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Getting to grips with FANS – Issue III

Foreword

FOREWORD
The purpose of this brochure is to provide AIRBUS aircraft oper...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Table of contents

PART I – TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abbreviations.................
Table of contents

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3.3.2.4.

The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Table of contents

4.3.2.1.
4.3.2.2.
4.3.2.3.
4.3.2.4.
4.3.2.5.
4.3.2.6.
...
Abbreviations

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

ABBREVIATIONS
AAC
ACARS
ACL
ACM
ACR
ADF
ADIRS
ADNS
ADS
ADS...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

CMA
CMC
CMS
CNS/ATM
CPDLC
CPIOM
CSD
CSTDB
CTA
CVR
DARP(S)
D-ATIS
DCDU
DFI...
Abbreviations

ICAO
IFALPA
IMA
IMA
IOM
ISPACG
KCCU
LACK
LRU
LSK
MAS
MASPS
MCDU
MCT
MDDU
MFD
MMR
Mode S
NAS
NDA
NOTAM
NPA
O...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Abbreviations

SIL
SITA
SOP
SOR
SPOM
SPP
SSR
TDM
TMA
TMU
UL
UM
V/DME
VCI
...
Executive Summary

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

PART I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT
o

o

o
...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Executive Summary

Navigation
o

FANS routes or air spaces are associated...
Executive Summary

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

are well-adapted systems to insure the three CNS funct...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Executive Summary

Accommodation of standards
In order not to loose the i...
Executive Summary

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3. CNS/ATM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
For historical reason...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Executive Summary

FANS B architecture
o

o

o

o

The airborne part, wit...
Executive Summary

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

These discrepancies are the following :
CPDLC is the p...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Executive Summary

ATS 623 applications
The AEEC623 specification defines...
Executive Summary

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

As first implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards, t...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

1 – CNS/ATM concept

1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT
1.1

Historical background

18

1...
1 – CNS/ATM concept

1.1.

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In 1983 the ICAO counci...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

1 – CNS/ATM concept

Navigation
satellites (GNSS)

Communication
satellit...
1 – CNS/ATM concept

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

as a better Aeronautical Telecommunications Network:...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

1.6.

1 – CNS/ATM concept

AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

Under this term is gro...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

- 22 -
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

2 – CNS/ATM implementation

2. CNS/ATM IMPLEMENTATION
2.1

Introduction

...
2 – CNS/ATM implementation

2.1.

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

INTRODUCTION

The standards for the fir...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

2 – CNS/ATM implementation

Figure 2-1

FIRs using FANS in the world as o...
2 – CNS/ATM implementation

2.2.

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

FANS 1/A STANDARDS FOR OCEANIC AND REMO...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

•

•
•

2 – CNS/ATM implementation

Pioneer phase : The objective is to s...
2 – CNS/ATM implementation

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Definition of accommodation principles is in ...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

2 – CNS/ATM implementation

Please bear in mind…
Historically, data link ...
2 – CNS/ATM implementation

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Please bear in mind… (continued)
FAA CPDLC Bu...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

3. CNS/ATM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
3.1

...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3.6.2

Application name equivalence

4...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3.1.

3 – CNS/ATM component description

FANS A ARCHITECTURE

Pending the...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Global Positioning
Satellites (GPS)

C...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3.2.

3 – CNS/ATM component description

FANS B ARCHITECTURE

As the firs...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

This solution is known as the VDL-2/AO...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

"Supplementary" means that the certifi...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Given in Appendix D of Part II is gene...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

•

3 – CNS/ATM component description

ATN network

The same kind of featu...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

same purposes, LINK 2000+ areas implem...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3.5.

3 – CNS/ATM component description

CNS/ATM APPLICATIONS AND SERVICE...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

part of the world), and became very co...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

The present document only deals with A...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

This is done automatically and remains...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

Some
•
•
•
•
•

3 – CNS/ATM component description

countries started to i...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

3.5.2.1.

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

CONTEXT MANAGEMENT (CM) APPL...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

3.5.2.2.1.
ATC Clearance (ACL) service...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

These discrepancies are the following ...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

3.6.2.
APPLICATION NAME EQUIVALENCE
Th...
3 – CNS/ATM component description

Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

ATSU
ATC HMI

Uplink message
ACK
MAS
D...
Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III

3 – CNS/ATM component description

3.6.4.
TIME STAMP
The time stamp is de...
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Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007
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Transcript of "Gettingtogripswith fans issueiii-april2007"

