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Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team
 

Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team

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Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team

Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team

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    Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team Ram Pump and Solar Pump Training - Border Green Energy Team Document Transcript

    • Ram PumpAndSolar PumpTrainingFredrik Bjarnegard, Allen Chou, Sukon ”Tae” Phunpunyakorakul, Yotin Pupaolan, Salinee TavarananA collaboration ofBGET TOPS ZOA KNCE TBCAF GREEN EMPOWERMENT PALANG THAIB G E TBORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAMB G E TB G E TBORDER GREEN ENERGY TEAMContact Us atBorder Green Energy TeamTOPS34/53 Mae Sod – Mae Tao RdMae Sod, TAK 63110055-542-068OrBorder Green Energy Teamc/o TOPSPO Box 66Mae Sod, TAK 63110This manual is available at www.bget.org
    • List of contentsIntroduction............................................................................................................................................. 3Water – the primary source of life........................................................................................................ 3Different ways of pumping water......................................................................................................... 3Water Resources..................................................................................................................................... 5Surface water vs Groundwater.............................................................................................................. 5Water Demand...................................................................................................................................... 5Water Storage ....................................................................................................................................... 6Water Distribution ................................................................................................................................ 6Solar pumping......................................................................................................................................... 8The technology ..................................................................................................................................... 8Performance........................................................................................................................................ 10Designing a solar pumping system..................................................................................................... 11Calculation example ........................................................................................................................... 11Hydraulic ram pump............................................................................................................................ 13Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 13How a hydram works.......................................................................................................................... 13Performance........................................................................................................................................ 15Designing a hydraulic ram pump system............................................................................................ 16Calculation example ........................................................................................................................... 17Installation requirements .................................................................................................................... 18References.............................................................................................................................................. 20Appendix................................................................................................................................................ 21Appendix A Formulae for Energy and Power............................................................................. 22Appendix B Specification for Diesel Pump................................................................................ 23Appendix C Specification for Solar Panels................................................................................. 24Appendix D Specification for Yeser 12 V DC water pump........................................................ 25Appendix E Hydraulic Ram Pump Tuning................................................................................. 31Appendix F 1” Ram Pump Test Results..................................................................................... 33Appendix G Steps in Installing Hydraulic Ram Pump System................................................... 40Appendix H Problems and Solutions during Ram Pump Installation......................................... 412
