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Motivating Contribution:
5 Theories and 35 Design Claims
Paul Resnick
Professor
University of Michigan
School of Informati...
Online communities face challenges
typical of off-line groups
•
•
•
•

•
•

Community start-up
Recruit, select and sociali...
Evidence-based Social Design
•

•

Mine the rich empirical and theoretical literatures in
psychology and economics
Develop...
Inspiration
“There is nothing so
practical as a good theory”

“If you want to understand
something, try to change it”

Kur...
Some Theories
•
•
•
•
•

Latane‟s Social Impact Theory
Social Proof
Goal Setting
Intrinsic Motivators
Collective Effort Mo...
The Roles of Theory and Evidence
•
•
•

Identify Challenges
Generate Solution Ideas
Predict Consequences
Roles For Theory
•

Identifying Challenges
Identifying Challenges
•

Economics: Public Goods
– Private provision  underprovision

•

Psychology: Social Loafing
– In...
Wikipedia Stubs & Unassessed Articles
•
•

Many Wikipedia articles haven‟t been assessed for
quality or importance
58% of ...
Roles For Theory
•
•

Identifying Challenges
Guide to Where to Look for Solution Opportunities
Collective Effort Model:
Guide to Opportunities

individual
performance

individual
effort

individual
utility
group
perfo...
Guide to Opportunities

individual
performance

individual
effort

uniqueness

individual
utility
group
performance

indiv...
Guide to Opportunities

individual
performance

individual
effort

uniqueness

individual
utility
group
performance

commi...
Guide to Opportunities

individual
performance

individual
effort

uniqueness

Performancecontingent rewards

Task-conting...
Guide to Opportunities

individual
performance

Performance-contingent
rewards
Intrinsic

Motivators
individual
effort

un...
Guide to Opportunities

Persuasive Messages
individual
performance

Performance-contingent
rewards

Intrinsic
Motivators
i...
Collective Effort Model++
Roles For Theory
•
•
•

Identifying Challenges
Guide to Where to Look for Solution Opportunities
Predicting Effects: Desig...
Design Levers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Community structure
Content, tasks & activities
Selection, sorting & highlighting
External ...
Design Claims and
Pattern Languages
•

Design pattern: a formal way of documenting a
solution to a design problem in a par...
Encouraging Contributions
ASK AND YE SHALL RECEIVE
Requests Focus Attention on Needed
Contributions
•

Make the list of needed contributions easily visible to
increase the l...
Email Request to Contribute to Movielens
Quadruples Ratings

•

In week after email reminder, contributions quadrupled, to...
SOME ASKS WORK BETTER
THAN OTHERS
Ask When They Can Act
•

•
•

News site with a “Leave a
comment” form at the end of
each article
Fewer than 0.1% leave
com...
Ask For Something Doable: Intelligent
Task Routing (Cosley, 2007)
SuggestBot
Suggestions
Suggestions Quadruple Editing Rates
Effective Requests
•
•
•

DC1: Visible list of tasks
DC2: Tools for finding and tracking tasks
DC3: Matching to tasks that...
Latane's Social Impact Theory
•

Power of persuasive attempt
– increases with number (immediacy, importance) of people
ask...
Chat Room Experiment
“Can you tell me how to
see someone‟s profile”
– 400 Chat rooms
– DV=Time to response

80

Time to re...
Systematic vs. Heuristic Processing
•

Systematic: decisions people care about
– Gather evidence
– Weigh pros and cons

•
...
Social Proof
•

Others doing something signals that it's good/valuable
Effective Requests
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

•
•

DC1: Visible list of tasks
DC2: Tools for finding and tracking tasks
DC3: Matchin...
Goal Setting Theory
•

Goals motivate effort, perseverance & performance
– Trigger for both self-reward (e.g., self-effica...
Experiment in MovieLens

•

Send email to ~900 MovieLens subscribers
– Gave non-specific, do your best goal or specific, n...
Goal Experiment Results

•

Results
– Specific, challenging goals increased contribution
– Group assignment increased cont...
In-game Goals in WoW
Weekly minutes playing World of Warcraft, by level

