Doc 8896 manual of aeronautical meteorological practice
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Doc 8896 manual of aeronautical meteorological practice

on

  • 1,068 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,068
Views on SlideShare
1,068
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Doc 8896 manual of aeronautical meteorological practice Doc 8896 manual of aeronautical meteorological practice Document Transcript

  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority Sixth Edition - 2004 Internat ionaI C ¡viI Av iation Organizat ion Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- D o c 8896 AN189314
  • Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organization. All correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. Orders should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance (by bank draft, cheque or money order) in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Credit card orders (American Express, MasterCard and Visa) are accepted a t ICAO Headquarters. International Civil Aviation Organization. Attention: Document Sales Unit, 999 University Street, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 Telephone: +1 (5 14) 954-8022; Facsimile: +1 (514) 954-6769; Sitatex: YULCAYA; E-mail: sales@icao.int; World Wide Web: http://www.icao.int China. Glory Master International Limited, Room 434B, Hongshen Trade Centre, 428 Dong Fang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 Telephone: +86 137 0177 4638; Facsimile: +86 21 5888 1629; E-mail: glorymaster@online.sh.cn Egypt. ICAO Regional Director, Middle East Office, Egyptian Civil Aviation Complex, Cairo Airport Road, Heliopolis, Cairo 11776 Telephone: +20 (2) 267 4840; Facsimile: +20 (2) 267 4843; Sitatex: CAICAYA; E-mail: icao@idsc.net.eg France. Directeur régional de l’OAC1, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nord, 3 bis, villa Émile-Bergerat, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine (Cedex) Téléphone: +33 (1) 46 41 85 85; Fax: +33 (1) 46 41 85 00; Sitatex: PAREUYA; Coumel: icaoeurnat@paris.icao.int Germany. UNO-Verlag GmbH, Am Hofgarten 10, D-53113 Bonn / Telephone: +49 (O) 2 28-9 49 O 20; Facsimile: +49 (O) 2 28-9 49 02 22; E-mail: info@uno-verlag.de; World Wide Web: http://www.uno-verlag.de India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi 110001 or 17 Park Street, Calcutta 700016 Telephone: +91 (11) 331-5896; Facsimile: +91 (11) 332-2639 Japan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo Telephone: +81 (3) 3503-2686; Facsimile: +81 (3) 3503-2689 Kenya. ICAO Regional Director, Eastern and Southern African Office, United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi Telephone: +254 (20) 622 395; Facsimile: +254 (20) 623 028; Sitatex: NBOCAYA; E-mail: icao@icao.unon.org Mexico. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Norteamérica, Centroamérica y Caribe, Av. Presidente Masaryk No. 29, 3e‘ Piso, Col. Chapultepec Morales, C.P. 11570, México D.F. I Teléfono: +52 (55) 52 50 32 11; Facsimile: +52 ( 5 5 ) 52 03 27 57; Correo-e: icao-nacc@mexico.icao.int Nigeria. Landover Company, P.O. Box 3165, Ikeja, Lagos Telephone: +234 (1) 4979780; Facsimile: +234 (1) 4979788; Sitatex: LOSLORK; E-mail: aviation@landovercompany.com Peru. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Sudamérica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100 Teléfono: +51 ( i ) 575 1646; Facsimile: +51 ( I ) 575 0974; Sitatex: LIMCAYA; Correo-e: mail@lima.icao.int Russian Federation. Aviaizdat, 48, Ivan Franko Street, Moscow 121351 / Telephone: +7 (095) 417-0405; Facsimile: +7 (095) 417-0254 Senegal. Directeur régional de l’OACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Boîte postale 2356, Dakar Téléphone: +221 839 9393; Fax: +221 823 6926; Sitatex: DKRCAYA; Courriel: icaodkr@icao.sn Slovakia. Air Traffic Services of the Slovak Republic, Letové prevádzkové sluzby Slovenskej Republiky, State Enterprise, Letisko M.R. Stefánika, 823 07 Bratislava 21 / Telephone: +421 (7) 4857 1111; Facsimile: +421 (7) 4857 2105 South Africa. Avex Air Training (Pty) Ltd., Private Bag X102, Halfway House, 1685, Johannesburg Telephone: +27 (1 i ) 315-0003/4; Facsimile: +27 (1 1) 805-3649; E-mail: avex@iafrica.com Spain. A.E.N.A. - Aeropuertos Españoles y Navegación Aérea, Calle Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, 14, Planta Tercera, Despacho 3. 11, 28027 Madrid / Teléfono: +34 (91) 321-3148; Facsimile: +34 (91) 321-3157; Correo-e: sscc.ventasoaci@aena.es Switzerland. Adeco-Editions van Diermen, Attn: Mr. Martin Richard Van Diermen, Chemin du Lacuez 41, CH-1807 Blonay Telephone: +41 021 943 2673; Facsimile: +41 021 943 3605; E-mail: mvandiermen@adeco.org Thailand. ICAO Regional Director, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 11, Samyaek Ladprao, Bangkok 10901 Telephone: +66 (2) 537 8 189; Facsimile: +66 (2) 537 8199; Sitatex: BKKCAYA; E-mail: icao-apac@bangkok,icao.int United Kingdom. Airplan Flight Equipment Ltd. (AFE), l a Ringway Trading Estate, Shadowmoss Road, Manchester M22 5LH Telephone: +44 161 499 0023; Facsimile: +44 161 499 0298; E-mail: enquiries@afeonline.com; World Wide Web: http://www.afeonline.com 3/04 Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio-visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio-visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice IMPORTANT NOTE This edition is compatible with the Fourteenth Edition of Annex 3, including Amendment 72 (applicable 1 November 2001). An amendment is being prepared by ICA0 to render the manual compatible with the Fifteenth Edition of Annex 3, including Amendment 73 (applicable 25 November2004). Approved by the Secretary General and published under his authority Sixth Edition -2004 I nt ernationaI Civ iI Av¡ ation Organizat ion Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Doc 8896 ANI89314
  • AMENDMENTS The issue of amendments is announced regularly i the ICAO Journal and i the n n f monthly Supplement to the Catalogue o ICAO Publications and Audio-visual Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA No. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Date of issue Date Entered entered bY
  • FOREWORD 1. The first edition of the Manual o Aeronautical f Meteorological Practice, published in response to recommendations made by the Meteorology and Operations Divisional Meeting? (Paris, 1964), was intended as a guide for use by pilots and other aeronautical personnel on meteorological procedures, codes, symbols and abbreviations. It also contained a multilingual list of terms and phrases commonly used in meteorological briefings. . concerning information on weather phenomena hazardous to low-level flights (AIRMET and GAMET messages) were introduced. However, the basic structure of the manual was maintained. 6. The sixth edition reflects the substantial changes made to Annex 3 in Amendments 71 and 72. 7. The body of the manual is still based primarily on Annex 3, summarized and enlarged upon, where necessary. The appendices provide: 2. A second edition was prepared in 1977 to reflect, in particular, the many changes in procedures and terminology recommended by the Eighth Air Navigation Conference and the Meteorology Divisional Meeting2 (1974). a) detailed information on aeronautical meteorological codes, model forms and charts used for documentation, etc., which are dispersed throughout various ICAO and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) documents, and whose consolidation in the manual provides users with a single reference document for most of their day-to-day needs in aeronautical meteorological practice; 3. As demand for the manual continued to grow and because further important changes to meteorological procedures had taken place, particularly in connection with the recommendations for the establishment of a world area forecast system (WAFS) made by the Communications/ Meteorology Divisional Meetin$ (Montréal, 1982), a third edition was prepared. This edition was rewritten aiming to meet the needs of operational aeronautical meteorologists, as well as the needs of pilots and other aeronautical personnel. b) information on other subjects such as location of instruments at aerodromes and use of meteorological information by flight operations officers. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4. As a consequence of an extensive amendment proposal to Annex 3 developed by the Communications/ MeteorologyíOperations (COM/MET/OPS) Divisional Meeting4 (1990) including, in particular, provisions regarding the transition to the final phase of the WAFS, aerodrome observations, reports and forecasts, SIGMET information, etc., a fourth edition of the manual was published. In order to continue to meet users? requirements, however, the structure of the manual was not changed. 8. Annex 3 is a constantly evolving document, as are all ICAO Annexes. Some procedures described in this manual are currently under review by the Air Navigation Commission and may have changed by the time it is printed and issued. However, the usual amendment service for ICAO documents will keep users of this manual up to date, on a timely basis, on changes of this kind. 5. The fifth edition is the direct result of Amendment 70 to Annex 3, applicable fiom 1 January 1996, which constituted a comprehensive update of the provisions, in particular, those related to air-reporting and the observation and reporting of wind shear. In addition, new provisions 9. In conclusion, it should be stressed that the material in this manual is intended for guidance only. It is not intended to replace relevant national instructions, or explanatory material, such as the explanations of codes and symbols, normally shown in flight documentation, nor is it intended to cover the many non-aeronautical uses of meteorological information. Nothing in this manual should be taken as contradicting or conflicting with Annex 3 provisions or any other Standards, Recommended Practices, procedures or guidance material published by ICAO or WMO. It should also be noted that in this manual the words ?shall? or ?should? are not used in a regulatory sense as in ICAO or WMO regulatory documents. Held conjointly with the Third Session of the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology (CAeM) of the WMO. 2. Held, in part, conjointly with the Extraordinary Session (1974) of the body mentioned in Note 1. 3. Held conjointly with the Seventh Session of the body mentioned in Note 1. 4. Held conjointly with the Ninth Session of the body mentioned in Note 1 . 1. (iii) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ................................. (iii) 3.6 3.7 3.8 . Chapter 1 Meteorological Services for Aviation 1.1 General ........................... 1.2 Meteorological offices ............... 1.3 Meteorological watch offices........... 1.4 Meteorological stations .............. 1.5 World area forecast centres (WAFCs) ... 1.6 Tropical cyclone advisory centres (TCACs) .......................... 1.7 Volcanic ash advisory centres (VAACs) . .................................. . Chapter 2 Meteorological Observations and Reports 2.1 General ........................... 2.2 Aerodrome observations and reports.... 2.3 Routine reports ..................... 2.4 Local special reports ................ 2.5 Special reports in the SPEC1 code form ............................. 2.6 Information on meteorological conditions for aircraft taking off and landing ........................ 2.7 Representativeness and accuracy aerodrome reports .................. 2.8 Weather radar observations and reports ............................ 2.9 Aircraft observations and reports (AIREP) .......................... 2.10 Basic surface and upper-air observations ....................... 2.11 Meteorological satellite data .......... 2.12 Reports of volcanic activity........... .............................. . ...................... Chapter 3 Forecasts 3.1 General ........................... 3.2 Accuracy of aeronautical meteorological forecasts ............. 3.3 Types of aeronautical meteorological forecasts .......................... 3.4 Aerodrome forecasts ................ 3.5 Amended aerodrome forecasts......... Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3 3.9 3.10 3.11 1-3 1-3 3.12 3.13 2-1 2- 1 2- 1 2-2 2-12 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-16 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-6 3-6 3-9 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-13 3-13 3-14 . Chapter 4 SIGMET Information. %pical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Advisory Information. AIRMET Information. Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings 4-1 4.1 General ........................... 4-1 4.2 SIGMET information................ 4-1 4.3 Tropical cyclone and volcanic ash advisory infomation ................ 4-5 4.4 AIRMET information ............... 4-7 4.5 Aerodrome warnings ................ 4-9 4.6 Wind shear warnings ................ 4-10 .................. 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 Trend-type landing forecasts .......... Forecasts for take.off ................ Forecasts of en-route conditions . general ........................... Forecasts of upper winds and upper-air temperatures....................... Forecasts of significant en-route weather phenomena ................. Exchanges of forecasts of en-route conditions between meteorological offices ............................ Amendments to forecasts of en-route conditions......................... Area forecasts for low-level flights exchanged between meteorological ofices in support of the issuance of AIRMET information ............. . Chapter 5 Meteorological Service for Operators and Flight Crew Members 5.1 General provisions .................. 5.2 he-flight information ............... 5.3 Briefing. consultation and display...... 5.4 Flight documentation - methods of presentation ....................... Flight documentation . forecasts of 5.5 en-route conditions ................. 5.6 Flight documentation . aerodrome forecasts .......................... 5.7 Automated pre-flight information systems ........................... Not for Resale ......... 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-5 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Foreword Page
  • Manual on Aeronautical Meteorological Practice (vi) Page Page .................. 9.2 6-1 6- 1 6- 1 6-3 ................................... ........................ 6-4 7-1 7- 1 7- 1 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-5 7-5 .................... Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Appendix 1 Information on the world area forecast system (WAFS) 1. General description of the WAFS ......... 2. Evolution of the system ............... 3. Planning of the WAFS ................ 4 . Authorized access to the WAFS satellite broadcast ........................... 5 . Duties of meteorological offices in the context of the WAFS............... ................ 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-3 a1-1 a1-1 a1-1 a1-1 a1-2 a1-3 . Appendix 2 Technical specifications for local routine reports. local special reports and reports in the METAWSPECI code forms . . Appendix 3 Abbreviated decade of METAR and SPEC1 messages 7-5 . ....................... Appendix 4 Selected criteria applicable to aerodrome reports A2-1 A3-1 ......................... A41 Appendix 5 Location of instruments and accuracy of observations at aerodromes a51 7-6 8-1 8-1 8-1 . 8-2 ....... Part 1 . Location of instruments............. A5-1 Part 2 . Operationally desirable and currently attainable accuracy of measurement or observation.............................. 8-2 . Appendix 6 Operationally desirable accuracy of forecasts . . Chapter 9 Information on Aeronautical Meteorological Services in Aeronautical Information Publications 9.1 Nature of aeronautical information publications ....................... ........... LIST OF APPENDICES . Chapter 8 Coordination Between Aeronautical Meteorological Services and ATS and SAR Units 8.1 General ............................ 8.2 Meteorological information required by ATS units....................... 8.3 Meteorological information provided by ATS units....................... 8.4 Coordination between ATS units and meteorological offices and stations . . . . . . Chapter 10 Relevant Documents 10.1 ICAO documents of a specifically meteorological nature ............... 10.2 WMO documents................... 10.3 Other ICAO documents.............. 6-3 . Chapter 7 Aircraft Observations and Reports 7.1 General ........................... 7.2 Reporting of aircraft observations during flight ....................... Routine aircraft observations .......... 7.3 7.4 Special and other non-routine aircraft observations ....................... 7.5 Content of air.reports ................ 7.6 Criteria for reporting meteorological and related parameters in automated air-reports ......................... 7.7 Exchange of air-reports .............. 7.8 Recording and post-flight reporting of aircraft observations of volcanic activity ........................... 7.9 Detailed instructions concerning the retransmission of air-reports received by MWOs ......................... Information concerning MET services in aeronautical information publications . 9 - 1 ....................... Appendix 7 Technical specifications for aerodrome forecasts in the TAP code form 9-1 9- 1 A6-1 ..... . Criteria for trend-type landing .................................. Appendix 8 forecasts Not for Resale A5-13 A7-1 a5-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- . Chapter 6 Dissemination of Aeronautical Meteorological Information 6.1 General ........................... 6.2 Dissemination of OPMET information on the AFTN ...................... 6.3 Dissemination of aeronautical meteorological information on circuitdsystems other than the AFTN ... 6.4 Interrogation procedures for international OPMET databanks ....... 6.5 Dissemination of aeronautical meteorological information to aircraft in flight ...........................
