POSITIVE TERY NANCE LOW-MAINTE- POST BAT- PLATE GROUPS TEST VENT ELECTROLYTE INDICA- TOR LEVEL VENT GREEN BALL NEGATIVE POSTXJ BATTERY 8A - 1 BATTERY CONTENTS page pageGENERAL INFORMATION IGNITION-OFF DRAW TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 1 LOAD TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 1 OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . 7DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION VOLTAGE DROP TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 BATTERY MOUNTING . . . . . . . ............. 3 SERVICE PROCEDURES BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS . ............. 2 BATTERY CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 2 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATIONDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 3 SPECIFICATIONS BUILT-IN TEST INDICATOR . . . ............. 4 BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 HYDROMETER TEST . . . . . . . . ............. 6GENERAL INFORMATION nance procedure, battery charging information is located in this group. This was done because the bat-OVERVIEW tery must be fully-charged before any diagnosis can The battery, starting, and charging systems oper- be performed.ate with one another, and must be tested as a com- The factory-installed low-maintenance battery hasplete system. In order for the vehicle to start and removable battery cell caps. Water can be added tocharge properly, all of the components involved in this battery. The battery is not sealed and has ventthese systems must perform within specifications. holes in the cell caps (Fig. 1). The chemical composi- Group 8A covers the battery, Group 8B covers the tion within the low-maintenance battery reduces bat-starting system, and Group 8C covers the charging tery gassing and water loss, at normal charge andsystem. Refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams for discharge rates.complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. We haveseparated these systems to make it easier to locatethe information you are seeking within this ServiceManual. However, when attempting to diagnose anyof these systems, it is important that you keep theirinterdependency in mind. The diagnostic procedures used in these groupsinclude the most basic conventional diagnostic meth-ods, to the more sophisticated On-Board Diagnostics(OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Module(PCM). Use of a induction milliampere ammeter, volt/ohmmeter, battery charger, carbon pile rheostat (loadtester), and 12-volt test lamp may be required. All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by thePCM. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos-tic Trouble Code (DTC). The PCM will store a DTC inelectronic memory for any failure it detects. See the Fig. 1 Low-Maintenance Battery - TypicalOn-Board Diagnostics Test in Group 8C - Charging Rapid loss of electrolyte can be caused by an over-System for more information. charging condition. Be certain to diagnose the charg- ing system before returning the vehicle to service.INTRODUCTION Refer to Group 8C - Charging System for more infor- This section covers only battery diagnostic and ser- mation.vice procedures. For battery maintenance procedures, The factory-installed battery also has a built-inrefer to Group 0 - Lubrication and Maintenance. test indicator (hydrometer). The color visible in theWhile battery charging can be considered a mainte- sight glass of the indicator will reveal the battery
8A - 2 BATTERY XJGENERAL INFORMATION (Continued)condition. See Built-In Test Indicator in this group Charging the battery gradually changes the sul-for more information. fated lead plates back into sponge lead and lead It is important that the battery, starting, and oxide, and the water back into sulfuric acid. Thischarging systems be thoroughly tested and inspected action restores the difference in the electron chargesany time a battery needs to be charged or replaced. deposited on the plates, and the voltage potential ofThe cause of abnormal discharge, overcharging, or the battery cells.early battery failure must be diagnosed and corrected For a battery to remain useful, it must be able tobefore a battery is replaced or returned to service. produce high-amperage current over an extended period. A battery must also be able to accept aNOTE: This group covers both Left-Hand Drive charge, so that its voltage potential may be restored.(LHD) and Right-Hand Drive (RHD) versions of this In addition to producing and storing electricalmodel. Whenever required and feasible, the RHD energy, the battery serves as a capacitor, or voltageversions of affected vehicle components have been stabilizer, for a vehicle’s electrical system. It absorbsconstructed as mirror-image of the LHD versions. most abnormal or transient voltages caused by theWhile most of the illustrations used in this group switching of any of the vehicle’s electrical compo-represent only the LHD version, the diagnostic and nents.service procedures outlined can generally be The battery is vented to release excess hydrogenapplied to either version. Exceptions to this rule gas that is created when the battery is being chargedhave been clearly identified as LHD or RHD, if a or discharged. However, even with these vents, thespecial illustration or procedure is required. hydrogen gas can collect in or around the battery. If hydrogen gas is exposed to flame or sparks, it may ignite.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION If the electrolyte level is low, the battery may arc internally and explode. If the battery is equippedBATTERY with removable cell caps, add distilled water when- The storage battery is a device used to store elec- ever the electrolyte level is below the top of thetrical energy potential in a chemical form. When an plates. If the battery cell caps cannot be removed, theelectrical load is applied to the battery terminals, an battery must be replaced if the electrolyte levelelectrochemical reaction occurs within the battery. becomes low.This reaction causes the battery to discharge electri-cal current. BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS The battery is made up of six individual cells that The battery Group Size number, the Cold Crankingare connected in series. Each cell contains positively Amperage (CCA) rating, and the Reserve Capacitycharged plate groups made of lead oxide, and nega- (RC) rating or Ampere-Hours (AH) rating can betively charged plate groups made of sponge lead. found on the original equipment battery label. BeThese dissimilar metal plates are submerged in a certain that a replacement battery has the correctsulfuric acid and water solution called an electrolyte. Group Size number, as well as CCA, and RC or AH As the battery discharges, a gradual chemical ratings that equal or exceed the original equipmentchange takes place within each cell. The sulfuric acid specification for the vehicle being serviced.in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials, See the Battery Classifications