  1. 1. Getting to grips with FANS – Issue III Foreword FOREWORD The purpose of this brochure is to provide AIRBUS aircraft operators with an overview of the CNS/ATM concept, more specifically on data link communication matters (i.e. FANS operations), and with operational details regarding AIRBUS FANS A and FANS B systems. This brochure is split into three parts : Part I – Getting to grips with CNS/ATM, Part II – Getting to grips with FANS A in oceanic and remote areas, Part III – Getting to grips with FANS B in high-density continental areas. The present brochure is the follow-up of the former brochure entitled “Getting to grips with FANS, issue II – September 2003”. It introduces some updates on operational procedures, the A380 interfaces related to data link communications (Part II), and the brand new AIRBUS FANS B system for A320 family aircraft with the related operational procedures (Part III). Part I – Getting to grips with CNS/ATM introduces the CNS/ATM concept and the AIRBUS products (i.e. FANS A and FANS B) derived from this concept. Part II – Getting to grips with FANS A and Part III – Getting to grips with FANS B are two separate parts, respectively dedicated to FANS A system (FANS A+ included) and FANS B system. They are organized exactly in the same way. To ease the reader’s understanding, chapter and page numberings are preceded by A (for FANS A) in Part II and B (for FANS B) in Part III. It has to be noticed that the present brochure deals with ATC data link communications. The reader is invited to refer to Getting to grips with data link – April 2004 for details about AOC data link communications. Recommendations for RNP (Required Navigation Performance) and RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima) operational approval are given in the brochure “Getting to grips with modern navigation - A flight operations view” (reference: STL 945.0415/99). Whenever needed, the reader will be invited to refer to this document. The contents of this Getting to Grips Brochure are not subject to Airworthiness Authority approval. Therefore, this brochure neither supersedes the requirements mandated by the State in which the operator's aircraft is registered, nor does it supersede the contents of other approved documentation (e.g. AFM, FCOM, MEL, etc). If any contradiction exists between this brochure and local/national authorities regulations (or other approved documentation), the latter applies. Any questions with respect to information contained herein should be directed to: AIRBUS SAS Flight Operations Support & Services Customer Services Directorate 1, Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, BP 33 31707 BLAGNAC Cedex – FRANCE Fax: 33 5 61 93 29 68 or 33 5 61 93 44 65 E-mail: fltops.ops@airbus.com
  2. 2. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Table of contents PART I – TABLE OF CONTENTS Abbreviations....................................................................................................................... 4 Part I – Executive Summary .......................................................................................... 8 1. CNS/ATM concept.......................................................................................... 17 1.1. Historical background .........................................................................18 1.2. CNS/ATM concept................................................................................18 1.3. Communication ...................................................................................19 1.4. Navigation ...........................................................................................20 1.5. Surveillance.........................................................................................20 1.6. Air Traffic Management .......................................................................21 2. CNS/ATM implementation.......................................................................... 23 2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................24 2.2. FANS 1/A standards for oceanic and remote areas .............................26 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. ATN Baseline 1 standards for continental areas ..................................26 Eurocontrol Link 2000+ program ........................................................26 FAA CPDLC Build 1A program ..............................................................27 2.4. Accommodation of standards ..............................................................27 2.5. AIRBUS products .................................................................................28 3. CNS/ATM component description ........................................................... 31 3.1. FANS A architecture ............................................................................33 3.2. FANS B architecture ............................................................................35 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.3.1.1. 3.3.1.2. 3.3.1.3. 3.3.2. 3.3.2.1. 3.3.2.2. 3.3.2.3. Data link media ...................................................................................35 Air/Ground data link ...........................................................................35 VHF data link ........................................................................................35 SATCOM...............................................................................................36 HF Data Link (HFDL) ..............................................................................36 Ground/Ground data link ....................................................................37 The data link communication networks .....................................................37 The interoperability of the networks .........................................................38 Ground coordination ..............................................................................39 -1-
  3. 3. Table of contents Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3.3.2.4. The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN).................................. 40 3.4. FANS architecture summary ............................................................... 40 3.5. 3.5.1. 3.5.1.1. 3.5.1.2. 3.5.1.3. 3.5.2. 3.5.2.1. 3.5.2.2. CNS/ATM applications and services .................................................... 41 As per ACARS network – FANS A package........................................... 41 ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) .............................................................. 41 Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) .................................... 41 Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) ................................................. 42 As per ATN – FANS B package............................................................. 45 Context Management (CM) application..................................................... 46 Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) application..................... 46 3.6. 3.6.1. 3.6.2. 3.6.3. 3.6.4. 3.6.5. 3.6.5.1. 3.6.5.2. 3.6.5.3. ACARS and ATN main discrepancies.................................................... 47 Data Link operations........................................................................... 48 Application name equivalence ............................................................ 49 Technical acknowledgement: LACK/MAS ............................................ 49 Time stamp......................................................................................... 51 Timers ................................................................................................ 51 Technical response timer ....................................................................... 51 Message latency timer........................................................................... 52 Operational timers ................................................................................ 52 3.7. Accommodation .................................................................................. 54 3.8. 3.8.1. 3.8.2. 3.8.3. 3.8.4. 3.8.5. Which FANS on which aircraft for which environment? ...................... 55 I fly A320 aircraft with FANS A+ system ............................................ 55 I fly A320 aircraft with FANS B system ............................................... 55 I fly A330/A340 aircraft with FANS A system ..................................... 55 I fly A330/A340 aircraft with FANS A+ system .................................. 55 I fly A380 aircraft with FANS A+ system ............................................ 55 3.9. ATS 623 applications .......................................................................... 56 3.10. ATC data link communication recording.............................................. 57 3.11. 3.11.1. 3.11.2. 3.11.3. 3.11.4. Performance requirements ................................................................. 58 General ............................................................................................... 58 Required Communication Performance (RCP)..................................... 58 Required Navigation Performance (RNP)............................................ 59 Required Surveillance Performance (RSP).......................................... 59 4. AIRBUS FANS description ........................................................................... 63 4.1. General: the need for flexibility .......................................................... 65 4.2. 4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. A320/A330/A340 FANS architecture.................................................. 67 The ATSU for A320/A330/A340 aircraft ............................................. 67 The new FMS (2nd generation FMS)..................................................... 69 A320/A330/A340 crew interfaces ...................................................... 70 4.3. 4.3.1. 4.3.2. Human Machine Interface on A320/A330/A340 aircraft .................... 70 Basic operational principles ................................................................ 72 Main HMI rules ................................................................................... 73 -2-
  4. 4. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Table of contents 4.3.2.1. 4.3.2.2. 4.3.2.3. 4.3.2.4. 4.3.2.5. 4.3.2.6. 4.3.2.7. 4.3.2.8. 4.3.2.9. 4.3.2.10. DCDU ..................................................................................................73 MCDU ..................................................................................................73 Alert ....................................................................................................73 Messages .............................................................................................73 Printer .................................................................................................74 FMS/DCDU interactions for FANS A package ..............................................74 FMS/ATSU interactions for FANS B package...............................................74 ADS – Contract (FANS A package only) ....................................................75 Colour coding........................................................................................75 Miscellaneous .......................................................................................75 4.4. 4.4.1. 4.4.2. A380 FANS architecture ......................................................................78 The ATC data link applications.............................................................78 A380 crew interfaces...........................................................................79 4.5. 4.5.1. 4.5.2. 4.5.2.1. 4.5.2.2. 4.5.2.3. 4.5.2.4. 4.5.2.5. 4.5.2.6. 4.5.2.7. 4.5.2.8. 4.5.2.9. Human Machine Interface on A380 aircraft .........................................80 Basic operational principles.................................................................82 Main HMI rules ....................................................................................82 ATC mailbox .........................................................................................82 MFD ....................................................................................................83 Alert ....................................................................................................83 Messages .............................................................................................83 Printer .................................................................................................83 Interactions with FMS ............................................................................84 ADS – Contract .....................................................................................84 Colour coding........................................................................................84 Miscellaneous .......................................................................................85 -3-
  5. 5. Abbreviations Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III ABBREVIATIONS AAC ACARS ACL ACM ACR ADF ADIRS ADNS ADS ADS-B ADS-C AEEC AES AESS AFN AFTN AIDC AIP AMC AMI AMU AOC ARF ARINC ASAP ATC ATM ATN ATS ATSU BFE BITE CADS CBT CDS CDTI CFDIU CM Airline Administrative Communications Airline Communications, Addressing, and Reporting System ATC Clearance service ATC Communication Management service Avionics Communication Router Automatic Direction Finder Air Data Inertial Reference System Arinc Data Network Service Automatic Dependent Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract Airlines Electronics Engineering Committee Aircraft Earth Station Aircraft Environment Surveillance System ATS Facilities Notification Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network ATC Inter-facility ground/ground Data Communications Aeronautical Information Publication ATC Microphone Check service Airline Modifiable Information Audio Management Unit Airline Operations Communications (or Centre) ACARS Router Function Aeronautical Radio INC As Soon As Possible Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Management Aeronautical Telecommunication Network Air Traffic Services Air Traffic Services Unit Buyer Furnished Equipment Built In Test Equipment Centralized Automatic Dependent Surveillance Computerized Based Training Control and Display System Cockpit Display of Traffic Information Centralised Fault Display Interface Unit Context Management application -4-