    • IntroductionWater – the primary source of lifeWater is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for ruraldevelopment. Two-thirds of the world’s households use a water source outside the home1. Often itmust be carried by hand, and since water is heavy it is very hard work. Therefore it is convenient to beable to pump water.Different ways of pumping waterWater pumping has a long history and many methods have been developed to pump water with aminimum of effort. These have utilized a variety of power sources, namely human energy, animalpower, hydro power, wind, solar and fossil fuels for small generators. The relative merits of these arelaid out in Table 1 below.Table 1 Comparison of pumping techniquesType of pump Advantages DisadvantagesHand pumps • local manufacture is possible• easy to maintain• low capital cost• no fuel costs• loss of human productivity• often an inefficient use of boreholes• only low flow rates are achievableAnimal driven pumps • more powerful than humans• lower wages than human power• dung may be used for cookingfuel• animals require feeding all yearround• often diverted to other activities atcrucial irrigation periodsHydraulic pumps(e.g. rams)• unattended operation• easy to maintain• low cost• long life• high reliability• require specific site conditions• low outputWind pumps • unattended operation• easy maintenance• long life• suited to local manufacture• no fuel requirements• water storage is required for lowwind periods• high system design and projectplanning needs• not easy to installSolar PV • unattended operation• low maintenance• easy installation• long life• high capital costs• water storage is required for cloudyperiods• repairs often require skilledtechniciansDiesel and gasoline pumps • quick and easy to install• low capital costs• widely used• can be portable• fuel supplies erratic and expensive• high maintenance costs• short life expectancy• noise and fume pollution1Women, A World Report Debbie Taylor et al, UN/Methuen 1985.3
    • All pumping techniques above have one thing in common. They require energy. In this training, wewill cover a few different energy sources that can be used for water pumping. These are diesel engines,solar (photovoltaic [PV]) panels and ram pump. Diesel, gasoline, and kerosene pumps (includingwindmills) have traditionally been used to pump water. However, reliable solar (photovoltaic [PV])and ram pumps are becoming an attractive alternative to the traditional power sources. Thesetechnologies, powered by renewable energy sources (solar and hydro), are especially useful in remotelocations where a steady fuel supply is problematic and skilled maintenance personnel are scarce.4
    • Water ResourcesSurface water vs GroundwaterThe available water resource is an important criterion for choosing the kind of energy sources for anygiven water pumping application. Water can come either from surface water or groundwater. Surfacewater includes lakes, rivers, seawater, and rainwater; groundwater is found in underground aquifers,including springs. Groundwater can be shallow or deep depending on the ground’s hydrologicalformation. Surface water can dry up in the dry season depending on the kind of aquifer, the annualrainfall, and the geographical location (such as arid, semiarid, and humid climates). These factors alsoaffect the depth of the water table.The water resource identified should be large enough to fulfill the demand. Unusual climate changessuch as droughts and seasonal variation of the water table must be considered. In general, largequantities of water are required for irrigation. The amount of water required for domestic watersupplies and livestock watering in rural areas generally depends on the size of the human and livestockpopulations.Water DemandWater demand is another important criterion for designing rural water supply systems. The three mainareas of need are:• Village water supply• Water for livestock• Water for irrigationWater demand for village water supplies is estimated from population size and from the daily percapita water consumption. A person needs 5 liters a day for drinking and cooking; 25 more to stayclean. Water consumption also depends on the availability of water. Table 2 shows typical daily waterconsumption for households with varying water access.Table 2 Typical Daily Water Consumption for Households2Type of Household Daily Water Consumption(liters/person)Households with dishwashers, washingmachines, and sprinklers1,000Households with a piped supply and taps 100-350Households using a public hydrant in thestreet20-70Households depending on a stream orhandpump several miles distant2-52Water for Agriculture, Sandra Postel (Worldwatch 1989)5