and Ratings chartcausing both plates to slowly change to lead sulfate. in Specifications at the back of this group for moreAt the same time, oxygen from the positive plate information. Battery sizes and ratings are discussedmaterial combines with hydrogen from the sulfuric in more detail below.acid, causing the electrolyte to become mainly water. GROUP SIZE The chemical changes within the battery are The outside dimensions and terminal placement ofcaused by the movement of excess or free electrons the battery conform to standards established by thebetween the positive and negative plate groups. This Battery Council International (BCI). Each battery ismovement of electrons produces a flow of electrical assigned a BCI Group Size number to help identify acurrent through the load device attached to the bat- correctly-sized replacement.tery terminals. As the plate materials become more similar chem- COLD CRANKING AMPERAGEically, and the electrolyte becomes less acid, the volt- The Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating speci-age potential of each cell is reduced. However, by fies how much current (in amperes) the battery cancharging the battery with a voltage higher than that deliver for thirty seconds at -18° C (0° F). Terminalof the battery, the battery discharging process is voltage must not fall below 7.2 volts during or afterreversed. the thirty second discharge period. The CCA required
XJ BATTERY 8A - 3DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)is generally higher as engine displacement increases, See the Battery Charging procedure in this group fordepending also upon the starter current draw more information.requirements. WARNING:RESERVE CAPACITY • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ- The Reserve Capacity (RC) rating specifies the ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO-time (in minutes) it takes for battery terminal volt- LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, ORage to fall below 10.5 volts, at a discharge rate of 25 CHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLYamperes. RC is determined with the battery fully- AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI-charged at 26.7° C (80° F). This rating estimates how CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.long the battery might last after a charging system • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN ANDfailure, under minimum electrical load. AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.AMPERE-HOURS PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE The Ampere-Hours (AH) rating specifies the cur- MAY RESULT.rent (in amperes) that a battery can deliver steadily • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID,for twenty hours, with the voltage in the battery not WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON-falling below 10.5 volts. This rating is also sometimes TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. INreferred to as the twenty-hour discharge rating. THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUTBATTERY MOUNTING OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. The battery is mounted to a molded plastic tray • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV-located in the right front corner of the engine com- ABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OFpartment. Two T-bolts are held in formations on each THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFOREside of the tray by push-on retainers, and extend THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER-upward on each side of the battery. A holddown strap SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAYfits across the top of the battery case and thermo- RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.guard. The ends of the T-bolts pass through the hold-down strap on each side of the battery, and a nut The condition of a battery is determined by two cri-secures the holddown strap to the T-bolts. One end of teria:a support strap is located under the forward-most 1. State-Of-Charge - This can be determined byholddown strap nut, and the other end is secured to viewing the built-in test indicator, by checking thethe upper radiator crossmember by a bolt. specific gravity of the electrolyte (hydrometer test), The battery tray is secured with three nuts to or by checking the battery voltage (open-circuit volt-three studs that protrude from the wheelhouse inner age test).panel, forward of the right front wheel. 2. Cranking Capacity - This can be determined On some models, a hole in the bottom of the bat- by performing a battery load test, which measurestery tray is fitted with a battery temperature sensor. the ability of the battery to supply high-amperageModels without the battery temperature sensor have current.a plug fitted to this hole. Refer to Group 8C - Charg- First, determine the battery state-of-charge. Thising System for more information on the battery tem- can be done in one of three ways. If the battery has aperature sensor. built-in test indicator, view the test indicator to When installing a battery, be certain that the hold- determine the state-of-charge. If the battery has nodown fasteners are tightened to the proper specifica- test indicator, but has removable cell caps, performtions. Improper holddown fastener tightness, whether the hydrometer test to determine the state-of-charge.too loose or too tight, can result in damage to the If the cell caps are not removable, or a hydrometer isbattery. See the Battery Removal and Installation not available, perform the open-circuit voltage test toprocedures for the correct holddown fastener tight- determine the state-of-charge.ness specifications. The battery must be charged before proceeding with a load test if: • The built-in test indicator has a black or darkDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING color visible. • The temperature corrected specific gravity isBATTERY less than 1.235. The battery must be completely charged and the • The open-circuit voltage is less than 12.4 volts.top, posts, and terminal clamps should be properly A battery that will not accept a charge is faulty,cleaned before diagnostic procedures are performed. and must be replaced. Further testing is not
