Julieta Herrería [Soldiers’ experience and Causes research/graphics- Co-coordinator]
Lynn Quirola [Important Characters research]
Fiorella Rhor [Battles research]
Daniela Arosemena [US Intervention in War research]
Fernando Coello [Group Coordinator/ Edition/ End of the war and Weapons research]
Aspects that led to war:
Balance of power
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand
It can be defined as the pride a person has to his/her country.
Nationalism has become:
The dominant form of societal organization
One of the main reason of many conflicts worldwide.
In Serbia The Anarchist Organization ‘Unification or Death’ alleged to be Nationalist.
Imperialism (Territories Rivalries)
Important movements in Europe
Pan Slavic Movement
Pan German Movement
The competition for expanding markets caused Global conflict.
Background Banking interests and capitalist-imperialist powers.
Definition Agreement between countries to defend each other from war attacks.
During the 1910s two important alliances were created.
Triple Entente (Great Britain, France and Russia)
Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy)
Militarism and WWI
“ War was a consequence of their desire for military power and disdain for democracy ”.
Woodrow Wilson stated that the Great War relied over Militarism .
Aristocrats and military elites had too much power in:
Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.
Franz Ferdinand and Assassination
Archduke of Austria-Hungary
December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914
He was killed by Gavrilo Princip (Serbian anarchist)
His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the declaration of war.
Countries allied with Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers)
Countries allied with Serbia (the Entente Powers).
Division in Europe
The Schlieffen Plan
Make Germany the most powerful nation in Europe.
To attack France (by crossing Belgium).
It failed because of:
1 st Battle of Marne.
Most Important Battles
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Vimy Ridge
Battle of Cambrai
Battle of Marne
Battle of Ypres
Battle of Verdun
Battle of Somme (Stalemate)
July 1st, 1916
4okm along the River Somme .
Battle of Vimy Ridge (Canada/Allies)
On April 9, 1917, the Allied attacked the Germans.
Battle of Cambrai (Stalemate)
20 November - 3 December 1917
Cambrai, French town in the Nord department.
1 st Battle of Marne (France/Britain)
5 September- 12 September 1914.
Along the Marne River (France)
2 nd Battle of Marne (Allied Powers)
Battle of Reims July 15- August 5 1918
Near the Marne River.
Battle of Ypres (Canada/Belgium)
Place: Western Front (Russia)
Date: 22 April- 25 May 1915
Battle of Verdun (Stalemate)
From 21 February to 18 December 1916
Around the city of Verdun-sur-Meuse in northeast France.
One of the longest battles in history (10 months).
Archduke Franz Ferdinand:
Archduke of Austria
Heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne
His assassination in Sarajevo was the one that initiate the declaration of war
Was killed by Gavrilo Princip- He killed his wife too
The assassination along with the arms race, nationalism and the alliance system all contributed to the beginning of World War I.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke:
Replayed Alfred Von Schlieffen plan.
Proved to be indecisive during the invasion of France.
The chief of staff of the Prussian army for thirty years.
Chief of Germany troops
Directed German offensive on the Marne in September 1914.
Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen:
Created the Schlieffen Plan.
Was a German Chief.
He participated in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866.
He was involved in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.
Alfred retired as Chief of General Staff of the German Army in 1906- But created the Schlieffen Plan in 1914.
President of the United States.
Made the US Neutral at the WWI until 1917.
In 1918, promoted US to involve in the Great War.
He was president of Princeton University.
He received the Nobel Peace Prize, because of his 14 points.
Was the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.
First female member of Congress.
A Republican and a lifelong pacifist.
She was the only member of Congress to vote against United States enter into World War II and one of fifty to vote against World War I.
She led resistance to the Vietnam War.
Assassinated Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand.
Was an Anarchist and member of the Organization Unification or Death, also called Black Hand.
Leader of Serbia.
Provoked the beginning of the War.
Last King of Prussia.
Died in Berlin on June 4 th , 1941
He had a large involvement in WWI decisions.