  • Table o Contents f (Vi0 Page Appendix 9 . Model charts and forms . ........ A9-1 Appendix 10 Guidance on area forecasts in abbreviated plain language .................. Alo-1 Pari 1 . Format for abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast messages and amendments thereto to serve international civil aviation in operations above flight level250................................ Alo-1 Part 2 . Format for abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast messages and amendments thereto to serve international civil aviation in operations between flight levels 100 and 250 ............................. A104 Part 3 . Format for messages containing abbreviated plain-language amendments to upper-air forecasts ........................ ................................ Alo-6 All-1 . Appendix 12 List of tropical cyclone advisory centres and volcanic ash advisory centres ............................ A12-1 . ..................... --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Not for Resale A13-1 A13-2 . Appendix 14 Use of meteorological information for pre-flight planning by operators and flight crew A14-1 1. Introduction ......................... A14-1 2 . Take-off and climb-out ................ A14-1 3. Cruise to top of descent................ A14-2 4 . Landing calculations .................. A14-7 ................... . Appendix 15 Commonly used abbreviations in meteorological messages .................. A151 . Appendix 16 Criteria for reporting meteorological and related parameters in automated air-reports 1. Wind direction ....................... 2. Wind speed .......................... 3 . Wind quality flag ..................... 4 . Temperature ......................... 5. Turbulence .......................... 6 . Humidity............................ . Appendix 13 An operational wind shear and inversion warning system for Helsinki-Vantaa airport A13-1 1. The measuring site and airport .......... A13-1 2. System configuration .................. A13-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3. Weather-watch ....................... 4 . Routine warning services and use of mast data ......................... .................... . Appendix 1 Technical specifications for 1 SIGMET and AIRMET messages and special air-reports Page Appendix 17 Notification of WAFC concerning Significant discrepancies 1. Purpose of the report .................. 2. Usefulness of the report for the WAFCs . . 3. Steps to be followed by a meteorological office .............................. 4 . Steps to be followed by a WAFC ........ Attachment to Appendix 17 A161 A16-1 A16-1 A 16-1 A16-1 A16-1 A16-2 .......... A17-1 A17-1 A17-1 A17-1 A17-1 ................ A17-2
  • Chapter 1 METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES FOR AVIATION affect the safety of aircrafi operations are issued by meteorological watch offices (MWOs) (see 1.3). In the specific case of SIGMET information related to tropical cyclones and volcanic ash, specialized advisory information is required to support the preparation of these SIGMET information messages in meteorological watch offices. Tropical cyclone advisory centres (TCACs) and volcanic ash advisory centres (VAACs) (see 1.6 and 1.7) prepare and disseminate such advisory information. 1.1 GENERAL 1.1.I Meteorological services for international aviation are provided by meteorological authorities designated by States. Details of the services to be provided for international aviation are determined by each State in accordance with the provisions of ICAO Annex 3 and with due regard for regional air navigation agreements, which apply to specific areas designated as air navigation regions by ICAO. Each State also establishes a suitable number of meteorological offices, i.e. aerodrome meteorological offices, meteorological watch offices, other offices and aeronautical meteorological stations. Meteorological offices and aeronautical meteorological stations provide information required for operational planning, flight operations, the protection of aeronautical equipment on the ground, and for various other aeronautical uses. The information provided includes observations and reports of actual weather conditions at aerodromes and forecasts dealt with in Chapter 3; it is made available at aerodrome meteorological offices and is disseminated as appropriate to aeronautical users, including operators, flight crew members, air trafic services (ATS) units, search and rescue (SAR) units, airport management and others concerned with the conduct or development of international air navigation. 1.1.4 The responsibility for the provision of meteorological service for international air navigation mentioned in 1.1.I rests with the meteorological authority designated by each State. The meteorological authority may wish to provide the service or may arrange for the provision of the service by other providers on its behalf. 1.1.5 In order to meet the objectives of meteorological service for international air navigation and provide users with the assurance that the service, including the meteorological information provided, comply with the aeronautical requirements, the meteorological authority should establish and implement a properly organized quality system in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000:2000 Series quality assurance standards. The system should be certified by an approved organization. 1.1.2 Forecasts of en-route conditions, except forecasts for low-level flights issued by meteorological offices, are normally prepared by world area forecast centres (WAFCs) (see 1.5 below). This ensures the provision of high quality and uniform forecasts for flight planning and flight operations. It also permits meteorological watch offices to concentrate on keeping watch on weather conditions in their flight information regions (FIRS), and meteorological ofices at aerodromes to concentrate on local aerodrome forecasting, to keep watch over local (aerodrome) conditions and to issue warnings of weather conditions that could adversely affect operations and facilities at the aerodrome (e.g. aerodrome and wind shear warnings). 1.1.6 Properly educated and trained personnel should be employed in the provision of meteorological service for international air navigation. It is, therefore, an important responsibility of the meteorological authority to ensure that widely recognized standards are applied to the qualifications, education and training of all of the personnel involved in the provision of meteorological service for international air navigation. As far as the meteorological personnel are concerned, the requirements of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) should be applied. 1.1.3 SIGMET and AIRMET information concerning the occurrence of specified en-route phenomena which may Note I .- The requirements are given in the WMO Publication No. 49, Technical Regulations, Volume I - Note.- Specific guidance on this subject is intended to be issued. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 1-2 General Meteorological Standards and Recommended Practices, Education and Training. Note 2.- It may be noted that education and training in aeronautical meteorology o aeronautical personnel (e.g. f pilots, ATC personnel, flight dispatch officers, etc.), required by the aeronautical authorities concerned, should comply with the relevant ICA0 documents (e.g. Training Manual, Part F-1 - Meteorology for Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots (Doc 7192). 1.2 METEOROLOGICAL OFFICES Meteorological offices serving aviation are normally located at aerodromes, in which case they are called aerodrome meteorological offices. In addition to maintaining a continuous survey of meteorological conditions over the aerodrome(s) under their responsibility, preparing forecasts of local meteorological conditions, aerodrome warnings and wind shear warnings, these offices also provide bnefing, consultation and flight documentation or other meteorological information, display weather charts, reports, forecasts, meteorological satellite images and information derived from ground-based weather radar (radar network). Much of the information is obtained from WAFCs or from other meteorological offices (which may be located in a different country). Furthermore, meteorological ofices supply meteorological information to aeronautical users and exchange meteorological information with other meteorological offices. This also includes the exchange of operational meteorological (OPMET) data required by regional air navigation agreement. In addition, where necessary, meteorological offices supply the information regarding pre-emption activity, volcanic ash eruptions or the presence of volcanic ash in the atmosphere to their associated air traffic services (ATS) units, the aeronautical information services (AIS) units and the meteorological watch ofices (MWO) concerned, as agreed between the ATS, AIS and meteorological authorities concerned. However, not all aerodromes have a meteorological office and for such aerodromes the national aeronautical information publications (AIPs) indicate the name and location of the meteorological office designated to supply meteorological information concerning the aerodrome to operators, ATS units and others concerned. 1.3 METEOROLOGICAL WATCH OFFICES 1.3.1 States accepting responsibility for an FIR have to either designate a meteorological watch office (MWO) to serve that FIR or delegate the responsibility to another MWO. The MWOs so designated are listed in the relevant air navigation plans to indicate the overall integrity of the plan. They maintain a continuous watch over meteorological conditions affecting the flight operations within their areas of responsibility, issue information on the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified hazardous enroute weather conditions which may affect the safety of aircraft and low-level aircraft opera?ions (SIGMET and AIRMET information, respectively) and supply this and other weather information to their associated ATS units, usually a flight information centre (FIC) or an area control centre (ACC). In addition, MWOs exchange SIGMET information issued by other MWOs as required by regional air navigation agreement. The AIRMET information issued is transmitted to MWOs and meteorological offices in adja) cent FIRS (for details see Chapter 4. In preparing SIGMET and AIRMET information, MWOs normally make use of special air-reports, satellite and radar data and, to the extent decided by the meteorological authority, forecasts obtained from WAFCs. 1.3.2 MWOs also supply the information received on pre-emption volcanic activity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, for which a SIGMET information has not already been issued, to their associated ACCsíFICs, and in accordance with regional air navigation agreement, to the VAACs concerned. It is also the responsibility of MWOs to supply information received concerning an accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere within the area of their responsibility to their associated ACC(s)/ FIC(s) and to the relevant AIS units, as agreed by the ATS, AIS and the meteorological authorities concerned. This information is usually obtained from the WMO regional specialized meteorological centre (RSMC) which specializes in the provision of computer generated transport model products for radiological environmental emergency response. 1.4 METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS 1.4.1 The actual weather observations at aerodromes and offshore structures are made by aeronautical meteorelogical stations which are situated at most of those facilities. Aeronautical meteorological stations may also be established at other points of significance to international air navigation. The specific types of observations and related reports are disseminated either locally, or to other aerodromes, as required, in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • I-3 Chapter i. Meteorological Services for Aviation 1.4.2 In the areas prone to volcanic eruptions, aeronautical meteorological stations make observations regarding volcanic activity and volcanic eruptions. These observations form the basis for the issuance of volcanic activity reports. Details on the content and dissemination of such reports are given in 2.12. 1.5 WORLD AREA FORECAST CENTRES (WAFCs) 1.5.1 World area forecast centres (WAFCs) are components of the world area forecast system (WAFS), which is designed to primarily supply meteorological offices with forecasts of en-route meteorological conditions (i.e. forecasts of upper-air data and significant weather forecasts) suitable, as far as practicable, for direct use by operators, flight crew members, ATS units and other aeronautical users. Forecasts of global upper winds, upper-air temperatures, tropopause heights, maximum winds and humidity data in the binary GRiB code form for direct input into meteorological andor flight planning computers are also supplied by this system. In the near future, significant weather forecasts will be prepared by WAFCs in binary data format using WMO BUFR code form. B --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1.5.2 The WAFS consists of two WAFCs. The WAFCs issue global forecasts of upper winds, temperatures, tropopause heights, maximum winds and humidity, as well as forecasts of significant weather phenomena, in digital and/or pictorial form. WAFCs also issue amendments to these forecasts in abbreviated plain language in accordance with specified criteria. Note.- Further information on the WAFS and its evolution is given in Appendix i. MWOs, providers of international operational meteorological (OPMET) databanks established by regional agreement, providers of the (AFS) satellite distribution systems and, as necessary, other TCACs with advisory information regarding the position of a tropical cyclone centre, its forecast direction and speed of movement, central pressure and maximum surface wind near the cyclone centre. The advisory information is to be used by MWOs in support of the issuance of SIGMET information for tropical cyclones and an outlook, should be included in these SIGMET. 1.7 VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY CENTRES (VAACS) 1.7.1 VAACs are meteorological centres designated by regional air navigation agreement on advice from WMO. They monitor relevant satellite data to detect volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Subsequently, VAACs run volcanic ash numerical trajectory dispersion models to forecast the movement of a volcanic ash cloud. As a result, the VAACs provide, as required, MWOs, ACCs, FICs, NOTAM offices, WAFCs, providers of international OPMET databanks established by regional air navigation agreement, providers of AFS satellite distribution systems, and other VAACs, with advisory information regarding the lateral and vertical extent and forecast movement of volcanic ash in the atmosphere following volcanic eruptions. The advisory information is to be used by MWOs in support of the issuance of SIGMET information on volcanic ash clouds and an outlook should be included in these SIGMET. The information is also made available, through the aeronautical fixed telecommunication network (AFTN), to aeronautical users. 1.6 TROPICAL CYCLONE ADVISORY CENTRES (TCACs) 1.7.2 VAACs form part of the ICAO International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW). The international arrangements set up within the IAVW are aimed at monitoring volcanic ash in the atmosphere and providing warnings to aircraft of volcanic ash and associated volcanic activity. TCACs are meteorological centres designated by regional air navigation agreement on advice from WMO. They monitor the development of tropical cyclones in their areas of responsibility, using geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data and other meteorological information. Based on these input data and information, TCACs provide Note.- Detailed information on the IAVWcan be found in the Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds (Doc 9691) and in the Handbook on the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) Operational Procedures and Contact List (Doc 9766) and also on the ICAO website. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 2 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS 2.1 GENERAL depending on regional air navigation agreements. When required as a result of specified operationally significant changes in weather conditions, special observations and reports are made whenever such changes occur between routine observations (see 2.4 and 2.5). 2.1.1 Observations of meteorological conditions are made by means of instruments and visual estimation and are used for landing and take-off, en-route navigation and flight performance, and as a basis for forecasting. Those observations used primarily for aircraft operations are called “operational meteorological (OPMET) data” while those used primarily for forecasting purposes are considered to be “basic meteorological data”. Some observations are used for both purposes. OPMET data include aerodrome observations, landing forecasts, aerodrome forecasts, SIGMET information and AIRMET information. Basic meteorological data include synoptic surface and upper air observations, satellite information, weather radar data and aircraft observations. OPMET data are described in detail below. 2.2.2 Observational data are combined into a report for dissemination at the local aerodrome or beyond (see Examples 2-1 and 2-2). Depending on their use, the reports are presented in two forms, i.e. as local reports in abbreviated plain language intended for dissemination and use at the aerodrome of ongin or as reports in the METAR and SPECI code forms (METARs and SPECIs), prescribed by WMO intended for the dissemination and use beyond the aerodrome of origin. 2.2.3 The need to provide aeronautical users with the two reports, one for local aerodrome use and one for the use beyond the aerodrome, is to meet operational requirements as follows: 2.1.2 At many locations, observations are made by use of automatic observing equipment. The equipment normally forms part of an integrated automatic or semiautomatic system, with displays at local aeronautical meteorological station(s), meteorological office(s), briefing facilities and ATS units. This automatic observing equipment provides for the manual insertion of weather elements which the equipment is not capable of observing. - local reports for aircraft about to land or take off including requirements for ATIS broadcasts and D-ATIS transmissions; and - METARsISPECIs for flight planning and en-route flight information service purposes, including requirements for VOLMET broadcasts and D-VOLMET transmissions. Note.- it should be noted that Human Factors prinf ciples should be observed in the design o these systems as well as of other systems and equipment used in the provision of meteorological service to international air navigation. Guidance material on the matter is given in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683). The information in both reports, therefore, differs slightly to fully reflect the respective operational requirements. Technical specifications for local routine reports, local special reports and reports in the METAR and SPECI code forms are reproduced in Appendix 2, including an extensive set of detailed examples relating to individual portions and groups in the reports. The appendix also contains technical specifications concerning trend-type landing forecasts, which are often attached to local reports and reports in the METAWSPECI code forms. These forecasts are dealt with in 3.6. 2.2 AERODROME OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS 2.2.1 At aerodromes, routine observations are normally made and reported at hourly or half-hourly intervals 2-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorolozical Practice 2-2 Example 2-1. Routine reports in abbreviated plain language a) Local routine reports disseminated locally at the aerodrome: MET REPORT YUDO* 2216302 WIND 240118KMH VIS 600M R W 1 2 RVR 1000M FG MOD DZ CLD SCT 300M OVC 600M T I 7 DP16 QNH 1018HPA b) Routine report in the METAR code form disseminated beyond the aerodrome: METAR YUDO’221630Z 24015KMH 0600 R12/1000U FG DZ SCT O100 OVC020 17/16 QI018 Meaning of both reporis: Local routine report or routine report in the METAR code form for Donlon/lnternational* issued on the 22nd of the month at 1630 UTC; surface wind direction 240 degrees; wind speed 18 or 15 kilometres per hour (averaged over 2 or 10 minutes, respectively); visibility 600 metres; runway visual range representative of the touchdown zone for runway 12 is 1 O00 metres (averaged over 1 or 10 minutes, respectively), (only for reports disseminated beyond aerodrome: the runway visual range values have shown a distinct upward tendency during previous 10 minutes); fog and moderate drizzle; scattered cloud at 300 metres, overcast at 600 metres; air temperature 17 degrees Celsius; dew-point temperature 16 degrees Celsius; QNH I018 hectopascals. * Fictitious location 2.3 ROUTINE REPORTS --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.3.1 Paragraphs 2.3.3 to 2.3.14 deal with the content and format of routine reports; both those in abbreviated plain language disseminated locally (referred to below as local routine reports or MET REPORTS) and those disseminated beyond the aerodrome of origin (referred to as reports in the METAR code form or METARs). Local -special reports (referred to as SPECIALS) and special reports disseminated beyond the aerodrome of their origin (referred to as reports in the SPECI code form or SPECIs) are dealt with in 2.4 and 2.5, respectively. Practices relating to the transmission of local reports by local ATS units to aircraft taking off and landing are dealt with in 2.6. 2.3.2 The METAR and SPECI code forms were developed by WMO on the basis of aeronautical requirements established by ICAO. These codes were developed using the ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services ICAO Abbreviations and Codes (PANS-ABC, Doc 8400). In view of this, the METARs and SPECIs are easily readable. Note 1.- A tabulation developed by WMO to assist aeronautical personnel in the decoding of METAR and SPECI messages is reproduced in Appendix 3. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Note 2.- All details relating to the METAR and SPECI code forms are contained in WMO Publication No. 306 Manual on Codes, Volume I, Part A - Alphanumerical Codes. f Note 3.- Units o measurement difer in some States depending on national practices. In this manual, all units used are those prescribed by ICAO Annex 5 - Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground Operations as primary or alternative units. As regar& elementsfor which either of these units is permitted, numerical criteria are given for both units, and examples of reports are given in one or the other unit. Note 4.- The approved ICAO abbreviations which are to be used in “abbreviatedplain language” are given in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services - ICAO Abbreviations and Codes (Doc 8400). Note 5.- Details concerning regional diferences in aerodrome reports and concerning requirements for the exchange of these reports between meteorological offices can be found in the ICAO air navigation plan publications for the various ICAO regions. Note 6.- Selected criteria applicable to meteorological information referred to in 2.3.7 to 2.3.15 for inclusion in aerodrome reports are given in tabularform in Appendix 4. Not for Resale
