Leaf shape characteristic with the anterior end broader than the posterior end and an anterior cone-shaped projection.
Possesses a powerful oral sucker at the anterior cone and a ventral sucker at the base of the cone attach to the lining of the biliary ducts.
monoecious - possesses ovaries and testes which are highly branched and allow for individual flukes to produce eggs independently.
A stained adult Fasciola hepatica ; approximate length = 20 mm. The internal organs are highly branched, thus making it very difficult to differentiate the various internal organs All of their major systems are branched, including the intestine, testes, and ovary.
The ova Length 130-145 µm Width 70-90 µm Regular ellipse Thin shell Operculum at one pole Granular yellowish-brown contents filling whole egg
egg capsule with emerging miracidium of Fasciola hepatica . 400x unembryonated egg capsule of F. hepatica . earlier stage of development. 400x embryonated egg capsule of Fasciola hepatica. So-named because the miracidium is fully formed and ready to emerge. The operculum can be seen to the left. 400x
Redia and cercaria of Fasciola hepatica Miracidium of Fasciola hepatica . This ciliated, non-feeding larval stage, has about 24 hours to find its specific snail host, such as Fossaria modicella or Stagnicola bulimoides. 400x
Occurs when an individual consumes infected raw liver The young adult worms then attach themselves to the pharyngeal mucosa causes considerable pain, edema, and bleeding that can interfere with respiration.
The adults can live in the biliary ducts, causing symptoms for up to 10 years.
Ectopic Infection: Ectopic infections through normal transmission are infrequent but can occur in the peritoneal cavity, intestinal wall, lungs, subcutaneous tissue, and very rarely in other locations.
The presence of a substantial reservoir - keep domestic animal herds separate from the growing sites of aquatic. This limits the risk of contaminating the vegetation and thus decreases both human infection and the animal reservoir
The presence of the intermediate host , the Lymanaea snails - application of molluscicides to decrease the population of Lymnaea snails.
The opportunity for water source contamination by human and non-human hosts
Dietary practices that include the consumption of raw, untreated aquatic vegetation.