John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing:
Was an officer in the United States and Army Chief of Staff.
He was involved in previous: Indian Wars, Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War.
He also participated in World War I.
Emperor of Russia.
King of Poland.
His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Rifle and Machine Gun
Needed 4-6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface.
They had the fire-power of 100 guns.
Rifle: The main weapon used by British soldiers in the trenches .
Gas and Zeppelin
Also known as blimp
Airship used to carry machine guns and bombs.
Too easy to shoot out of the sky.
First used by Germans.
Chlorine gas caused a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains.
Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect.
Tank, planes and torpedoes
Were used by submarines .
Used to blow up ships carrying supplies.
Germans sank the Lusitania on May 1st 1915.
To deliver bombs
For spying work.
Later, became fighter aircraft.
Fights between two planes in the sky became known as 'dogfights'
First used at the Battle of the Somme.
The first tank was called 'Little Willie' and needed a crew of 3.
Maximum speed was 3mph
It could not cross trenches
US Intervention in WWI
Preparing for War
Relations Broken (Causes) War Declared
Mobilizing for War
Food & Fuel
Money & Funds
At first, President Wilson declared US neutral.
With many attacks by Germans, US joined the WWI.
Americans fought the war aside with the Allies in 1917.
Preparing for the Great War
National Defense Act
Objective: To increase the amount of soldiers from 90.000 to 175.000.
It authorized $313 millions to build up the navy.
Peace without Victory:
Wilson gave a speech calling for peace without victory hoping to settle the war [It wasn’t successful].
Relations Broken (Causes) War Declared
Congress declares war:
The Senate declared war on April 4; the House, 2 days later.
Jeanette Rankin was a Congress member (pacifist and against war)
She cast the only vote against US entering to WWI.
Relations Broken [Causes] :
The sinking of:
The Lusitania (1915)
The Arabic (1915)
The Sussex (1916)
The Secret Zimmerman’s note.
It proposed Mexico join Germany army, so they could recover lost territory in U.S.
Mobilizing for War (Troops)
Allies needed the most was “fresh” troops. Few Americans volunteered to enlist.
Selective Service Act
All men from 21 to 30 years had to enlist
Later, from 18 to 45 years (proposed by the Congress).
Africans, Mexicans and Native Americans faced discrimination.
Mobilizing for War (Food & Fuel) Conserving Food and Fuel Food Administration Fuel Administration Proposed by Herbert Hoover, Director. Mining Engineer He managed a food-relief for Belgium Proposed by Harry Garfield, Director. Heatless Mondays Closed factories for some days to save coal. Increased agriculture *High prices for farmers *Farm production soared. Conserve supplies. *Reduce food consumption *Wheat less, meatless days.
Mobilizing for War (Money & Funds)
To gain money for the War, Wilson created:
Government used parades, posters, rallies.
Sec. Treasury, William Mc Adoo, said:
“ Everyone who refuses is a German friend and is not entitled to be a US citizen”
Result $23 billion.
Harder than bonds. After Debate un Congress.
Result $9 billion.
The End of the Great War (Allied Victory)
Evacuate France, Luxembourg, Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine.
Surrender enormous amount of war materials, including naval fleet.
Allied reserved the right to occupy German territory.
Germany had to pay $6,000’ooo,ooo.
November 11 th 1918, early on that day warring parties signed the armistice
11 th Hour
11 th Day
11 th Month
The End of the Great War
Established in the treaty of Versailles
Required colonial rulers to report with the League of Nations.
Big Four (PPC)
Treaty of Versailles
Took place in the palace of Versailles.
Last step to end WWI.
Program for world peace
Proposed by Wilson
Contained 14 principles.
World War One Casualties
Over 40 million casualties:
20 million deaths and 21 million wounded.
9.7 million military deaths and about 10.0 million civilian deaths.
Reveling Soldiers’ Experiences new books were published, such as: “All Quiet on the Western Front”.
American Nation 20 th Century
Thank You “… War doesn't determine who is right, it determines who is left.” - Anonymous