8A - 4 BATTERY XJDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)required. A fully-charged battery must be load tested AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI-to determine its cranking capacity. A battery that is CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.fully-charged, but does not pass the load test, is • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN ANDfaulty and must be replaced. AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.NOTE: Completely discharged batteries may take PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGEseveral hours to accept a charge. See Charging A MAY RESULT.Completely Discharged Battery in this group for • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID,more information. WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON- TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. IN A battery is fully-charged when: THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER • All cells are gassing freely during charging. AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT • A green color is visible in the sight glass of the OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.built-in test indicator. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV- • Three corrected specific gravity tests, taken at ABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OFone-hour intervals, indicate no increase in the spe- THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFOREcific gravity. THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER- • Open-circuit voltage is 12.4 volts or greater. SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.ABNORMAL BATTERY DISCHARGING Any of the following conditions can result in abnor- Before testing, visually inspect the battery for anymal battery discharging: damage (a cracked case or cover, loose posts, etc.) 1. Corroded or loose battery posts and terminal that would cause the battery to be faulty. In order toclamps. obtain correct indications from the built-in test indi- 2. A loose or worn generator drive belt. cator, it is important that the battery be level and 3. Electrical loads that exceed the output of the have a clean sight glass. Additional light may becharging system. This can be due to equipment required to view the indicator. Do not use openinstalled after manufacture, or repeated short trip flame as a source of additional light.use. To read the built-in test indicator, look into the 4. Slow driving speeds (heavy traffic conditions) or sight glass and note the color of the indicator (Fig. 3).prolonged idling, with high-amperage draw systems Refer to the following description, as the color indi-in use. cates: 5. A faulty circuit or component causing excessive • Green - indicates 75% to 100% state-of-charge.ignition-off draw. See the Ignition-Off Draw Test pro- The battery is adequately charged for further testingcedure in this group for more information. or return to use. If the vehicle will not crank for a 6. A faulty or incorrect charging system compo- minimum of fifteen seconds with a fully-charged bat-nent. Refer to Group 8C - Charging System for more tery, perform the Load Test procedure as described ininformation. this group. 7. A faulty or incorrect battery. • Black or Dark - indicates 0% to 75% state-of- charge. The battery is inadequately charged andBUILT-IN TEST INDICATOR must be charged until a green indication is visible in A test indicator (hydrometer) built into the top of the sight glass (12.4 volts or more), before the bat-the battery case provides visual information for bat- tery is tested further or returned to service. See thetery testing (Fig. 2). Like a hydrometer, the built-in Battery Charging procedure in this group for moretest indicator measures the specific gravity of the information. Also see Abnormal Battery Dischargingelectrolyte. The test indicator reveals the battery in this group for possible causes of the dischargedstate-of-charge; however, it will not reveal the crank- condition.ing capacity of the battery. A load test must be per- • Clear or Bright - indicates a low electrolyteformed to determine the battery cranking capacity. level. The electrolyte level in the battery is below theSee the Load Test procedure in this group for more test indicator. A maintenance-free battery with non-information. removable cell caps must be replaced if the electro- lyte level is low. Water must be added to a low-WARNING: maintenance battery with removable cell caps before • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ- it is charged. See the Battery Charging procedure inING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO- this group for more information. A low electrolyteLYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR level may be caused by an overcharging condition.CHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY
XJ BATTERY 8A - 5DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) Battery Diagnosis Condition Possible Causes CorrectionThe battery seems weak or 1. The battery has an 1. See Specifications in this group. Replace thedead when attempting to start incorrect size or rating for incorrect battery with the correct battery, ifthe engine. this vehicle. required. 2. The battery is physically 2. Inspect the battery for loose terminal posts or a damaged. cracked and leaking case. Replace the battery, if 3. The battery terminal damaged. connections are loose or 3. See the Voltage Drop Test in this group. Clean corroded. and tighten the battery terminal connections, if 4. The battery is discharged. required. 5. The electrical system is 4. See the Test Indicator, the Hydrometer Test, or faulty. the Open-Circuit Voltage Test in this group to 6. The battery is faulty. determine the battery state-of-charge. Charge the 7. The starting system is battery, if required. faulty. 5. See the Ignition-Off Draw Test in this group. 8. The charging system is Repair the electrical system, if required. faulty. 6. See the Load Test in this group to determine the battery condition. Replace the battery, if required. 7. Refer to Group 8B - Starting Systems for more information. Repair the starting system, if required. 8. Refer to Group 8C - Charging Systems for more information. Repair the charging system, if required.The battery state-of-charge 1. The battery has an 1. See Specifications in this group. Replace thecannot be maintained. incorrect size or rating for incorrect battery with the correct battery, if this vehicle. required. 2. The battery terminal 2. See the Voltage Drop Test in this group. Clean connections are loose or and tighten the battery terminal connections, if corroded. required. 3. The generator drive belt is 3. Refer to Group 7 - Cooling Systems for more loose or worn. information. Replace or adjust the generator drive 4. The electrical system is belt, if required. faulty. 4. See the Ignition-Off Draw Test in this group. 5. The battery is faulty. Repair the electrical system, if required. 6. The starting system is 5. See the Load Test in this group to determine faulty. the battery condition. Replace the battery, if 7. The charging system is required. faulty. 6. Check whether the starting system is 8. Electrical loads exceed the performing to specifictions. Refer to Group 8B - output of the charging Starting Systems for more information. Repair the system. starting system, if required. 9. Slow driving or prolonged 7. Refer to Group 8C - Charging Systems for idling with high-amperage more information. Repair the charging system, if draw systems in use. required. 8. Inspect the vehicle for aftermarket electrical equipment which might cause excessive electrical loads. 9. Advise the vehicle operator, as required.The battery will not accept a 1. The battery is faulty. 1. See Battery Charging in this group. Replacecharge. the faulty battery, if required.