•

In WoW players receive extra powers each 10lev...
Featured Status in Wikipedia as a
Challenge

Wikipedia edits before and after reaching featured status
WikiProjects Use Collaborations of the Week
(COTW) as Time-Delimited Goals
Get designated to good status in a defined
peri...
Goal doubles contribution
Edits per person on the
collaboration articles

Self-identified group members

Non self-identifi...
Goal has much larger effect on group
members
Edits per person on the
collaboration articles

Self-identified group members...
Goal Setting Design Claims
•
•
•

DC13: specific and highly challenging goals
DC14: deadlines
DC15: frequent feedback
Theories of Intrinsic Motivation
•
•
•
•
•
•

Social contact
Challenge
Mastery
Competition
Autonomy
...
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation
•
•
•
•
•

•

DC16: combine contribution with social contact
DC17: immersive experiences
DC...
Extrinsic Rewards
•
•

Reinforcements are rewards given after a behavior
Incentives are promises given before the behavior...
Reinforcement: Barnstars
Enhancing Extrinsic Motivation
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

DC23: rewards
DC24: task-contingent rewards for small-discrete tasks
motiva...
Interfering with
Intrinsic Motivation:
Cameron et al 2001

•

•

•

+  external
reward enhances
intrinsic
motivation
-  ...
Tradeoffs
•
•

DC30: Task-contingent rewards, especially
money, reduce intrinsic motivation
DC31: Pay a lot or don't pay a...
Collective Effort Model++
Uniqueness & Benefits Experiment
•
•

Email invitations to join a movie rating campaign
Uniqueness
– Unique: We are contac...
Emphasizing Uniqueness Increased
Number of Ratings
•

H1: Unique condition rated
18% more movies than nonunique condition ...
Expectancy-Value of Group Outcomes
•
•
•
•

DC32: Commitment to the group
DC33: Small rather than large group
DC34: Unique...
REVIEW
The Roles of Theory and Evidence
•
•
•

Identify Challenges
Generate Solution Ideas
Predict Consequences
Theories
•
•
•
•
•

Latane‟s Social Impact Theory
Social Proof
Goal Setting
Intrinsic Motivators
Collective Effort Model
Design Levers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Community structure
Content, tasks & activities
Selection, sorting & highlighting
External ...
Other Challenges
•
•
•
•

Newcomer Recruitment and Socialization
Enhancing Commitment
Regulating Behavior
Community Startu...
Professor Paul Resnick at Vircomm14 – 'Motivating Contribution: 5 theories and 35 design claims'
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Professor Paul Resnick at Vircomm14 – 'Motivating Contribution: 5 theories and 35 design claims'

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  • Go quickly here. More about roles of theory in two slides.
  • …but won't tell you exactly what to do; still need designerly intuition. Raw material for decision making, not algorithms or even decision heuristics.
  • Wikipedia sets pretty high standards for itself, and has a process for assessing articles according to those standards.About half of articles haven't even been assessed, another under-contribution problem. And most articles are classified as stubs, or starts, which means "some meaningful content, but the majority of readers will need more."
  • Similarly, even very popular open source projects have long lists of open bugs. And that's just the bugs that have been reported.
  • 3: Requests4: Enhancing intrinsic motivations5: Enhancing extrinsic motivations6: Enhancing expectancy-value of group outcomes
  • 1. Community structure: size, homogeneity, whether there are subgroups2. What people can do, and what they do together3. Which things to show people4. Import and export5. Feedback, rewards, and sanctions6. Roles and rules– what people are expected to do7. What the technology allows them to do8. Communication and framing– surprisingly powerful; makes it a little hard to make scientific progress, as things may work/not just because of small presentation choices.
  • These figures are examples from the Yahoo! Design Patterns Library, featured in the book by Crumlish and Malone (which I also highly recommend and assign excerpts from in my courses at the University of Michigan).
  • lecture
  • This is an example template on article’s talk page, identifying this particular article as the COTW target
  • During collaboration periods, even non-self-identifiededitors increased their contributions, but only by a little bit. In contrast,
  • …there's a big effect for the people who identify as group members.The interaction effect is highly significant. p < 0.001Interpretation: Specific goals motivate performance, but only when people are committed to the goals. When it's a group goal, or a collective outcome, commitment to the group makes people more committed to the goals.
  • Lecture. 8:30-8:40
  • 10 minutes: write down one; share it; group share
  • And fast here. Don't belabor this
  • 3: Requests4: Enhancing intrinsic motivations5: Enhancing extrinsic motivations6: Enhancing expectancy-value of group outcomes
  • …but won't tell you exactly what to do; still need designerly intuition. Raw material for decision making, not algorithms or even decision heuristics.
  • 1. Community structure: size, homogeneity, whether there are subgroups2. What people can do, and what they do together3. Which things to show people4. Import and export5. Feedback, rewards, and sanctions6. Roles and rules– what people are expected to do7. What the technology allows them to do8. Communication and framing– surprisingly powerful; makes it a little hard to make scientific progress, as things may work/not just because of small presentation choices.
  • Transcript of "Professor Paul Resnick at Vircomm14 – 'Motivating Contribution: 5 theories and 35 design claims'"