  6. 6. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III CMA CMC CMS CNS/ATM CPDLC CPIOM CSD CSTDB CTA CVR DARP(S) D-ATIS DCDU DFIS DGPS DL DLASD DLIC DM DSP EATMS ECAM EFIS EIS ERSA EUROCAE EWD FANS FHA FIR FIS FIT FMS FSM FWC GES GLS GNSS GPS HFDL HFDR HMI Abbreviations Context Management Application Central Maintenance Computer Centralized Maintenance System Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management Controller Pilot Data Link Communications Core Processing Input/Output Module Customer Service Director CuSTomised Data Base Control Area Cockpit Voice Recorder Dynamic Airborne Route Planning (System) Digital Automatic Terminal Information Service Data link Control and Display Unit Digital Flight Information Services Differential GPS Down Link Data Link Application System Document Data Link Initiation Capability Downlink Message Data Service Providers (or Processor) European Air Traffic Management System Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring Electronic Flight Information System Electronic Instrument System En-Route Supplement Australia European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment Engine and Warning Display Future Air Navigation System Functional Hazard Analysis Flight Information Region Flight Information Services FANS Inter operability Team Flight Management System Flight System Message Flight Warning Computer Ground Earth Station GPS Landing System Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System High Frequency Data Link High Frequency Data Radio Human Machine Interface -5-
  7. 7. Abbreviations ICAO IFALPA IMA IMA IOM ISPACG KCCU LACK LRU LSK MAS MASPS MCDU MCT MDDU MFD MMR Mode S NAS NDA NOTAM NPA OCA OMT OPC ORT PACOTS PRODB RAIM RCP RCSM RFC RGS RNAV RNP RPDB RSP RTCA RVSM SATCOM SCI SDU Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III International Civil Aviation Organisation International Federation of Airline Pilot Associations Integrated Modular Avionics Integrated Modular Avionics Input Output Module Informal South Pacific ATC Co-ordinating Group Keyboard and Cursor Control Unit Logical ACKnowledgement Line Replaceable Unit Line Select Key Message Assurance Minimum Aviation Systems Performance Standards Multifunction Control and Display Unit Media Configuration Table Multi Disk Drive Unit Multi Function Display Multi Mode Receiver Radar Mode S National Airspace System Next Data Authority NOtice To Air Men Non Precision Approach Oceanic Control Area On-board Maintenance Terminal Operational Program Configuration Owner Requirements Table Pacific Organised Track System data service PROvider Data Base Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Required Communications Performance Resident Customer Service Manager Request For Change Remote Ground Station Area Navigation Required Navigation Performance Router Parameter Data Base Required Surveillance Performance Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation Reduced Vertical Separation Minima Satellite Communications Secure Communication Interface Satellite Data Unit -6-
  8. 8. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Abbreviations SIL SITA SOP SOR SPOM SPP SSR TDM TMA TMU UL UM V/DME VCI VDL Service Information Letter Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques Standard Operating Procedures System Objectives and Requirements South Pacific Operating Manual Soft Pin Program Secondary Surveillance Radar Track Definition Message Terminal Area Traffic Management Unit Up Link Uplink Message VHF/Distance Measurement Equipment Voice Contact Instruction VHF Data Link VDR WPR VHF Data Radio WayPoint Reporting -7-
  9. 9. Executive Summary Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III PART I – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT o o o o o o o Increasing the airspace capacity, enhancing the operational efficiency while ensuring the best safety level of the air traffic cannot be done without a combined use of the air and ground entities. Following this statement, the concept of CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation and Surveillance for Air Traffic Management) has been defined. Numerous actors play in this global end-to-end concept, which can be seen as a chain linking a pilot and a controller. Although most of these actors are independent entities, the proper interoperability of all of them is the key factor for the right operation of the system. Two networks are usually attached to the CNS/ATM concept : ACARS and ATN. The ACARS network was initially used for AOC purposes whereas the ATN is endorsed by the CNS/ATM concept. Airlines rapidly acknowledged benefits from this concept. However, the ACARS network was the only facility available at that time, likely to support the concept. Until the ATN became available, and to rapidly fulfil airlines’ eagerness, aircraft manufacturers proposed initial products to work on ACARS network. These products are designed according to the FANS 1/A standards. At the time of writing the document, the deployment of the ATN was on-going in Europe, starting with Maastricht. AIRBUS proposes the FANS B package to operate over ATN. For the time being, FANS operations over ACARS network apply to oceanic and remote areas, and FANS operations over ATN to high-density continental areas. In a near future, it will be possible to fly over an ATN environment with an AIRBUS FANS A+ 1 equipped aircraft without major modifications. This is called accommodation. Communication o o Operationally speaking, the biggest change provided by FANS is the way pilot and controllers communicate. In addition to the classical VHF and HF voice, and to the more recent satellite voice, digital CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) expands the set of communication means between pilots and controllers. CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain ATC communications in oceanic or remote areas as a primary means, and it became, by the end of 2006, a supplementary communication means to overcome VHF congestion in some dense continental airspaces (where voice VHF media remains the primary communication means). 1 FANS A+ package is an enhancement of FANS A package with additional features. For more details, please refer to chapter A6 – FANS A evolutions of Part II – Getting to grips with FANS A. -8-
  10. 10. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Executive Summary Navigation o FANS routes or air spaces are associated with a given RNP (Required Navigation Performance) value. This RNP is a statement on the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation in this air space. Surveillance o o Different types of surveillance may be found. Wherever radar coverage is possible, SSR modes A and C are still used. Mode S is now available with the Elementary version. The Enhanced version of the Mode S that introduces the ADS-Broadcast will be available soon. In oceanic and remote FANS air spaces, procedurally controlled surveillance is progressively replaced by Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-Contract), which is expected to allow for reduced lateral and longitudinal separation. It is also expected that there will be no need for HF voice reporting any longer. Air Traffic Management o Under this term is grouped a large set of methods to improve the management of all the parts of the air traffic, e.g. traffic flow management, strategic (long term) and tactical (short term) control or air traffic services. New methods are developed and progressively implemented to provide greater airspace capacity to cope with the large increase of air traffic demand. 2. CNS/ATM IMPLEMENTATION This is for a worldwide network. Historically, data link has been operational in oceanic and remote areas first with FANS 1/A 2 standards through the existing ACARS network. FANS 1/A standards are highly inspired from ICAO concept but do not comply with the entire ICAO specifications. Indeed, FANS 1/A standards utilise ACARS network that is less efficient than the new ATN. Therefore, in order to offset ACARS weaknesses, a specific communication protocol called ARINC 622 has been implemented. The entry in operation of the ATN all over the world is planned in successive steps. The initial step consists in trials in some areas. The following steps will intent to deploy FANS operations based on ATN on other areas. FANS 1/A standards for oceanic and remote areas For oceanic and remote areas, a dedicated technology has been developed to insure communication, navigation and surveillance according to ICAO CNS/ATM concept. The characteristics of these regions do not allow VHF and Radar antennas to cover air-controlled areas entirely. Therefore, the FANS 1/A packages 2 FANS 1 was developed by Boeing, and FANS A by AIRBUS. The two systems have been harmonized under FANS 1/A standards. -9-
  11. 11. Executive Summary Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III are well-adapted systems to insure the three CNS functions with an accurate constellation of satellites. Notice that in some areas where data link communications have reached a good reliability, data link communication is considered as the primary means of communication and voice communication is used as back up. ATN Baseline 1 standards for continental areas The ATN Baseline 1 standards have been developed to aim the same objectives set by the ICAO CNS/ATM concept. However, because of environment discrepancies (traffic density, procedures, etc), ATN Baseline 1 standards have been settled in a slightly different way. Differences with FANS 1/A standards mainly deal with data link protocols (communication and surveillance), whereas airborne/ground architectures and applications are almost identical. The operational benefits from data link operations in high-density continental airspaces are a significant alleviation of congested voice channels and increased airspace capacity. It should be noticed that data link communications in ATN environments are limited to non-time critical communications. Besides, voice communications remain the primary means in ATN environments. Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme The Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme is limited to the implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over European countries. The deployment starts from Maastricht and its completion is expected over the European airspace by 2011. Productivity gains are expected to be : 84% reduction of radio communication workload, 14% capacity increase for ATC sectors, Reduction of ATS costs since extra sectors are deferred thanks to sector capacity increase. Safety benefits in terms of reduction of communication errors, of flight crew fatigue and of controller fatigue (e.g. 1/20th of communications is addressed to a given flight). FAA CPDL BUILD 1A programme For the deployment of the full ICAO CNS/ATM concept, the FAA CPDLC programme is divided into three main steps : Build I, II and III. The initial implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over USA is framed in a preliminary step called CPDLC Build 1A. The CPDLC Build 1A programme is focused on Miami area. Unfortunately, since 2001, due to budget reallocation, the FAA CPDLC programme has been frozen. - 10 -
  12. 12. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Executive Summary Accommodation of standards In order not to loose the investments made on systems compliant with FANS 1/A standards while ATN is deploying, studies to adapt one standard (e.g. FANS 1/A) to another (e.g. ATN Baseline 1) are in progress. Such adaptations are called accommodation. Definition of accommodation principles is in progress. However, until a complete definition of accommodation principles, the accommodation of standards will not be detailed further in the present document. AIRBUS products FANS A over ACARS network in oceanic and remote areas on A320, A330/A340 and A380aircraft. FANS B over ATN in continental areas on A320 family* aircraft. * In the rest of the document, the term A320 will be used to designate the A320 family. - 11 -
  13. 13. Executive Summary Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3. CNS/ATM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION For historical reasons, FANS A is based on ACARS network, whereas FANS B is based on ATN, an ICAO compliant network that is presently deployed in Europe. FANS A architecture o o o o The airborne part : For A320/A330/A340 aircraft, the ATSU manages all the communications and automatically chooses the best available medium (e.g. VHF, SATCOM and HF, in that order). For A380 aircraft, the ATC applications support the ATC data link functions and the Avionics Communication Router (ACR) manages the data communications . The air/ground data link: used to transmit AOC or ATC data to the ground through VDL mode A, VDL mode 2, SATCOM and HFDL. The ground/ground data link: to ensure the connection to the ground parts through either satellites, Ground Earth Stations (GES), VHF and HF Remote Ground Stations (RGS), air-ground processors (which route and handle the messages). Data Service Providers (DSP) operating with national service providers are currently interconnected to provide a global interoperability of ATS data link applications. FANS A applications ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) Through this application, an ATC knows whether an aircraft is capable of using data link communications. This exchange of the data link context is needed prior to any CPDLC or ADS connection from an operational point of view. Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain data link communications between a pilot and the controller of the relevant flight region. It is particularly adapted to such areas where voice communications are difficult (e.g. HF voice over oceans or remote part of the world), and became very convenient to alleviate congested VHF of some dense continental airspaces when utilised for routine dialogue (e.g. frequency transfer). Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) Through the ADS application, the ATSU (respectively ATC applications) automatically sends aircraft surveillance data to the connected ATC centres (up to 5). This is done automatically and remains transparent to the crew. Different types of ADS "contracts" exist : periodic, on demand and on event. - 12 -