    • Similarly, demand for livestock watering is estimated from the number of animals using the systemmultiplied by the per capita water consumption. Typical daily water consumption for farm animals isshown in Table 3.Table 3 Typical Daily Water Consumption for Farm AnimalsType of Animal Daily Water Consumption(liters/animal)Dairy cows 80Beef brood cows 50Horses and mules 50Calves 30Pigs 20Sheep and goats 10Chickens 0.1Unlike demands for domestic and livestock water supplies, water demand for crop irrigation isseasonal. Because some crops require a maximum water supply for a relatively short growing season,all irrigation systems need to be designed for peak water demands. Estimating the water demand for anirrigation application is complex and is beyond the scope of this training. However, local practice andexperience are probably the best guides to estimating water requirements for a specific application.Table 4 shows the estimated daily water requirements for various types of crop irrigation.Table 4 Estimated Maximum Daily Water Demand for Various Types of Crop IrrigationCrops Daily Water Requirement(m3/ha)Rice 100Rural village farms 60Cereals 45Sugar cane 65Cotton 55Water StorageStorage is necessary for good water management. The available power resource must be consideredwhen determining storage size. The size of water tanks for conventional systems depends only on thepeak and average daily water demand. PV systems, on the other hand, depend on daily weatherconditions. Cloudy days with poor solar radiation create problems for meeting the daily water demand,so water tanks should be larger for such systems. Generally, 3 days of storage is recommended forrenewable energy water pumping systems. Water tanks can be smaller if alternative water sources,such as hand pumps and rainwater, are available. In rural areas rainwater can be collected to waterlivestock and wash clothes, depending on the amount of annual rainfall distribution in the area. Surfacewater that flows year-round (such as a river) can also be used for such tasks, reducing the need forlarge capacity water tanks.Water DistributionTo distribute water fairly to the rural community, pumping it first to the tank and then distributing itfrom the tank by using gravity is recommended. This way, enough pressure can be built up at the watertank to distribute water by gravity. In addition, water will continuously flow in the tank, which helps toreduce the growth of bacteria. Finally, this helps maintain any leakage with little water loss and fewinterruptions to other distribution areas. However, distribution pipes must be sized carefully because6
    • smaller pipes create more friction than bigger pipes. Because oversized distribution pipes will raise theinvestment costs of the system, there are tradeoffs. The rural distribution network is relatively small, soleakage in these systems is less of a concern than in city water supplies. The water pressure in thedistribution pipe is generally low in these systems and the chances of the pipe bursting are veryunlikely.7
    • Solar pumpingPV technology converts the sun’s energy into electricity (DC) when the PV module (array) is exposedto sunlight. The PV module can also be used for AC applications using an inverter. PV is especiallysuitable for water pumping because energy need not be stored for night pumping. Instead, water can bestored to supply water at night.The technologySolar pump systems are broadly configured into 5 types as described below:Submerged multistage centrifugal motor pumpset (Figure 1)This type is probably the most common type of solar pumpused for village water supply. The advantages of thisconfiguration are that it is easy to install, often with lay-flatflexible pipework and the motor pumpset is submergedaway from potential damage. Either ac or dc motors can beincorporated into the pumpset although an inverter wouldbe needed for ac systems. If a brushed dc motor is usedthen the equipment will need to be pulled up from the well(approximately every 2 years) to replace brushes. Ifbrushless dc motors are incorporated then electroniccommutation will be required. The most commonlyemployed system consists of an ac pump and inverter witha photovoltaic array of less than 1500Wp.Figure 1 Submerged multistage centrifugal motor pumpsetSubmerged pump with surface mounted motor (Figure 2)This configuration was widely installed with turbinepumps in the Sahelian West Africa during the 1970s. Itgives easy access to the motor for brush changing andother maintenance. The low efficiency from powerlosses in the shaft bearings and the high cost ofinstallation has been disadvantages. In general thisconfiguration is largely being replaced by thesubmersible motor and pumpset.Figure 2 Submerged pump with surface mounted motor8
    • Reciprocating positive displacement pump (Figure 3)The reciprocating positive displacement pump (oftenknown as the jack or nodding donkey) is very suitable forhigh head, low flow applications. The output isproportional to the speed of the pump. At high heads thefrictional forces are low compared to the hydrostatic forcesoften making positive displacement pumps more efficientthan centrifugal pumps for this situation. Reciprocatingpositive displacement pumps create a cyclic load on themotor which, for efficient operation, needs to be balanced.Hence, the above ground components of the solar pump areoften heavy and robust, and power controllers forimpedance matching often used.Figure 3 Reciprocating positive displacement pumpFloating motor pump sets (Figure 4)The versatility of the floating unit set, makes it ideal forirrigation pumping for canals and open wells. The pumpset iseasily portable and there is a negligible chance of the pumprunning dry. Most of these types use a single stagesubmersed centrifugal pump. The most common type utilisesa brushless (electronically commutated) dc motor. Often thesolar array support incorporates a handle or wheel barrowtype trolley to enable transportation.Figure 4 Floating motor pump setsSurface suction pumpsets (Figure 5)This type of pumpset is not recommended except where anoperator will always be in attendance. Although the use ofprimary chambers and non-return valves can prevent lossof prime, in practice self-start and priming problems areexperienced. It is impractical to have suction heads ofmore than 8 meters.Figure 5 Surface suction pumpsets9