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-3 2.3.4 m p e of report (MET REPORT) - MET REPORT (METAR) - METAR 2.3.5 Aerodrome identification (YUDO) in both reports ICA0 four-letter location indicator for the aerodrome for which the report is made. (The full name of the aerodrome is used in the transmission to aircraft.) Note.- The indicators are prescribed in Doc 7910 Location Indicators. 2.3.6 Time (22 16302) in both reports Date and time of observation: day of the month and time in hours and minutes, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). correspondingly reduced. A marked discontinuity occurs when there is an abrupt and sustained change in wind direction of 30” or more, with a wind speed of 20 lan/h (10 kt) before or after the change, or a change in wind speed of 20 kmh (i0 M) or more, lasting at least 2 minutes. The provision in 2.3.7.1 requires that the wind direction be reported by three figures, e.g. 030 or 240. The wind speed is reported by two (or three) figures, e.g. 05 or 15, supplemented by the units used (KMH or KT). (For further details, see 2.3.8.3 and 2.3.8.5). Calm conditions are reported as 00000. 2.3.8 Variations of wind (Table 2-1) 2.3.8.1 Variations of wind direction and speed given in meteorological reports always refer to the 10-minute period preceding the observation. When the wind is gusty, with variations from the mean wind speed (gusts) exceeding 20 kmh (10 kt), speed variations are indicated. 2.3.8.2 In local reports, when the wind direction varies by 60 degrees or more and when: 2.3.7 Wind directionlspeed (WIND 240/18KMH) - MET REPORT (24015KMH) - METAR a) the mean speed exceeds 6 km/h (3 kt) and the wind direction varies by less than 180 degrees: Note I.- Wind direction reported to aircraft for landing or take-off purposes must be converted into degrees magnetic. This conversion is normaliy carried out by the ATS unit concerned. Note 2.- For wind speed, either kilometres per hour or knots may be used. report the two extreme directions between which the wind has varied in degrees, after indication of the mean wind direction and speed, for example “WIND 010/9KT VRB BTN 3501 AND 050r’ (mean surface wind direction 10 degrees; wind speed 9 knots; wind direction variable between 350 degrees and 050 degrees); --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.3.7.1 Direction (true) from which surface wind is blowing, in degrees rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees. The unit used for wind speed should be indicated both in local reports and METARs. In local reports, the term “CALM’ is used when a wind speed of less than 2 kmh (1 kt) is observed. Wind speed of 200 km/h (100 kt) or more is to be indicated as ABV199KMH or ABV99KT. b) the wind direction vanes by 180 degrees or more or where it is not possible to report a mean wind direction (e.g. when a thunderstorm passes over the aerodrome): 2.3.7.2 In reports disseminated locally at the aerodrome, surface wind should be based on an averaging period of 2 minutes. indicate the wind direction by the term “variable” (VRB) followed by the mean speed, with no indication of the mean wind direction, e.g. “WIND VRB 6KMH” or “VRB 3KT”. 2.3.7.3 In reports in the METAR code form, surface wind should be based on an averaging period of 10 minutes, except that when the 10-minute period includes a marked discontinuity in the wind direction andor speed, only data occurring since the discontinuity should be used for obtaining mean values, and the time interval should be 2.3.8.3 In reports in the METAR code form disseminated beyond the aerodrome, the variations from the mean wind direction are reported when the total variation is 60 degrees or more but less than 180 degrees and mean speed t. is above 6 kmh (3 k) In these conditions, mean wind direction and speed data (10-minute means) are followed Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 2-4 Table 2-1. Reporting procedures related to directional variations of wind. ddd = mean wind direction, dddl and ddd, = extreme wind directions, = Iddd, - ddd,l, W = mean wind speed. Averaging period applied indicated as a subscript. V = indicators of variability. Directional variations during past 1O minutes A Type of repori A s 60" ddd"J2 min Report in the METAR code form dddWlo min W 5 6 kmlh (3 kt) [but W > 2 kmlh (1 kt)]' W > 6 kmlh (3 kt) A Report disseminated locally at the aerodrome 60" 180" ddd"f2 min VRB BTN dddjl AND ddd2l A ? 180" A 180" ddd"N2 min VRB BTN dddll AND ddd2NV2 min VRBNV2 A 2 180' VRBNV2 dddW10 min by extreme direction values (reported clockwise) in a separate group. VRB is reported when the mean wind speed t is 6 km/h (3 k ) and less. A variable wind at higher wind speeds is reported when the variation in wind direction is 180 degrees and more or when it is impossible to determine a mean wind direction (e.g. when a thunderstorm passes over the aerodrome). 2.3.8.4 In reports disseminated locally at the aerodrome, speed variations are given as the maximum and minimum values of the wind speed attained, after indication of the mean wind direction and speed, in the form "WIND 180/40KMH MAX 70 MNM 20" or "WIND 180/ 20KT MAX 35 MNM 10". See Table 2-2. VRBW,, min VRBW,, VRBW,, respectively. Positions of wind sensors along individual runways should be indicated together with the reported wind data by the sections of the runway for which the wind data are to be representative. When wind observations are available from more than one runway in use, the indication of the relevant runway should also be attached to the reported wind data. Surface wind observations included in the METAñs should be representative of the whole runway complex at the aerodrome. 2.3.9 Visibility (VIS 600M) - MET REPORT (0600) - METAR 2.3.8.5 In reports in the METAR code form, speed variations shall be given as the maximum value attained, after indication of the mean wind direction and speed and preceded by the letter indicator G (for gusts); the minimum wind speed is never included (see Table 2-2). For wind speed of 100 units or more, the exact number of wind speed units is reported (e.g. 120KMH). When a wind speed is 200 km/h (100 kt) or more, the wind speed is reported as P199KMH (P99KT). Note 1. - Ksibility may be observed by a human observer or assessed by instrumented means. Thefollowing definition for Visibilityfor aeronautical purposes applies: 2.3.8.6 Wind observations in local reports used for arriving or departing aircraft should be representative for the touchdown zone and the conditions along the runway, b) the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of I O00 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater 0 8 a) the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognized when observed against a bright background; Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- dddlVddd:
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-5 A > 20 krnlh (10 kt) A 5 20 kmlh (10 kt) I Report disseminated locally at the aerodrome I dddNV2 min I dddNV2 min MAX Wm, MNM W m n m 1 Report in the METAR code form Note 2.- The two distances have different values in air b of a given extinction coefticient, and the latter ( ) varies with the background illumination. The former (a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR). Note 3.- Guidance on the conversion of instrumented readings into visibiliv is given in Annex 3, Attachment D. Note 4.- Transmissometers and/or forward-scatters metres should be used as sensors in instrumented systems for the assessment of visibiliv. 2.3.9.4 In reports in the METAR code form, visibility observations should be representative of the aerodrome and its immediate vicinity. In such observations, special attention should be paid to significant directional variations in visibility. When the visibility is not the same in different directions, the rules given in Table 2-3 apply. The reporting steps given in 2.3.9.1 apply also to the visibility values included in these reports. Visibility observations in metres are reported by four figures, e.g. 0200, 1500, 4000. When visibility is 10 km and above and the conditions for the use of CAVOK do not apply, visibility is indicated as 9999. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.3.9.1 Visibility is reported in steps of 50 m, e.g. VIS 350M, when visibility i s less than 800 m; steps of 100 m, e.g. VIS 600M, when visibility is 800 m or more, but less than 5 km, in steps of one kilometre, e.g. VIS 6KM, when visibility is 5 km or more, but less than 10 km. When visibility is 10 km or more, it is given as VIS lOKM, except when the conditions for the use of CAVOK apply. Note.- For the definition of CAVOK, see the Note under 2.3.12.2. Note.- The conditions governing the use of CAVOK are summarized in the Note under 2.3.12.2 below. b) in reports for arriving aircraft, the visibility observations should be representative of the approach and landing area. 2.3.10.1 RVR should be reported whenever visibility or runway visual range (RVR) is less than 1 500m, particularly at aerodromes having precision approach runways or runways used for take-off with high-intensity edge lights andíor centre line lights, including the aerodromes with the runways intended for Category I approach and landing operations. RVR is reported at all runways intended for Category II or III instrument approach and landing operations. Steps of 25 m are used for RVR below 400 m, steps of 50 m for RVR between 400 m and 800 m and steps of 100 m for RVR above 800 m. RVR values which do not fit the reporting scale are rounded down to the next lower step in the scale. 2.3.9.3 In local reports, when the visibility is observed for more than one runway in use and at more than one location along the runway, the identification of relevant runways and locations along the runways should be attached to the reported values of visibility. 2.3.10.2 In reports disseminated locally at the aerodrome, 1-minute mean values are reported. The RVR is reported in metres with an indication of the unit, and the runway(s) to which the values refer, e.g. RVR RWY 20 500M RVR RWY 26 800M (RVR runway 20: 500 m, RVR 2.3.9.2 drome: In reports disseminated locally at the aero- a) in reports for departing aircraft, the visibility observations should be representative of the takeoff and climb-out area; and Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2.3.10 Runway visual range (RVR RWY 12 1000M) - MET REPORT (Rl2/lOOOU) - METAR Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 2-6 Table 2-3. Reporting procedures related to visibility - to be applied in reports in the METAR code form Conditions Action VIS not the same in different directions, no marked directional variations Report the lowest VIS VIS in one or more directions is more than 50 per cent above the lowest VIS and the minimum value 5 O00 m Report the lowest VIS together with its general direction from the meteorological station. Example: “1200s” Lowest VIS observed in more than one direction Report the lowest VIS in the most operationally significant direction. Example: “0500” Lowest VIS in one direction <I m, and VIS in another 500 direction >5 O00 m Report both VIS values and directions Example: “1100E 7000W If the highest visibility i observed in more than one s direction, the most operationally significant direction should be reported VIS fluctuating rapidly; directional variations cannot be given Report lowest VIS without indication of direction Note.- Direction is to be reported by reference to one of the 8 points of the compass. runway 26: 800 m). If RVR is observed for more than one position along a runway, the value representative of the touchdown zone is given first, followed by the locations representative of the mid-point and stop-end, e.g. RVR RWY 16 TDZ 600M MID 500M END: 400M (RVR runway 16 at the touchdown zone: 600 m, at the mid-point: 500 m and at the stop-end: 400 m). When RVR is above the maximum value that can be determined by the system in use, it is reported in the form RVR ABV 1200M where 1 200 m is the maximum value for that system. When RVR is below the minimum value that can be determined by the system in use, it is reported in the form RVR BLW 150M, where 150 m is the minimum value for that system. For assessment of RVR, 50 m is considered the lower limit and 1 500 m the upper limit. Outside these limits, reports merely indicate that the RVR is less than 50 m or more than 1 500 m, in the form RVR BLW SOM (RVR below 50metres) or RVR ABV 1500M (RVR above 1 500 metres), respectively. 2.3.10.3 The provisions given in 2.3.10.1 also apply to reports in the METAR code form. In these reports, RVR values in metres are reported by four figures preceded by the letter indicator R and the runway designator DRDR plus / (e.g. R12/0500, R26í1200). Additional reporting pro- . cedures are given in Table 2-4. Note 1.- A n RVR observation is the best possible f f assessment o the range over which the pilot o an aircraft on the centre line o a runway can see the runway suface f markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifjting ifs centre line. For this assessment, a height o approxif mately 5 m (15 ft) is regarded as corresponding to the average eye level of a pilot in an aircraft. This assessment f may be based on readings o transmissometers or fonvardscatter meters or may be determined by an observer counting markers, runway lights or, in some cases, specially f installed lights on the side o the runway. Note 2.- Detailed information on RVR observing and reporting is contained in the ICA0 Manual of Runway Visual Range Observing and Reporting Practices (Doc 9328). 2.3.11 Present weather (FG MOD DZ) - MET REPORT (FZ DZ) - METAR 2.3.11.1 Present weather phenomena are reported in terms of type and characteristics and are qualified with respect to intensity or proximity to the aerodrome, as appropriate. 2.3.11.2 The types of present weather phenomena of significance to aviation, their respective abbreviations and relevant criteria for their reporting are given in Table 2-5. 2.3.1 1.3 The characteristics of the present weather phenomena that are reported, as necessary, and their respective abbreviations are given in Table 2-6. 2.3.11.4 The relevant intensity and, as appropriate, the proximity to the aerodrome of the reported present weather phenomena are indicated in Table 2-7. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2- 7 Table 2-4. Additional reporting procedures related to RVR data in reports in the METAR code form Reporting procedure More than one runway in use Include all such runways up to a maximum of four. RVR values from parallel runways can be included in a report by attaching "L, C, R letter (L = left, C = centre, R = right to the runway designator D,D,) Section of the runway Only the value representative of the touchdown zone is given, without indication of position. RVR information determined using instruments Report of the mean value during the IO-minute period immediately preceding the observation When RVR is greater than the maximum value which can be determined by the system in use Report the highest value which can be determined by the system preceded by the letter indicator P When RVR is below the minimum value which can be determined by the system in use Report the lowest value which can be determined by the system preceded by the letter indicator M When RVR is more than 1 500 m (less than 50 m) Report 1500 preceded by the letter indicator P, (0050 preceded by the letter indicator M) RVR variations in time If the I-minute extreme RVR values during the IO-minute period immediately preceding the observation vary from the mean value by more than 50 m or more than 20 per cent of the mean value, whichever is greater, the I-minute mean minimum and the I-minute mean maximum values should be reported instead of the IO-minute mean value, in the form "R09/0350V0600". (The letter indicator V is included between the maximum and minimum values.) Discontinuities in RVR values If the IO-minute period immediately preceding the observation includes a marked discontinuity in RVR values, only those values occurring after the discontinuity should be used to obtain mean values and variations. A marked discontinuity occurs when there is an abrupt and sustained change in RVR, lasting at least 2 minutes, which reaches or passes the criteria for the issuance of selected special reports given in 2.5.1 9. Tendency in RVR values --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Condition If the RVR values during the IO-minute period have shown a distinct tendency, such that the mean value during the first 5 minutes varies by 100 m or more from the mean value during the second 5 minutes of the period, this should be indicated as follows: a) when the variation of the RVR values shows an upward or downward tendency, this should be indicated by the indicator "U" or "D", respectively, in the form "R12/1000U", appended to relevant RVR values; b) when actual fluctuations during the 1O-minute period indicate no distinct tendency, this should be reported using the indicator "N"; c) when indications of tendency are not available, none of the foregoing indicators should be included. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 2-8 ~~ Table 2-5. Types of present weather phenomena Type Phenomenon Precipitation Drizzle DZ Rain RA Snow SN Snow grains SG Ice pellets PL Ice crystals (very small ice crystals in suspension, also known as diamond dust) IC Reported only when associated visibility is 5 O00 m or less Hail GR Small hail andlor snow pellets GS Reported when diameter of largest hailstones is 5 mm or more Reported when diameter of largest hailstones is less than 5 rnm Fog FG Mist BR Obscurations (lithometeors) Sand Dust (widespread) Haze Smoke Volcanic ash SA DU HZ FU VA Other phenomena Dustlsand whirls (dust devils) Squall Funnel cloud Duststorm Sandstorm PO Obscurations (hydrometeors) 1. Abbreviation' SQ FC DS ss Used in both local reports and reports in the METAR code form. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Remarks Reported when visibility is less than 1 O00 rn, except when qualified by "MI", "BC", "PR" or "VC" Reported when visibility is at least 1 O00 m but not more than 5 O00 m Used only when the obscuration consists predominantly of lithometeros and the visibility is 5 O00 rn or less except "SA" when and volcanic ash qualified by "DR" Tornado or waterspout
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-9 Table 2-6. Characteristics of present weather phenomena Abbreviation' Remarks Thunderstorm TS Used to report a thunderstorm with rain "TSRA", snow 'TSSN", ice pellets "TSPE", hail "TSGR" or small hail andlor snow pellets "TSGS" or combinations thereof, for example, "TSRASN". When thunder is heard during the IO-minute period preceding the time of observation but not precipitation is observed at the aerodrome, the abbreviation "TS" should be used without qualification. Shower SH Used to report showers of rain "SHRA", snow "SHSN", ice pellets 'SHPE", hail "SHGR", small hail andior snow pellets 'SHGS", or cornbinations thereof, for example, 'SHRASN". Showers observed in the vicinity of the aerodrome should be reported as "VC SH" without qualification regarding type or intensity of precipitation. Freezing FZ Supercooled water droplets or precipitation, used only with FG, DZ and RA. Blowing BL Used to report DU, SA or SN (including snowstorm) raised by the wind to a height of 2 m (6 ft) or more above the ground; in the case of snow, also used to report snow falling from a cloud and mixed with snow raised by the wind from the ground. Low drifting DR Used with SA, DU or SN raised by the wind to less than 2 m (6 ft) above ground level. Shallow MI Less than 2 m (6 ft) above ground level. Patches BC Fog patches randomly covering the aerodrome. Partial PR A substantial part of the aerodrome covered by fog while the remainder is clear. 1. Used in both local reports and reports in the METAR code form. Table 2-7. Intensity/proximity of present weather phenomena Local abbreviated plain language reports Reporis in the METAR code form Light FBL - Moderate MOD (no indication) Heavy used only with: precipitation; SH and TS (in these cases,intensity refers to precipitation); BLSN; BLSA; BLDU; DS; SS; and PO, FC (in these cases, HVY means well developed) HVY + Vicinity not at the aerodrome but not further away than approximately 8 km from the aerodrome perimeter and used only with DS, SS, FG, FC. SH, PO, BLDU, BLSA, BLSN and TS when not reported under the characteristics of the present weather phenomena vc vc Intensity/pmximity Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Characteristics
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 2-10 an indication of intensity or proximity, as appropriate, should be reported first; this is followed by both the characteristics and the type of weather phenomena in the form “HVY TSRA” or “VC FG”; where two different types of weather are observed, they should be reported in two separate groups, in the form “HVY DZ F G or “FBL DZ VC FG’, where the intensity or proximity indicator refers to the weather phenomenon which follows the indicator; and different types of precipitation occurring at the time of observation should be reported as one single group with the dominant type of precipitation reported first, preceded by only one intensity qualifier which refers to the intensity of the total precipitation, in the form “HVY TSRASN’ or “FBL SNRA FG”. - the lowest layer or mass, regardless of amount, reported as FEW, SCT, BKN or OVC, as appropriate; - the next layer or mass, covering more than 2/8*, reported as SCT, BKN or OVC, as appropriate; - the next higher layer or mass, covering more than 4/8*, reported as BKN or OVC as appropriate; and - cumulonimbus (CB) andor towering cumulus (TCU) clouds, whenever observed and not reported in previous parts of the report. Note.- Towering cumulus (TCU) is used to indicate f cumulus congestus clouds o great vertical extent. 2.3.12.2 when an individual layer (mass) of cloud is composed of cumulonimbus and towering cumulus clouds with a common cloud base, the type of cloud is reported as cumulonimbus only. if no clouds are present, and there is no restriction on vertical visibility and the term CAVOK (see the Note below) is not appropriate, the term SKC (sky clear) is used. Note.- The term CAVOK2 is used when the following visibility/cloudweather conditions occur simultaneously: - Visibiliîy: I O km or more. - Cloud: No cloud below 1 500 m (5 OOOfi) or below 2.3.11.6 When local reports are used for departing and arriving aircraft, the present weather observations should be representative of the take-ofüclimb-out areas or the approach/landing areas, respectively. Observations of present weather in the METAR reports should be representative of the aerodrome and its vicinity. 2.3.12 Cloud (CLD SCT 300M OVC 600M) - MET REPORT (SCTOlO OVC020) - METAR 2.3.12.1 Cloud amount is given using the abbreviations FEW (1-2 oktas)’, SCT (3-4 oktas)’, BKN (5-7 oktas)’ or OVC (8 oktas)’. The type of cloud is identified only for cumulonimbus and towering cumulus clouds when observed at or near the aerodrome. Cloud amount, cloud type (CB and TCU only) and height of cloud base above aerodrome elevation are reported in that order and in the sequence shown: 1. Eighths of the sky. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS the highest minimum sector altitude, whichever i s greatec and no cumulonimbus. - Weather: No weather o signifzcance to aviation as f given in Tables 2-5 and 2-6. 2.3.12.3 If no clouds of operational significance are present, i.e. below 1 500 m (5 O00 fi) or below the highest minimum sector altitude, whichever is greater, no cumulonimbus occur and no restriction on vertical visibility exists and the abbreviation “CAVOK” and “SKC“ cannot be used, the abbreviation “NSC” (i.e. nil significant clouds) should be used. 2.3.12.4 In local reports, the height of the base of cloud is reported in steps of 30 m (100 fi) up to 3 O00 m (10 O00 fi), together with the units used, in the’ form “300M’ or “lOOOFT”, and in steps of 300 m (1 O00 ft) above 3 O00 m (10 O00 fi). When the cloud base is diffuse or ragged or fluctuating rapidly, the minimum height of the 2. Pronounced KAV-ûH-KAY. Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.3.11.5 One or more (up to a maximum of three) of the present weather abbreviations given in Tables 2-5 and 2-6 should be used, as necessary, together with an indication, where appropriate, of the characteristics and intensity or proximity to the aerodrome, so as to convey a complete description of the present weather at or near the aerodrome of significance to flight operations. The following general rules apply:
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-11 cloud, or cloud fragments, is given, followed by the relevant abbreviation DIF (diffuse) or RAG (ragged) or FLUC (fluctuating). Note 1.- In reports for arriving aircrafi, where a precision approach runway has a touchdown elevation of 15 m (50 fi) or more below the aerodrome elevation, arrangements are normally made for cloud height to be given with reference to the touchdown elevation. Note 2.- In reports from offshore structures, the height of the base of cloud is given above mean sea level. 2.3.12.5 The provisions given in 2.3.12.1 and 2.3.12.2 apply also to cloud observations reported in the METAR messages where relevant abbreviations for cloud amount (i.e. FEW, SCT, BKN or OVC) are followed by three figures indicating the reported cloud height in steps of 30 m (100 fi) (e.g. 005, 020) up to 3 O00 m (10 O00 fi) and in steps of 300 m (1 O00 ft) above 3 O00 m (1O O00 ft). Up to three groups plus an additional group reporting CB andlor TCU could be included in one report. The note under 2.3.12.2 applies to the use of CAVOK. 2.3.12.6 When the sky is obscured and observations of vertical visibility are available at the aerodrome, the abbreviations VER VIS (vertical visibility) are used, followed by the value of the vertical visibility and the units used. The reporting steps for vertical visibility are the same as those used for reporting the height of the cloud base. In the METAR messages, the vertical visibility value is reported in the same manner as the cloud height described in 2.3.12.4, preceded by the letter indicator VV. Wll/ indicates the absence of vertical visibility data. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.3.12.7 Cloud observations included in local reports should be representative of the approach area or in the case of precision approach runways, of the middle marker site of the instrument landing system. Cloud observations in reports in the METAR code form should be representative of the aerodrome and its vicinity. higher whole degree Celsius, for example, +2.5"C is rounded off to +3"C and -2.5"C is rounded off to -2°C. In local reports, the air temperature is identified by T and the dew point temperature by DP in the form TI7 DP16 (temperature 17, dew point 16). For a temperature below Odegrees Celsius, the value is preceded by MS (minus), e.g. TMSS. 2.3.13.2 Air temperature and dew point temperature values are reported in reports in the METAR code form in the form of T'T'/Td'Td'. Temperatures below 0°C are preceded by M meaning minus. In addition, air temperatures and dew point temperatures of -9°C to +9"C are preceded by O, e.g 02MOS. 2.3.13.3 Observations of air temperature and dew point temperature should be representative of the whole runway complex. 2.3.14 Pressure values (QNH 1O 18 HPA) - MET REPORT (QlOlS) - METAR 2.3.14.1 In local reports, pressure values are given in hectopascals and are identified by QNH (altimeter showing aerodrome elevation when the aircraft is on the ground and QNH is set on the altimeter sub-scale) or QFE (altimeter showing zero elevation when the aircraft is on the ground and QFE is set on the altimeter sub-scale). QFE is normally used only at the aerodrome where it is provided on request or, by local agreement, on a regular basis, in addition to QNH. Pressure values are rounded down to the nearest lower whole hectopascal, e.g. QNH 1011.4 is reported as QNH lO11HPA and QFE 995.6 is reported as QFE 0995HPA or QFE RWY 18 0995HPA (where the number of the runway is indicated). Note.- When a QFE altimeter setting is provided, it corresponds to the aerodrome elevation except for: 2.3.12.8 Where local reports include cloud base data from more than one runway in use, the runway indication should be attached to the reported cloud base data. a) non-precision approach runways, ifthe threshold is 2 m (6.63)or more below the aerodrome elevation; and b) precision approach runways, 2.3.13 Air temperatureldew point temperature (T17 DP16) - MET REPORT (17/16) - METAR in which cases, the QFE corresponds to the relevant runway threshold elevation. 2.3.13.1 Reported in whole degrees Celsius, with observed values involving 0.5" rounded up to the next Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2.3.14.2 QNH values specified in 2.3.12.1 are presented in METAR messages by four figures (e.g. 0995 or 1011) following the letter indicator Q. Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 2-12 2.3.15 Supplementary information 2.3.15.1 Local reports may also include available supplementary information on significant meteorological conditions, particularly those in the approach or climb-out area and, specifically, the location of cumulonimbus, thunderstorms, presence of wind shear, moderate or severe turbulence, hail, severe squall line, moderate or severe icing, freezing precipitation, severe mountain waves, sandstorm, duststorm and blowing snow or funnel cloud (tomado or waterspout). The abbreviations in Table 2-8 a) should be used in reporting this supplementary information. Also included are any of the weather phenomena listed in Table 2-8 b) or combinations thereof, if observed at the aerodrome within the period since the last issued routine report or last hour, whichever is the shorter, but not at the time of observation (recent weather of significance). Up to a maximum of three groups of the recent weather should be reported. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note.- Observations of supplementary information, in particular the conditions relating to the occurrence of icing, turbulence and, to a large extent, of wind shear, should be derived from aircraft observations during the approach and climb-out phases ofjlights. (For details concerning aircraft observations and air-reports, see Chapter 4.) 2.3.15.2 In reports in the METAR code form, supplementary information includes information on recent weather of operational significance, as given in 2.3.15.1, observed at the aerodrome within the period since the last issued routine report or last hour, whichever is the shorter, but not at the, time of observation. Where local circumstances so warrant, wind shear should be included as necessary. Up to three groups of recent significant weather information selected from the following list may be included in a report using suitable abbreviations from Tables 2-5 and 2-6: - freezing precipitation - moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof) - moderate or heavy blowing snow (including snow- information on recent significant weather is to be added in the form, for example, “REFZRA”. Information on wind shear is added, if necessary, in the form “WS RWY 12” or “WS ALL RWY”. Information on sea-surface temperature and the state of the sea is included in reports from aeronautical meteorological stations established on offshore structures in support of helicopter operations, as determined by regional air navigation agreement. Information on the state of the runway(s) may also appear in these reports in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. The same applies to other information to be added to the METAR messages intended for international use . Note 1.- The “local circumstances” referred to above include, but are not necessarily limited to, wind shear of a non-transitory nature such as might be associated with lowlevel temperature inversions or local topography. Note 2.- Warnings of wind shear in the climb-out and approach paths are detailed in Chapter 4. Note 3.- The state of the sea is specijìed in WMO Publication No. 306, Manual on Codes, Volume I, Code Table 3700. 2.3.16 Landing forecasts A trend forecast is often attached to a local routine report as well as a routine report in the METAR code form; together they constitute a “trend-type” landing forecast, details of which are given in Chapter 3 and Appendix 2. 2.4 LOCAL SPECIAL REPORTS 2.4.1 Local special reports are issued in abbreviated plain language in addition to local routine reports (see 2.3 above) to provide information on significant deteriorations or improvements in aerodrome weather conditions at the aerodrome concerned. They are issued whenever one or more elements of a routine report change in accordance with criteria established by the meteorological authority in consultation with the ATS authority, the operators and others concerned. These criteria include: storm) - duststorm or sandstorm - thunderstorm a) those values which correspond with the operating minima of the operators using the aerodrome; b) those values which satis@ other local requirements of ATS units and of the operators; - funnel cloud (tomado or water spout) - volcanic ash Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS c) an increase in air temperature of 2°C or more from that given in the latest report, or an alternative Not for Resale
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-13 Table 2-8. Supplementary information for inclusion in local routine and special reports a) Significant weather conditions Abbreviations ConditiondDecode CB TS MOD TURB SEV TURB Cumulonimbus Thunderstorm Moderate turbulence Severe turbulence Wind shear Hail Severe squall line Moderate icing Freezing drizzle Freezing rain Severe mountain wave Sandstorm Duststorm Blowing snow Funnel cloud (tornado or waterspout) In the approach In the climb-out In cloud ws GR SEV SQL MOD ICE FZDZ FZRA SEV MTW ss DS BLSN FC IN APPCH IN CLIMB-OUT INC Note.- Additional information may be included using abbreviated plain language. b) Abbreviations and decodes to be used in reporting recent significant weather Abbreviations ConditiondDecode REFZDZ REFZRA REDZ RERA RESN RESG REGR REGS REPL RESHRA RESHSN RESHSG RESHPL RESHGR RESHGS REIC REBLSN RESS REDS RETS REFC REVA Recent freezing drizzle Recent freezing rain Recent drizzle Recent rain Recent snow Recent snow grain Recent hail Recent small hail and/or snow pellets Recent ice pellets Recent rain showers Recent snow showers Recent showers of snow grains Recent showers of ice pellets Recent showers of hail Recent showers of small hail andlor snow pellets Recent ice crystals Recent blowing snow Recent sandstorm Recent duststorm Recent thunderstorm Recent funnel cloud (tornado or waterspout) Recent volcanic ash - --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 2-14 threshold value as agreed upon between the meteorological authority, the appropriate ATS authority and the operators concerned; tent and sequence of elements as local routine reports (2.3.4 to 2.3.15 refer). As with local routine reports, a trend forecast is often appended to the special report (see 2.3.16 above). d) the available supplementary information conceming the occurrence of significant meteorological conditions in the approach and climb-out areas; and e) the criteria given below (2.5.1 refers) for the issuance of special reports in the SPECI code form disseminated beyond the aerodrome (Le. aviation selected special weather reports referred to in the WMO Publication No. 306, Manual on Codes, Volume 1.1, Part A under FM 16-XII SPECI code form). 2.5 SPECIAL REPORTS IN THE SPECI CODE FORM 2.5.1 Special reports in the SPECI code form are issued in accordance with the following criteria: a) when the mean surface wind direction has changed by 60 degrees or more from that given in the latest report, the mean speed before andor after the change being 20 ladh (or 10 kt) or more; Local special reports in respect of RVR, surface wind or some other elements are not normally issued if the local ATS unit(s) has indicators for these elements corresponding to the indicators in the meteorological station, or if changes in RVR are continuously reported to the ATS unit by an observer at the aerodrome. Displays of automated aerodrome meteorological observing stations/systems located at the local ATS units are widely used to meet this requirement. b) when the mean surface wind speed has changed by 20 ladh (or 10 kt) or more from that given in the latest report; c) when the variation from the mean surface wind speed (gusts) has increased by 20 ladh (or 10 kt) or more from that given in the latest report, the mean speed before andor after the change being 30 km/h (or 15 kt) or more; 2.4.2 Local special reports carry the identifier SPECIAL and, as Example 2-2 shows, have the same con- Example 2-2. Special reports a) Local special reports disseminated locally at the aerodrome: SPECIAL YUDO* 151115Z WIND 050/26KT MAX37 MNMIO VIS 1000M RWY12 RVR 1200M HVY TSRA CLD BKN CB 500FT T25 DP 22 QNH 1008HPA b) Special report in the SPECI code form disseminated beyond the aerodrome: SPECI YUDO' 151115Z 05025G37KT 1000NE 6000s R12/1200N +TSRA BKNOOSCB 25/22 QI008 Meaning of both reports: Local special report or special report in the SPECI code form for Donlonllnternational" issued on the 15th of the month at 1115 UTC; surface wind direction 050 degrees; wind speed 26 or 25 knots (averaged over 2 or 10 minutes, respectively) gusting between 1O and 37 knots (for reports disseminated beyond the aerodrome: "gusting to 37 knots"); visibility 1 O00 metres only (only for reports disseminated beyond the aerodrome: visibility lowest to northeast 1 O00 metres, visibility 6 O00 metres to south"); runway visual range representative for the touchdown zone for runway 12, 1 200 metres (averaged over 1 and 10 minutes, respectively), (for reports disseminated beyond the aerodromes: "no distinct tendency detected" in runway visual range values during previous 10 minutes); thunderstorm with heavy rain; broken cumulonimbus cloud at 500 feet; air temperature 25 degrees Celsius; dew point temperature 22 degrees Celsius; QNH 1008 hectopascals. * Fictitious location --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2-15 when the wind changes through values of operational significance. The threshold values should be established by the meteorological authority in consultation with the appropriate ATS authority and operators concerned, taking into account changes in the wind which would: 1) 30 m, 60 m, i50 m or 300 m (100 ft, 200 ft, 500 ft or i O00 ft); 2) 450 m (1 500 fi), in cases where significant numbers of flights are operated in accordance with visual flight rules; when the amount of a cloud layer below 450m (1 500 ft) changes: i) require a change in runway(s) in use; and 2) indicate that the runway tailwind and crosswind components have changed through values representing the main operating limits for typical aircraft operating at the aerodrome. 1) from SKC, FEW or SCT to BKN or OVC; or 2) from BKN or OVC to SKC, FEW or SCT; when the sky is obscured and the vertical visibility is improving and changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or when the sky is obscured and the vertical visibility is deteriorating and passes through one or more of the values below: when the visibility is improving and changes-to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or when the visibility is deteriorating and passes through one or more of the values below: 1) 800 m, 1 500 m or 3 O00 m 2) 5 O00 m, in cases where significant numbers of flights are operated in accordance with visual flight rules; 150 m, 350 m, 600 m or 800 m; when the onset, cessation or change in intensiîy of any of the following weather phenomena or combinations thereof occurs: freezing precipitation freezing fog moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof) low drifting dust, sand or snow blowing dust, sand or snow (including snowstorm) duststorm sandstorm thunderstorm (with or without precipitation) squall funnel cloud (tomado or waterspout). when the height of the base of the lowest cloud layer of BKN or OVC extent is lifting and changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or when the height of the base of the lowest cloud layer of BKN or OVC extent is lowering and passes through one or more of the values below: Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 500 f or i O00 It). t 2.5.2 Special reports in the SPECI code form carry the identifier SPECI and, as Example 2-2 shows, have the same content and sequence of elements as routine reports in the METAR code form (2.3.4 to 2.3.15 refer). As with reports in the METAR code form, a trend forecast is often appended to these reports (2.3.14). 2.5.3 Special reports in the SPECI code form are disseminated beyond the aerodrome of origin to other aerodromes in accordance with the regional air navigation agreement which ensures, inter alia, that the special reports are available for VOLMET broadcasts, for D-VOLMET, .and for individual transmissions to aircraft in flight through ATS units or operators . Note.- Details on requirements for the exchanges between meteorological ofices of special reports in the SPECI code form can be found in the ICAO air navigation plan publications for the various ICAO regions. 2.6 INFORMATION ON METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS FOR AIRCRAFT TAKING OFF AND LANDING Local routine and local special reports, as described in 2.3 and 2.4, are usually supplied to those ATS units which use them, together with any information obtained from their Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- when the RVR is improving and changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or when the RVR is deteriorating and passes through one or more of the values below: - 30 m, 60 m, 150 m or 300m (100 ft, 200 ft,
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice own duplicate displays (e.g. wind or RVR indicators), displays of automated aerodrome weather observing stations or supplementary visual observations taken by ATS personnel, in order to provide the required meteorological information to aircraft taking off or landing. These reports are supplied to aircraft by ATS units by air-ground data link, by directed transmissions andor through broadcasts. Further details on coordination between meteorological officesistations and ATS units in this and other respects are given in Chapter 8. 2.9 AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS (AIREP) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2-16 Weather reports from aircraft constitute an important source of upper-air data. They are especially useful in areas where ground-based observations are sparse or not available. In view of its importance, air-reporting is covered further in Chapter 7 of this manual. 2.10 BASIC SURFACE AND UPPER-AIR OBSERVATIONS 2.7 REPRESENTATIVENESS AND ACCURACYAERODROME REPORTS To the extent practicable, aerodrome observations are made at locations considered to be suitable for representative measurements of elements affecting aircraft during take-off and landing operations. Details in respect of these locations and in respect of the aeronautical requirements for the operationally desirable accuracy of meteorological observations and the currently attainable accuracies are given in Appendix 5, Parts 1 and 2, respectively, to this manual. 2.8 WEATHER RADAR OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS 2.8.1 Weather radar observations permit the locating and tracking of thunderstorms and tropical cyclones, and the evaluation of precipitation and cloud height. This information is used for early warnings of certain meteorological phenomena hazardous to aviation, particularly in the vicinity of aerodromes, and in the preparation of trend forecasts. Radar data are usually available only locally, but in many parts of the world, data from -large radar networks are distributed to meteorological offices and other aeronautical users by means of various data processing systems and high-speed communication channels in coded or pictorial forms and, in particular, in digital form. The processed and integrated weather radar information is often displayed for ATS personnel through ATS systems. 2.8.2 Increasing use is being made of Doppler weather radar for both storm warning purposes and, specifically, to detect low-level wind shear. In the latter case, fully automated terminal Doppler weather radar is available, which can provide wind shear warnings to ATC and directly to aircraft equipped with an air-ground data link. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2 1 O. 1 Weather observations containing elements sim: ilar to those in aerodrome reports, but with additional details of cloud, weather, pressure, etc., are made at many aerodromes and other locations (including ships) for basic meteorological purposes. They are made at three-hourly or six-hourly intervals (O000 UTC, 0300 UTC, 0600 UTC, etc.), disseminated in a code form (SYNOP) established by WMO, and used for the preparation of surface weather charts. 2.10.2 Upper-air infomation is obtained principally f o instruments carried aloft by balloons released from rm fixed ground observation sites or from ships. These balloon-borne instruments reach altitudes approaching 30 km (100 O00 ft) and provide data on wind speed and direction, temperature, pressure and relative humidity to approximately 15 km (50 O00 ft). Upper-air observations of this type are made at standard hours, O000 UTC and 1200 UTC and additionally in some areas at 0600 UTC and 1800 UTC. Other upper-air information is obtained through specialized equipment carried on board certain aircraft. All these data are disseminated in code forms established by WMO, and are used for the preparation of upper-air charts. 2.11 METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE DATA In addition to information on cloud type, amount and height of cloud tops, meteorological satellite data also provide information on vertical temperature and humidity distribution and on upper winds derived from cloud movement. The information provided by satellites is of particular importance in the areas where ground-based observations are sparse. It is received directly from geostationary or polar-orbiting satellites by ground-receiving equipment. The processed satellite data can be used to supplement the integrated weather radar data. Data f o geostationary rm meteorological satellites are also used by volcanic ash advisory centres for the detection and tracking of volcanic ash clouds. Not for Resale
  • 2-1 7 Chapter 2. Meteorological Observations and Reports 2.12 REPORTS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY As mentioned in 1.4.2, aeronautical meteorological stations (and other meteorological stations) located in the vicinity of active volcanoes are required to make observations of volcanic activity. The volcanic activity reports resulting from these observations should contain: a) message type VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORT; b) station identifier, location indicator or name of the station; c) datehime of the message; The reports should be issued in the form of abbreviated plain language and disseminated, as a matter of urgency, to the associated ATS units, meteorological watch offices, and aeronautical information services units. These reports are important for the operations of the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW). Note.- Pre-emption volcanic activis in this context means unusual and/or increasing volcanic activity which could presage a volcanic eruption. d) location of volcano, and name, if known; and --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS e) concise description of the event including, as appropriate, the level of intensity of the volcanic activity, occurrence of the eruption and its date and time, and the existence of a volcanic ash cloud in the area together with the direction of the ash cloud movement and height. Not for Resale
  • Chapter 3 FORECASTS 3.1 GENERAL SIGMET and AIRMET information, aerodrome warnings and wind shear warnings may refer to existing as well as expected conditions. (For further details on SIGMET and AIRMET information, aerodrome warnings and wind shear warnings, see Chapter 4 of this manual.) Similarly, volcanic ash advisories containing information concerning location, extent and trajectories of volcanic ash clouak and tropical cyclone advisories containing information concerning tropical cyclones and their centres’ movement can also be considered as forecasts. Details concerning the advisories are given in Chapter 4. A forecast is a concise statement of expected meteorological conditions at an aerodrome or over an area or along a route. Owing to the variability of meteorological elements in space and time, the limitation of forecasting techniques, and the limitations caused by the definitions of some of the individual meteorological elements (e.g. surface wind, weather), the specific value of any forecast element is to be understood as being the most probable value which the element is likely to assume during the period of the forecast. Similarly, when the time of occurrence or change of.an element is given in a forecast, this is to be understood to be the most probable time. 3.3.2 Forecasts can also be divided in accordance with the formats in which they are normally issued (abbreviated plain language, code, tabular or graphic, i.e. chart form) as shown in Table 3-2. 3.2 ACCURACY OF AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL FORECASTS The accuracy of aeronautical forecasts depends upon the accuracy, spacing and frequency of available observations, the period of the forecast and various factors associated with analysis and forecasting techniques. In general, the forecast elements are the best estimate of the conditions expected to occur within a range of values. Guidance on the operationally desirable accuracy of aeronautical forecasts is contained in Appendix 6 . 3.4 AERODROME FORECASTS 3.3.1 There are different types of aeronautical forecasts designed to meet requirements for the various stages of flight planning. They differ in respect of area or airspace covered and in respect of the offices preparing and issuing them, as shown in Table 3- 1. 3.4.1 Aerodrome forecasts follow the general form of aerodrome weather reports in the METAR code form and should be always coded in the TAF code form. They include surface wind, visibility, forecasts of significant weather phenomena and cloud, and relevant significant changes thereto (see Example 3-1). Detailed technical specifications for aerodrome forecasts in the TAF code form are reproduced in Appendix 7. Table A7-1 in Appendix 7 includes an extensive set of examples relating to individual portions of the forecast. Aerodrome forecasts valid for 9 hours are normally issued every 3 hours and those valid for 12, 18 or 24 hours are normally issued at six-hourly intervals. The validity period of aerodrome forecasts is determined for each region on the basis of air navigation agreements. Note.- Whileforecasts generalb refer to the meteorological conditions expected to occur (i.e. in the future), 3.4.2 The specific values of elements and the time of expected changes indicated in an aerodrome forecast should 3.3 TYPES OF AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL FORECASTS 3-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.3.3 Finally, forecasts also differ in regard to the period of validity or fixed time of validity for which they are normally prepared, as in Table 3-3.