  14. 14. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Executive Summary FANS B architecture o o o o The airborne part, with the ATSU, which is a modular hosting platform that centralises all data communications (ATC and AOC) and manages the dedicated Human Machine Interface (HMI). The air/ground data link : VDL modeA/2, SATCOM or HFDL are used to transmit AOC data to the ground as per FANS A architecture. SATCOM and HFDL for AOC purposes are optional, Only VDL mode 2 is used to transmit ATC data to the ground for communication purposes. The ground/ground data link, which is the same as per FANS A architecture. Nevertheless, two types of network have to be considered : ACARS for AOC and ATN for ATC. In the same way as in FANS A architecture, DSPs are interconnected to ensure the interoperability of ATS data link applications. FANS B applications Context Management (CM) This application provides the Data Link Initiation Capability (DLIC) service, which is similar to the FANS A AFN application and remains mandatory prior to any CPDLC connection from an operational point of view. Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) It is an application similar to the FANS A CPDLC application and is restricted to non-time critical situations. Three services are provided : The ATC Clearance (ACL) to enable the communication between flight crews and controllers, The ATC Communication Management (ACM) service to manage the centre transfers, and The ATC Microphone Check (AMC) to check that the voice frequency is not blocked. Thanks to the Logical Acknowledgement (LACK), the end user (pilot or controller) knows when the message is displayed on the recipient’s screen. In addition, the introduction of operational timers imposes to answer a message in a timely manner. ACARS and ATN main discrepancies Even if ACARS and ATN environments provide similar services, some discrepancies exist. Pilots who operate both FANS A and FANS B package should master these discrepancies in order to properly operate any FANS systems with their distinctive features. - 13 -
  15. 15. Executive Summary Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III These discrepancies are the following : CPDLC is the primary means of communication in ACARS environments when the aircraft is equipped with data link systems. In ATN environment, voice will remain the primary means. FANS A and FANS B are derived from the same CNS/ATM concept. As such, some equivalences may be found between FANS A and FANS B applications. Technical acknowledgement : acknowledgements in FANS 1/A environments and ATN environments do not have the same meanings, Timestamp : messages in FANS 1/A environments and ATN environments are not dated in the same way, Timers : high density continental airspaces impose to receive and reply messages on time. Timers are set to prevent delays in receiving and replying messages. Accommodation The accommodation allows a seamless transition between ACARS and ATN environments with potential savings on equipment. At the time of writing the document, the accommodation principles were not clearly defined. However, the FANS A+ package anticipates the accommodation by taking into account the early assumptions (i.e. max uplink delay). Which FANS on which aircraft for which environment? For the time being, data link operations are possible in many parts of the world, mainly over the ACARS network. Consequently, different combinations of aircraft types with data link networks can be imagined. The following table presents the different combinations offered by AIRBUS. … on which aircraft … FANS A A330/A340 A380 Oceanic and remote FANS A+ * Oceanic and remote FANS B Oceanic and remote … for which environment? Which FANS … A320 Continental Oceanic and remote * FANS A+ is an enhancement of FANS A package, including new functions (e.g. indication of ADS connection number) and options (e.g. ATS 623 applications). For more details, refer to chapter A6 of part II. - 14 -
  16. 16. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Executive Summary ATS 623 applications The AEEC623 specification defines the application text formats for characteroriented Air Traffic Services messages (called ATS 623 applications for departure or oceanic clearances and Digital ATIS) that can be transmitted over the ACARS data link. ATC data link communication recording ICAO requires ATC data link communications to be recorded by flight data recorders from 1st January 2007 on all aircraft. This requirement applies also to aircraft for which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1st January 2005. With its NPA-OPS 48, the European JAA proposes to postpone the mandate dates due to the short lead-times (i.e. postponement of 3 years). If your airline is not submitted to European regulations, please refer to your local authority. Performance requirements The three concepts of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Required Communications Performance (RCP) and Required Surveillance Performance (RSP) are all parts of a general CNS/ATM performance concept and independent of the technologies used. 4. AIRBUS FANS DESCRIPTION The transition to CNS/ATM requires both flexibility and growth capability. For the airplane, flexibility is the essential requirement, but requires computer power. This was tackled right from the beginning with the AIRBUS FANS avionics package: the power and flexibility of a dedicated communications unit (the ATSU, respectively the ATC applications) combined with the power of a new FMS. A320/A330/A340 aircraft A320/A330/A340 FANS avionics o This avionics unit (ATSU) has been developed to cope with data link communications. Its functions are: To manage the HMI, the display and warning systems, To enable the access to all available communications media, To sustain the communications tasks. o The FMS is a key element of the AIRBUS FANS A system for which : It provides data to the ATSU It monitors the ATC messages and their subsequent implications It handles and processes some of the ATC messages - 15 -
  17. 17. Executive Summary Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III As first implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards, the FANS B package provides limited FMS-ATSU interactions. A320/A330/A340 crew interfaces o o The main crew interface used for the FANS applications is based on the two DCDUs. All ATC messages, clearances (uplink message), requests or answers (downlink messages) are displayed on the DCDU. In addition to the DCDU, the MCDU is mainly used to prepare a request. A380 aircraft The A380 introduces new technologies. As such, its architecture is different from the ones on A320 and A330/A340 aircraft. However, the basic operational principles remain exactly the same. A380 FANS avionics Functions that were managed entirely by ATSU on A320/A330/A340 aircraft are distributed between ATC applications and ACR on A380 aircraft. ATC applications ensure the management of the HMI, the display and warnings. It also manages interfaces with peripherals. The Avionics Communication Router (ACR) supports the routing function (e.g. communication protocols with ground network). A380 crew interfaces A380 cockpit benefits from a new design where the Control and Display System (CDS) is the key element. However, A380 FANS interfaces had been designed in order to keep the same operational principles as on A320/A330/A340 aircraft. Uplink messages (i.e. clearances or instructions) and downlink messages (i.e. requests or responses) are received on or sent from the ATC mailbox located on the central screen C2 of CDS. Downlink messages are prepared from the Multi Function Display (MFD – ATC COM pages) located on either side of the ATC mailbox (i.e. L3 and R3 CDS screens). - 16 -
  18. 18. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 1 – CNS/ATM concept 1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT 1.1 Historical background 18 1.2 CNS/ATM concept 18 1.3 Communication 19 1.4 Navigation 20 1.5 Surveillance 20 1.6 Air Traffic Management 21 - 17 -
  19. 19. 1 – CNS/ATM concept 1.1. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III HISTORICAL BACKGROUND In 1983 the ICAO council tasked its special committee on Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) to make recommendations to upgrade the communications, navigation and surveillance systems so as to cope with the evolution of the worldwide air traffic. In 1989, based on the previous work, a second committee was created aiming at the implementation of the CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management) concept. This concept was endorsed by the Tenth Air Navigation Conference in 1991. It is mainly built on satellite technology and digital communications and aims at increasing the air space capacity, enhancing the operational flexibility and global safety of the air traffic. Airlines rapidly acknowledged benefits from such a concept and requested for an operational system without waiting for all the required components of the concept (i.e. new ATN network). Consequently, based on the existing ACARS network, aircraft manufacturers proposed first FANS capable aircraft in mid 1990’s. AIRBUS developed and certified the FANS A package in 2000 on A330/A340 aircraft, widely used in oceanic and remote areas such as South Pacific. Since 2005, an enhancement of FANS A, called FANS A+ package, is available both on A320 3 and A330/A340 aircraft. The FANS A+ package is a basic installation on A380 aircraft. At the end of 2006, AIRBUS proposed n initial FANS B package as a response to the initial phase of Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme. The FANS B package is intended for non-time critical communications within continental areas with high traffic on A320 aircraft. FANS operations in oceanic and remote areas are intended to cope with poor reliability of HF communications and with shortage of radar coverage. FANS operations in high density airspaces aim at reducing congestion encountered in voice channels for routine ATC communications. Nevertheless, FANS operations aim at making communication safer in both environments. 1.2. CNS/ATM CONCEPT The CNS/ATM acronym states what is behind its concept. Increasing the airspace capacity, enhancing the operational efficiency while ensuring the best safety level of the air traffic cannot be done without a combined use of the air and ground elements. Numerous actors play in this global end-to-end concept, which can be seen as a chain linking a pilot and a controller. Although most of these actors are independent entities (e.g. Air Traffic Services organisations, communication service providers or ATC) the proper interoperability of all of them is the key factor for the right operation of the system. 3 Wherever mentioned, A320 refers to the A320 family. - 18 -
  20. 20. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 1 – CNS/ATM concept Navigation satellites (GNSS) Communication satellites (SATCOM) Space Air Ground-based Radio (VHF & HF) SATCOM Transponder Ground Ground Network for Data Communications Differential GNSS Airline Host Information Service ATC Figure 1-1 CNS/ATM concept 1.3. COMMUNICATION Operationally speaking, the biggest change provided by FANS is the way pilot and controllers communicate. In addition to the classical VHF and HF voice, and to the more recent satellite voice, digital CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) expands the set the communication means between pilots and controllers. CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain ATC communications in oceanic and remote areas as a primary means, and became, by the end of 2006, a supplementary communication means to overcome VHF congestion in some dense continental airspaces (where voice VHF media remains the primary communication means). On board, CPDLC messages are displayed to the crew on the dedicated DCDU (Data Communication Display Unit) screens. They can also be printed. Ground-ground communications are also part of the concept. They serve to link and to co-ordinate in between different ATC service organisations (or services of the same ATC) and AOC (Airline Operational Centre). AFTN, voice or AIDC (ATS Interfacility Data Communications) ensure these communications. Under commercial and financial pressures, the airlines have asked for FANS benefits without waiting for complete availability of all the appropriate tools (such - 19 -