    1. 1. Motivating Contribution: 5 Theories and 35 Design Claims Paul Resnick Professor University of Michigan School of Information
    2. 2. Online communities face challenges typical of off-line groups • • • • • • Community start-up Recruit, select and socialize members Encourage commitment Elicit contribution Regulate behavior Coordinate activity But anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of institutionalization make challenges more daunting online
    3. 3. Evidence-based Social Design • • Mine the rich empirical and theoretical literatures in psychology and economics Develop design claims – Hypotheses about the effects of social design decisions • Sometimes directly tested in the online context and sometimes only extensions of empirically tested theories developed in offline settings
    4. 4. Inspiration “There is nothing so practical as a good theory” “If you want to understand something, try to change it” Kurt Lewin
    5. 5. Some Theories • • • • • Latane‟s Social Impact Theory Social Proof Goal Setting Intrinsic Motivators Collective Effort Model
    6. 6. The Roles of Theory and Evidence • • • Identify Challenges Generate Solution Ideas Predict Consequences
    7. 7. Roles For Theory • Identifying Challenges
    8. 8. Identifying Challenges • Economics: Public Goods – Private provision  underprovision • Psychology: Social Loafing – In group contribution setting  less individual effort • Implications for online communities – Some valuable tasks won‟t be done • • • • • • Support forums: Questions, answers, empathy Recommender systems: Votes, opinions, comments Facebook: Invites, accepts, wall posts, pictures WoW guild: Time, skill development OSS: Patches, code, translations, documentation Wikipedia: New articles, facts, copy-editing, cash – …unless you design for it
    9. 9. Wikipedia Stubs & Unassessed Articles • • Many Wikipedia articles haven‟t been assessed for quality or importance 58% of important ones are of low quality
    10. 10. Roles For Theory • • Identifying Challenges Guide to Where to Look for Solution Opportunities
    11. 11. Collective Effort Model: Guide to Opportunities individual performance individual effort individual utility group performance Adapted from Karau and Williams, 1993 individual motivation
    12. 12. Guide to Opportunities individual performance individual effort uniqueness individual utility group performance individual motivation
    13. 13. Guide to Opportunities individual performance individual effort uniqueness individual utility group performance commitment individual motivation
    14. 14. Guide to Opportunities individual performance individual effort uniqueness Performancecontingent rewards Task-contingent rewards group performance commitment individual utility individual motivation
    15. 15. Guide to Opportunities individual performance Performance-contingent rewards Intrinsic Motivators individual effort uniqueness Task-contingent rewards group performance commitment individual utility individual motivation
    16. 16. Guide to Opportunities Persuasive Messages individual performance Performance-contingent rewards Intrinsic Motivators individual effort uniqueness Task-contingent rewards group performance commitment individual utility individual motivation
    17. 17. Collective Effort Model++
    18. 18. Roles For Theory • • • Identifying Challenges Guide to Where to Look for Solution Opportunities Predicting Effects: Design Claims Design Alternative X… …Leads to Outcome Y… …Under Conditions Z – E.g., • Coupling goals with specific deadlines leads to increases in contributions as the deadlines approach • Group goals elicit contribution most among people who identify with the group
    19. 19. Design Levers • • • • • • • • Community structure Content, tasks & activities Selection, sorting & highlighting External communication Feedback & rewards Roles, rules, policies and procedures Access controls Presentation and framing
    20. 20. Design Claims and Pattern Languages • Design pattern: a formal way of documenting a solution to a design problem in a particular field of expertise. • May or may not document the reasons why a problem exists and why the solution is a good one Captures the common solutions, but not necessarily the effective ones •