  • 3-2 Chapter 3. Forecasts Table 3-1. ‘Qpes of aeronautical meteorological forecasts, including SIGMET and AIRMET information, warnings, volcanic ash advisories and tropical cyclone advisories Responsibility for preparing/ issuing the forecast Type of forecast Arealairspace covered Sage of flight planning Aerodrome forecast Aerodrome Pre-flight and in-flight Aerodrome meteorological office Landing forecast Aerodrome (especially approach and touchdown zone) In-flight Aerodrome meteorological office Take-off forecast Runway complex Pre-flight Aerodrome meteorological OffiCe Route, route system(s) or arealconditions at levels applicable to the operation Pre-flight and in-flight SIGMET information Ftight information region (FIR) or control arealall levels used for flight operations, including, if applicable, supersonic operations Pre-flight and in-flight Meteorologicalwatch office (MWO) AIRMET information Flight information region (FIR) or control area or a sub-areathereoflall flight levels up to FL 100 (FL 150 in mountainous areas) Pre-flight and in-flight Meteorologicalwatch office (MWO) Aerodrome warnings Aerodromeisuriace conditions Parked aircraft, aerodrome installations Aerodrome meteorological office Wind shear warnings Aerodrome and approachltake-off paths between runway level and 500 m (1 600 fl), or higher, if necessary In-flight and prior to and during take-off Aerodrome meteorological office Volcanic ash advisories Area (FIRS) of volcanic ash cloud occurrence Pre-flight and in-flight Volcanic ash advisory centre (VAAC) Tropical cyclone advisories Area (FIRS) of tropical cyclone occurrence Pre-flight and in-flight Tropical cyclone advisory centre (TCAC) Forecasts of en-route conditions --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- World andlor regional area forecast centre (WAFCIRAFC); Aerodrome meteorological OffiCe Note.- For details on SIGMET and AIRMET information and warnings, as well as volcanic ash and tropical cyclone advisories, see Chapter 4. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Chapter 3. Forecasts 3-3 Table 3-2. Formats of forecasts, including SIGMET and AIRMET information, warnings, tropical cyclone advisories and volcanic ash advisories Type of forecast Aerodrome forecasts Trend-type landing forecasts X Take-off forecasts X SIGMET information x 4 AIRMET information x 4 Aerodrome warnings x 4 Wind shear warnings x 4 Volcanic ash advisories x 4 Tropical cyclone advisories X2 Charts X Forecasts of en-route conditions Code Tabular (using abbreviated plain language) X’ Abbreviated plain language x 4 1. 2. 3. 4. X’ x 3 X X Alphanumeric andlor binary code forms. Used mostly in flight documentation. Alphanumerical andlor binary code forms. See Chapter 4. Table 3-3. Validity of forecasts, including SIGMET and AIRMET information, warnings, tropical cyclone advisories and volcanic ash advisories Forecast Usual validity period or fixed time of validity Aerodrome forecast 9, 12, 18 or 24 hours Landing forecast 2 hours Take-off forecast For specified period (usually short) Forecasts of en-route conditions In chart form: fixed valid times, usually 0600,1200,1800 or exceptionally 2400 hours UTC In other forms: either fixed times as above or periods corresponding to the period of the flight SIGMET information Not more than 6 hours, and preferably not more than 4 hours’ AIRMET information Not more than 6 hours, and preferably not more than 4 hours Aerodrome warnings Usually not more than 24 hours Wind shear warnings For as long as wind shear is expected to last Volcanic ash advisory 18 hours (to be updated at least every 6 hours) Tropical cyclone advisory 24 hours (to be updated at least every 6 hours) 1. See Chapter 4 in respect of the inclusion of an outlook in SIGMET information for tropical cyclones and for volcanic ash clouds. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 3-4 Table 3-4. Criteria for the indication of changes andlor preparation of amendments to aerodrome forecasts in the TAF code form ~ ~~ Meteorological element Surface wind Criteria for the inclusion of change groups or for the amendment of aerodrome forecasts Forecast changes through values of operational significance, for example: 1) changes that required changes in the runway@)in use; and Remarks Threshold values to be established by the MET authority in consultation with appropriate ATS authorities and operators. 2) changes in runway tailwindlcrosswind component through values representative of operating limits of typical aircraft using the airport. - When the visibility is improving, forecast changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or - Visibility when the visibility is deteriorating, forecast changes through one or more of the values below: At aerodromes with a significant number of VFR flights, the value of 5 O00 m is also included in the criteria. 150 m, 350 m, 600 m, 800 m, 1 500 m, or 3 O00 m. Weather Forecasts of beginning, end or change in intensity of the following weather phenomena or combinations thereof: freezing precipitation freezing fog moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers) low drifting dust, sand or snow blowing dust, sand or snow (including snowstorm) duststorm sandstorm thunderstorm (with or without precipitation) squall funnel cloud (tomado or waterspout) other weather phenomena given in Table 2-5, which are expected to cause a significant change in visibility. - When the height of the lowest layer or mass of cloud of BKN or OVC extent is forecast to lift, changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or - Cloud when the height of the lowest layer or mass of cloud of BKN or OVC extent is forecast to lower than, or changes through, one or more of the values below: At aerodromes with significant number of VFR flights, the height of cloud base of 450 m (1 500 ft) is also included in the criteria. 30 m, 60 m, 150 m or 300 m (100 ft, 200 ft, 500 ft, or Io00 ft). Vertical visibility - When the vertical visibility is forecast to improve, changes to, or passes through, one or more of the values below; or - when the vertical visibility is forecast to deteriorate to, or changes through, one or more of the values below: 30 m, 60 m, 150 m or 300 m (100ft, 200 ft, 500 ft, or 1 O00 ft). Temperature None A regional air navigation agreement may apply. Other Other criteria based on local aerodrome operating minima. As agreed between the MET authority and the operators concerned. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 3. Forecasts 3-5 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- will occur. Only PROB30 or PROB40 are normally used, as less than 30 per cent probability is considered in aviation to have little significant value, and 50 per cent or more should be given as BECMG or TEMPO, as appropriate; and be understood as being approximate and as representing the most probable mean of a range of values or times. Criteria for giving expected changes, or for amending a forecast, should be based on values given in Table 3-4. 3.4.3 The expected changes referred to in 3.4.2 are given using the following indicators and associated time groups: a) BECMG (abbreviation for “becoming”) - this change indicator describes changes where the conditions are expected to reach or pass specified values at a regular or irregular rate; b) TEMPO (abbreviation for “temporary”) - this indicator is used to describe temporary fluctuations in the meteorological conditions, lasting less then one hour in each instance and covering less than half of the forecast period; c) PROB (abbreviation for “probability”) - followed by a percentage (rounded to the nearest ten), indicates the probability that a certain change or value d) FM (abbreviation for “from”) - is used to indicate self-contained time periods during which certain conditions prevail. A full description of the usage of the above indicators is given in Appendix 7, as well as Annex 3, 6.2.11 to 6.2.15. It should be noted that the number of the change indicators used should be kept to a minimum. 3.4.4 Aerodrome forecasts (and amendments thereto) for intended destinations and alternates will normally be supplied by meteorological ofices upon appropriate notification by operators. Aerodrome forecasts are exchanged among meteorological ofices in accordance with regional air navigation agreements. They are also available in the ICA0 international OPMET databanks and disseminated through the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) satellite distribution systems. Example 3-1. Aerodrome forecasts in abbreviated plain language and in TAF code form Abbreviated plain language: FCST YUDO 160000Z 16 06/24 130/18KMH VIS 9KM BKN 600M BECMG 06/08 SCT CB 450M BKN 600M TEMPO 08/12 170/25KMH MAX40 VIS 1000M MOD TSRA SCT CB 300M BKN 600M FM1230 150115KMH 10KM BKN 600M BKN 3000M MAX T25 AT 12002 MNM TMS2 AT 23002 TAF code form: (same location and weather conditions): TAF YUDO 1600002 160624 13018KMH 9000 BKN020 BECMG 0608 SCT015CB BKN020 TEMPO 0812 17025G40KMH 1000 TSRA SCTOlOCB BKN020 FM1230 15015KMH 9999 BKN020 BKN100 T25/12Z TM02/23Z Meaning of both forecasts: Aerodrome forecast for Donlon/lnternational* issued on the 16th of the month at 0000UTC valid from 0600 UTC to 2400 UTC on the 16th of the month; surface wind direction 130 degrees; wind speed 18 kilometres per hour: visibility 9 kilometres; broken cloud at 600 metres; becoming beiween 0600 UTC and 0800 UTC, scattered cumulonimbus cloud at 450 metres and broken cloud at 600 metres; temporarily beiween 0800 UTC and 1200 UTC surface wind direction 170 degrees: wind speed 25 kilometres per hour gusting to 40 kilometres per hour: visibility 1 O00 metres in a moderate thunderstorm with rain, scattered cumulonimbus cloud at 300 metres and broken cloud at 600 metres; from 1230 UTC surface wind direction 150 degrees; wind speed 15 kilometres per hour; visibility 10 kilometres or more; broken cloud at 600 metres and broken cloud at 3 O00 metres; maximum air temperature 25 degrees Celsius at 1200 UTC’*: minimum air temperature minus 2 degrees Celsius at 2400 UTC”. * Fictitious location ‘* Inclusion of temperature forecasts (maximum and minimum expected to occur during the aerodrome forecast validity period and their corresponding times of occurrence) is subject to regional air navigation agreement. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 3-6 3.5 AMENDED AERODROME FORECASTS An amended aerodrome forecast is identified as “TAF AMD’ in place of “TAF”; it covers the whole of the remaining period of the original forecast. (For amendment criteria, see 3.4.2 and Table 3-4.) 3.6 TREND-TYPE LANDING FORECASTS specify periods during which the relevant changes occur. “AT” is used with “BECMG” to indicate that a change is expected to occur at a specified time. When a change is expected to take place throughout the two-hour validity period of the trend-type landing forecast, the time period is not given. Similarly, if a change is expected to occur but the time is uncertain, the indicators “BECMG” and “TEMPO’ are used alone. A full description of the usage of these indicators is given in Annex 3, 6.3.5 and 6.3.6 and in Appendix 2, Table 2-3. 3.6.3 When no significant changes to any of the elements concerned (surface wind, visibility, forecast significant weather, cloud and any other elements if so agreed between the meteorological authority and the operator concerned) are expected within two hours, the term NOSIG is used, representing the complete forecast statement. Criteria for significant changes are detailed in Annex 3, 6.3.8 to 6.3.13. They can be summarized as follows: 3.6.1 In most ICAO regions, a “trend-type” landing forecast is supplied. This consists of a local routine or special report, or a report in the METAR or SPEC1 code form to which is appended a concise statement indicating what significant changes - expressed as a trend - which are likely to occur in one or more weather elements during the two hours following the time of the report (see Example 3-2). These aerodrome reports with the trend statement together form the complete landing forecast. Detailed technical specifications concerning the trend-type landing fore_ _and examples of various groups of forecasts can be casts ~ found in Appendix 2. a) a change in the mean wind direction of 60 degrees or more, the mean speed before andor after the change being 20 ian/h (1O kt) or more; b) a change in mean wind speed of 20 km/h (10 kt) or more; c) changes through values of operational significance, i.e. those that require a change of the runway in use or that result in a runway tailwindcrosswind component passing through the operating limits of typical aircraft using the airport; Note.- The aerodromes for which trend-vpe landing forecasts are to be prepared are indicated in the ICAO air navigation plan publications for the various ICAO regions. 3.6.2 The trend statement appended to the report has the same order of elements (Le. surface wind, visibility, forecast significant weather phenomena apd cloud), terminology, units and scales as the preceding report and is introduced by one of the following change indicators if a significant change or changes are expected: a) BECMQor b) TEMPO. These change indicators are used as necessary in association with the abbreviations “FM’ (meaning “fiom”), “TL” (meaning “until”) and “AT” (dictionary meaning), each followed by a time group in hours and minutes. “ F M and “TL” are used with both “BECMG” and “TEMPO’ to Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Example.- An expected temporary surface wind of 250 degrees at 70 kmih (35 kt) with maximum speeds (gusts) to 100 kmih (50 kt) throughout the period is indicated in the form “TEMPO 250i70KMH MAX100” or “TEMPO 250/35KT MAX50 (abbreviated plain language) or “TEMPO 25070GIOOKMH” or “TEMPO 25035G50KT” (METAR code form). I d) when the visibility is improving, forecast’changes to or pass through one or more of the values below; or - whim the visibility is deteriorating, forecast changes to or pass through one or more of the values below: 150 m, 350 m, 600 m, 800 m, 1 500 m or 3 O00 m and 5 O00 m where many visual flight rules flights are conducted; Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note.- Information on regional differences in period o f validiv, contents and format of aerodrome forecasts, and on requirementsfor their exchange between meteorological ofices, can be found in the ICAO air navigation plan publications for the various ICAO regions.
  • Chapter 3. Forecasts 3-7 Example 3-2. Trend-type landing forecasts in abbreviated plain language and in the METAR and SPECI code forms a) Routine reports with trend. Disseminated locally at the aerodrome in abbreviated plain language: MET REPORT YUDO' 2216302 WIND 240/18KMH VIS 600M RVR RWY 12 1000M FG MOD DZ CLD SCT 300M OVC 600M T I 7 DP16 QNH 1018HPA TREND BECMG TL1700 VIS 800M FG BECMG AT 1800 VIS 10KM NSW Disseminated beyond the aerodrome in the METAR code form: METAR YUDO'221630Z 24015KMH 0600 R12/1000U FG DZ SCTOIO OVC020 17/16 QI018 BECMG TLI700 0800 FG BECMG AT1800 9999 NSW Meaning of both reports with trend: Local routine report or routine report in the METAR code form for Donlon/lnternational* issued on the 22nd of the month at 1630 UTC; surface wind direction 240 degrees; wind speed 18 or 15 kilometres per hour (averaged over 2 or 5 minutes, respectively); visibility 600 metres; runway visual range representative of the touchdown zone for runway 12 is 1 O00 metres (averaged over 1 or 10 minutes, respectively); (only for reports disseminated beyond the aerodrome: the runway visual range values have shown a distinct upward tendency during previous 10 minutes); fog and moderate drizzle; scattered cloud at 300 metres; overcast at 600 metres; air temperatures 17 degrees Celsius; dew point temperature 16 degrees Celsius; QNH 1018 hectopascales; trend during next two hours; visibility becoming 800 metres in fog by 1700 UTC; visibility becoming 10 kilometres or more and nil significant weather. b) Special reports with trend. Disseminated locally at the aerodrome in abbreviated plain language: SPECIAL YUDO* 151115Z WIND 050/26KT MAX37 MNMIO VIS 1200M HVY TSRA CLD BKN CB 500FT T25 DP22 QNH 1008HPA TREND TEMPO TL1200 VIS 600M BECMG AT1200 VIS 10KM NSW NSC Disseminated beyond the aerodrome in the SPECI code form : SPECI YUDO* 151115Z 05025G37KT 1200NE 6000s +TSRA BKN005CB 25/22 QI008 TEMPO TL1200 0600 BECMG AT1200 9999 NSW NSC Meaning of both reports with trend: Special report for Donlonllnternational' issued on the 15th of the month at 1115 UTC; surface wind direction 050 degrees; wind speed 26 and 25 knots (averaged over 2 and 10 minutes, respectively), gusting between 10 and 37 knots (for special reports disseminated beyond aerodrome: "gusting to 37 knots"); visibility 1 200 metres (for reports disseminated beyond the aerodrome: "visibility lowest to north east at 1 200 metres, visibility 6 O00 metres to south); thunderstorm with heavy rain; broken cumulonimbus cloud at 500 feet; air temperature 25 degrees Celsius; dew point temperature 22 degrees Celsius; QNH 1008 hectopascal; trend during next two hours; visibility temporarily 600 metres from 1115 to 1200 UTC; becoming at 1200 UTC visibility 10 kilometres or more, thunderstorm ceases and nil significant weather, and nil significant cloud. * Fictitious location --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 3-8 Note.- Forecasts of runway visual range are not yeí regarded as being feasible. I changes in cloud height: ) - when the height of the base of a cloud layer of BKN or OVC extent is lifting, forecast changes to or pass through one or more of the values below; or Example.- A temporary reduction of the visibility to 700 m (for example, in fog) is indicated in the form “TEMPO VIS 700M“ (abbreviated plain language) or “TEMPO 0700” (METAR code form). I J - when the height of the base of a cloud layer of BKN or OVC extent is lowering, forecast changes to or pass through one or more of the values below: e) expected onset, cessation or change in intensity of the following weather phenomena or combinations thereof: 30 m, 60 m, 150 m, 300 m and 450 m (100 ft, 200 ft, 500 ft, 1 O00 ft and 1 500 ft); - freezing precipitation - freezing fog - moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof) - low drifting dust, sand or snow - blowing dust, sand or snow (including snowstom) g) chziliges in cloud amount from “SKC, FEW, or SCT” to “BKN OT OVC or from BKN or OVC” to “SKC,FEW or SCT” for bases of cloud layers being below, falling below, OT rising above 450 m (1 500 ft); Note.- When no cumulonimbus and no cloud below 1.500 rn (5 O00 fi) or below the highest minimum sector s altitude, whichever i greater, are forecast, and “CAVOK” and “SKC” are not appropriate, the abbreviation “NSC” is used. - duststom - sandstorm Example.- A forecast rapid increase in cloud at 1130 UTC from SCT to OVC at 300 m (1 O00 ft) is indicated in the form “BECMG AT1130 OVC 300M” (abbreviated plain language) or ‘BECMG AT1130 OVCOIO” (METAR code form). - thunderstorm (with or without precipitation) - sgll - funnel cloud (tomado or waterspout) - other weather phenomena given in Table 2-5 only if they are expected to cause a significant change in visibility; The expected end of occurrence of the weather phenomena is indicated by the abbreviation ““NW’. h) at aerodromes where vertical visibility observations are available, - when the vertical visibility is improving, forecast changes to or pass through one or more of the values below; OT - when the vertical visibility is deteriorating, Example.- forecast changes to or pass through one or more of the values below: a) Temporary moderate freezing rain is expected between 0300 and 0430 UTC; this is indicated in the form “TEMPO FM0300 TL0430 MOD FZRA” (abbreviated plain language) and “TEMPO FM0300 TL0430 FZRA” (METAR code form). 30 m, 60 m, 150 m, 300 m (100 f, 200 ft, 500 ft t and i O00 ft). Note.- A tabular presentation of the criteria for trendtype landing forecasts is given in Appendix 8. b) An expected cessation at 1630 UTC of significant weather, such as a thunderstorm, is indicated in the form “BECMG AT1630 NSW” (in both abbreviated plain language and METAR code form). I I 3.6.4 In addition to the criteria specified in 3.6.3, other criteria based on local aerodrome operating minima --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 3. Forecasts 3-9 may be established as a result of an agreement between the meteorological authority and the operators concerned. 3.6.5 As trend-type landing forecasts are intended to be of particular usefulness to pilots in deciding whether to commence/continue a flight towards the aerodrome of destination or to holdldivert, it is important that the operationally significant criteria for those forecasts are strictly followed. In order to ensure the desirable accuracy of these short-period forecasts, use needs to be made of all available aids, in particular ground-based weather radar, automatic or manned observation sites in the vicinity of the aerodrome (particularly in the direction from which weather, such as advection fog, is known to approach the aerodrome), etc. If landing and aerodrome forecasts are made at locations some distance from the aerodrome concerned, it is essential that arrangements be made to provide the forecaster with up-to-date information on weather conditions at the aerodrome. 3.7 prepared in digital grid point format, andlor chart form for a number of standard levels covering the routes flown and referring to fixed times. These forecasts provide information on expected upper winds and upper-air temperatures (including tropopause and maximum wind information), and on significant en-route weather phenomena, including information on volcanic ash eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, as well as on accidental industrial releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and related "clouds" of radioactive materials. 3.8.2 While forecasts for the aerodrome generally continue to be prepared by aerodrome meteorological offices, forecasts of en-route conditions are' normally provided within the framework of the WAFS by the two world area forecast centres (WAFCs). Forecasts of en-route conditions for low-level flights are prepared locally, by meteorological offices. Note.- Further details on the WAFS are given in Appendices I and 9 to this manual. FORECASTS FOR TAKE-OFF A forecast for take-off contains information on expected conditions over the runway complex in regard to surface wind and wind variations, temperature, pressure (QNH) and other elements, as agreed locally. It is supplied on request to operators or flight crew members within the three hours before the expected time of departure. The order of the elements and the terminology, units and scales used in forecasts for take-off are the same as those used in reports for the same aerodrome; the format of the forecast is subject to agreement between the meteorological authority and the operators concerned. Meteorological ofices preparing forecasts for take-off must keep these forecasts under continuous review and issue necessary amendments promptly. The criteria for the issuance of amendments to forecast elements are to be agreed between the meteorological authority and the operators concerned. These criteria should be consistent with the corresponding criteria for local special reports established for the aerodrome in accordance with 2.4.1. 