    • PerformanceThe performance of some commercially available products is shown in Figure 6. It can be seen thatsolar pumps are available to pump from anywhere in the range of up to 200m head and with outputs ofup to 250m3/day. The product of head and output is defined as m4. DC pumps normally have m4valuebelow 1500-2000. Many systems pump water using solar energy with m4above 2000, but here theyuse AC pumps and inverters and are getting into much larger systems. The m4diagram of the 50W DCpump that we will use for demonstration purposes during this training can be found in Appendix D.Figure 6 Performance of solar pumpsSolar pumping technology continues to improve. In the early 1980s the typical solar energy tohydraulic (pumped water) energy efficiency was around 2% with the photovoltaic array being 6-8%efficient and the motor pumpset typically 25% efficient. Today, an efficient solar pump has an averagedaily solar energy to hydraulic efficiency of more than 4%. Photovoltaic modules of the10
    • monocrystalline type now have efficiencies in excess of 12% and more efficient motor and pumpsetsare available. A good sub-system (that is the motor, pump and any power conditioning) should have anaverage daily energy throughput efficiency of 30-40%.Designing a solar pumping systemThe first steps in doing a solar pumping project are:1. Determine the demand in waterHow many liters or m3(1000 liters) per day?2. Determine the characteristics of the available water supplyIs the source from surface water or groundwater?3. Determine the headHow many meters does the water need to be pumped from the available water source to the storagetank?4. Figure out the m4product to see if this is a do-able projectMultiply the required output (m3/day) and the head (m) to determine what type of pump is needed.5. Calculate the array size to determine if this is going to fit in a budgetThe energy required to pump water is calculated by the following formula:hgmW ××=where W is the energy in Joule (J), m is the mass of the water in kilograms (kg), g is the constant ofgravity (~10 m/s2), and h is the head in meters (m).Power is the amount of energy per time and is expressed in Watts (W).tWP =where P is the power in Watts (W), W is the energy in Joule (J), and t is the time in seconds (s).Because of inefficiencies in both the pump and the solar panel, the required input is larger than thepower output. This is described by the following formula.fPP oi =where Pi is the required input power (from the solar panel), Po is the power output (the water pumpedto a higher altitude), and f is the efficiency (eg. 1 is 100% efficiency and 0.5 is 50% efficiency).Calculation example1. Determine the demand in waterA village needs domestic water supply for 500 people. The average consumption per person would be40 liters.Total water demand: 500 x 40 liters/day = 20,000 liters/day = 20 m3/day11
    • 2. Determine the characteristics of the available water supplyThe village has a well with a depth of 3 meters, and a storage tank elevated on a hill, with the top ofthe tank 15 meters above the ground where the well is.3. Determine the headThe head would be the 3 meters that the water has to be pumped up to ground level, plus 15 meters tothe top of the tank, plus an allowance of about 10% for friction loss in the pipe, (which you wouldreally calculate instead of assume), for about 20 meters of head.4. Figure out the m4product to see if this is a do-able projectThe m4product would be 20 m x 20 m3/day = 400m4/day. Figure 6 shows that this is the region for aDC MSC (multistage centrifugal) pump with a solar array of between 600 W and 1400 W.5. Calculate the array size to determine if this is going to fit in a budgetThe required energy per day would be:MJJhgmW 4000,000,42010000,20 ==××=××=Assuming we can get an average of 3 hours of sunlight per day, this is:sh 800,10606033 =××=The required power output would be:WtWPo 370800,10000,000,4===With a total system efficiency of 30% this would require a solar array of:WPi 12353,0370== , which is between 600 W and 1400 W as indicated in Figure 6.12
    • Hydraulic ram pumpIntroductionThe hydraulic ram pump, or hydram, concept was first developed by the Mongolfier brothers in Francein 1796 (they are better remembered for their pioneering work with hot-air balloons).Essentially, a hydram is an automatic pumping device which utilizes a small fall of water to lift afraction of the supply flow to a much greater height; i.e. it uses a larger flow of water falling through asmall head to lift a small flow of water through a higher head. The main virtue of the hydram is that itsonly moving parts are two valves, and it is therefore mechanically very simple. This gives it very highreliability, minimal maintenance requirements and a long operation life.How a hydram worksIts mode of operation depends on the use of the phenomenon called water hammer and the overallefficiency can be quite good under favorable circumstances. More than 50% of the energy of thedriving flow