  21. 21. 1 – CNS/ATM concept Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III as a better Aeronautical Telecommunications Network: the ATN). That is why FANS A operations have already started using the existing communications networks and protocols (ACARS / ARINC 622) which are of less performance than the ATN, but were endorsed by the ICAO as a valuable step towards an early introduction of ATM applications. ATN has been implemented and successfully operated in Maastricht (The Netherlands) FIR since April 2004. The deployment over Europe until 2011 is scheduled within the European LINK 2000+ programme. ATN deployment over USA from Miami (CPDLC Build 1A programme) has been suspended at the time of writing the present document. The objectives of the LINK 2000+ programme are to plan and co-ordinate the implementation of operational Air/Ground Data-Link services for Air Traffic Management. 1.4. NAVIGATION To fully benefit from the CNS/ATM concept, aircraft will need to attain a certain level of navigation performance in terms of accuracy, availability, integrity and service continuity. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is a navigation element, which is expected to affect currently existing airspace structures and lead to a whole new concept in air navigation. Another modern navigation trend involves the development of instrument procedures that are not based on conventional radio Navaids. This type of navigation is called Area Navigation or RNAV. It can be used En-route, in association with the RNP concept, but also for terminal area navigation and instrument approach procedures. Refer to the “Getting to grips with modern navigation” document for detailed explanations. 1.5. SURVEILLANCE Different types of surveillance may be found. Wherever radar coverage is possible, SSR modes A and C are still used. Mode S is used in such areas where traffic densities are high enough to warrant it. • In oceanic and remote FANS over ACARS airspaces, procedurally controlled surveillance is progressively replaced by Automatic Dependent Surveillance, which allows the aircraft to automatically send position data and F-PLN intents to up to four different ATC centres. It is expected that there will be no need for HF voice reporting any longer. With the possibilities offered to the controllers to select the rate and mode of reporting (at specified time intervals or on the occurrence of a special event such as a heading or attitude change), ADS is expected to allow for reduced lateral and longitudinal separation. • In FANS over ATN continental airspaces, surveillance will be performed with classical SSR modes A and C, or SSR Mode S when available. - 20 -
  22. 22. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 1.6. 1 – CNS/ATM concept AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Under this term is grouped a large set of methods to improve the management of all the parts of the air traffic, e.g. traffic flow management, strategic (long term) and tactical (short term) control or air traffic services. New methods are developed and progressively implemented to provide greater airspace capacity to cope with the large increase of air traffic demand. A close co-operation of ATS, crews and airline operational centres is expected to be reached through data communications, and automated sharing of real-time information. CPDLC, ADS and AOC/ATC inter-facility link are some of the tools used to support new ATM methods such as Collaborative Decision Making (CDM). The aim of CDM is to enable the corresponding actors (crews, controllers and airline operations) involved in ATM system, to improve mutual knowledge of the forecast/current situations, of each other constraints, preferences and capabilities, so as to resolve potential problems. - 21 -
  23. 23. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK - 22 -
  24. 24. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 2 – CNS/ATM implementation 2. CNS/ATM IMPLEMENTATION 2.1 Introduction 24 2.2 FANS 1/A standards for oceanic and remote areas 26 2.3 ATN Baseline 1 standards for continental areas 26 2.3.1 Eurocontrol Link 2000+ program 26 2.3.2 FAA CPDLC Build 1A program 27 2.4 Accommodation of standards 27 2.5 AIRBUS products 28 - 23 -
  25. 25. 2 – CNS/ATM implementation 2.1. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III INTRODUCTION The standards for the first implementation of the ICAO CNS/ATM concept are known as ICAO CNS/ATM Package 1. The first step is known as ATN Baseline 1, which has been operational since the end of 2006. The objectives of this concept are an airspace capacity increase coupled with an operational efficiency enhancement. Naturally, the continued air traffic safety has to be maintained. To these ends, the implementation of the ICAO CNS/ATM concept will affect the Air Traffic Control procedures by improving voice communications and generalizing data communications and satellite-based navigation. This is for a worldwide network. Historically, data link has been operational in oceanic and remote areas first with FANS 1/A 4 standards through the existing ACARS network. FANS 1/A standards are highly inspired from ICAO concept but does not comply the entire ICAO specifications. Indeed, FANS 1/A standards utilise ACARS network that is less efficient than the new ATN. Therefore, in order to offset ACARS weaknesses, a specific communication protocol called ARINC 622 has been implemented. The entry in operation of the ATN all over the world is planned in successive steps. The initial step consists in trials in some areas. The following steps will intent to deploy FANS operations based on ATN on other areas. FANS operations started first in oceanic and remote areas as the FANS technology based on satellites enabled to cope with the drawbacks of HF communications and position reports. At that time, only the ACARS network was able to fulfil the FANS requirements; ACARS weaknesses were accommodated thanks to ARINC 622 protocol. Feasibility studies on FANS operations over ATN are now completed. The saturation of high-density airspaces led to the implementation of FANS technology over ATN in these airspaces to augment their capacity. Therefore, FANS operations over ACARS network are performed in oceanic and remote areas (FANS 1/A standards), and FANS operations over ATN in high-density continental areas (ATN Baseline 1 standards). The following sections provide some details about each type of standards. The following figures identify the FIRs where data link is operated for ATC purposes. 4 FANS 1 was developed by Boeing and FANS A by AIRBUS. The two systems have been harmonised under FANS 1/A standards. - 24 -
  26. 26. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 2 – CNS/ATM implementation Figure 2-1 FIRs using FANS in the world as of April 2005 Figure 2-2 ATN area in Europe as in 2006 (left) and in 2011 (right) After a phased implementation, the ATN area as in 2011 should cover the European airspace (in green). Traffic forecasts are in red. - 25 -
  27. 27. 2 – CNS/ATM implementation 2.2. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III FANS 1/A STANDARDS FOR OCEANIC AND REMOTE AREAS For oceanic and remote areas, a dedicated technology has been developed to ensure communication, navigation and surveillance according to ICAO CNS/ATM concept. The characteristics of these regions do not allow VHF and Radar antennas to cover air-controlled areas entirely. Therefore, the FANS 1/A packages are well-adapted systems to ensure the three CNS functions with an accurate constellation of satellites. At the beginning, the FANS 1/A was incomplete until the GPS became a certified primary navigation mean. Indeed, only communication and surveillance functions were granted via the CPDLC and ADS applications. Notice that voice communications remain a back up to CPDLC in ACARS oceanic/remote environments where data link communications have proven to be of a good reliability. 2.3. ATN BASELINE 1 STANDARDS FOR CONTINENTAL AREAS The ATN Baseline 1 standards have been developed to aim the same objectives set by the ICAO CNS/ATM concept. However, because of environment discrepancies (traffic density, procedures, etc), ATN Baseline 1 standards have been settled in a slightly different way. Differences with FANS 1/A standards mainly deal with data link protocols (communication and surveillance), whereas airborne/ground architectures and applications are almost identical. Since late 2004, initial trials have been conducted in high-density continental airspaces for first FANS operations based on ATN. FANS operations are supposed to alleviate congested voice channels in these airspaces. These trials have been performed in Maastricht (The Netherlands) within the LINK 2000+ programme and in Miami (USA) within the CPDLC Build 1A programme. By the beginning of 2007, first airlines are expected to fly routinely over Maastricht with ATN. The operational benefits from data link operations in high-density continental airspaces are a significant alleviation of congested voice channels and increased airspace capacity. It should be noticed that data link communications in ATN environments are limited to non-time critical communications. Besides, voice communications remain the primary means in ATN environments. For more details, please refer to Chapter B5 of Part II – Getting to grips with FANS B. 2.3.1. EUROCONTROL LINK 2000+ PROGRAM The Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme is limited to the implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over European countries. The deployment starts from Maastricht and its completion is expected over the European airspace by 2011. For a harmonized entry into services of both ATC centres and aircraft, a progressive roadmap split into three phases has been drawn. - 26 -
  28. 28. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III • • • 2 – CNS/ATM implementation Pioneer phase : The objective is to start ATN Baseline 1 operations with 150 aircraft over Maastricht ATC centre. The objective of 150 aircraft was exceeded (more than 300 aircraft from 15 airlines, at the time of writing) thanks to the financial participation of Eurocontrol to fit those aircraft. Incentive phase : The objective is to speed up the fitting of aircraft to ATN Baseline 1 operations whereas ground deployment continues. Mandatory phase : Carriage of ATN Baseline 1 capable systems will be mandatory in this phase. The objective is to get 75% of the traffic capable of ATN Baseline 1 operations. Aircraft non-equipped with ATN Baseline 1 capable systems will not be excluded from LINK 2000+ airspaces. However, data link capable aircraft will fully benefits from data link operations in terms of delay, efficiency and air traffic service costs. Productivity gains are expected to be : • 84% reduction of radio communication workload, • 14% capacity increase for ATC sectors, • Reduction of ATS costs since extra sectors are deferred thanks to sector capacity increase. • Safety benefits in terms of reduction of communication errors, of flight crew fatigue and of controller fatigue (e.g. 1/20th of communications is addressed to a given flight). Please refer to Chapter B7 of Part III for more details. Also refer to http://www.eurocontrol.int/link2000/public/subsite_homepage/homepage.html. 2.3.2. FAA CPDLC BUILD 1A PROGRAM For the deployment of the full ICAO CNS/ATM concept, the FAA CPDLC programme is divided into three main steps : Build I, II and III. The initial implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over USA is framed in a preliminary step called CPDLC Build 1A. The CPDLC Build 1A programme is focused on Miami area. Unfortunately, since 2001, due to budget reallocation, the FAA CPDLC programme has been frozen. 2.4. ACCOMMODATION OF STANDARDS In order not to loose investments made on systems compliant with FANS 1/A standards while ATN is deploying, studies to adapt one standard (i.e. FANS 1/A or ATN Baseline 1) to another are in progress. Such adaptations are called accommodation. The most probable scenario is a long haul aircraft, equipped with FANS 1/A package, coming from a FANS 1/A airspace and entering an ATN airspace. The accommodation will allow such an aircraft to continue data link operations until the reversion to voice communications for the termination of the flight. - 27 -
  29. 29. 2 – CNS/ATM implementation Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Definition of accommodation principles is in progress. Some details are provided in 3.7 – Accommodation. However, until a complete definition of accommodation principles, the accommodation of standards will not be detailed further in the present document. 2.5. AIRBUS PRODUCTS AIRBUS proposes on its aircraft : • The FANS A package for operations based on ACARS network (FANS 1/A standards) in oceanic and remote areas, and • The FANS B package for operations based on ATN (ATN Baseline 1 standards) in high-density continental areas. FANS A package refers to either FANS A system or FANS A+ system. FANS A system was the first product offered on A330/A340 aircraft in 2000. Since the FANS A+ system had been certified in 2004, FANS A + system replaces FANS A system and is proposed on A320 (optional), A330/A340 (basic) and A380 (basic) aircraft. FANS B package is proposed on A320 aircraft as an option. Please refer to chapter 7 of Part II or Part III for the use of FANS A and respectively FANS B in the world. FANS A over ACARS network in oceanic and remote areas on A320, A330/A340 and A380aircraft. FANS B over ATN in continental areas on A320 family* aircraft. Figure 2-3 AIRBUS FANS packages by environment - 28 -