    21. 21. Encouraging Contributions
    22. 22. ASK AND YE SHALL RECEIVE
    23. 23. Requests Focus Attention on Needed Contributions • Make the list of needed contributions easily visible to increase the likelihood that the community will provide them
    24. 24. Email Request to Contribute to Movielens Quadruples Ratings • In week after email reminder, contributions quadrupled, to ~ 20 ratings/person from ~5.4
    25. 25. SOME ASKS WORK BETTER THAN OTHERS
    26. 26. Ask When They Can Act • • • News site with a “Leave a comment” form at the end of each article Fewer than 0.1% leave comments Experiment to estimate the value of explicit requests – No ask: “Leave a comment” form at end of article – Immediate: Pop-up “Leave a comment” when user opens article – Delayed: Pop-up “Leave a comment” on closing article Comments by Type of Request No ask Immediate Delayed 0 20 40 60 80 Number of comments (Wash & Lampe, 2012) 100 120
    27. 27. Ask For Something Doable: Intelligent Task Routing (Cosley, 2007)
    28. 28. SuggestBot Suggestions
    29. 29. Suggestions Quadruple Editing Rates
    30. 30. Effective Requests • • • DC1: Visible list of tasks DC2: Tools for finding and tracking tasks DC3: Matching to tasks that interest them
    31. 31. Latane's Social Impact Theory • Power of persuasive attempt – increases with number (immediacy, importance) of people asking • declining marginal rate – decreases with number of people being asked • declining marginal rate
    32. 32. Chat Room Experiment “Can you tell me how to see someone‟s profile” – 400 Chat rooms – DV=Time to response 80 Time to respond (seconds) • 70 No name 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 • People are slower to respond when others are present Diffusion of responsibility is reduced when people are called by name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Others present 80 Time to respond (seconds) • No name 70 Name 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Others present Markey(2000)
    33. 33. Systematic vs. Heuristic Processing • Systematic: decisions people care about – Gather evidence – Weigh pros and cons • Heuristic: routine decisions – Superficial cues – Heuristics
    34. 34. Social Proof • Others doing something signals that it's good/valuable
    35. 35. Effective Requests • • • • • • • • • • DC1: Visible list of tasks DC2: Tools for finding and tracking tasks DC3: Matching to tasks that interest them DC4: specific people vs. broadcast DC5: Simple requests for routine decisions DC6: Explain benefits for important decisions DC7 and 8: Fear campaigns  higher importance, systematic processing DC9: requests from high status people DC10 and 11: requests from people you like (similar, attractive, familiar) DC12: seeing that others complied
    36. 36. Goal Setting Theory • Goals motivate effort, perseverance & performance – Trigger for both self-reward (e.g., self-efficacy) & external reward (e.g., money, reputation, promotion) • Goals are more effective if – Specific & challenging rather than easy goals or vague „do your best‟ – Immediate, with feedback – People commit selves to the goals – because of importance, incentives, self-esteem, … – People envision the specific circumstance & method they will use to achieve them • Design claim: Providing members with specific and highly challenging goals, whether self-set or systemsuggested, increases contribution.
    37. 37. Experiment in MovieLens • Send email to ~900 MovieLens subscribers – Gave non-specific, do your best goal or specific, numerical contribution goals
    38. 38. Goal Experiment Results • Results – Specific, challenging goals increased contribution – Group assignment increased contributions
    39. 39. In-game Goals in WoW Weekly minutes playing World of Warcraft, by level • In WoW players receive extra powers each 10levels implicit goal setting • Ducheneaut, N., et al.(2007). The life and death of online gaming communities: A look at guilds in world of warcraft. in SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. San Jose, California, USA.
    40. 40. Featured Status in Wikipedia as a Challenge Wikipedia edits before and after reaching featured status