3.9 FORECASTS OF UPPER WINDS AND UPPER-AIR TEMPERATURES 3.9.1 Forecasts of upper winds and upper-air temperatures are usually received from WAFCs and supplied to users in digital or chart form. Wind and temperature data selected from the global forecasts should be depicted on the upper wind and upper-air temperature charts in a sufficiently dense latitudeflongitude grid. On the charts, the wind direction is shown by arrows with a number of feathers or shaded pennants to indicate the wind speed, and temperatures are given in degrees Celsius as thus: A Y 35 +I o 3.8 FORECASTS OF EN-ROUTE CONDITIONS - GENERAL 25 kt, temperature +lo" Celsius 3.8.1 While the forecasts described so far refer to a specific location, i.e. the aerodrome, en-route forecasts are required for a variety of areas, routes, flight levels and times. In the past, individual forecasts were usually prepared by the aerodrome meteorological office for each flight. The increase in traffic volume over the years has made this impracticable, and most en-route forecasts are Note.- Negative temperatures are indicated without sign,*but positive temperatures are shown with a preceding "+ '' sign. Wind and temperature infomation is given for points on a grid sufficiently dense to provide meaningful information. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 60 kt, temperature -35" Celsius Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 3-10 On computer-drawn charts, wind arrows normally take precedence over temperatures, and temperatures take precedence over the chart background. Note. -An example of a forecast chart of upper winds and upper-air temperatures is shown as Model IS in Appendix 9 (model charts and forms) to this manual. 3.9.2 The upper wind, upper-air temperature and humidity forecasts prepared in digital form twice daily by WAFCs are valid for 6 , 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 hours after the time (0000,0600, 1200 and 1800 UTC) of the synoptic data on which they are based. The forecasts should be available for the transmission from WAFCs to users not later than six hours after the respective standard time of observation. They are prepared for the following flight levels (which correspond to the fixed pressure levels indicated in brackets): FL 50 (850 hPa), FL 100 (700 hPa), FL 140 (600 hPa), FL’180 (500 hPa), FL 240 (400 hPa), FL 300 (300 hPa), FL 340 (250 hPa), FL 390 (200 hPa), FL 450 (150 hPa). Where required for supersonic operations, flight levels 530 and 600 (100 and 70 hPa) are also used. 3.9.3 The upper wind, upper-air temperature and humidity forecasts prepared by WAFCs consist of computer-processed meteorological data for grid points in a fixed grid with a horizontal resolution of approximately 140 km.The data are prepared in a format suitable for automated use, i.e. in the WMO GRIB code form: a) for transmission from one meteorological computer to another, e.g. an airline flight planning computer, an air traffic services (ATS) computer, or the computer of a national meteorological service or an aerodrome meteorological office; and b) for the extraction and production of the required wind and temperature information. Three aeronautical fixed service (AFS) satellite distribution’ systems (broadcasts) are used for their transmission. Note 1.- The GñIB code form is contained in WMO Publication No. 306, Manual on Codes, Volume I, Part B Binary Codes. A WAFS document entitled Gridded Binary (GRIB Code) Data on a “Thinned” Grid from World Area Forecast Centres London and Washington contains detailed coding and decoding procedures as well as the specijìcations concerning the grid applied to the forecasts. Note 2.- The humidi9 forecast data are used by aeronautical meteorological centres and offices to support and firther improve significant weather forecasts (primarily icing, clouds, etc.). In view of this, these data are not used in the pre-flight planning by operators and flight crew members. 3.9.4 Upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts may in some cases be disseminated in a format other than the formats described above. Although the following formats are not widely used in WAFS, they may be used in some regions in accordance with regional air navigation agreement, or by meteorological offices, as agreed between the meteorological offices and operators concerned: Messages in abbratiated plain language. This format, which is used primarily for the dissemination of amendments to upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts, and for forecasts of significant weather, including significant weather forecasts for low-level flights and amendments thereto, makes use of approved ICA0 abbreviations (except signals of the Q-code), self-explanatory numerical values and, where necessary, other words taken with their usual meaning in aviation. The forecasts are usually transmitted on the AFTN. Note.- Examples of f c r o c c b i? nhhrevinn?odn h i n . r--language and guidance for their preparation are given in Appendix 1O, Part 3 to this manual. Tabular format. This format is sometimes used by meteorological offices for short distance, low-levei flights. It contains data for the same flight levels as upper-air charts, and they are given for spot locations or route segments. Note 1.- Examples of tabular forecasts (Model TA and TB, Example 1) are given in Appendix 9 to this manual. Note 2.- In some cases, actual upper-air charts may be provided in lieu of prognostic charts, e.g. for the tropics. 3.10 FORECASTS OF SIGNIFICANT EN-ROUTE WEATHER PHENOMENA 3.10.1 Forecasts of significant en-route weather phenomena are normally prepared in chart form, mostly --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • 3-1 I Chavter 3. Forecasts with the assistance of complex computer workstations, where forecasters utilize computer data and graphics capabilities to create the forecasts. Significant weather forecasts are prepared by WAFCs four times a day for fixed, valid times of 0000, 0600, 1200 and 1800 UTC. The transmission of each significant weather chart from WAFCs is to be completed at least nine hours before its validity time. In the near future, WAFCs will also be preparing and issuing significant weather forecasts in binary format, i.e. in the WMO BUFR code form. Requirements for these forecasts are identical to those given above, except for the requirement Concerning the transmission of these data from WAFCs to users, which should be completed at least twelve hours before their validity time. 3.1 0.2 Significant weather charts for. flight levels above FL 100. These charts concentrate on significant enroute weather phenomena of relevance to flights operating at these (medium and high) levels, namely: thunderstorms; tropical cyclone; severe squall lines; moderate or severe turbulence (in cloud or clear air); moderate or severe icing; widespread sandstodduststorm; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- for FL 100 to FL 250, clouds associated with a) to 9 above; above FL 250, only cumulonimbus cloud associated with a) to 9 above; surface position of well-defined convergence zones; surface positions, speed and direction of movement of frontal systems, when associated with significant en-route weather phenomena; tropopause heights; jet streams; information on the location of volcanic eruptions which are producing ash clouds of significance to aircraft operations, including those producing only steam, depicted on the chart by the volcanic enip- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS tion symbol at the location of the eruption. Further details concerning eruptions, listed in Note 4, are given under the volcanic ash symbol at the side of the chart; and n) information on the location of an accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere of significance to aircraft operations, depicted on the chart by the radioactivity symbol at the location of the accident. Further details concerning accidents, listed in Note.5, are given under the radioactivity symbol at the side of the chart. Note I.- For aircraft operating above FL 250, items a) to j are only required i f they are expected to occur above that level and in the case of item a), o n b those thunderstorms should be included which warrant the issuance of a SIGMET as given in 4.2.1 a). Guidance on the use of the term “FRQ TS is given in Appendfill, Note 13. Note 2.- The abbreviation “CB’Should only be included where it refers to the occurrence or expected f occurrence o an area of widespread cumulonimbus clouds or cumulonimbus along a line with little or no space between individual clouds, or to cumulonimbus embedded in cloud layers or concealed by haze. It does not refer to isolated or scattered cumulonimbus not embedded in cloud layers or concealed by haze. Note 3.- The inclusion of “CB” or the thunderstorm symbol should be understood to include all weather phenomena normally associated with cumulonimbus or thunderstorm, namely, moderate or severe icing, moderate or severe turbulence, and hail. Note 4.- Details concerning a volcanic eruption should include: the name of the volcano, its international number (established by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth 5. Interior (IAVCEI)) listed in the Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds (Doc 9691, Appendix H), the latitude and longitude, and the date and time of thejìrst eruption, ifknown. In addition, a reminder to users that they should check SIGMET information, NOTAM and ASHTAMs issued for the area Concerned. Note 5.- Details concerning an accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere should include: the latitude and longitude of the site of the accident and the date and time of the accident. In addition, a reminder to users that they should check NOTAMs issued for the area concerned. Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 3-12 Note 6.- In cases of volcanic ash eruptions and accidental industrial releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, the volcanic ash symbol or the radioactivity symbol should be depicted on both SWM and SWH (see 3.10.3) significant weather charts, regardless of the flight levels to which the volcanic ash or radioactive materials clouds are reported or expected to reach. level (AMSL) and/or any occurrence of cumulonimbus (CB) or towering cumulus (TCU) clouds; icing (except for that occumng in convective clouds and for severe icing for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); turbulence (except for that occumng in convective clouds and for severe turbulence for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); 3.10.3 Significant weather charts issued by WAFCs cover the layers separated by the following flight levels: - FL 250 - FL 630, significant weather charts for high levels (SWH charts); mountain wave (except for a severe mountain wave for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); - FL 100 - FL 250, significant weather charts for medium levels (SWM charts). These charts are prepared in accordance with regional air navigation agreement to limited geographical areas. pressure centres and fronts and their expected movements and developments; cloud information not included above; Note.- Examples of the form of presentation of sign$icant weather charts for high- and medium-levelflights are given in Appendix 9 (Models SWM and SWH). height indication of 0°C level(s) above AGL or above AMSL; sea-surface temperature and state of the sea, if required by regional air navigation agreement; and 3.10.4 Significant weather charts for FL 100 and below (SWL charts). Significant weather charts for lowlevel flights, including those in accordance with the visual flight rules operating up to FL 100 (up to FL 150 in mountainous areas or higher, where necessary), show, as appropriate to the flights: location of volcanic eruptions which are producing ash clouds of significance to aircraft operations, the name of the volcano and the time of the first eruption, if known, and a reminder to users that reference should be made to SIGMET information issued for the area concerned. the phenonlem warranting the issuance of a SIGMET given in 4.2.1 a) and which are expected to affect low-level flights; and the following weather elements required for area forecasts for low-level flights: - widespread mean surface wind speed exceeding 60 km/h (30 k) t; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- - widespread areas of surface visibility below 5 O00 m including the weather phenomena causing the reduction of visibility; . - thunderstorms and heavy sandstorms and dust- storms (except for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); Note I.- Detailed specifications concerning the items under b) are given in 3.13 below. It should be noted that items r) and u) in 3.13 do not apply to significant weather charts for low-level jlights. Note 2.- Examples of the form of presentation of significant weather charts for low-level flights are given in Appendix 9 (Models SWL Examples I and 2). Note 3.- Guidance concerning the use of terms ISOL, OCNL and FRQ relating to thunderstorms, intensities applied to turbulence, icing, and mountain waves, etc., is given in Appendix I I , Notes 1 to 26, and the General Note under Table 11-1. - mountain obscurations; - widespread areas of broken and overcast cloud with height of base less than 300 m (1 O00 It) above ground level (AGL) or above mean sea Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Note 4.- gnecessaty, information on accidental industrial release of radioactive material into the atmosphere should also be depicted on SWL charts (see 3.10.2 n) and Note 6 thereto). Not for Resale
  • Chapter 3. Forecasts 3-13 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.10.5 As in the case of upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts, significant weather forecasts are sometimes given in tabular form or in abbreviated plain language. An example of a forecast in tabular form is given in Appendix 9 (Model TA), and examples of area forecasts in abbreviated plain language are contained in Appendix 10. If either format is used for low-level flights, including those in accordance with the visual flight rules, it should contain information, in the order given in 3.10.4, for the upper wind and upper-air temperature data for individual portions of the route concerned, for at least the following altitudes: 600 m, 1 500 m and 3 O00 m (2 O00 ft, 5 O00 ft and 10 O00 f) and for the respective lowest QNH t, forecast values. Individual upper wind and upper-air temperature forecast data should be related to portions of flights up to a distance of 500 km. 3.12 AMENDMENTS TO FORECASTS OF EN-ROUTE CONDITIONS 3.12.1 Forecasts of upper winds and upper-air temperatures and of significant weather en route are kept under continuous review by WAFCs; when necessary, amendments to these forecasts are issued in accordance with specified amendment criteria, as follows: Upper winds. Changes in wind direction of 30 degrees or more, provided wind speed is 60 km/h (30 kt) or more before or after the change; change in wind speed of 40 kmíh (20 kt) or more. Upper-air temperatures. Change of more than 5°C. Aircrajl icing and turbulence. Newly expected occurrence; error in expected position of phenomena; intensity increasing; intensity decreasing from severe to light or nil, or from moderate to nil. 3.11 EXCHANGES OF FORECASTS OF EN-ROUTE CONDITIONS BETWEEN METEOROLOGICAL OFFICES 3.11.1 While the world area forecast system is designed to provide global forecasts of en-route conditions, there are still sometimes cases where route forecasts have to be prepared and exchanged between meteorological offices, particularly in areas of low traffic density. For the exchange of such forecasts, the WMO code form ROFOR (route forecast for aviation) is used: Note.- Details o the ROFOR code form is given in f WMO Publication No. 306 - Manual on Codes. Jet streams. Newly expected occurrence or disappearance; error in expected position >400 km; error in speed >20 per cent; m o r in .core height >900 m (3 O00 It). Other significant en-route weather phenomena and any new information concerning volcanic ash eruptions and accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Newly expected occurrence; no longer expected. 3.11.3 Forecasts may also be exchanged between meteorological offices in abbreviated plain language, in which case the order of elements should be the same as in the corresponding coded message (ROFOR refers) and the terminology, units, etc., should be consistent with those used in related aerodrome reports and forecasts, except that the CAVOK procedure should not be used. The identifier of such forecasts should be “AREA FCST” or “ROUTE FCST”. Area forecasts for low-level flights to be exchanged between meteorological offices should be in the GAMET abbreviated plain language format (see 3.13.2). 3.12.2 In order to assist WAFCs in keeping their forecasts under continuous review, it is an important responsibility of meteorological offices receiving WAFS products (both in the BUFR and GRIB code forms and in chart format) to notie the WAFCs concerned of significant discrepancies between forecast and observed conditions. The notification by meteorological offices should be based on the criteria given in 3.12.1. Abbreviated plain language should be used in preparing the notification in accordance with the guidance material given in Appendices 10 and 17. The aeronautical fixed telecommunication network (AFTN) should be used for transmission of the notifications to relevant WAFCs. The priority assigned to administrative messages should be applied to the notification. The WAFC, after receiving such a notification, should acknowledge receipt and make a brief comment including, if necessary, a proposal for follow-up action. 3.1 1.4 Forecasts exchanged between meteorological offices should be kept under continuous review by the originating offices and, when necessary, amendments should be issued (see 3.12.3). 3.12.3 Amendments to the forecasts prepared by WAFCs in accordance with the criteria in 3.12.1 are also issued in the form of abbreviated plain language texts. Guidance on the format of such texts. together with rele- 3.11.2 The area forecasts in coded format should cover the intended flight operations in respect of time, altitude and geographical extent. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 3-14 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- vant examples, is given in Appendix lO..Coding procedures for amendments to forecasts issued in the ROFOR code are given in WMO Publication No. 306 - Manual on Codes. 3.13 AREA FORECASTS FOR LOW-LEVEL FLIGHTS EXCHANGED BETWEEN METEOROLOGICAL OFFICES IN SUPPORT OF THE ISSUANCE OF AIRMET INFORMATION 3.13.1 When the density of trafic below FL 100 warrants the issuance of AIRMET information in accordance with 4.4.1 on the basis of a regional air navigation agreement, area forecasts for operations concerning en-route weather phenomena hazardous to low-levei flights have to be exchanged between meteorological offices responsible for the issuance of flight documentation for low-level flights in the FIRS concerned and communicated to the meteorological watch ofices responsible for the issuance of relevant AIRMET information. These area forecasts should cover the layer between the ground and FL 100 (or up to FL 150 in mountainous areas) and should be prepared in a format agreed upon between the meteorological authorities concerned, i.e. or in abbreviated plain language or in chart form. 3.13.2 When abbreviated plain language is used, the forecasts are prepared as a GAMET area forecast (see Example 3-3 and Table 3-5), using approved ICA0 abbre-~ viations and numerical values. The area forecasts contain the following information as necessary and, when prepared in GAMET format, in the order indicated: f) on the next line, indication of the beginning of the first section of the area forecast using the abbreviation “SECN I”; g) widespread mean surface wind speed exceeding 60 km/h (30 kt); for example, “SFC WSPD: i0/12 65 KMH’; h) widespread areas of surface visibility below 5 O00 m including the weather phenomena causing the reduction of visibility; for example, “SFC VIS: 06/08 3000 M BR N OF 51 DEG N’; i) significant weather conditions encompassing thunderstorms and heavy sandstorm and duststorm (except. for phenomena for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); for example, “SIGWX: 11/12 ISOL TS’; j) mountain obscuration; for example, “MT OBSC: MT PASSES S OF 48 DEG N’; k) widespread areas of broken or overcast cloud with height of base less than 300 m (1 O00 fi) above ground level (AGL) or above mean sea level (AMSL) and/or any occurrence of cumulonimbus (CB) or towering cumulus (TCU) clouds, giving height indications of their bases and tops; for example, “SIG CLD: 06/09 OVC 800/1100 FT AGL N OF N51 10/ 12 ISOL TCU 1200/8000 FT AGL”; ~ location indicator of the air trafic services unit serving the flight information region(s) to which the area forecast for low-level flights refers; for example, “WCC”; , message identification using the abbreviation “GAMET”; date-time groups indicating the period of validity in UTC; for example, “VALID 220600/221200”; location indicator of the meteorological office originating the message, followed by a hyphen to separate the preamble from the text; for example, “YUDO-”; on the next line, name of the flight information region, or a sub-area thereof, for which the area forecast for low-level flights is issued; for example “AMSWELL FIW2 BLW FL120”; Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1) icing (except for- that occumng in convective clouds and for severe icing for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); for example, “ICE: MOD FL050/080”; m) turbulence (except for that occurring in convective clouds and for severe turbulence for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); for example, “TURB: MOD ABV FL090”; n) mountain wave (except for a severe mountain wave for which a SIGMET message has already been issued); for example, “MTW MOD ABV FL080 E OF 63 DEG N”; o) SIGMET messages applicable to the FIR concerned or the sub-area thereof, for which the area forecast is valid; for example, “SIGMET APPLICABLE: 33’. p) on the next line, indication of the beginning of the second section of the area forecast using the abbreviation “SECN II”; Not for Resale