can be transferred to the delivery flow.Figures 7-10 illustrates the principle; initially (Figure 7) the impulse valve (or waste valve since it isthe non-pumped water exit) will be open undergravity (or in some designs it is held open by alight spring) and water will therefore flow downthe drive pipe (through a strainer) from the watersource. As the flow accelerates, the hydraulicpressure under the impulse valve and the staticpressure in the body of the hydram will increaseuntil the resulting forces overcome the weight ofthe impulse valve and start to close it. As soonas the valve aperture decreases, the waterpressure in the hydram body builds up rapidlyand slams the impulse valve shut.The moving column of water in the drive pipe isno longer able to exit via the impulse valve so itsvelocity must suddenly decrease; this continues tocause a considerable rise of pressure which forcesopen the delivery valve to the air-chamber. Oncethe pressure exceeds the static delivery head,water will be forced up the delivery pipe (Figure8).Figure 8Figure 713
    • Air trapped in the air chamber issimultaneously compressed to a pressureexceeding the delivery pressure. Even-tually the column of water in the drivepipe comes to a halt and the static pressurein the casing then falls to near the supplyhead pressure. The delivery valve will thenclose, when the pressure in the airchamber exceeds that in the casing. Waterwill continue to be delivered after thedelivery valve has closed until thecompressed air in the air chamber hasexpanded to a pressure equal to thedelivery head (Figure 9). The air chamberis a vital component, as apart fromimproving the efficiency of the process byallowing delivery to continue after thedelivery valve has closed, it is also essential to cushion the shocks that would otherwise occur due tothe incompressible nature of water.Figure 9A check valve is included in the delivery pipe toprevent return flow. When the delivery valve closes,the reduced pressure in the hydram body will allowthe impulse valve to drop under its own weight,thereby letting the cycle start all over again (Figure10). Most hydrams operate at 30-100 cycles a minute.Figure 10This cycling of the hydram is timed by thecharacteristic of the waste valve. Normally it can beweighted or pre-tensioned by an adjustable spring, andan adjustable screwed stop is generally providedwhich will allow the maximum opening to be varied.The efficiency, which dictates how much water willbe delivered from a given drive flow, is criticallyinfluenced by the valve setting.This is because if the waste valve stays open too long, a smaller proportion of the throughput water ispumped, so the efficiency is reduced, but if it closes too readily, then the pressure will not build up forlong enough in the hydram body, so again less water will be delivered. There is often an adjustable boltthat limits the opening of the valve to a predetermined amount, which allows the device to be turned tooptimize its performance. A skilled installer should be able to adjust the waste valve on site to obtainoptimum performance. Please refer to Appendix E for further information regarding hydraulic rampump tuning. A storage tank is usually included at the top of the delivery pipe to allow water to bedrawn in variable amounts as needed.14
    • PerformanceThe flow of water that a hydraulic ram pump can deliver depends on the head (H) and flow (Q) of thewater from the drive pipe, as well as the delivery head (h), i.e. the height difference between the rampump and the storage tank where the water should be pumped. The delivery flow (q) can be calculatedusing the following formula:hQHfq××=where f is the efficiency factor, H is the supply head, Q is the supply flow, and h is the delivery head.A typical efficiency factor for commercial ram pumps is 60%, but up to 80% is possible. For homemade ram pumps this is usually lower.HDhdCatchment tankqlLQDrive pipeDelivery pipeStorage tankRam pumpFigure 11 Schematic of ram pump installationThe size and length of the drive pipe must be inproportion to the working head from which the ramoperates. Also, the drive pipe carries severe internalshock loads due to water hammer, and therefore normallyshould be constructed from good quality steel water pipe.Normally the length (L) of the drive pipe should bearound three to seven times the supply head (H). Ideallythe drive pipe should have a length of at least 100 but notmore than 1,000 times its own diameter (D). The drivepipe must generally be straight; any bends will not onlycause losses of efficiency, but will result in strongfluctuating sideways forces on the pipe, which can causeit to break loose.Technical Parameters forHydraulic Ram Pump System,whereL = length of drive pipeH = supply headD = diameter of drive pipe000,1100) −=DLb73) −=HLaHydrams are mostly intended for water supply duties, in hilly or mountainous areas, requiring smallflow rates delivered to high heads. They are less commonly used for irrigation purposes, where thehigher flow rates required will usually demand the use of larger sizes of hydram having 6-inch or 4-inch drive pipes. Manufacturers usually describe the size of a hydram by the supply and delivery pipediameters (generally given in inches even in metric countries because of the common use of inch sizes15
