental Management System
  • GIS Geographical Information System GW General Waste HW Hazardous Waste I&AP Interested and Affected Party IEM Integrated Environmental Management IP&WM Integrated Pollution and Waste Management LCA Life Cycle Analysis LDO Land Development Objectives NEAF National Environmental Advisory Forum NEMA National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998) NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NWMS National Waste Management Strategy PMG Project Management Group
  • PPP Polluter Pays Principle PRTR Pollutant Release and Transfer Register PSC Project Steering Committee SDI Spatial Development Initiatives SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprises SMME Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises WIS Waste Information System WWTP Waste Water Treatment Plant Annexure 3 Summary of Existing Key Legislation on Waste Management Issues This Annexure – which complements section 9.3 of Part 2 of the NWMS – outlines some of the principal existing legislation that will be considered during the environmental law reform process for implementation of the NWMS. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive: a full audit of pollution and waste legislation will be undertaken as part of the formal Law Reform Process; further detail on legislation is also provided in the baseline studies of the NWMS. Existing legislation on waste management in South Africa is generally fragmented, diverse and ineffectively administered. Responsibility for executing
  • waste management functions and for the enforcement of the current waste related legislation is not always clear and is spread over a number of national, provincial and local government departments (see Table Annexure 4). This unsatisfactory situation is compounded by the fact that the definition of waste for the purposes of the Environment Conservation Act specifically excludes radioactive, as well as mining and power plant waste. The co-ordinated management of these waste streams is an area of particular concern and will require detailed attention, particularly as regards institutional issues. In ensuring effective co-ordination of existing waste legislation, attention will also need to be focussed on integrating and consolidating current permitting requirements. Certain framework legislation exists with which the principles and implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy need to be compatible. This legislation includes in particular: The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act, 1996 (Act 108 1996) All legislation has to fall within the stipulations of the Constitution. The following sections are of particular relevance when developing legislation for the NWMS: • Section 24 – The right to a clean and healthy environment • Section 32 - Access to information • Section 33 - Just administrative action • Chapter 6 - Provincial Government competency (Schedules 4 & 5) • Chapter 7 - Local Government competency (Schedule 4 & 5) In terms of sections 15 (1) & (2) of Schedule 6 (Transitional Arrangements) it is anticipated that the permitting of waste disposal sites will be devolved to the provincial level of government in February 1999 (subject to capacity). The National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998) This Act provides for co-operative environmental governance by establishing principles for decision making on matters affecting the environment. As the principal framework act for environmental issues, it has direct relevance to the implementation of the National Waste Management Strategy, one of the key
  • implications being the designation of the DEAT as lead agent for the environment. In the NWMS specific roles have been identified for the National Environmental Advisory Forum and for the Committee for Environmental Co- ordination, while provision has also been made for using Environmental Implementation and Management Plans, and Environmental Management Co- operation Agreements. Chapter 7 of NEMA also has important direct implications for the achievement of the NWMS initiatives. There are a number of existing laws that may need to be amended and/or more effectively co-ordinated as part of the NWMS. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive. The Environment Conservation Act, 1989 (Act 74 of 1983) This Act is of particular relevance to waste disposal. Although the DEAT is the main custodian of that Act, responsibility for the permitting of waste disposal sites has been delegated to the DWAF. Sections of the act, which are of specific importance to waste management, include: • Section 19 – Littering and administered by Local Authorities • Section 20 – Waste management (permitting of waste disposal sites) • Section 24 –Regulations regarding waste management --although this section has an emphasis on waste disposal, it has significant potential to be used in implementing a number of the NMWS initiatives. • Government Notice No 1986 of 1990 – this definition specifically excludes radioactive, mining and power plant waste The National Water Act, 1998 (Act No 36 of 1998) The purpose of the Act is to ensure that the country’s water resources are protected, used, developed and conserved in ways which take into account the protection of aquatic and associated ecosystems; that addresses basic human needs; that ensures the reduction and prevention of pollution; and that meets international obligations. Relevant sections include: • Section 20 - control of emergency incidents • Section 21(g)&(h) - water use includes disposing of waste in a manner, which may detrimentally impact on a waste resource. • Section 138 – Establishment of National Information System