  30. 30. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 2 – CNS/ATM implementation Please bear in mind… Historically, data link has been operational in oceanic and remote areas first with FANS 1/A standards through the existing ACARS network. FANS 1/A standards are highly inspired from ICAO concept but does not comply the entire ICAO specifications. Indeed, FANS 1/A standards utilise ACARS network that is less efficient than the new ATN. The entry in operation of the ATN all over the world is planned in successive steps. The initial step consists in trials in some areas. The following steps will intent to deploy FANS operations based on ATN on other areas. FANS 1/A standards for oceanic and remote areas For oceanic and remote areas, a dedicated technology has been developed to insure communication, navigation and surveillance according to ICAO CNS/ATM concept. The characteristics of these regions do not allow VHF and Radar antennas to cover air-controlled areas entirely. Therefore, the FANS 1/A packages are well-adapted systems to insure the three CNS functions with an accurate constellation of satellites. Notice that in some areas where data link communications have reached a good reliability, data link communication is considered as the primary mean of communication and voice communication is used as back up. ATN Baseline 1 standards for continental areas ATN Baseline 1 standards have been settled in a slightly different way. Differences with FANS 1/A standards mainly deal with data link protocols (communication and surveillance), whereas airborne/ground architectures and applications are almost identical. The operational benefits from data link operations in high-density continental airspaces are a significant alleviation of congested voice channels and increased airspace capacity. It should be noticed that data link communications in ATN environments are limited to non-time critical communications. Besides, voice communications remain the primary means in ATN environments. Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme The Eurocontrol Link 2000+ programme is limited to the implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over European countries. The deployment starts from Maastricht and its completion is expected over the European airspace by 2011. The deployment is stepped in three phases : Pioneer, Incentive, Mandatory. - 29 -
  31. 31. 2 – CNS/ATM implementation Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Please bear in mind… (continued) FAA CPDLC Build 1A programme For the deployment of the full ICAO CNS/ATM concept, the FAA CPDLC programme is divided into three main steps : Build I, II and III. The initial implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards over USA is framed in a preliminary step called CPDLC Build 1A. The CPDLC Build 1A programme is focused on Miami area. Unfortunately, since 2001, due to budget reallocation, the FAA CPDLC programme has been frozen. Accommodation of standards In order not to loose investments made on systems compliant with FANS 1/A standards while ATN is deploying, studies to adapt one standard (i.e. FANS 1/A or ATN Baseline 1) to another (i.e. ATN Baseline 1 or FANS 1/A) are in progress. Such adaptations are called accommodation. Definition of accommodation principles is in progress. However, until a complete definition of accommodation principles, the accommodation of standards will not be detailed further in the present document. • • AIRBUS products In oceanic and remote areas : FANS A package over ACARS network (FANS 1/A standards) for A320, A330/A340 and A380 aircraft. In high density continental areas : FANS B package over ATN (ATN Baseline 1 standards) for A320 aircraft. - 30 -
  32. 32. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description 3. CNS/ATM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 3.1 FANS A architecture 33 3.2 FANS B architecture 35 3.3 Data link media 35 3.3.1 Air/Ground data link 35 3.3.1.1 VHF data link 35 3.3.1.2 SATCOM 36 3.3.1.3 HF Data Link (HFDL) 36 3.3.2 Ground/Ground data link 37 3.3.2.1 The data link communication networks 37 3.3.2.2 The interoperability of the networks 38 3.3.2.3 Ground coordination 39 3.3.2.4 The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) 40 3.4 FANS architecture summary 40 3.5 CNS/ATM applications and services 3.5.1 As per ACARS network – FANS A package 41 3.5.1.1 ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) 41 3.5.1.2 Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) 41 3.5.1.3 Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) 41 3.5.2 As per ATN – FANS B package 42 3.5.2.1 Context Management (CM) application 45 3.5.2.2 Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) application 46 ACARS and ATN main discrepancies 46 Data Link operations 47 3.6 3.6.1 - 31 -
  33. 33. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3.6.2 Application name equivalence 49 3.6.3 Technical acknowledgement: LACK/MAS 49 3.6.4 Time stamp 51 3.6.5 Timers 51 3.6.5.1 Technical response timer 51 3.6.5.2 Message latency timer 52 3.6.5.3 Operational timers 52 3.7 Accommodation 54 3.8 Which FANS on which aircraft for which environment? 55 3.8.1 I fly A320 aircraft with FANS A+ system 55 3.8.2 I fly A320 aircraft with FANS B system 55 3.8.3 I fly A330/A340 aircraft with FANS A system 55 3.8.4 I fly A330/A340 aircraft with FANS A+ system 55 3.8.5 I fly A380 aircraft with FANS A+ system 55 3.9 ATS 623 applications 56 3.10 ATC data link communication recording 57 3.11 Performance requirements 58 3.11.1 General 58 3.11.2 Required Communication Performance (RCP) 58 3.11.3 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 59 3.11.4 Required Surveillance Performance (RSP) 59 - 32 -
  34. 34. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3.1. 3 – CNS/ATM component description FANS A ARCHITECTURE Pending the new Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) full deployment (for FANS B implementation), the current FANS A step uses the ACARS network to exchange data between aircraft and ground systems. This ACARS network can be accessed through satellite, HF or VHF media, and various ground networks are inter-connected to provide the ATC/ATM services to all FANS A equipped aircraft. These data communications are supported by the aircraft's ATSU (Air Traffic Service Unit) for A320 and A330/A340 aircraft or by ACR (Avionics Communication Router) for A380 aircraft, which manages all the communications and automatically chooses the best available media (for example VHF, SATCOM and HF, in that order). The FANS A data link architecture on A330/A340 aircraft is given in Figure 3-1 (except the ATSU component, this architecture is fully applicable to the A380) It is made of the following components: • The airborne part, with the ATSU for A320 and A330/A340 aircraft, which is a modular hosting platform that centralises all data communications (ATC and AOC) and manages the dedicated Human Machine Interface (HMI). For A380 aircraft, the airborne part is composed of the ATC applications for the management of ATC data link functions, and of the Avionics Communication Router (ACR) for the management of data communications. • The air/ground data link (VDL modeA/2, SATCOM or HFDL) is used to transmit AOC or ATC data to the ground. • The ground/ground data link, which ensure the connection to the ground part through either : Satellite Ground Earth Stations (GES) whenever VHF coverage is not available VHF and HF Remote Ground Stations (RGS) if within the line of sight of the aircraft Air-Ground processors, which route and handle the messages - 33 -
  35. 35. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) Communication satellites (SATCOM) ATSU SATCOM ground station VDL Mode 2 ground station VDL Mode A ground station HFDL ground station ACARS networks Air Traffic Control Airline Operations Control Figure 3-1 FANS A architecture Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) Communication satellites (SATCOM) AOC (optional) ATSU ATC SATCOM ground station VDL Mode A ground station VDL Mode 2 ground station ACARS networks HFDL ground station VDL Mode 2 ground station ATN networks Air Traffic Control Airline Operations Control Figure 3-2 FANS B architecture - 34 -
  36. 36. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3.2. 3 – CNS/ATM component description FANS B ARCHITECTURE As the first implementation of ATN Baseline 1 standards are limited to highdensity continental airspaces where a fair VHF and SSR coverage is provided, the ATN can only be accessed through VHF media. The aircraft’s ATSU still manages the data communications for either ATC or AOC, as per FANS A architecture. However, only VDL mode 2 is used to transmit ATC data to the ground through ATN. The FANS B architecture, detailed in figure 3.2, is made of the following components : • The airborne part, with the ATSU, which is a modular hosting platform that centralises all data communications (ATC and AOC) and manages the dedicated Human Machine Interface (HMI). • The air/ground data link : VDL modeA/2, SATCOM or HFDL are used to transmit AOC data to the ground as per FANS A architecture. Please notice that SATCOM and HFDL for AOC purposes are optional in ATSU architecture, Only VDL mode 2 is used to transmit ATC data to the ground for communication purposes. SSR is still used for surveillance purposes as long as FANS B is operated in high-density continental airspaces only. • The ground/ground data link, which is the same as per FANS A architecture. Nevertheless, two types of network have to be considered : ACARS for AOC and ATN for ATC. 3.3. DATA LINK MEDIA 3.3.1. 3.3.1.1. AIR/GROUND DATA LINK VHF DATA LINK 3.3.1.1.1. VLD mode A Data Link transmission over ACARS (so-called VDL mode A) has been used for years for AOC data purpose and for FANS A. 3.3.1.1.2. VDL mode 2 The VDL mode 2 (VHF Data Link mode 2) provides improved air-ground VHF digital communication link compared to VDL mode A. VDL mode 2 is the main media used in ATN Baseline 1 environments (FANS B). Before its implementation in ATN environments, the VDL-2 standard happened to be a good interim solution in ACARS environments (FANS A). As the data link traffic over ACARS network continues to increase and congestion of the current ground networks is expected soon, the VDL-2 was the only way to improve the current performance of data link applications, and to increase the capacity of the ACARS network (which implies a reduction of communication charges by service providers). - 35 -
  37. 37. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III This solution is known as the VDL-2/AOA (AOA: ACARS over AVLC: Aviation VHF Link Control). It is intended to cover the gap between the current ACARS system and the ATN capabilities. Compared to the ATSU data link capabilities through the ACARS networks with VDL mode A, the VDL-2 increases the rate of data transmission from 2.4Kbits per second to 31.5Kbits per second. 3.3.1.1.3. VDL mode 2 description VDL-2 is a communication protocol between the aircraft and VHF ground stations of the networks of service providers. Obviously, both the aircraft and the recipient (VHF station) must be equipped. With VDL-2, the messages are transmitted into packets of bits rather than in blocks of characters. This provides a gain in transmission efficiency. 3.3.1.2. SATCOM Until SATCOM, radio-communications suffered from VHF line-of-sight limitations along with the unreliability and variable quality of HF. Satellite links overcome these weaknesses, being unaffected by distance or ionospheric conditions. SATCOM are thus playing a major role in the implementation of ICAO’s CNS/ATM concept for Air Traffic Control in the 21st century, supporting both ADS and CPDLC applications over the oceanic and remote areas. Whatever the applications (passenger services, airline operational communications or air traffic communications), the voice/data are transmitted via satellite, from the aircraft to the Ground Earth Stations (GES) and then switched through international telecommunications networks (ARINC, SITA, …) to anywhere in the world (airline hosts, ATC centres,…). In 2006, only Inmarsat constellation is able to provide communication services (voice or data) to the whole globe, except to the extreme polar regions (above 80°N and below 80°S) with a bit rate up to 64kbps for Swift64 services. Note 1 : INMARSAT is expected to increase its number of spot beams from 5 to 19 with INMARSAT 4 constellation. At the time of writing the document, only the INMARSAT 4 AOR-W is fully operational. Refer to Appendix C of Part II. Note 2 : MTSAT 1R satellite launched in February 2005 is fully operational since early 2006. MTSAT 2 satellite launched early 2006 is expected to be operational in the first half of 2007. Note 3 : Yamagushi (Japan) GES is no more operational since 31st of March, 2006. 3.3.1.3. HF DATA LINK (HFDL) HF Data Link (HFDL) was certified for an AOC purpose in April 2002. HFDL was certified as a supplementary (not primary) means for an ATC purpose with the FANS A+ package in July 2004 for A330/A340 aircraft and April 2005 for A320 aircraft. - 36 -
  38. 38. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description "Supplementary" means that the certification process authorises the use of HFDL provided that VDL and SATCOM are installed. During the certification process, the demonstration of data link performances including HFDL (measurement of message transit time between end users) was not performed for environments such as polar areas. Nevertheless, in an inbound flight from the North Pole to Edmonton for instance, the use of HFDL for data link operations is possible. In such a case, the operator should notice that HFDL performances, even better than HF voice ones, are not as good as VDL or SATCOM data link ones. Thus, messages transmitted by HFDL may take much more time to reach the addressee than via VDL or SATCOM. Some messages may even be lost. If the airline elects to use HFDL outside SATCOM coverage, the airline operates outside the approved certification framework of FANS A+. The airline shall submit its choice to its approval authority. HFDL allows data transmission at a rate of 1.8 Kbits per second. Today, ARINC is the only DSP providing HFDL. The proposed coverage is worldwide (Refer to Appendix C of Part II). 3.3.2. 3.3.2.1. GROUND/GROUND DATA LINK THE DATA LINK COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Several communications service providers, in addition to the AOC messages, ensure today the routing of ATC messages between the aircraft and the ATC centre. These are growing steadily, thus raising some issues for future interoperability. Among the main ones the following may be listed : • INMARSAT : covers the space segment through its satellite constellation, which is accessed by numerous GES operators (most of them being subcontracted). • MTSAT : operational since the beginning of 2006, it provides communication services over Asia. • ARINC : through its so-called ADNS network, ensures the SATCOM, VHF and HFDL (High Frequency Data Link) air-ground processing through numerous GESs and RGSs. • SITA : through its so-called AIRCOM system, ensures the SATCOM and VHF air-ground processing through numerous GESs and RGSs. • AVICOM : this Japanese provider ensures a VHF air-ground processing within Japan • DATACOM : this Brazilian provider ensures a VHF air-ground processing within Brazil region. Both ARINC and SITA networks operate with national service providers and are currently interconnected to provide a global interoperability of ATS data link applications. This means for instance, that an aircraft using a VHF data link under a SITA agreement can nevertheless operate in a FANS ATC area using an ARINC contract (refer to 3.3.2.2 – The interoperability of the networks). - 37 -