SIGHT ROD PLASTIC GREEN GLASS BALL TEST INDICATOR/STATE-OF- GREEN BLACK CHARGE LOW ELECTROLYTE TOP CLEAR BATTERY8A - 6 BATTERY XJDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI- CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID, WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON- TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT Fig. 2 Built-In Test Indicator OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Refer to Group 8C - Charging System to diagnose an • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV-overcharging condition. ABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER- SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. Before testing, visually inspect the battery for any damage (a cracked case or cover, loose posts, etc.) that would cause the battery to be faulty. Then remove the cell caps and check the electrolyte level. Add distilled water if the electrolyte level is below the top of the battery plates. Refer to the instructions supplied with the hydrom- eter for recommendations on the correct use of the hydrometer. Remove only enough electrolyte from the Fig. 3 Built-In Test Indicator Sight Glass battery cell so that the float is off the bottom of theHYDROMETER TEST hydrometer barrel with pressure on the bulb The hydrometer test reveals the battery state-of- released.charge by measuring the specific gravity of the elec-trolyte. This test cannot be performed on CAUTION: Exercise care when inserting the tip ofmaintenance-free batteries with non-removable cell the hydrometer into a cell to avoid damaging thecaps. If the battery has non-removable cell caps, see plate separators. Damaged plate separators canthe Built-In Test Indicator or the Open-Circuit Volt- cause early battery failure.age Test procedures in this group. To read the hydrometer correctly, hold it with the Specific gravity is a comparison of the density of top surface of the electrolyte at eye level (Fig. 4).the electrolyte to the density of pure water. Pure Hydrometer floats are generally calibrated to indi-water has a specific gravity of 1.000, and sulfuric cate the specific gravity correctly only at 26.7° C (80°acid has a specific gravity of 1.835. Sulfuric acid F). When testing the specific gravity at any othermakes up approximately 35% of the electrolyte by temperature, a correction factor is required.weight, or 24% by volume. The correction factor is approximately a specific In a fully-charged battery the electrolyte will have gravity value of 0.004, referred to as four points ofa temperature-corrected specific gravity of 1.260 to specific gravity. For each 5.5° C above 26.7° C (10° F1.290. However, a specific gravity of 1.235 or above is above 80° F), add four points. For each 5.5° C belowsatisfactory for battery load testing and/or return to 26.7° C (10° F below 80° F), subtract four points.service. Always correct the specific gravity for temperatureWARNING: variation. Test the specific gravity of the electrolyte • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ- in each battery cell.ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO- EXAMPLE: A battery is tested at -12.2° C (10° F)LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR and has a specific gravity of 1.240. Determine theCHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY actual specific gravity as follows: (1) Determine the number of degrees above or below 26.7° C (80° F):
HYDROMETER FLOAT BARREL BULB TEMPERATURE READING SURFACE COHESION SPECIFIC READING GRAVITYXJ BATTERY 8A - 7DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) eter is not available, or for maintenance-free batter- ies with non-removable cell caps. WARNING: • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ- ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO- LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR CHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI- CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID, WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON- TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV- Fig. 4 Hydrometer - Typical ABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE26.6° C - -12.2° C = 38.8° C (80° F - THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER-10° F = 70° F) SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY (2) Divide the result from Step 1 by 5.5 (10): RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.38.8° C Ϭ 5.5 = 7 (70° F Ϭ 10 = 7) (3) Multiply the result from Step 2 by the temper- Before proceeding with this test, completely chargeature correction factor (0.004): the battery as described in the Battery Charging pro-7 X 0.004 = 0.028 cedure in this group. (4) The temperature at testing was below 26.7° C (1) Before measuring the open-circuit voltage, the(80° F); therefore, the temperature correction factor surface charge must be removed from the battery.is subtracted: Turn on the head lamps for fifteen seconds, then1.240 - 0.028 = 1.212 allow up to five minutes for the battery voltage to The corrected specific gravity of the battery in this stabilize.example is 1.212. (2) Disconnect and isolate both battery cables, neg- If the specific gravity of all cells is above 1.235, but ative cable first.the variation between cells is more than fifty points (3) Using a voltmeter connected to the battery(0.050), the battery should be replaced. If the specific posts (refer to the instructions provided with thegravity of one or more cells is less than 1.235, charge voltmeter), measure the open-circuit voltage (Fig. 5).the battery at a rate of approximately five amperes. Continue charging the battery until three consecu-tive specific gravity tests, taken at one-hour inter-vals, are constant. If the cell specific gravityvariation is more than fifty points (0.050) at the endof the charge period, replace the battery. When the specific gravity of all cells is above 1.235,and the cell variation is less than fifty points (0.050),the battery may be load tested to determine itscranking capacity. See the Load Test procedure inthis group for more information.OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST A battery open-circuit voltage (no load) test willshow the state-of-charge of a battery. This test can beused in place of the hydrometer test when a hydrom- Fig. 5 Testing Open-Circuit Voltage - Typical