  • 3-15 Chapter 3. Forecasts Example 3-3. GAMET area forecast YUCC GAMET VALID 220600/221200 YUDO AMSWELL FIR12 BLW FLIOO SECN I SFC WSPD: 10112 65 KMH SFC VIS: 06/08 3000 M BR N OF N51 SIGWX: 11/12 ISOL TS SIG CLD: 06/09 OVC 800/1100 FT AGL N OF N51 10/12 ISOL TCU 1200/8000 FT AGL ICE: MOD FL050/080 TURB: MOD ABV FL090 SIGMETS APPLICABLE: 3 3 SECN II PSYS: 06 L 1004 HPA N51.5 E1O.O MOV NE 25 KT WKN WINDTT: 2000 FT 270/70 KMH PS03 5000 FT 250/80 KMH MS02 10000 FT 240185 KMH M S l l CLD: BKN SC 2500/8000 FT AGL FZLVL: 3000 FT AGL MNM QNH: 1004 HPA SEA: T I 5 HGT 5M VA: NIL Meaning: An area forecast for low-level flights (GAMET) issued for sub-area two of the Amswell' flight information region (identified by YUCC Amswell area control centre) for below flight level 1O0 by the Donlon/lnternational* meteorological office (YUDO); the message is valid from 0600 UTC to 1200 UTC on the 22nd of the month. Section I: Surface wind speeds: Surface visibility: Significant weather phenomena: Significant clouds: icing: Turbulence: SIGMET messages: between 1000 UTC and 1200 UTC 65 kilometres per hour; between 0600 UTC and 0800 UTC 3 O00 metres north of 51 degrees north (due to mist); between 1100 UTC and 1200 UTC isolated thunderstorms without hail; between 0600 UTC and O900 UTC overcast base 800, top 1100 feet above ground level north of 51 degrees north; between 1000 UTC and 1200 UTC isolated towering cumulus base 1200, top 8000 feet above ground level; moderate between flight level 050 and 080; moderate above flight level O90 (at least up to flight level 100); 3 and 5 applicable to the validity period and subarea concerned; Section II: at 0600 UTC low pressure of 1004 hectopascals at 51.5 degrees north 10.0d grees east, expected to move north-eastwards at 25 knots and to weaken; Winds and temperatures: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Pressure systems: at 2 O00 feet above ground level wind direction 270 degrees; wind speed 70 kilometres per hour, temperature plus 3 degrees Celsius; at 5000 feet above ground level wind direction 250 degrees; wind speed 80 kilometres per hour, temperature minus 2 degrees Celsius; at 10000 feet above ground level wind direction 240 degrees; wind speed 85 kilometres per hour, temperature minus 11 degrees Celsius; broken stratocumulus, base 2 500 feet, top 8 O00 feet above ground level; 3 O00 feet above ground level; 1004 hectopascals; surface temperature 15 degrees Celsius; and state of sea 5 metres; nil. Clouds: Freezing level: Minimum QNH: Sea: Volcanic ash: Fictitious locations Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 3-16 pressure centres and fronts and their expected movements and developments; for example, “PSYS: 06 L 1004 HPA 51.5 DEG N 10.0 DEG E MOV NE 25 KT WKN”; upper winds and upper-air temperatures for at least the following altitudes: 600 m, 1500 m and 3 O00 m (2000 fi, 5 O00 fi and 10000 fi); for example, “WINDm. 2000 FT 270/70 Kh4H PS03 5000 FT 250180 KMH MS02 10000 FT 240/85 Kh4H MS11”; cloud information not included under k), giving cloud amount, type and height indications of the bases and tops above ground level (AGL) or above mean sea level (AMSL); for example, “CLD: BKN SC 2500l8000 FT AGL”; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- height indication of 0°C level(s) above ground level (AGL) or above mean sea level (AMSL), if lower than the top of the airspace for which the forecast is supplied; for example, “FZLVL: 3000 FT AGL”; forecast lowest QNH during the period of validity; for example, “MNM QNH: 1004 HPA”; sea-surface temperature and state of the sea if required by regional air navigation agreement; for example, “SEA: T15 HGT 5 M’; and w) location of volcanic eruptions which are producing ash clouds of significance to aircraft operations, the name of the volcano and the time of the first eruption, if known; for. example, “VA: MT. HOKKAIDO KOMAGATAKE PSN N4292 E14040 ERUPTED VA CLD TOP 4900 FT MOV SE”. 3.13.3 AIRMET information is issued when specified en-route weather phenomena hazardous to low-level flights occur or are expected to occur, which have not been included in relevant area forecasts for low-levei flights and consequently have also not been included in the flight documentation for low-level flights supplied to pilots. The complete information regarding the en-route weather phenomena hazardous to low-level flights is contained in the first part (i.e. Section I) of the GAMET area forecast given in 3.13.2. It is important that where the area forecasts for low-level flights are prepared in significant weather chart format, they cover the same type of information. 3.13.4 Area forecasts for low-levei flights exchanged between meteorological ofices in support of the issuance of AIRMET information are issued every 6 hours for a period of validity of 6 hours and transmitted to meteorological offices concerned not later than one hour prior to the beginning of their validity period. Table 3-5. Additional provisions concerning the issuance of GAMET area forecasts Condition Action Specific hazardous phenomenon not expected or expected but already covered by a SIGMET message (items g) to o) refer) Omit from the GAMET No hazardous phenomenon expected and no SIGMET messages applicable The term “HAZARDOUS WX NIL“ replaces all the lines from the third line onward in the GAMET Specific hazardous phenomenon has been included in GAMET but does not occur or is no longer forecast to occur Issue GAMET AMD amending the element concerned Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 4 SIGMET INFORMATION, TROPICAL CYCLONE AND VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY INFORMATION, AIRMET INFORMATION, AERODROME WARNINGS AND WIND SHEAR WARNINGS 4.1 GENERAL a) at subsonic cruising levels: The preparation and issuance of information advising pilots and other aeronautical personnel of weather no conditions likely to affect the safety of international civil aviation are important functions of meteorological offices. In fact, the meteorological watch offices (MWOs) exist primarily to prepare and issue information on potentially hazardous enroute weather phenomena in their area of responsibility (see 1.3). This information is called “SIGMET and AIRMET information”. Tropical cyclone and volcanic ash advisories are products of tropical cyclone advisory centres (TCACs) and volcanic ash advisory centres (VAACs) (see 1.6 and 1.7). MWOs use these advisories in preparing SIGMET information for tropical cyclones and volcanic ash clouds. The issuance of warnings of hazardous weather conditions at or near aerodromes, including wind shear warnings, is usually the primary responsibility of aerodrome meteorological offices. Note.- Data type designators to be used in abbreviated headings for messages including SIGMET and AIRMET information, tropical cyclone and volcanic ash advisories are given in Chapter 6, 6.2.2 and in the WMO Manual on the Global Telecommunications System (WMO-No. 386). thunderstorm obscured. ........................ .OBSC TS embedded.. ...................... EMBD TS frequent............................ FRQ TS squall line.. ........................ SQL TS obscured with hail .............. OBSC TS GR embedded with hail .............EMBD TS GR frequent, with hail ............... .FRQ TS GR squall line with hail. ..............SQL TS GR tropical cyclone tropical cyclone with 10-minute mean surface wind speed of 63 km/h (34 k ) t or more. .................TC (+ cyclone name) turbulence severe turbulence.. , ............... SEV TLTRB icing severe icing ....................... SEV ICE severe icing due to freezing rain. ............. SEV ICE (FZñA) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- mountain wave severe mountain wave. 4.2 SIGMET INFORMATION duststorm heavy duststorm. ....................HVY DS 4.2.1 The purpose of SIGMET information is to advise pilots of the occurrence or expected occurrence of en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations. The list of phenomena calling for the issuance of SIGMET messages is given below, together with the abbreviations to be used: sanaktorm heavy sandstorm.. volcanic ash volcanic ash 4-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .............SEV MTW Not for Resale ................... HVY SS ....VA (+ volcano name, if known)
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 4-2 b) at transonic and supersonic cruising levels: turbulence moderate turbulence. ............ .MOD TURF3 severe turbulence ................ .SEV TURB cumulonimbus isolated cumulonimbus. .............. ISOL CB occasional cumulonimbus ........... OCNL CB frequent cumulonimbus ............... FRQ CB hail hail ................................... GR volcanic ash volcanic ash .... .VA (+ volcano name, if known) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Only one element from those listed in a) orb) may be used in a SIGMET message for subsonic, cruising levels or a SIGMET message for transonic, and supersonic cruising levels, respectively. 4.2.2 Messages concerning thunderstorms, tropical cyclones or severe squall lines should not include references to associated turbulence or icing. However, the occurrence of heavy hail (with no intensity indicated) with thunderstorms should be indicated. 4.2.3 SIGMET information is often based on aircraft reports, in particular, on special air-reports; it may also be based on weather satellite data and on ground-based obseryations, such as weather radar observations, or on forecasts. 4.2.4 SIGMET information messages are issued by ,MWOs and distributed to aircraft in flight through associated ATS units and to operators’ local representatives. Aircraft in flight should normally be given, on ground .- initiative, SIGMET information messages affecting their routes to a distance equivalent to 2 hours’ flying time ahead of the position of the aircraft. In addition, SIGMET information for volcanic ash and tropical cyclones should be supplied to aircraft in flight, as necessary (i.e. on ground initiative or on request by pilots), to cover the areas affected by these phenomena during the whole flight (see 4.2.5). 4.2.5 The SIGMET messages are disseminated to MWOs, WAFCs and to other meteorological offices as determined by regional air navigation agreement. Furthermore, SIGMET messages are transmitted to the ICAO international OPMET databanks and to the international centres responsible for operations of the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) satellite distribution systems. In addition, SIGMET messages for volcanic ash cloud are disseminated Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS to VAACs. Operators are supplied with SIGMET information mainly from meteorological offices. They can also obtain this information through various automated meteorological information systems or through automated information systems for pre-flight planning. The period of validity of these messages is normally up to 4 hours and should not exceed 6 hours. In the special case of SIGMET messages for volcanic ash cloud and tropical cyclones, an outlook should be included giving information for up to 12 hours beyond the normal period of validity concerning the expected trajectory of the volcanic ash cloud and positions of the tropical cyclone centre (see 4.3). SIGMETsrelated to tropical cyclones and volcanic ash clouds are to be available at departure aerodromes for the whole route for nonstop flights intending to cross areas affected by these phenomena. SIGMET messages relating to the expected occurrence of weather phenomena, with the exception of volcanic ash cloud and tropical cyclones, should be issued not more than 6 hours, and preferably not more than 4 hours, before the expected time of occurrence of that phenomenon. SIGMET messages are cancelled by the issuing office when the phenomena are no longer occurring or are no longer expected to occur in the area. 4.2.6 It should be noted that information on volcanic ash cloud and associated volcanic activity events is promulgated to users, including ATS units, also by a NOTAM or preferably an ASHTAM. ACCdFICs routinely receive volcanic ash advisories frai the VAACs to which they are associated in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. In view of this, it is important that MWOs maintain close coordination with their associated ACCslFICs (and relevant aeronautical information services centres or offices) to ensure that information on volcanic ash in SIGMETs and NOTAMs or ASHTAMs is consistent. Note.- Information on pmceduws to be used for the dissemination of information on volcanic eruptions i given s in the Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds (Doc 9691), the Handbook on the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) - Operational Procedures and Contact List (Doc 9766) and on the ICAO website: http:llwww.icao.int under Air Navigation Bureau, Meteorology. 4.2.7 SIGMET information messages (see Example 4-1) are in abbreviated plain language using approved ICAO abbreviations. In order to facilitate computer processing of the information, strict adherence to the relevant specifications for AIRMET information messages contained in Appendix 11 is essential. To describe weather phenomena, no additional descriptive material is therefore permitted. The message contains the following: Not for Resale
  • Chapter 4. Sigmet Information, Tropical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Adviso y Information, AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings 4-3 Example 4-1. SIGMET messages a) SIGMET for turbulence YUCC* SIGMET 5 VALID 221215/221600 YUDO'AMSWELL FIR SEV TURB OBS AT 12102 YUSB FL250 MOV E 40KMH WKN Meaning: The fifth SIGMET message issued for Amswell' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC area control centre) by the Donlon/lntemational* meteorological watch office (YUDO) since O001 UTC; the message is valid from 1215 UTC to 1600 UTC on the 22nd of the month; severe turbulence was observed at 1210 UTC over SibylBictock' aerodrome (YUSB) at level 250; the turbulence is expected to move eastwards at 40 kilometres per hour and to weaken in intensity. YUCC' SIGMET 3 VALID 251600l252200 YUDO'AMSWELL' FIR TC GLORIA OBS AT 16002 N2706 WO7306 CB TOP FL500 WI 150NM OF CENTRE MOV NW IOKT NC FCST 22002 TC CENTRE N2740 WO7345 OTLK TC CENTRE 260400 N2830 WO7430 261000 N2912 WO7530 Meaning: The third SIGMET message issued for the Amswell' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC area control centre) by the Donlonllntemational' meteorologicalwatch office (YUDO) since O001 UTC. the message is valid from 1600 UTC to 2200 UTC on the 25th of the month; tropical cyclone "GLORIA" was observed at 1600 UTC 27 degrees 6 minutes north, 73 degrees 6 minutes west; cumulonimbus tops reaching flight level 500 within 150 nautical miles of its centre; the centre of the tropical cyclone is moving northwest at 10 knots; no change in intensity expected; forecast for 2200 UTC the tropical cyclone centre at 27 degrees 40 minutes north, 73 degrees 45 minutes west. Outlook for the position of the tropical cyclone centre: at 0400 UTC on the 26th the centre is expected to be located at 28 degrees 30 minutes north, 74 degrees 30 minutes west; at 1000 UTC on the 26th at 29 degrees 12 minutes north, 75 degrees 30 minutes west. c) SIGMET for volcanic ash YUKK' SIGMET 2 VALID 2111001211700 YUGG*KENTAL' FIRIUIR VA ERUPTION MT ASHVAL LOC S1500 E07348 VA CLD OBS AT I1002 FL310/450 APRX 220KM BY 35KM SI500 E07348 TO SI530 E07642 MOV ESE 65KMH FCST 17002 VA CLD APRX Si506 E07500 TO SI518 E08112 TO SI712 E08330 TO SI824 E07836 OTLK 2123002 VA CLD APRX SI600 E07806 TO SI642 E08412 TO SI824 E08900 TO SI906 E08100 2205002 VA CLD APRX SI700 E08100 TO SI812 E08636 TO S2000 E09224 TO S2130 E08418 Meaning: The second SIGMET message issued for the Kental' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUKK Kental area control centrelupper information centre) by the Gales' meteorological watch office (YUGG) since O001 UTC,.the message is valid from 1100 UTC to 1700 UTC on the 21st of the month; a volcanic ash eruption at the "Mount Ashval" volcano located at 15 degrees O minutes north, 73 degrees 48 minutes east; volcanic ash cloud observed at 1100 UTC between flight levels 310 and 350 extents approximately 220 km by 35 km, 15 degrees O minutes south, 73 degrees 48 minutes east to 15 degrees 30 minutes south, 76 degrees 42 minutes east; moving to east-south-east by 65 kilometres per hour; forecast position of the cloud at 1700 UTC approximately 15 degrees 6 minutes south, 75 degrees O minutes east to 15 degrees 18 minutes south, 81 degrees 12 minutes east to 17 degrees 12 minutes south, 83 degrees 30 minutes east to 18 degrees 24 minutes south, 78 degrees 36 minutes east. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- b) SIGMET for tropical cyclone
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorolopica1 Practice 4-4 Outlook: for 2300 UTC on the 21st of the month volcanic ash cloud extending approximately at 16 degrees O minutes south, 78 degrees 6 minutes east to 16 degrees 42 minutes south, 84 degrees 12 minutes east to 18 degrees 24 minutes south, 89 degrees O minutes east to 19 degrees 6 minutes south, 81 degrees O minutes east; for 0500 UTC on the 22nd of the month volcanic ash cloud extending approximately 17 degrees O minutes south, 81 degrees O minutes east to 18 degrees 12 minutes south, 86 degrees 36 minutes east to 20 degrees O minutes south, 92 degrees 24 minutes east to 21 degrees 30 minutes south, 84 degrees 18 minutes east. d) SIGMET information message to be cancelled Note.- The content of the message below relates to the message in a). This type of message applies also to SIGMET information messages for tropical cyclone and volcanic ash cloud shown in b) and c). YUCC’ SIGMET 6 VALID 221400/1600 YUDO’AMSWELL” FIR CNL SIGMET 5 221215/1600 Meaning: The sixth SIGMET message issued for the AMSWELL’ flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC Amswell area control centre) by the Donlon /International’ meteorological watch office (YUDO) since O001 UTC; the message is valid from 1400 UTC to 1600 UTC on the 22nd of the month. The fifth SIGMET information message of the day is cancelled. Fictitious locations - location indicator of the ATS unit serving the FIR or control area to which the SIGMET message refers - for example “YüCC”; Note.- In cases where the airspace is divided into aflight information region (FIR) and an upper flight information region (VIR), the SIGMET is identified by the location indicator of the air trafic ~- unit-sgrving -the FIR; nevertheless, the services SIGMET message applies to the whole airspace within the lateral limits of the FIR, i.e. to the FIR and to the UIR. ï ñ e particular areas andlor flight levels affected by the meteorological phenomena causing the issuance of the SIGMET are given in the text of the message. - identification of information and sequence number - for example “SIGMET 5” or ‘‘SIGMET SST I”; Note.- Messages containing SIGMET information for aircrajì in transonic and supersonic flight are identijìed as SIGMET SST. The number following the identification of information (SIGMET or SIGMET SST) is a sequence number corresponding to the number of SIGMET information messages issued by the issuing ofice during 24 hours starting at 0001 UTC. Separate sequences of numbers are used for SIGMET and SIGMET SST messages. - date-time groups indicating the period of validity in UTC - for example “VALID 221215/221600”; Note.- It should be understood that the period of validity refers to the expected duration of the phenomenon, and therefore transmission of the information to aircrafi in flight by ground initiative is to be carried out oniy for those SIGMET which are still valid. - location indicator of the meteorological watch ofice originating the message followed by a hyphen to separate the preamble from the text for example “YUDO -”; - on the next line, name of the flight infomation region or control area for which the SIGMET is issued - for example “AMSWELL FIR”; - phenomenon and its description, using only the abbreviations given in 4.2.1 - for example “SEV TURB” or “FRQ TS’; - type of information: if observed and expected to continue, using the abbreviation “OBS” and, if appropriate, the time of observation in UTC; if forecast, using the abbreviation “FCST”; “OBS AND FCST” may also be used; - location and level, referring, where possible, to latitudenongitude andlor locations or geographical features well known intemationally - for example “S OF N54 FL390” or “SIBY/BISTOK FL25û”; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 4. Sigmet Information, Tropical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Adviso y Information, AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings - movement: observed or expected movement with reference to one of the eight points of the compass, given in kilometres per hour or knots, or stationary - for example “MOV E 40 KMH”; - changes in intensity: using, as appropriate, the abbreviations “INTSF”, “WKN” or ‘WC”; - on the next line, in SIGMET information messages concerning volcanic ash cloud or tropical cyclones, an outlook providing information beyond the period of validity specified above and covering up to 12 hours of the trajectory of the volcanic ash cloud or positions of the tropical cyclone centre - for example “OTLK TC CENTRE 260400 N2830 WO743 261000 N2912 W7530”. cyclones and volcanic ash clouds, should be based, where possible, on advisory information produced in TCACs and VAACs (1.6 and 1.7 refers). The supply of the advisory information from TCACs and VAACs to MWOs is defined by regional air navigation agreement whereby MWOs, which are required to prepare SIGMETs for tropical cyclones and volcanic ash, are associated with the individual designated TCACs and VAACs. In addition, the distribution for both advisories is as follows: for tropical cyclone advisory information WAFCs, TCACs, whose area of responsibiliîy may be affected, ICAO international OPMET databanks, and centres operating AFS satellite distribution systems; - for volcanic ash advisory information - WAFCs, Note I . - In order to provide advance warning of the existence of volcanic ash clou& and tropical cyclones, the SIGMET message should be issued up to 12 hours before the commencement of the period of validis, or as soon as practicable if such advance warning of the existence of these phenomena is not available. These SIGMETs need to be updated at least every 6 hours. Note 2.- For further details on the preparation and dissemination of SIGMET information messages, see also the Guide for the Preparation and Dissemination of SIGMET Information, prepared by the ICAO Regional offices for use in their respective regions. Information on the required exchanges of SIGMET information messages between meteorological offices is contained in the ICAO air navigation plan publications for the various ICAO reg-ons. Additional usefil information including arrangements for the distribution of SIGMET information messages at aerodromes and to FICs, etc., can be obtainedfim the ICAO Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377). VAACs, whose area of responsibility may be affected, ACCdFICs, whose area of responsibility may be affected, relevant NOTAM offices, ICAO international OPMET databanks, and centres responsible for operations of AFS satellite distribution systems. Airline operators can obtain the advisory information through the AFTN address’ established to serve this purpose. To date, nine VAACs and seven TCACs have been designated by regional air navigation agreements (see Appendix 12). 4.3.2 The advisory information on tropical cyclones should comprise the following in the order indicated: TC ADVISORY; DTG: year month date (yyyymmdd)/time(in UTC) (using ‘2“)of issue; TCAC: name of TCAC (location indicator or full name); 4.2.8 The issuance of SIGMET messages on volcanic ash cloud and/or tropical cyclones in the form of abbreviated plain language messages may be supplemented by the MWOs, which is in a position to do so by the issuance of these SIGMET messages in graphical format. If this is the case, the WMO BUFR code form should be used. A model has not yet been developed. 4.3 TROPICAL CYCLONE AND VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY INFORMATION TC: name of tropical cyclone; NR:advisory number (starting with “01” for each cyclone); 1. 4.3.1 The preparation of SIGMET information, and particularly of outlooks (see 4.2.5) relating to tropical --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 4-5 Not for Resale The AFTN address can be found in Table 4-1 of the Handbook on the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) Operational Procedures and Contact List (Doc 9766) and on the ICAO website: http://www.icao.int under Air Navigation Bureau, Meteorology.