  39. 39. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Given in Appendix D of Part II is general information relative to some of these service providers. 3.3.2.2. • THE INTEROPERABILITY OF THE NETWORKS ACARS network The interoperability between the Data Service Processors of the two main communications service providers (ARINC and SITA) is a key element in the overall performance of the system, and ensures that each relevant ATC centre has access to all FANS aircraft within its region. Whenever there is a switching for instance from VHF to SATCOM (or vice versa, ACARS environments only), the ATSU sends a Medium Advisory (MA) message to the DSP indicating the status of the communications with each medium. Such an automatic function is needed to fulfil the logic that determines the routing of any uplink message. It is transparent to both the pilot and the controller and ensures that uplink messages can be sent to the aircraft irrespective of the medium or communications service providers used. ARINC Network SITA Network Network Interoperability ATC ground router ATC ground router AIDC ATC 1 ATC 2 ARINC communication domain SITA communication domain Figure 3-3 ACARS network interoperability - 38 -
  40. 40. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III • 3 – CNS/ATM component description ATN network The same kind of feature is provided for ATN in order to ensure a seamless data link connection with the ground. However, in the LINK 2000+ airspaces, VDL mode 2 is the unique medium used for ATC data link purposes. ARINC and SITA are the main DSPs. At the time of writing the document, UAC Maastricht is the single ATC centre providing data link ATS services. UAC Maastricht contracted ARINC to provide VLD mode 2 links with aircraft. Aircraft of airlines, which contracted SITA as their DSP, will be available to connect to UAC Maastricht thanks to the inter-connection between ARINC and SITA. The following figure illustrates a possible extension model of the network. ARINC Network SITA Network Network Interoperability ATC ground router ATC ground router OLDI UAC Maastricht Other ATC ARINC communication domain SITA communication domain Figure 3-4 ATN network interoperability 3.3.2.3. GROUND COORDINATION he ATS Inter-facility Data Communications (AIDC) defines the data link between ATC centres. This link is used for notification, co-ordination and phases for transfer of control. AIDC functions will be progressively introduced, as ATC centres along routes and air spaces are equipped with CNS/ATM systems. For the - 39 -
  41. 41. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III same purposes, LINK 2000+ areas implement a variant of AIDC called the OnLine Data Interchange (OLDI). This is not an aircraft issue. 3.3.2.4. THE AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (ATN) With the current FANS A, the Air Traffic Services datalink is based on the ACARS network, which will not be able to handle the increasing volumes of AOC and ATC communications. Therefore, a network dedicated to aeronautical communications is entering into operations to act as a backbone of the ICAO’s CNS/ATM concept. This Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) will seamlessly connect aircraft, air traffic control centres, airline operations facilities and communication service providers with enhanced efficiency, capability and security. For the initial implementation, the ATN will connect air traffic control centres and will provide data links between aircraft and air traffic control centres. To that end, AIRBUS has proposeds the FANS B package since the end of 2006. 3.4. FANS ARCHITECTURE SUMMARY The table below summarizes the previous paragraphs and provides a comparison between FANS A and FANS B packages. System Application Environment Network FANS A* ATC FANS B AOC Oceanic and Remote ATC AOC High-density Continental ACARS VDL-A VDL-A VDL-2/AOA** VLD-2/AOA SATCOM SATCOM N/A SATCOM HFDL*** Data Link Media ACARS ATN HFDL N/A HFDL VDL-2 * FANS A or FANS A+. ** FANS A+ only *** FANS A+ only. Certified as a supplementary means. - 40 - ACARS VDL-A VLD-2/AOA
  42. 42. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3.5. 3 – CNS/ATM component description CNS/ATM APPLICATIONS AND SERVICES Even if derived from the same ICAO CNS/ATM concept, functionalities of FANS A and FANS B are different as they use different networks. FANS A data link is provided by three main applications (AFN, CPDLC and ADS). For FANS B data link, the notion of service is introduced. A service is intended to fulfil an operational need (ATC or flight crew) and is based on several applications. For the first implementation of ATN (ATN Baseline 1), two applications (CM and CPDLC) are used and support four services (DLIC, ACL, ACM and AMC). The following sections describe applications and services (if applicable) related to each environment. 3.5.1. AS PER ACARS NETWORK – FANS A PACKAGE In FANS 1/A environment, three main applications compose the data link as described in ICAO CNS/ATM concept. These three applications are detailed hereinafter : • The ATS Facility Notification (AFN) application to log the aircraft on the ACARS network, • The Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) application that allows data communication between ATC and flight crew, • The Automatic Dependent Surveillance / Contract (ADS-C, refer to 3.5.1.3 – Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) for more details) application that allows tracking aircraft out of the SSR coverage. 3.5.1.1. ATS FACILITIES NOTIFICATION (AFN) Through this application, an ATC knows whether an aircraft is capable of using data link communications. This serves to exchange the address information between the aircraft and the ATC centre. This exchange of the data link context is needed prior to any CPDLC or ADS connection from an operational point of view. The AFN notification is a signal for the receiving ATC centre that the aircraft is about to enter the FIR. The flight crew initiates an AFN notification to make the aircraft data link capability and characteristics to the ATC. Whenever there is no automatic transfer of control from one ATC centre to another, the active ATC centre may request the flight crew to perform a notification procedure to the next ATC centre. 3.5.1.2. CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATION (CPDLC) CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain data link communications between a pilot and the controller of the relevant flight region. It is particularly adapted to such areas where voice communications are difficult (e.g. HF voice over oceans or remote - 41 -
  43. 43. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III part of the world), and became very convenient to alleviate congested VHF of some dense continental airspaces when utilised for routine dialogue (e.g. frequency transfer). CPDLC allows flight crew and controllers to communicate via data link thanks to written messages composed of one or several elements chosen in a set of internationally agreed preformatted elements. Those elements are in line with the existing ICAO voice phraseology and can be used for clearances, requests, reports, negotiations and other kinds of dialog with ATC (e.g. emergency messages, ATC transfer, frequency changes...). Appendix A of Part II lists all the messages (around 180) that are supported by FANS A and FANS A+ airborne and ground systems. Advantages and drawbacks of CPDLC, compared to voice communications, have been discussed at length for some years. Among the main ones, CPDLC is a remedy to shortcomings of the existing systems: • Significant reduction of the transmission time • Suppression of the errors or misunderstandings pertaining to poor voice quality, fading, language • Suppression of mistakenly actions on ATC messages intended for another flight • Suppression of the tiring listening watch of the radio traffic • Possibility for an immediate access to previously recorded messages • Automatic loading within the FMS of route or F-PLN clearances, thus avoiding transcription errors, long and fastidious manual keystrokes. The following points however must be well understood and will have to be underlined in training: • Handling of CPDLC messages requires time: Reading and interpreting a written clearance was found to be less immediate than hearing the same one Preparing and sending a request through the combination of the MCDU and DCDU is longer than directly using the microphone. • The party line is lost (the pilot can no longer listen to the surrounding transmissions). 3.5.1.3. AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS) ADS is the tool namely used to support the surveillance function within the CNS/ATM concept. ADS stands for Automatic Dependent Surveillance : Automatic : it is fully transparent to the flight crew (no pilot action required, except AFN procedure for ADS-C). Dependent : it uses accurate position and velocity data from navigation systems (e.g. GNSS). Surveillance : it provides aircraft position, altitude, velocity and other data. Two kinds of ADS exist : ADS-Contract (ADS-C) and ADS-Broadcast (ADSB). These two kinds of ADS are quite different, as they do not rely on the same system. - 42 -
  44. 44. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description The present document only deals with ADS-Contract as part of data link applications. A new brochure dedicated to surveillance aspects of the CNS/ATM concept will be released soon. More details on ADS-Broadcast will be provided in this brochure. The goal of this section is to help the reader in differentiating ADSContract and ADS-Broadcast. ADS-Contract is quite similar to CPDLC as it requires the establishment of a connection between the aircraft and the ATC centre. As per CPDLC, a notification should have been performed prior ADS-C operations. Through this data link, the ADS-C application hosted by ATSU 5 (respectively ATC applications) reports data requested in a contract established between the airborne system and the ATC ground system. ADS-C is an end-to-end application. ADS-C benefits from the data link range (i.e. almost worldwide). The reader may found the term Centralized ADS (CADS). It is a service provided by ARINC or SITA for ATS providers or airlines that wish to benefit from ADS-C application without investing in ADS-C equipment. ADS-C connections are ensured via a CADS server. This server translates any received ADS-C reports in standard text format and relays them to ATS centres via AFTN. ADS-C reports can also be forwarded to airline servers via a specific ARINC service. ADS-Broadcast is an application of the transponder Mode S. As such, this application is hosted by the transponder. Whereas ADS-C reports on request (via a contract), ADS-B reports data by broadcasting. It means that only a Mode S receiver is needed to collect broadcasted data. It does not require any data link. Since ADS-B uses the transponder aerial, the range is limited to about 120 NM. Any unit equipped (e.g. ATC centre, aircraft) with an ADS-B receiver is capable to pick up broadcasted data. Considering the range of ADS-C and ADS-B, they are expected to complement each other for a complete coverage during a transoceanic flight for instance. When the aircraft is out of VHF coverage, ADS-C makes the link between the aircraft and the ATC centre. When in VHF coverage, ADS-B makes the link with any ATC centres or aircraft in the vicinity, equipped with an ADS-B receiver. Except when explicitly specified, ADS stands for ADS-Contract for the rest of the document. 3.5.1.3.1. Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C) Through the ADS application, the ATSU automatically sends aircraft surveillance data to the connected ATC centres and/or to the airline host. FANS A equipped aircraft can have up to five ADS connections. One of the five connections is reserved for use of the AOC. The aircraft has the capability to report to four different ATC simultaneously using ADS. 5 ADS-C is part of AIRBUS FANS A and FANS A+ packages on A320/A330/A340/A380 aircraft. - 43 -