AMMETER INDUCTION POSITIVE CLAMP CLAMP NEGATIVE CLAMP8A - 8 BATTERY XJDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) See the Open-Circuit Voltage chart. This voltage (1) Disconnect and isolate both battery cables, neg-reading will indicate the battery state-of-charge, but ative cable first. The battery top and posts should bewill not reveal its cranking capacity. If a battery has clean.an open-circuit voltage reading of 12.4 volts or (2) Connect a suitable volt-ammeter-load testergreater, it may be load tested to reveal its cranking (Fig. 6) to the battery posts (Fig. 7). Refer to thecapacity. See the Load Test procedure in this group operating instructions provided with the tester beingfor more information. used. Check the open-circuit voltage (no load) of the battery. Open-circuit voltage must be 12.4 volts or Open Circuit Voltage greater. Open Circuit Volts Charge Percentage11.7 volts or less 0%12.0 volts 25%12.2 volts 50%12.4 volts 75%12.6 volts or more 100%LOAD TEST A battery load test will verify the battery crankingcapacity. The test is based on the Cold CrankingAmperage (CCA) rating of the battery. Refer to thebattery label, or see the Battery Classifications andRatings chart in Specifications at the back of thisgroup for the CCA rating of the factory-installed bat- Fig. 6 Volt-Ammeter-Load Tester - Typicaltery.WARNING: • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ-ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO-LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, ORCHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLYAND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI-CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN ANDAROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USEFLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGEMAY RESULT. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID,WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON- Fig. 7 Volt-Ammeter-Load Tester Connections -TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. IN TypicalTHE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATERAND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT (3) Rotate the load control knob (carbon pile rheo-OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. stat) to apply a 300 ampere load to the battery for • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV- fifteen seconds, then return the control knob to theABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF Off position (Fig. 8). This will remove the surfaceTHE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE charge from the battery.THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER- (4) Allow the battery to stabilize to open-circuitSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY voltage. It may take up to five minutes for the bat-RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. tery voltage to stabilize. (5) Rotate the load control knob to maintain a load Before proceeding with this test, completely charge equal to 50% of the CCA rating of the battery (Fig.the battery as described in the Battery Charging pro- 9). After fifteen seconds, record the loaded voltagecedure in this group. reading, then return the load control knob to the Off position.
XJ BATTERY 8A - 9DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) (7) If the voltmeter reading falls below 9.6 volts, at a minimum battery temperature of 21° C (70° F), the battery is faulty and must be replaced. IGNITION-OFF DRAW TEST Ignition-Off Draw (IOD) refers to power being drained from the battery with the ignition switch in the Off position. A normal vehicle electrical system will draw from five to twenty-five milliamperes (0.005 to 0.025 ampere) with the ignition switch in the Off position, and all non-ignition controlled cir- cuits in proper working order. The twenty-five milli- amperes are needed to enable the memory functions for the Powertrain Control Module (PCM), digital clock, electronically tuned radio, and other modules Fig. 8 Remove Surface Charge from Battery - which may vary with the vehicle equipment. Typical A vehicle that has not been operated for approxi- mately twenty days, may discharge the battery to an inadequate level. When a vehicle will not be used for twenty days or more (stored), remove the IOD fuse from the Power Distribution Center (PDC). This will reduce battery discharging. Excessive IOD can be caused by: • Electrical items left on • Faulty or improperly adjusted switches • Faulty or shorted electronic modules and compo- nents • An internally shorted generator • Intermittent shorts in the wiring. If the IOD is over twenty-five milliamperes, the problem must be found and corrected before replac- ing a battery. In most cases, the battery can beFig. 9 Load 50% CCA Rating - Note Voltage - Typical charged and returned to service after the excessive (6) The voltage drop will vary with the battery IOD condition has been corrected.temperature at the time of the load test. The batterytemperature can be estimated by using the ambient DIAGNOSIStemperature during the past several hours. If the (1) Verify that all electrical accessories are off.battery has been charged, boosted, or loaded a few Turn off all lamps, remove the ignition key, and closeminutes prior to the test, the battery will be some- all doors. If the vehicle is equipped with a illumi-what warmer. See the Load Test Temperature chart nated entry system or electronically tuned radio,for the proper loaded voltage reading. allow the electronic timer function of these systems to automatically shut off (time out). This may take Load Test Temperature up to three minutes. (2) Determine that the underhood lamp is operat- Minimum Volt- Temperature ing properly, then unplug the lamp wire harness con- age °F °C nector or remove the lamp bulb. (3) Disconnect the battery negative cable. 9.6 volts 70° and above 21° and above (4) Set an electronic digital multi-meter to its 9.5 volts 60° 16° highest amperage scale. Connect the multi-meter 9.4 volts 50° 10° between the disconnected battery negative cable 9.3 volts 40° 4° clamp and the battery negative terminal post. Make sure that the doors remain closed so that the illumi- 9.1 volts 30° -1° nated entry system is not activated. The multi-meter 8.9 volts 20° -7° amperage reading may remain high for up to three 8.7 volts 10° -12° minutes, or may not give any reading at all while set in the highest amperage scale, depending upon the 8.5 volts 0° -18° electrical equipment on the vehicle. The multi-meter