  • Note that applications for permits, licences and exemptions made before the promulgation of this Act could still be dealt with in terms of the Water Act 1956 (Act No 54 of 1956). The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act 45 of 1965) This Act, administered by the DEAT, regulates the control of air pollution. In terms of Schedule 2 "waste incineration processes" is deemed to be a scheduled process thus requiring a registration certificate. Regulations may be promulgated in terms of section 44 of the Act. The Minerals Act, 1991 (Act No 50 of 1991) This Act is administered by the DME in close consultation with the DWAF, the DEAT, the Department of Health and the Department of Agriculture as stipulated under section 39(3)(b). Section 39, relating to EMPRs, is of particular potential relevance. The Hazardous Substances Act 1973 (Act No 15 of 1973) This Act (and its regulations) regulate the transportation of defined hazardous substances and prohibits the disposal of certain radioactive wastes on landfills. The Health Act, 1977 (Act No 63 of 1977) This Act is used by the DWAF to determine the buffer zone of a proposed waste disposal site. The Nuclear Energy Act, 1993 (Act 131 of 1993) This Act is administered by the Council for Nuclear Safety and is referred to in the Minimum Requirements (DWAF) for the classification of wastes. The Act is of specific relevance to the development of the strategy for radioactive waste. The Local Government Transition Act 209 of 1993 This Act makes provision for the powers and duties of local authorities (schedule 2 & 2(a)). In terms of the Act local councils must formulate and implement an integrated development plan incorporating land use and infrastructure planning. This development planning could include the determination of a waste disposal strategy and the identification of sites for waste disposal facilities. The Organised Local Government Act 52 of 1997
  • This Act provides for procedures by which local government may consult with the national and provincial governments and is of relevance to some of the NWMS planning initiatives. Import and Export Act 45 of 1963 Section 2 (1) of the Act may be used to regulate the import and export of waste. INTEGRATING PERMIT REQUIREMENTS One of the key objectives of the NWMS is to ensure more effective integration of permitting requirements. There are currently a number of permits, licences and authorisations that related to pollution and waste issues. These include for example: • Registration Certificates for Scheduled Processes issued in terms of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (this includes e.g. authorisation by DEAT for incinerators) • Permits for waste disposal sites issued by DWAF under section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act (Done) • Exemption for liquid effluent discharge: this is still currently administered in terms of section 21 of the Water Act; in terms of the National Water Act licences will be required if the discharge does not fall within "general authorisation" (DWAF lead agent) • Licences issued for water users in terms of the National Water Act. (DWAF lead agent) • The EMP procedure for mines, headed by DME in consultation with DWAF and DEAT • Requirements relating to environmental impact assessments under the Environment Conservation Act (note also Chapter 5 of the National Environmental Management Act). As described in section 14.3, the approach that will be adopted to integrate and amend the above (and other related) legislation will be dependent upon decisions that are agreed to during the environmental Law Reform Process. Critical to this process will be the decisions that are taken regarding the institutional structures relating to environmental management in South Africa. Annexure 4 Existing Institutional Arrangement are set out in the attached table
  • Existing Division of Waste Management Functions and Responsibilities - Status Quo (January 1999) Hazardous waste Medical Waste Power Plant Waste Agricultural Waste Radio Active Waste Mining Waste General Waste Waste Information Waste Minimisation Transport Emergency Service INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Policy/Strategy development DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT Nat & Prov Regulatory (incl Authorisations) DWAF DNH DME AGRIC CNS DME DME DWAF DEAT Nat & Prov DEAT DTI Transport Nat depts prov & local Monitoring/ Auditing DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat DEAT Prov & Local DEAT Nat / prov DEAT Nat / prov Management Private Industry Clinics Hospitals Power Plants Farmers Co-ops Private Industry AEC ESKOM Mines Mines DWAF Local Govt Private DEAT DNH Prov Local Industry SMME’S Local govt Industry Local Govt Industry LEGISLATION Enabling Legislation DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat Regulations DWAF DNH DME Agric CNS DME DME DWAF DEAT prov DEAT DTI Transport DEAT prov By laws Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt Local Govt