    • for pipe diameters); e.g. a 6 x 3 hydram has a 6-inch diameter drive pipe and a 3-inch diameterdelivery pipe. Table 5 indicates estimated performance for typical 4-inch x 2-inch and 6-inch x 3-inchcommercial hydrams.Table 5 Typical ram pump performance dataHydram size in inches 4” x 2” 6” x 3”Head ratio (h/H) 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20Drive flow Q (litres/s) 9.0 9.7 10.0 9.0 20.2 17.2 17.1 19.3Delivery flow q (m3/day) 94 51 35 23 216 101 69 50Efficiency f 61% 61% 61% 59% 62% 68% 70% 60%The ram pump that will be used for demonstration purposes during this training is manufactured by theAID foundation in the Philippines. It has a 1” drive pipe and a ½” delivery pipe. The performance datafor this ram pump can be found in Appendix F.Designing a hydraulic ram pump systemThe following are the steps in designing a hydraulic ram pump system:1. Identify the necessary design factors:1. What is the available supply head, H (the height difference between the water source and the pumpsite)?2. What is the required delivery head, h (the difference in height between the pump site and the pointof storage or use)?3. What is the available drive flow, Q (the quantity of flow from the water source)?4. What is the required delivery flow, q (the quantity of water for consumption)?5. What is the length of the drive pipe, L (the distance from the source to the pump site)?6. What is the length of the delivery pipe, l (the distance from the pump to the storage site)?2. Determine if this is a do-able projectCalculate the required efficiency factor using the formulaQHqhf××=to see if it is possible to use a ram pump to meet the supply demand.The angle of the drive pipe should not be too steep. Normally the length (L) of the drive pipe should bearound three to seven times the supply head (H).3. Determine the ram pump sizeThe table below shows the capacities for different ram pump sizes from a certain manufacturer, as wellas the recommended size of the drive pipe.Table 6 Capacities for different ram pump sizes3Hydram size 1 2 3 3.5 4 5X 6XDrive flow needed(liters/min)7-16 12-25 27-55 45-96 68-137 136-270 180-410Maximum lift (meters) 150 150 120 120 120 105 105Drive pipe size (inches) 1¼” 1½” 2” 2½” 3” 4” 5”3US AID, 198216
    • 4. Determine the drive and delivery pipe sizeThe drive pipe diameter is usually chosen based on the size of the ram and the manufacturersrecommendations as shown in Table 6. But there are also other factors to consider. The diameter ofboth the drive pipe and the delivery pipe should not be smaller than their respective length divided by1,000. If the diameter is too small the capacity will be reduced due to friction losses. The diametershould also be large enough to handle the flow of water that should go through it. The table below canbe used for finding the right pipe size for the available flow.Table 7 Possible flows for different pipe sizes4Pipe diameter (inches) 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4”Flow (liters/min) 6-36 37-60 61-90 91-234 235-360Calculation exampleA small community consists of 10 homes with a total of 60 people. There is a spring l0m lower thanthe village, which drains to a wash 15m below the spring. The spring produces 30,000 liters of waterper day. There is a location for a ram on the bank of the wash. This site is 5m higher than the wash and35m from the spring. A public standpost is planned for the village 200m from the ram site. The liftrequired to the top of the storage tank is 23m.1. Identify the necessary design factors:1. The available supply head, H, is 10m.2. The required delivery head, h, is 23m to the top of the storage tank.3. The quantity of flow available, Q, equals 30,000 liters per day divided by 1,440 minutes per day(30,000/1,440) = 20.8 liters per minute.4. The quantity of water required, q, assuming 40 liters per day per person as maximum use is 60people x 40 liters per day = 2,400 liters per day.2,400/1,440 = 1.66 liters per minute (use 2 liters per minute)5. The length of the drive pipe, L, is 35m.6. The length of the delivery pipe, l, is 200m.2. Determine if this is a do-able projectCalculate the required efficiency factor using the formula22.08.2010223=××=××=QHqhf22% efficiency is VERY do-able for a hydraulic ram pump installation.Calculate the ratio between the length of the drive pipe (L) and the supply head (H).5.31035==HLThe length of the drive pipe should be at least three times the supply head, so this condition is also met.3. Determine the ram pump sizeTable 6 can now be used to select a ram size. The volume of driving water or supply needed is 20.8liters per minute. From Table 6, a No. 2 Hydram requires from 12 to 25 liters per minute. A No. 24US AID, 198217
    • Hydram can lift water to a maximum height of 150m according to Table 6. This will be adequate sincethe delivery head to the top of the storage tank is 23m. Thus, a No. 2 Hydram would be selected.4. Determine the drive and delivery pipe sizeTable 6 shows that for a No. 2 Hydram, the minimum drive pipe diameter is 1½ inch. The length of thedrive pipe is 35 meters, so the diameter should not be less that 35 mm. Thus a 1½” (38 mm) pipewould be sufficient. Table 7 shows that a 1½” pipe is sufficient for the drive flow (20.8 liters/min).For the delivery flow (2 liters/min), Table 7 shows that a 1” pipe is sufficientInstallation requirementsFigure 12 illustrates a typical hydram installation, pumping water to a small storage tank on a plateau.It can be seen that the supply head is created in this case by creating a weir. In some cases a smallstream is diverted to provide the water supply.Figure 12 Typical ram pump installation18