8A - 10 BATTERY XJDIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)leads must be securely clamped to the battery nega- age drop in the battery positive cable clamp-to-termi-tive cable clamp and the battery negative terminal nal post connection and the battery positive cable.post. If continuity between the battery negative ter-minal post and the negative cable clamp is lost dur- WARNING:ing any part of the IOD test, the electronic timer • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ-function will be activated and all of the tests will ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO-have to be repeated. LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR (5) After about three minutes, the high-amperage CHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLYIOD reading on the multi-meter should become very AND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI-low or nonexistent, depending upon the electrical CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.equipment on the vehicle. If the amperage reading • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN ANDremains high, remove each fuse or circuit breaker AROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE(refer to Group 8W - Wiring Diagrams for more infor- FLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.mation) until the amperage reading becomes very PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGElow, or nonexistent. This will isolate each circuit and MAY RESULT.identify the source of the high-amperage IOD. If the • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID,amperage reading remains high after disconnecting WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON-each fuse and circuit breaker, unplug the wire har- TACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. INness connector from the generator. If the amperage THE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATERreading now becomes very low or nonexistent, refer AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUTto Group 8C - Charging System to diagnose the OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.faulty charging system. After the high-amperage IOD • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV-has been corrected, switch the multi-meter to pro- ABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OFgressively lower amperage scales and, if necessary, THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORErepeat the fuse and circuit breaker removal process THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER-to identify and correct the sources of excessive IOD. SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAYIt is now safe to select the lowest milliampere scale RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.of the multi-meter to check the low-amperage IOD. The following operation will require a voltmeterCAUTION: Do not open any doors, or turn on any accurate to 1/10 (0.10) volt. Before performing theelectrical accessories with the lowest milliampere tests, be certain the following procedures are accom-scale selected, or the multi-meter may be damaged. plished: (6) Observe the multi-meter reading. The low-am- • Battery is fully-charged as described in thisperage IOD should not exceed twenty-five milliam- group.peres (0.025 ampere). If the draw exceeds twenty-five • Fully engage the parking brake.milliamperes, isolate each circuit by removing the • If the vehicle is equipped with an automaticcircuit breakers and fuses. The multi-meter reading transmission, place the gearshift selector lever in thewill drop to within the acceptable limit when the Park position. If the vehicle is equipped with a man-source of the excessive draw is disconnected. Repair ual transmission, place the gearshift selector lever inthis circuit as required; whether a wiring short, the Neutral position and fully depress the clutchincorrect switch adjustment, or a component failure pedal.is at fault. • Unplug the Automatic ShutDown (ASD) relay to prevent the engine from starting. The ASD relay isVOLTAGE DROP TEST located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). The voltage drop test will determine if there is Refer to the PDC label for ASD relay identificationexcessive resistance in the battery terminal connec- and location.tions or the battery cables. When performing these (1) Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter totests, it is important to remember that the voltage the battery negative terminal post. Connect the neg-drop is giving an indication of the resistance between ative lead of the voltmeter to the battery negativethe two points at which the voltmeter probes are cable clamp (Fig. 10). Rotate and hold the ignitionattached. switch in the Start position. Observe the voltmeter. If Example: When testing the resistance of the bat- voltage is detected, correct the poor contact betweentery positive cable, touch the voltmeter leads to the the cable clamp and the terminal post.battery positive cable clamp and the cable connector (2) Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter toat the starter solenoid. If you probe the battery pos- the battery positive terminal post. Connect the nega-itive terminal post and the cable connector at the tive lead of the voltmeter to the battery positive cablestarter solenoid, you are reading the combined volt- clamp (Fig. 11). Rotate and hold the ignition switch
BATTERY VOLTMETER VOLTMETER BATTERY STARTER MOTOR VOLTMETER BATTERYXJ BATTERY 8A - 11DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) ENGINE GROUND BATTERY VOLTMETER Fig. 12 Test Battery Positive Cable Resistance - Typical Fig. 10 Test Battery Negative Connection Resistance - Typical the ignition switch in the Start position. Observe the voltmeter. If the reading is above 0.2 volt, clean andin the Start position. Observe the voltmeter. If volt- tighten the battery negative cable attachment on theage is detected, correct the poor contact between the engine block. Repeat the test. If the reading is stillcable clamp and the terminal post. above 0.2 volt, replace the faulty battery negative cable.Fig. 11 Test Battery Positive Connection Resistance Fig. 13 Test Ground Circuit Resistance - Typical - Typical SERVICE PROCEDURES (3) Connect the voltmeter to measure between thebattery positive terminal post and the starter sole- BATTERY CHARGINGnoid battery terminal stud (Fig. 12). Rotate and hold A battery is fully-charged when:the ignition switch in the Start position. Observe the • All cells are gassing freely during battery charg-voltmeter. If the reading is above 0.2 volt, clean and ing.tighten the battery cable connection at the solenoid. • A green color is visible in the sight glass of theRepeat the test. If the reading is still above 0.2 volt, built-in test indicator.replace the faulty battery positive cable. • Three corrected specific gravity tests, taken at (4) Connect the voltmeter to measure between the one-hour intervals, indicate no increase in the spe-battery negative terminal post and a good clean cific gravity.ground on the engine block (Fig. 13). Rotate and hold • Open-circuit voltage is 12.4 volts or above.