  • Appeals DWAF DNH DME Agric DME DME DWAF DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT PLANNING Guidelines DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat DEAT Nat Implementation plans for province DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov DEAT prov Detailed Planning DWAF Local govt Industry DNH Local Govt Industry DME Industry Agric Industry DME Industry DME Industry DWAF Local govt Industry DEAT prov Local govt DEAT nat DTI Transport Local govt Industry DEAT prov Local govt CAPACITY BUILDING Training DWAF Training Institutes DNH Training Institutes DME Training Institutes Agric Training Institutes DME Training Institutes DME Training Institutes DWAF Local govt Private DEAT nat DTI Industry Transport Industry Prov Local govt Industry Personal Development DWAF Training Institutes DNH Training Institutes DME Training Institutes Agric Training Institutes DME Training Institutes DME Training Institutes DWAF Local govt Private DEAT nat DEAT prov Local govt DTI Industry Transport Industry Prov Local govt Industry Education & Awareness DEAT nat DWAF DEAT nat DNH DEAT nat DME DEAT nat Agric DEAT nat DME DEAT nat DME DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov Local govt DEAT nat DTI DEAT nat transport DEAT prov Local govt Industry FUNDING
  • Central/Prov/ Local DWAF private Industry DNH Clinic Hospital DME Power Plants Agric DME DME DWAF Local govt DEAT nat DEAT prov local govt DEAT DTI Transport DEAT prov Private Enterprise Generators Clinics Hospitals Power plants Farmers private Industry AEC ESKOM Mines Mines Waste generating companies Industry Industry Industry Industry International All agencies All agencies All agencies All agencies All agencies All agencies Funding Agencies Funding Agencies All agencies All agencies All agencies COORDINATING MECHANISMS Committee for Environmental Coordination DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT DEAT Authorisation Committee DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov Steering Committee DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT nat DEAT prov DEAT prov Watershed Comm DWAF DWAF DWAF Annexure 5 Acknowledgements Ministries Minister Z Pallo Jordan Minister Kader Asmal Deputy Minister Peter R Mokaba, who chaired the Project Steering Committee Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
  • Mr. Paul Maclons Mr. Tinus Joubert Ms. Nomphelo Daniel Ms. Hanlie Hattingh Ms. Tshilidzi Ligaraba Mr. Lucas Mahlangu Mr. Buti Mathebula Dr. Suzan Oelofse Mr. Willem Scott Mr. Godfery Sebola Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Ms. Barbara Schreiner Mr Sakkie van der Westhuizen Mr. Leon Bredenhann Mr. Thorsten Aab Mr. Henry Abbot Ms Eustathia Bofilatos Ms Bettie Conradie Mr. Larry Eichstadt Mr. Gerrie le Roux Ms. Wilna Moolman Mr. Arthur Mzamo Ms. Glory Nosilela-Twala MINMEC: Environment and Nature Conservation Dr. Tienie Burgers / Dr TS Farisaric MEC Northern Province Mr. PH Makgoe MEC Free State Mr NL Mathebula/ Mr. David Makhwanazi MEC Mpumalanga Mr. T Makweya MEC Northern Cape Dr. MF Matlaopane MEC Northern Cape Mr. JWH Meiring MEC Western Cape Ms. Nomvula Mokonyane MEC Gauteng Ms. Edna Molewa MEC North West Province
  • Mr E Godongwana/ Mr. Smuts Ngonyama MEC Eastern Cape Mr. Nkosi Ngubane MEC KwaZulu Natal Donor: Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED) Mr. Einar Jensen Environmental Attaché Mr. Peter Lukey Programme Officer Dr. Albert Welinder DANCED Chief Technical Project Steering Committee Deputy Minister Peter R Mokaba (Chairman) Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Mr. Tinus Joubert DEAT Mr. Paul Maclons DEAT Mr. Leon Bredenhann DWAF Dr. Laurraine Lötter Business and Industry Ms. Shirley Miller/ Ms. Laura James Labour Ms. Jenny Hall/ Mr. Bobby Peek NGOs Dr. John Kilani Mining Ms. Thandi Bosman CBOs Ms. Hilda Mthimunye SALGA Mr. John Parkin SALGA Mr. Peter Lukey DANCED Ms. Mandisa Mzizi DEAT – Eastern Cape Province Mr. Sizwe Sokupa DEAT – Eastern Cape Province Ms. Morakane Mokoena DEAT – Free State Province Ms. Grace Rambina DEAT – Free State Province Dr. Zoë Budnik-Lees DACE - Gauteng Province Ms. Sarah Allan DEAT – KwaZulu Natal Province Mr. Lucky Malaza DEAT – Mpumalanga Province Ms. Mandy Momberg DEAT - North West Province Ms. Seyathie Mitha DEAT - Northern Cape Province Mr. Trevor Mphahlele DEAT – Northern Province Dr. Suzan Oelofse DEAT Mr. Lucas Mahlangu DEAT Mr. Willem Scott DEAT
  • Mr. Buti Mathebula DEAT Mr. Thorsten Aab DWAF Ms. Glory Nosilela-Twala DWAF Ms. Danna Borg Danish Team Leader (Niras) Dr. Albert Welinder DANCED Dr. Herman Wiechers South African Lead Consultant (Wiechers Environmental Consultancy) Ms. Julie Borland Project Secretariat (Wiechers Environmental Consultancy) Danish Consultant Team Ms. Danna Borg Niras A/S (Team Leader) Mr. Niels Busch Rambøll A/S Mr. Jorgen Haukohl Rambøll A/S Ms. Birgit Holmboe Rambøll A/S Mr. Torben Kristiansen Rambøll A/S Ms. Lone Nielson Danish EPA Mr. Erik Nørby Rambøll A/S Mr. Jens Toudal Rambøll A/S South African Consultant Team Dr. Herman Wiechers Wiechers Environmental Consultancy (Deputy Team Leader) Dr. Thomas Auf der Heyde Technikon of the Witwatersrand Dr. Dave Baldwin Environmental and Chemical Consultants Mr. Jarrod Ball Jarrod Ball and Associates Ms. Sue Barclay University of Natal Dr. Chris Buckley University of Natal Mr. Steve Dorman Metago Mr. Brian Hambleton- Jones AEC Mr. Jonathon Hanks AECI Ms. Jane Joughin SRK Ms. Kerry Laszig Jarrod Ball and Associates Mr. Stephen Law EMG
  • Mr. Andrew Mather WEVS Mr. Asaph Mathibeng Jarrod Ball and Associates Mr. Reginald Nkosi Bohlweki Ms. Mary Stewart University of Cape Town Others Ms. Hettie Mills Project Secretary Ms. Marianne de Klerk Secretary to DEAT Project Manager Ms Karien Pieterse Secretary to DWAF Project Manager Ms. Dorothea van Zijl Editor