  45. 45. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III This is done automatically and remains transparent to the crew. These are airground downlink messages. Different types of ADS "contracts" exist: • Periodic : the data are sent at periodic time intervals • On demand : the data are sent only when asked for • On event : the data are sent whenever a specified event occurs (e.g. altitude or heading change, vertical rate change, waypoint change) In the FANS A system, the ADS is based on these contracts, which are set by the ATC centres to satisfy their operational needs for surveillance, as dictated by circumstances (e.g. traffic density). The crew cannot modify these contracts, but the controller can. And so can he specify the parameters of the contract. Optional data groups may thus be added in the contract request. Obviously, at any ATC centre, only one contract may exist at any time, and whenever the controller makes a modification, a new contract is set, which cancels the previous one. Another type of contract may be found: the emergency mode. When the crew activates this mode, an emergency report is sent to any ATC centre which has an ADS contract with the aircraft. The emergency report is sent at the same rate of the current active periodic contract if any, otherwise it is sent every 64 seconds. Appendix B of Part II lists the various elements and groups of data of the ADS-C reports, and provides some details on the different contracts. Based on these contracts, directly addressed between an ATC centre and a given aircraft, ADS is then usually called ADS-C (where C stands for Contract), or ADS-A (where A stands for Addressed). Both these designations are equivalent. 3.5.1.3.2. Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) ADS-B is an application in which aircraft avionics automatically broadcast aircraft position, altitude, velocity and other data every 500 ms (or so) via the Mode S Extended Squitter (1090 MHz). ATC and surrounding aircraft equipped with Mode S aerial can collect these data to show the aircraft’s position and altitude on their screen without the need for radar. ADS-B enables pilots and air traffic controllers to get a more precise image of the traffic thanks to enriched data compared to SSR data. Once the broadcasted data are collected, they are displayed in the cockpit on the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). On AIRBUS aircraft, CDTI information is displayed on ND. Unlike SSR, ADS-B works also at low altitudes and on ground. In addition, any vehicle equipped with a Mode S emitter can be “seen” by any vehicle equipped with a Mode S receiver, provided the emitter is in the range of the receiver. For safety reasons, ADS-B can be used on ground only if the Airport Navigation application is available on board. Indeed, the position and the heading of a surrounding aircraft are rightly interpreted only if they are related to the map of the airport (e.g. runways, taxiways). - 44 -
  46. 46. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III Some • • • • • 3 – CNS/ATM component description countries started to implement ADS-B : Australia : operational implementation expected by the end 2007, Europe : trials by the end 2007, Reunion (France – Indian Ocean) : trials until end 2007, operational expected in 2008, USA : in-service decision in 2010, China, India, Singapore study the opportunity to implement ADS-B. At the time of writing the document, CDTI information on ND will be available in 2009. Figure 3-5 CDTI information displayed on ND 3.5.2. AS PER ATN – FANS B PACKAGE In ATN environment, two applications are used to ensure the data link. Each application provides some services that enable the fulfilment of operational needs from either ATC or flight crew. Used applications and respective services are : • Context Management (CM) application that ensures the Data Link Initiation Capability (DLIC) service. • Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) application that ensures the following services : ATC Clearance (ACL) service, ATC Communication Management (ACM) service, ATC Microphone Check (AMC) service. - 45 -
  47. 47. 3 – CNS/ATM component description 3.5.2.1. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III CONTEXT MANAGEMENT (CM) APPLICATION The CM Application provides the necessary information to enable data-link communication between ATS units and aircraft systems. This function will typically be initiated when an aircraft is either at the gate in the pre-departure phase of flight, or before entering a new FIR supporting data-link communications. The CM Application supports the DLIC (Data-Link Initiation Capability) Air Traffic Service. 3.5.2.1.1. Data Link Initiation Capability (DLIC) service The DLIC service is executed prior to the first use of any other data link application. It provides the ground with the necessary information to make data link communications possible between the controller and the aircraft : Aircraft 24 bits address, Aircraft flight identification, Departure/destination airport, Facility designation, As well as information about available air applications. The DLIC Service consists of: • The Logon function, which is a means of exchanging application information between an aircraft and a given ground ATC centre. It also provides flight data (flight number, FROM/TO airports, aircraft position) to that ground ATC centre. This function could be either triggered manually or automatically; • The Contact function, which provides a method for a ground ATC centre to request the aircraft system to initiate the logon function with another ground ATC centre, indicated in the contact request. This function is used to transfer the aircraft from one ATC centre to another and it is transparent for the pilot. It is managed by the ground system. 3.5.2.2. CONTROLLER APPLICATION PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATION (CPDLC) The CPDLC application provides direct pilot/controller communication using data link in complement of voice between an aircraft and the controlling ATC centre with the objective of reducing flight crew and controller workload and diminishing clearance delivery delays. The CPDLC application provides a set of data link message elements corresponding to existing ICAO phraseology used by current ATC procedures as defined in ATN Baseline 1 standards (Refer to Appendix A of Part III). Functions provided by CPDLC application are: • Exchange of Controller-Pilot clearance via ATC Clearance (ACL) service, • Transfer of communications via ATC Communication Management (ACM) service, and, • ATC Microphone Check (AMC) service. - 46 -
  48. 48. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description 3.5.2.2.1. ATC Clearance (ACL) service ACL is an Air Traffic Service supported by CPDLC, which is used to : Request clearances, Issue clearances, Expect clearances, Issue requests for the current or future status of the flight, and Provide flight status notifications. An uplink “free text” capability is also provided to uplink information not conforming to defined formats and to append information explaining error reasons. No downlink “free text” message is provided to pilot. Free text downlink capability is only provided for airborne system to append information explaining preformatted error reasons. 3.5.2.2.2. ATC Communication Management (ACM) service Through this function, transfer from one ATC centre to another is performed. The current authority managing the aircraft with data link communications (also called Current Data Authority, CDA) can assign another ATC centre as the Next Data Authority (NDA) and/or instruct a frequency change with a CPDLC message. The NDA can initiate a CPDLC connection with that aircraft and then becomes the current authority. ACM service may be used: To initially establish CPDLC with an ATC centre, To terminate CPDLC with an ATC centre, To transfer voice communications and CPDLC from the CDA to the NDA, and, To issue a change of frequency (also known as Voice Contact Instruction, VCI). 3.5.2.2.3. ATC Microphone Check (AMC) service It is an Air Traffic Service, which provides controllers with the capability to uplink an instruction for aircraft to check that they are not blocking a voice channel. No acknowledgement of the instruction from the flight crew is required. 3.6. ACARS AND ATN MAIN DISCREPANCIES The following sections describe the main discrepancies between ACARS and ATN environments. Pilots who operate both FANS A and FANS B package should master these discrepancies in order to properly operate any FANS systems with their distinctive features. Knowledge of these discrepancies is not required for pilots who operate exclusively FANS A or FANS B. - 47 -
  49. 49. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III These discrepancies are the following : • CPDLC is the primary means of communication in ACARS environments when the aircraft is equipped with data link systems. In ATN environment, voice will remain the primary means. • FANS A and FANS B are derived from the same CNS/ATM concept. As such, some equivalences may be found between FANS A and FANS B applications. • Technical acknowledgement : Acknowledgements in FANS 1/A environments and ATN environments do not have the same meanings, • Timestamp : Messages in FANS 1/A environments and ATN environments are not dated in the same way, • Timers : High-density continental airspaces impose to receive and reply messages on time. Timers are set to prevent delays in receiving and replying messages. 3.6.1. DATA LINK OPERATIONS It has to be noticed that the carriage of data link systems is not mandatory in ACARS environments (i.e. FANS 1/A). However, when an aircraft equipped with data link systems is flying a FANS 1/A airspace where CPDLC is serviceable, CPDLC should be used as a primary means unless otherwise specified by local rules. Voice will then be used as a back up means. In ATN environments, the carriage of ATN Baseline 1 capable systems will be mandatory in the Mandatory phase of the Link 2000+ programme. Nevertheless, CPDLC will be considered as a supplementary means for the time being. Voice will remain the primary means of communication. ACARS environments ATN environments FANS A FANS B Not mandatory for the time being Mandatory in Mandatory phase CPDLC Primary if aircraft equipped Supplementary Voice Back up Primary Carriage of data link systems - 48 -
  50. 50. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description 3.6.2. APPLICATION NAME EQUIVALENCE The following table provides the equivalence between FANS A and FANS B applications as detailed in 3.5 – CNS/ATM applications and services. FANS A applications for oceanic and remote areas FANS B applications for high density continental areas AFN CM CPDLC CPDLC ADS-C No equivalence 3.6.3. TECHNICAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: LACK/MAS To ensure a successful message delivery, technical acknowledgement is performed by the receiving system. For ATN Baseline 1 environments, this acknowledgement is called Logical Acknowledgement (LACK), and Message Assurance (MAS) for FANS 1/A environments. These constitute a major difference between ATN Baseline 1 and FANS 1/A. Indeed, these acknowledgements do not address to the same recipient. Besides, the MAS function is required whereas LACK function is not. European airspaces implement the LACK function whereas US airspaces seem not (since the FAA CPDLC Build 1A programme is frozen at the time of writing the present document, the final implementation is not known). In FANS 1/A environment, the MAS is the notification by the Data link Service Provider (DSP) to the ATC centre that the uplink message has been acknowledged or not by the airborne system. The MAS function is provided for uplink messages only. Refer to Figure 3-6. As a consequence, on FANS A interface, when a message is downlinked, a SENT label is displayed once the technical acknowledgement is received from the ACARS network. It means that the message is actually sent but not necessarily displayed on the air traffic controller HMI. Refer to Appendix G or H of Part II for more details. In ATN Baseline 1 environment, the LACK notifies the successful delivery of a message on recipient’s HMI in both directions (uplink and downlink). Refer to Figure 3-7. A termination timer may be coupled to the LACK function. Then, if the termination timer timed out while no LACK is received, the data link dialogue may be terminated (see following section). Thanks to the LACK, on FANS B interface, the RECEIVD 6 BY ATC indication is displayed once the technical acknowledgement from the recipient’s HMI is received. Please refer to the Appendix E of Part III for more details. 6 One ‘E’ is omitted due to space restrictions imposed by the interface. - 49 -
  51. 51. 3 – CNS/ATM component description Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III ATSU ATC HMI Uplink message ACK MAS Downlink message ACK ACARS Network Airborne HMI ATC centre Figure 3-6 Technical acknowledgement in ACARS environment ATSU ATC HMI Uplink message LACK Downlink message LACK ATN network Airborne HMI ATC centre Figure 3-7 Technical acknowledgement in ATN environment - 50 -
  52. 52. Getting to grips with FANS – Part I – Issue III 3 – CNS/ATM component description 3.6.4. TIME STAMP The time stamp is defined as the time when the message is sent. At the time when FANS A and FANS A+ systems were certified on A330/A340 aircraft, FANS 1/A standards did not require ATC centres to provide the time stamp in message header. Actually, a very few ATC centres do not provide the time stamp. Consequently, for FANS A and FANS A+ on A330/A340 aircraft, uplink messages are referenced according to the time of receipt on board. However, it has been observed that more and more ATC centres are equipped with systems able to provide the time stamp, and do provide the time stamp in uplink messages. Therefore, a HMI enhancement has been introduced in FANS A+ to be certified on A380 aircraft. The default time information refers to the time stamp if uplink messages are time-stamped; if not, the receipt time is displayed in another way. Refer to Chapter A6 of Part II for more details. For ATN Baseline 1 ATC centres, time stamp is mandatory. Consequently, FANS B interface on A320 aircraft displays permanently the time stamp for uplink messages. 3.6.5. TIMERS In ATN environment, to avoid any everlasting data link dialogue, timers are implemented. That is why time stamps are required in such environment. This section is then specific to ATN environments. Three • • • types of timers are implemented : Technical response timer, Message latency timer, and Operational timers. 3.6.5.1. TECHNICAL RESPONSE TIMER Each time a message is sent, the recipient returns a LACK to the sender. The LACK notifies that the message has been well displayed on the recipient’s interface. Refer to 3.6.3 – Technical acknowledgement: LACK/MAS. Once a message is sent, a technical response timer is triggered. For airborne systems, the timer value is set at 20 seconds 7. If the LACK is received whereas the technical response timer timed out, the LACK is discarded. 7 This value is valid for the LINK 2000+ Pioneer phase. For post Pioneer phase, this value may change. Hence, the timer will be accordingly updated in a subsequent FANS B package. - 51 -

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