8A - 12 BATTERY XJSERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)WARNING: test, return the battery to use. If the battery will not • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ- endure a load test, it is faulty and must be replaced.ING, LEAKING, LOOSE POSTS, OR LOW ELECTRO- Clean and inspect the battery holddowns, tray, ter-LYTE LEVEL, DO NOT TEST, ASSIST-BOOST, OR minals, posts, and top before completing service. SeeCHARGE. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY the Battery Removal and Installation procedures inAND EXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI- this group for more information.CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND CHARGING A COMPLETELY DISCHARGEDAROUND THE BATTERY. DO NOT SMOKE, USE BATTERYFLAME, OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. The following procedure should be used to rechargePERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE a completely discharged battery. Unless this proce-MAY RESULT. dure is properly followed, a good battery may be • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID, needlessly replaced.WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. AVOID CON- (1) Measure the voltage at the battery posts with aTACT WITH THE SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING. IN voltmeter, accurate to 1/10 (0.10) volt (Fig. 14). If theTHE EVENT OF CONTACT, FLUSH WITH WATER reading is below ten volts, the charge current will beAND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. KEEP OUT low. It could take some time before the batteryOF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. accepts a current greater than a few milliamperes. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV- Such low current may not be detectable on theABLE CELL CAPS, BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF ammeters built into many chargers.THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORETHE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PER-SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAYRESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.CAUTION: • Always disconnect and isolate the battery neg-ative cable before charging a battery. Do not exceedsixteen volts while charging a battery. Damage tothe vehicle electrical system components mayresult. • Battery electrolyte will bubble inside the bat-tery case during normal battery charging. Electro-lyte boiling or being discharged from the batteryvents indicates a battery overcharging condition. Fig. 14 Voltmeter Accurate to 1/10 Volt Connected -Immediately reduce the charging rate or turn off the Typicalcharger to evaluate the battery condition. Damageto the battery may result from overcharging. (2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative • The battery should not be hot to the touch. If cable. Connect the battery charger leads. Some bat-the battery feels hot to the touch, turn off the tery chargers are equipped with polarity-sensing cir-charger and let the battery cool before continuing cuitry. This circuitry protects the charger and/or thethe charging operation. Damage to the battery may battery from being damaged if they are improperlyresult. connected. If the battery state-of-charge is too low for the polarity-sensing circuitry to detect, the charger Some battery chargers are equipped with polarity- will not operate. This makes it appear that the bat-sensing circuitry. This circuitry protects the charger tery will not accept charging current. Refer to theand/or the battery from being damaged if they are instructions provided with the battery charger toimproperly connected. If the battery state-of-charge bypass the polarity-sensing circuitry.is too low for the polarity-sensing circuitry to detect, (3) Battery chargers vary in the amount of voltagethe charger will not operate. This makes it appear and current they provide. The amount of timethat the battery will not accept charging current. required for a battery to accept measurable chargerRefer to the instructions provided with the battery current at various voltages is shown in the Chargecharger to bypass the polarity-sensing circuitry. Rate chart. If the charge current is still not measur- After the battery has been charged to 12.4 volts or able at the end of the charging time, the battery isgreater, perform a load test to determine the battery faulty and must be replaced. If the charge current iscranking capacity. If the battery will endure a load measurable during the charging time, the battery
BATTERY TERMINAL BATTERY PULLERXJ BATTERY 8A - 13SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)may be good and the charging should be completed in Battery Charging Timetablethe normal manner. Charging 5 10 20 Charge Rate Amperage Amperes Amperes Amperes Voltage Hours Open Cir- 16.0 volts maximum up to 4 hours cuit Volt- Hours Charging at 21°C (70°F) 14.0 to 15.9 volts up to 8 hours age 13.9 volts or less up to 16 hours 12.25 to 6 hours 3 hours 1.5 hours 12.39CHARGING TIME REQUIRED 12.00 to 8 hours 4 hours 2 hours The time required to charge a battery will vary, 12.24depending upon the following factors: • Battery Capacity - A completely discharged 11.95 to 12 hours 6 hours 3 hoursheavy-duty battery requires twice the charging time 11.99of a small capacity battery. 