    • Where greater capacity is needed, it iscommon practice to install severalhydrams in parallel. This allows achoice of how many to operate at anyone time so it can cater for variablesupply flows or variable demand.Figure 13 shows an installation withparallel ram pumps.Figure 13Multiple hydrams withcommon delivery pipeThe hydram body requires to be firmly bolted to a concrete foundation, as the beats of its action applya significant shock load. The hydram should be located so that the waste valve is always located aboveflood water level, as the device will cease to function if the waste valve becomes submerged. Thedelivery pipe can be made from any material capable of carrying the pressure of water leading to thedelivery tank. In all except very high head applications, plastic pipe can be considered; with highheads, the lower end of the delivery line might be better as steel pipe. The diameter of the delivery lineneeds to allow for avoiding excessive pipe friction in relation to the flow rates envisaged and thedistance the water is to be conveyed. It is recommended that a hand-valve or check-valve (non-returnvalve) should be fitted in the delivery line near the outlet from the hydram, so that the delivery linedoes not have to be drained if the hydram is stopped for adjustment or any other reason. This will alsominimize any back flow past the delivery valve in the air chamber and improve efficiency.For steps in installing hydraulic ram pump systems, please refer to Appendix G.For problems that may occur during installation of ram pump systems, please refer to Appendix H.19
    • ReferencesThe material for this training manual has been taken from the following sources:N. Argaw, R. Foster and A. Ellis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA,“Renewable Energy for Water Pumping Applications in Rural Villages”, NREL/SR-500-30361Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridgeTechnical Information ServicePractical Action (formerly: Intermediate Technology Development Group)The Schumacher Centre for Technology and DevelopmentBourton-on-DunsmoreRugby, CV23 9QZUnited KingdomTel: (+44) 1926 634400Fax: (+44) 1926 634401e-mail: infoserv@practicalaction.org.ukweb: http://www.itdg.orghttp://www.itdg.org/docs/technical_information_service/solar_pv_waterpumps.pdfhttp://www.itdg.org/docs/technical_information_service/hydraulic_ram_pumps.pdfAID FoundationAlternative Indigenous Development Foundation Inc.PO Box 297Lot 30, Blk. 12, Puentebella Subd.,Brgy. Taculing, Bacolod City,PhilippinesTel: (+63) 34 446 3629Fax: (+63) 34 446 2336e-mail: aidfi@hotmail.comweb: www.aidfi.orgOther websiteshttp://www.newint.org/issue207/facts.htmhttp://www.thefarm.org/charities/i4at/lib2/hydrpump.htmhttp://www.dekpower-fj.com/diesel-water.htmhttp://www.solartron.co.th/Newer/product.aspx20
    • AppendixAppendix A Formulae for Energy and Power (1 page)Appendix B Specification for Diesel Pump (1 page)Appendix C Specification for Solar Panels (1 page)Appendix D Specification for Yeser 12 V DC water pump (6 pages)Appendix E Hydraulic Ram Pump Tuning (2 pages)Appendix F 1” Ram Pump Test Results (7 pages)Appendix G Steps in Installing Hydraulic Ram Pump System (1 page)Appendix H Problems and Solutions during Ram Pump Installation (2 pages)21
    • Appendix A Formulae for Energy and PowerEnergy can be in many different forms. It can never be destroyed, only transformed from one form ofenergy to another.Potential energy, e.g. water stored in a reservoirhgmW ××=where W is the energy in Joule (J), m is the mass of the water in kilograms (kg), g is the constant ofgravity (~10 m/s2), and h is the head in meters (m).Electrical energy, e.g. stored in a batteryQUW ×=where W is the energy in Joule (J), U is the voltage in Volts (V), and Q is the electric charge inCoulomb (C).Power is the amount of energy per time and is expressed in Watts (W).tWP =where P is the power in Watts (W), W is the energy in Joule (J), and t is the time in seconds (s).Water power, e.g. water flowing in a waterfallhgqP ×××= ρwhere P is the power in Watts (W), ρ is the water density in kg/m3, q is the flow in m3/s, g is theconstant of gravity (~10 m/s2), and h is the head in meters (m).Electrical power, e.g. produced in a solar panelIUP ×=where P is the electrical power in Watts (W), U is the voltage in Volts (V), and I is the current inAmperes (A).22
    • Appendix B Specification for Diesel Pump23
    • Appendix C Specification for Solar Panels24
    • Appendix D Specification for Yeser 12 V DC water pump25
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    • Appendix E Hydraulic Ram Pump Tuning31
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    • Appendix F 1” Ram Pump Test Results33
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    • Appendix G Steps in Installing Hydraulic Ram Pump System40
    • Appendix H Problems and Solutions during Ram Pump Installation41
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