    41. 41. WikiProjects Use Collaborations of the Week (COTW) as Time-Delimited Goals Get designated to good status in a defined period (e.g., a week or a month) A COTW announcement in a project page An example template identifying an article as a COTW 43
    42. 42. Goal doubles contribution Edits per person on the collaboration articles Self-identified group members Non self-identified members Pre-Collaboration Collaboration Post-Collaboration 44
    43. 43. Goal has much larger effect on group members Edits per person on the collaboration articles Self-identified group members Non self-identified members Pre-Collaboration Collaboration Post-Collaboration 45
    44. 44. Goal Setting Design Claims • • • DC13: specific and highly challenging goals DC14: deadlines DC15: frequent feedback
    45. 45. Theories of Intrinsic Motivation • • • • • • Social contact Challenge Mastery Competition Autonomy ...
    46. 46. Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation • • • • • • DC16: combine contribution with social contact DC17: immersive experiences DC18: performance feedback DC19: systematic quant feedback  verbal feedback as well DC20: performance feedback only works if perceived as sincere DC21: comparative performance feedback – DC22: but may create game-like atmosphere
    47. 47. Extrinsic Rewards • • Reinforcements are rewards given after a behavior Incentives are promises given before the behavior to cause people to produce it – Reinforcement can lead to incentive if it‟s predictable – But persistence of behavior is greatest if not predictable • Form of rewards: – – – – – $ Points Praise Reputation Privileges
    48. 48. Reinforcement: Barnstars
    49. 49. Enhancing Extrinsic Motivation • • • • • • • DC23: rewards DC24: task-contingent rewards for small-discrete tasks motivate taking on the task, but not effort on them DC25: rewards  "gaming the system"/manipulation DC26: non-performance-contingent rewards  manipulation DC27: performance-contingent  can prevent manipulation DC28: status and privileges  less gaming than material rewards DC29: non-transparency  less manipulation
    50. 50. Interfering with Intrinsic Motivation: Cameron et al 2001 • • • +  external reward enhances intrinsic motivation -  external reward decreases intrinsic motivation Effect on feelings of control is key explanatory variable
    51. 51. Tradeoffs • • DC30: Task-contingent rewards, especially money, reduce intrinsic motivation DC31: Pay a lot or don't pay at all
    52. 52. Collective Effort Model++
    53. 53. Uniqueness & Benefits Experiment • • Email invitations to join a movie rating campaign Uniqueness – Unique: We are contacting you because as someone with fairly unusual tastes, …, your contributions are especially valuable – Non-unique: "We are contacting you because as someone with fairly typical tastes, ……, your contributions are especially valuable • Which will lead to more contributions?
    54. 54. Emphasizing Uniqueness Increased Number of Ratings • H1: Unique condition rated 18% more movies than nonunique condition (means = 20.92 vs. 17.65, p<.05). • Unique condition rated 40% more rarely-rated movies than those in non-unique condition (means = 1.82 vs. 1.30, p<.05). 22 #Ratings 21 20 19 18 17 16 Nonunique Unique
    55. 55. Expectancy-Value of Group Outcomes • • • • DC32: Commitment to the group DC33: Small rather than large group DC34: Unique contributions to make DC35: See others' complementary contributions
    56. 56. REVIEW
    57. 57. The Roles of Theory and Evidence • • • Identify Challenges Generate Solution Ideas Predict Consequences
    58. 58. Theories • • • • • Latane‟s Social Impact Theory Social Proof Goal Setting Intrinsic Motivators Collective Effort Model
    59. 59. Design Levers • • • • • • • • Community structure Content, tasks & activities Selection, sorting & highlighting External communication Feedback & rewards Roles, rules, policies and procedures Access controls Presentation and framing
    60. 60. Other Challenges • • • • Newcomer Recruitment and Socialization Enhancing Commitment Regulating Behavior Community Startup
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