10.00 to 14 hours 7 hours 3.5 hours • Temperature - A longer time will be needed to 11.94charge a battery at -18° C (0° F) than at 27° C (80° less than See Charging Completely DischargedF). When a fast charger is connected to a cold bat- 10.00 Batterytery, the current accepted by the battery will be verylow at first. As the battery warms, it will accept ahigher charging current rate (amperage). • Charger Capacity - A charger that suppliesonly five amperes will require a longer chargingtime. A charger that supplies twenty amperes ormore will require a shorter charging time. • State-Of-Charge - A completely dischargedbattery requires more charging time than a partiallydischarged battery. Electrolyte is nearly pure waterin a completely discharged battery. At first, thecharging current (amperage) will be low. As the bat-tery charges, the specific gravity of the electrolytewill gradually rise. Fig. 15 Remove Battery Cable Terminal Clamp - TypicalWARNING: NEVER EXCEED TWENTY AMPERES WARNING: WEAR A SUITABLE PAIR OF RUBBERWHEN CHARGING A COLD (-1° C/30° F) BATTERY. GLOVES (NOT THE HOUSEHOLD TYPE) WHENTHE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND REMOVING A BATTERY BY HAND. SAFETYEXPLODE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE GLASSES SHOULD ALSO BE WORN. IF THE BAT-DAMAGE MAY RESULT. TERY IS CRACKED OR LEAKING, THE ELECTRO- LYTE CAN BURN THE SKIN AND EYES.REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (4) Remove the battery holddowns and remove the battery from the vehicle (Fig. 17).BATTERY (5) Inspect the battery tray and holddowns for cor- (1) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. rosion or damage. Remove any corrosion using a wireMake sure all electrical accessories are turned off. brush and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and (2) Loosen the cable terminal clamps and discon- warm water cleaning solution. Paint any exposednect both battery cables, negative cable first. If nec- bare metal and replace any damaged parts.essary, use a puller to remove the terminal clamps (6) Slide the thermoguard off of the battery case.from the battery posts (Fig. 15). Inspect the battery case for cracks or other damage (3) Inspect the cable terminal clamps for corrosion that could result in electrolyte leaks. Also, check theand damage. Remove any corrosion using a wire battery terminal posts for looseness. Batteries withbrush or a post and terminal cleaning tool, and a damaged cases or loose posts must be replaced.sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water (7) Check the electrolyte level in the battery. Use acleaning solution (Fig. 16). Replace any cable that putty knife or another suitable wide flat-bladed toolhas damaged or deformed terminal clamps. to pry the cell caps off (Fig. 18). Do not use a screw-
SUPPORTSTRAP CROSS- BRUSH RADIATOR BOLTBATTERY FWD MEMBER TERMINAL TRAY INDICA- TEST TOR NUTS WHEELHOUSE DOWN STUD NUTSENSOR PUSH-ON PANEL THERMOGUARD HOLD INNER RETAINER BATTERY CABLE T-BOLT8A - 14 BATTERY XJREMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) driver. Add distilled water to each cell until the liq- uid reaches the bottom of the vent well. DO NOT OVERFILL. Fig. 18 Removing Cell Caps - Typical (8) Inspect the battery built-in test indicator sight glass for an indication of the battery condition. If the Fig. 16 Clean Battery Cable Terminal Clamp - battery is discharged, charge as required. See the Typical Built-In Test Indicator and the Battery Charging pro- cedures in this group for more information. (9) If the battery is to be reinstalled, clean the out- side of the battery case and the top cover with a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution to remove any acid film (Fig. 19). Rinse the battery with clean water. Ensure that the cleaning solution does not enter the battery cells through the vent holes. If the battery is being replaced, see the Battery Ratings and Classifications chart in Specifications at the back of this group. Con- firm that the replacement battery is the correct size and has the correct ratings for the vehicle. (10) Clean any corrosion from the battery terminal posts with a wire brush or a post and terminal cleaner, and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution (Fig. 20). (11) Reinstall the battery thermoguard by sliding it over the battery case. (12) Position the battery in the tray. Ensure that the positive and negative terminal posts are correctly positioned. The cable terminal clamps must reach the correct battery post without stretching the cables (Fig. 21). (13) Loosely install the battery holddown hard- ware. Ensure that the battery base is correctly posi- tioned in the tray, then tighten the holddown nuts to 2.2 N·m (20 in. lbs.). Tighten the holddown support strap bolt to 9 N·m (77 in. lbs.). CAUTION: Be certain that the battery cables are connected to the correct battery terminals. Reverse Fig. 17 Battery Holddowns polarity may damage electrical components.
TEST BATTERYTORTEST CATOR BATTERY INDICA- INDI- CLEANING WATER BRUSH BAKING SODA SOLU- WARMTERMINAL CABLE BRUSH BATTERYTION AND RADIATOR CROSSMEMBER POSITIVE BATTERY FWDCABLE WHEELHOUSE NEGATIVE PANEL INNER CABLEXJ BATTERY 8A - 15REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig. 21 Battery Cables (14) Install and tighten the battery positive cable terminal clamp. Then install and tighten the battery negative cable terminal clamp. Tighten both cable Fig. 19 Clean Battery - Typical terminal clamp bolts to 8.5 N·m (75 in. lbs.). (15) Apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly or chassis grease to the exposed surfaces of the battery cable terminal clamps and the battery terminal posts. Fig. 20 Clean Battery Terminal Post - TypicalSPECIFICATIONSBATTERY Battery Classifications and Ratings BCI Group Size Cold Cranking Reserve Capac- Load Test Part Number Ampere-Hours Classification Amperage ity Amperage 56041105 58 500 85 Minutes 42 250