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 4-6 or or PSN: position of the centre in degrees and minutes (?Nnnnn? or ?Snnnn?, ?Wnnnnn? or ?Ennnnn?); 5) LOCATION: degrees/minutes (?Wnnnn? ?Snnnn?, ?Wnnnnn? or ?Ennnnn? ?UNKNOWN? or ?UNNAMED?); MOV direction and speed of movement respectively to at least eight compass points (?N?, ?NE?, ?E?, ?y, ?SW?, ?W?, ?W?) km/h and in (or kt); 6 ) AREA: State, or region if ash is not reported over a State; 7) SUMMIT ELEVATION: elevation in m or ft (including units); C: centrai pressure (in hPa); 8 ) ADVISORY NUMBER year in full and message MAX WIND: maximum surface wind near the centre (mean over 10 minutes, in km/h (or kt)); number (assuming separate sequence for each volcano); FCST PSN + 12 HR: forecast of centre position for fixed valid time of., ..UTC (12 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); 9) INFORMATION SOURCE: free tex$ 10) AVIATION COLOUR CODE: colour code (?RED?, ?ORANGE?, ?YELLOW, ?GREEN?) or (?UNKNOWN?) or (?WOTGIVEN?) or (?NL?); FCST MAX WIND + 12 HR: forecast of maximum surface wind for fixed valid time of .... UTC (12 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); 11) ERUF?TION DETAILS: free text description (including datdtime of emption(s)) or C?UNKNOW?); FCST PSN + 18 HR:forecast of centre position for fixed valid time of ....UTC (18 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); 12) OBS ASH DATEITIME: ddtime (UTC) (using 13) FCST MAX WIND + 18 HR: forecast of maximum surface wind for fixed valid time of .... UTC (18 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); 13) OBS ASH CLOUD: ?SFC? or ?FLnndnnn, boundary coordinatedarea, direction of movement in eight compass points (?Yi?, ?NE?, ?E?, ?SE, <<S , ? W , ?W?,?W) speed of each cloud S and . 9, mass in km/h or k (including units), (up to 4 t layers)?; or if ash reported (e.g. AIREP) but not identifiable from satellite data, include ?ASH NOT IDENTIFIABLE FROM SATELLITE DATA? and instead of forecast ash positions include ?WINDS? followed by upper winds for up to four selected layers; 15)-FCST MAX WIND + 24 HR: forecast of maximum surface wind for fixed valid time of.. .. UTC (24 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); 16) NXT MSG: expected year month date (yyyy. mmdd)/time (in UTC) (using ?Z?)of issuance of next advisory (using ?BFR?, if applicable) or ?WO MSG EXP?. 14) FCST ASH CLOUD + 6 HR: forecast height and position for each cloud mass for fixed valid time .... üTC (six hours from o b s v e d time of ash cloud given in Item 12), in flight levels, and degreedminutes or km or NM; 4.3.3 The advisory information on volcanic ash issued in abbreviated plain language should comprise the following in the order indicated: 15) FCST ASH CLOUD + 12 H R forecast height and position for each cloud mass for fixed valid time .... UTC (twelve hours from observed time of ash cloud given in item 12), in flight levels, and degreeslminutes or km or NM; 1) VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY; 2) ISSUED: year month date (yyyymmdd)/time in UTC (using ?Y?) or date month year (ddxxx2yyyy)/timein UTC (using ?Y); 3) VAAC: name of volcanic ash advisory centre; 4) VOLCANO: name and IAVCE13 number (or ?UNKNOWN? or ?UNNAMED?); Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Use abbreviations for months of the year from the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400), for example, ?JAN?. 3. International Association of voïcanoïogy and Chemistry of the Earth?s Interior (IAVCEI). 2. Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 14) FCST PSN + 24 HR: forecast of centre position for fixed valid time of.. ..UTC (24 hours after time of issuance of the advisory); ??z?);
  • Chapter 4. Sigmet Information, Tropical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Advisory Information, AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings 16) FCST ASH CLOUD + 18 HR: forecast height and position for each cloud mass for fixed valid time .... UTC (eighteen hours from observed time of ash cloud given in Item 12), in flight levels, and degreedminutes or km‘ or NM, or “ASH DISSIPATED’; 17) NEXT ADVISORY: year month date (yyyymmdd)/time in UTC (using “2”) or date month year (ddxxx4yyyy)/time in UTC (using “Z”) or ‘WO LATER THAN year month date (yyyymmdd)/time (UTC)” (using “Z”) or date month year (ddxxx4yyyy)/time in UTC (using “Z”) or ‘WO FURTHER ADVISORIES” or “WILL BE ISSUED BY”; 18) REMARKS: free text or “NIL”. Note.- PANS-ABC (Doc 8400) abbreviations may be used in the advisory information to present s h o r t f i e text. 4.3.4 As shown in 4.3.2 and 4.3.3, the advisories are issued in abbreviated plain language using approved ICA0 abbreviations. The order of information presented in both advisories is to be strictly adhered to. Exampie 4-2 a) and b) show a tropical cyclone advisory message and a volcanic ash advisory message. Volcanic ash advisories may also be issued in graphical format as outlined in Appendix 9, Model VAG 4- 7 surface wind speed widespread mean surface wind speed above 60 km/h (30 kt)SFC WSPD (+ wind speed and units) surface visibility widespread areas affected by the reduction of visibility to less than 5 O00 m including the weather phenomenon causing the reduction of visibility .............................. .SFC VIS (+ visibility) ............(+ weather phenomena to be selected from the list in Table 2-5) ..................................... thunderstom isolated thunderstorms without hail. ...........ISOL TS occasional thunderstorms without hail. ........OCNL TS isolated thunderstorms with hail ...........ISOL TSGR occasional thunderstorms with hail ........OCNL TSGR mountain obscuration mountains obscured ...................... MT OBSC cloud widespread areas of broken or overcast cloud with height of the base less than 300 m (1 O00 fi) above ground level: broken ............................ .............. BKN CLD .(+ height of the base and top and units) * overcast ........................... OVC CLD .............. .(+ height of the base and top and units) 4.3.5 Updates to both types of advisory infomation are issued at least every six hours, or as necessary. cumulonimbus clouds which are: 4.4 isolated. ............................ occasional. ......................... frequent ............................. AIRMET INFORMATION 4.4.1 The purpose of AIRMET information is to advise pilots of the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena, which may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations and which were not already included in the forecast issued for low-level flights (see 3.13) in the FIR concerned or sub-area thereof. The list of phenomena calling for the issuance of AIRMET is given below, together with the abbreviations to be used in AIRMET messages: ISOL CB OCNL CB FRQ CB towering cumulus clouds which are: isolated. ........................... occasional ........................ frequent ........................... ISOL TCU OCNL TCU .FRQ TCU icing moderate icing (except for icing in convective clouds) .................... .MOD ICE At cruising levels below FL 100 (or below FL 150 in mountainous areas or higher, when necessary): turbulence moderate turbulence (except for turbulence in convective clouds). ...... MOD TURB 4. Use abbreviations for months of the year from the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400), for example, “ J A N . mountain Wave moderate mountain wave. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale ............ .MOD MTW
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 4-8 Example 4-2. Advisory messages for tropical cyclones and volcanic ash a) Tropical cyclone advisory TC ADVISORY DTG: TCAC: TC: NR: PSN: MOV: C: MAX WIND: FCST PSN + 12 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 12 HR: FCST PSN + 18 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 18 HR: FCST PSN + 24 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 24 HR: NXT MSG: Note.- 19970925116002 YU FO GLORIA o1 N2706 WO7306 NW 20KMH 965HPA 9OKMH 260400 N2830 WO7430 9OKMH 261000 N2852 WO7500 85KMH 261600 N2912 WO7530 80KMH 19970925/20002 For the decode see 4.3.2 above. b) Volcanic ash advisory VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY ISSUED: VAAC: VOLCANO: LOCATION: AREA: SUMMIT ELEVATION: ADVISORY NUMBER: INFORMATION SOURCE: AVIATION COLOUR CODE: ERUPTION DETAILS: OBS ASH DATUTIME: OBS ASH CLD: FCST ASH CLD + 6 HR: FCST ASH CLD + 12 HR: * FCST ASH CLD + 18 HR: NEXT ADVISORY: REMARKS: Note.- 02118452 SFCIFL300 N4230E14048-N4232El4150-N4238E14300N4246E14230 FL3001600 NO ASH EXP 0310045Z SFCIFL600 NO ASH EXP 20000402/13002 ASH CLD CAN NO LONGER BE DETECTED ON SATELLITE IMAGE For the decode see 4.3.3 above. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 20000402/07002 TOKYO USUZAN 805-03 N4230E14048 JAPAN 732M 20001432 GMS JMA RED ERUPTED 20000402/0614Z ERUPTION OBS ASH TO ABV FL300 02106452 FLI 501350 N4230E14048-N4300E14130-N4246E14230-N4232E14150N4230E14048 SFCIFL150 MOV NE 25KT FL1501350 MOV E 30KT 02/1245Z SFCIFL200 N4230E14048-N4232E14150-N4238E14300-N4246 E14230 FL2001350 N4230E14048-N4232E14150N4238E14300N4246E14230 FL3501600 NO ASH EXP
  • Chapter 4. Sigmet Information, Tropical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Advisory Information, AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings Note.- The specifications for SIGMET information which are also relevant to low-level flights are given in 4.2.1. 4.4.3 AIRMET information is often based on weather satellite data and on ground-based observations, such as weather radar observations, or on forecasts. 4.4.4 AIRMET information messages are issued by MWOs in accordance with regional air navigation agreement, taking into account the density of air traffic operating below FL 100 (or FL 150 in mountainous areas). The technical specifications for SIGMET and AIRMET information messages and special air-reports are reproduced in Appendix 11. AIRMET messages are distributed to aircraft in flight through associated ATS units. Low-level aircraft in flight should normally be given, on ground initiative, AIRMET information messages affecting their routes. The AIRMET messages are disseminated to MWOs in adjacent flight information regions and to other meteorological offices as agreed by the meteorological authorities concerned. The period of validity of these messages is normally up to 4 hours and should not exceed 6 hours. AIRMET messages are cancelled by the issuing office when the phenomena are no longer occurring or are no longer expected to occur in the area. 4.4.5 AIRMET information messages (see Example4-3) are in abbreviated plain language using approved ICA0 abbreviations. In order to facilitate computer processing of the information, strict adherence to the technical specifications concerning AIRMET information messages, mentioned in 4.4.4 is essential. To describe weather phenomena, no additional descriptive material is therefore permitted. The message contains the following: - date-time groups indicating the period of validity in UTC - for example “VALID 221215/221600”; Note.- It should be understood that the period of validity refers to the expected duration of the phenomenon, and therefore transmission of the information to aircrajl in s flight by ground initiative i to be carried out only for those AIRMET messages which are still valid. - location indicator of the MWO originating the message followed by a hyphen to separate the preamble from the text - for example “YUDO -”; - on the next line, name of the FIR or sub-area thereof for which the AIRMET is issued - for example “AMSWELL FIR”; - phenomenon and its description, causing the issuance of the AIRMET, using only the abbreviations given in 4.4.1 - for example “MOD MTW’; - type of information: if observed and expected to continue, using the abbreviation “OBS” and, if appropriate, the time of observation in UTC; if forecast, using the abbreviation “FCST” - for example “OBS AT 1325”; “OBS AND FCST” may also be used; - location and level, referring, where possible, to latitudellongitude andor locations or geographical features well known internationally - for example “S OF N50 AT FL090”; - movement: observed or expected movement with reference to one of the eight points of the compass, given in kilometres per hour or knots, or stationary - for example “STNR”; - changes in intensity: using, as appropriate, the abbreviations “INTSF”, “WKN” or “NC”; - location indicator of the ATS unit serving the FIR or control area to which the AIRMET message refers - for example “WCC”; - message identification and sequence number - for example “AIRMET 2”; Note.- The number following the message identification (AIRMET) is a sequence number corresponding to the number of AIRMET information messages issued by the issuing office during 24 hours starting at 0001 UTC. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 4.5 AERODROME WARNINGS 4.5.1 The purpose of aerodrome warnings is to give concise information, in plain language, of meteorological conditions which could adversely affect aircraft on the ground, including parked aircraft, and the aerodrome facilities and services. 4.5.2 Aerodrome warnings are issued in accordance with local arrangements to operators, aerodrome services --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.4.2 Messages concerning thunderstorms or cumulonimbus clouds should not include references to associated turbulence or icing. However, the occurrence of hail (no indication of intensity) with thunderstorms needs to be indicated. 4-9
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 4-IO Example 43. AIRMET message YUCC AIRMET 2 VALID 221215/221600 YUDOAMSWELL FIR MOD MTW OBS AT 12052 AND FCST N48 E10 FL080 STNR NC Meaning: * --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- The second AIRMET message issued for the AMSWELL' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC Amswell area control centre) by the Donlon/lnternational* meteorological watch office (YUDO) since O001 UTC; the message is valid from 1215 UTC to 1600 UTC on the 22nd of the month; moderate mountain wave was observed at 1205 UTC at 48 degrees north and 10 degrees east at flight level 080; the mountain wave is expected to remain stationary and not to undergo any changes in intensity. Fictitious locations and to others concerned, by the meteorological ofice designated to provide service for that aerodrome. They normally relate to the occurrence or expected occurrence of one or more of the following phenomena: - tropical cyclone - thunderstorm - hail aerodromes where wind shear is considered to be a factor, it is therefore necessary to make arrangements, in addition to the inclusion of wind shear in the supplementary information of local routine i d special reports and reports in the METAR and SPEC1 code forms, to provide all concerned with specific wind shear warnings, which would alert ATS units and, through them, the pilots to the existence or expected existence of this hazardous phenomenon. 4.6.2 Evidence of the existence of wind shear should be derived from: - snow - freezing precipitation - hoar frost or rime - sandstorm ~ - düststürm - rising sand or dust - strong surface wind and gusts - squall - frost. 4.5.3 Where quantitative criteria are required for the issue of aerodrome warnings, e.g. expected maximum wind or expected total snow fall, these are established by agreement between the meteorological office and the users of the warnings. - ground-based wind shear remote-sensing equipment, e.g. Doppler radar, - ground-based wind shear detection equipment, e.g. a system of surface wind and/or pressure sensors located in an array, monitoring a specific runway or runways and associated approach and deparîure paths; - aircraft observations during the climb-out or approach phases of flight to be made in accordance with Chapter 7; or - other meteorological information, e.g. from appropriate sensors located on existing masts or towers in the viciniîy of the aerodrome or nearby areas of higher ground. Note.- Wind shear conditions are normally associated with one or more of the following phenomena: - thunderstorms, microbursts. funnel cloud (tornado or waterspout) and gust flonts; 4.6 WIND SHEAR WARNINGS 4.6.1 Wind shear has been cited as a cause or a contributory factor in a number of major aircraft accidents. At Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS - frontal surfaces; - strong surface topography; Not for Resale win& coupled with local
  • Chapter 4. Sigmet Information, Tropical Cyclone and Volcanic Ash Advisory Information, AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings - .sea breeze fronts; - mountain waves (including low-level rotors in the terminal area); - low-level temperature inversions. 4.6.3 As an example of the use of masts for the observation of wind shear and of low-levei temperature inversions, details of the system in use at Helsinki-Vantaa airport are given in Appendix 13. 4.6.4 The objective of wind shear warnings is to give concise information on the observed or expected existence of wind shear which could adversely affect: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a) aircraft on the approach path or take-off path or during circling approach between runway level and 500 m (I 600 ft) above that level or higher, where local topography produces operationally significant wind shears at greater heights; and b) aircraft on the runway during the landing roIl and take-off run. The warnings shall be either prepared by the meteorological office designated to provide service for the aerodrome, and disseminated to aerodromes where wind shear is considered a factor, in accordance with local arrangements with the appropriate ATS authority and operators concerned, or disseminated directly from the automated ground-based wind shear remote-sensing or detection equipment referred to in 4.6.2. 4.6.5 Wind shear warnings are prepared in abbreviated plain language. Wind shear in the approach area is reported, for example, as “WS WRNG SURFACE WIND 320/20KMH WIND AT 60 M 360/50KMH IN APCH’ (wind shear warning surface wind 320 degrees 20 km/h wind at 60 m 360 degrees 50 lan/h in approach). Where microbursts are observed, reported by pilots or detected by Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 4-11 ground-based wind shear detection or remote-sensing equipment, the wind shear warning must include a reference to microbursts, e.g. “WS WRNG MBST APCH RWY 26”. Where information from ground-based wind shear detection or remote-sensing equipment is used to prepare a wind shear warning, it should, if possible, relate to specific sections of the runway and distances along the approach or take-off path as agreed between the meteorological authority, the appropriate ATS authority and the operators concerned, e.g.“WS WRNG 6OKMH AIRSPEED LOSS 4KM FINAL RWY 13”. When an aircraft report is used to prepare a wind shear warning or to confirm a warning previously issued, this report, including the aircraft type, is given unchanged in the warning, for example, “WS WRNG B747 REPORTED MOD WS IN APCH RWY 34 AT 1510” (wind shear warning B747 reported moderate wind shear in approach to runway 34 at 1510 hours UTC). Note 1.- Following reported encounters by both arriving and departing aircraft two different wind shear warnings may exist, one for am’ving aircraft and one for departing aircraft. Note 2.- Specifcations for reporting the intensity of wind shear are still undergoing development. It is recognized, however, that pilots, when reporting wind shear, may use the qualifling t e m “moderate”, “strong” or “severe”, based to a large extent on their subjective assessment of the intensity of the wind shear encountered. Such reports are incorporated unchanged in wind shear warnings. 4.6.6 Wind shear warnings for aniving aircraft and/or departing aircraft are cancelled when aircraft reports indicate that wind shear no longer exists, or alternatively, after an agreed elapsed time. The criteria for the cancellation of a wind shear warning should be defined locally for each aerodrome, as agreed between the meteorological authority, the appropriate ATS authority and the operators concerned. Note.- Guidance on the issuance of wind shear warnings is provided in ICA0 Circular 186 - Wind Shear. Not for Resale
  • METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE FOR OPERATORS AND FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS 5.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS When such services are desired, the operator or a flight crew member must notify the aerodrome or other meteorological office concerned in sufficient time to allow that office to prepare the information required and, as necessary, to obtain iriformation from world area forecast centres and other meteorological offices. The notice should include such details as: 5.1.1 Meteorological service for operators and flight crew members consists of the following information: a) pre-flight planning by operators; b) in-flight replanning by operators using centralized operational control of flight operations; a) aerodrome of departure and estimated time of departure; c) use by flight crew members before departure; b) destination and estimated time of arrival; d) aircraft in flight. c) route to be flown and estimated times of arrivai at, and departure from, any intermediate aerodrome(s); Note.- The provision of meteorological information to s aircraft in flight i normally the responsibility of ATS units; details in this respect can be found in the Air Trafic Services Planning Manual (Doc 9426) and are therefore not reproduced in this manual. Howevel; meteorological information supplied by aerodromes and other meteorological oflces to ATS units is outlined in Chapter 8 of this manual. d) alternate aerodromes needed to complete the operational flight plan, taken from a list of alternates contained in Table AOP 1 of the air navigation plan publication concerned; e) cruising level(s); 5.1.2 The meteorological services required to be provided at or for aerodromes by aerodromes or other meteorological offices are detemiined by regional air navigation agreement and are listed in the various ICA0 air navigation plan publications. Factual information on existing meteorological services is shown in the aeronautical information publications (AIPs) issued by individual States. These publications usually contain details of the type of meteorological offices provided at aerodromes and the services provided by them, together with the address of the meteorological authority to which aeronautical users may apply for meteorological data. For aerodromes without meteorological offices, the AIPs give the address and the telephone number of the office responsible for the supply of the necessary meteorological information. (See Chapter 9 for information on the preparation and contents of the meteorology sections of AIPs.) r> g) type of flight, whether under the visual or the instrument flight rules; h) type of meteorological information requested, i.e. whether flight documentation andor briefing or consultation; i) time(s) at which briefing, consultation andor flight documentation are required. Note.- In the case of scheduledflights, the requirement for some or all of this information may be waived by agreement between the meteorological oflce and the operatoz In those cases, operators or flight crew members must keep 5.1.3 The meteorological services provided may include briefingiconsultation and flight documentation. 5-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS for supersonic flights, the alternative subsonic cruising level(s) and the locations of the transonic acceleration and deceleration areas and of the climb and descent paths; Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Chapter 5
  • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5-2 Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice the meteorological authoriq, or the aerodrome or other meteorological ofice concerned, informed of any changes in schedules, or plans for non-scheduled flights. 5.2 PRE-FLIGHT INFORMATION 5.2.1 Operators or their representatives, such as flight operations officers or flight crew members, require meteorological information for pre-flight planning. Meteorological information for in-flight replanning under centralized operation control may also be required. This information, i.e. for pre-flight planning and in-flight replanning, includes the following information, as required: current and forecast upper winds, upper-air temperatures, tropopause heights and maximum wind information and amendments thereto; existing and expected significant en-route weather phenomena and jet stream information and amendments thereto; a forecast for take-off; aerodrome reports (METARs and SPECIs, including TREND forecasts) for the aerodrome of departure, the aerodrome of intended landing, the take-off, and the en-route and destination alternate aerodromes as determined by regional air navigation agreement; aerodrome forecasts (TAF) and amendments thereto for the aerodromes of departure and intended landing and for take-off, and the en-route and destination alternate aerodromes as determined by regional air navigation agreement; and SIGMET information and appropriate special airreports relevant to the entire route concerned as determined by regional air navigation agreement. Note I . - Appropriate special air-reports will be those not already used in preparation of SIGMET messages. Note 2. - It may be noted that the application of advanced communication technologies and the use o f modern communication systems/equipment have provided for the exchange/collection/disseminationof OPMET data on a nearly global basis. In view of this, certain limitations, applied in the past for supplying operators andflight crew members with, in particular, SIGMET messages (except Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS those for tropical cyclones and volcanic ash) and METAR and SPEC1 messages including trend type forecasts, could have been relaxed. Nevertheless, it is important that the desired high efficiency of this global exchange and collection of these data within the aeronautical faed telecommunication network (AFTN) be maintained through the application of regional air navigation agreement (d), e) and j above refer). The quasi-global set o OPMET data is disf seminated by the AFS satellite distribution system. Individual messages or bulletins of the messages can also be obtained on request via the AFTNfrom the international OPMET databanks established by regional air navigation agreement flor details see 6.4). 5.2.2 The information listed in 5.2.1 should cover the flight in respect of time, altitude and geographical extent up to the aerodrome of intended landing. When there is doubt as to the practicability of landing at that aerodrome, additional information should be included covering the meteorological conditions expected between the aerodrome of intended landing and one or more suitable en-route and destination alternate aerodromes as required by the operator to complete the operational flight pian. 5.2.3 The meteorological office that prepares the preflight information or the information for in-flight replanning will, in cases of significant changes (e.g. when new information is received), advise the operator of changes in the pre-flight information andor bring the flight documentation issued in accordance with 5.4 up to date, in writing or orally, before it is supplied to flight crew members. The flight documentation itself should normally be supplied as close to the departure time as practicable. Should a need for amendment anse after the flight documentation has been supplied and before the aircraft has taken off, arrangements normally exist by which the meteorological office issues the updated information to the operator or to the local ATS unit for transmission to the aircraft. In case of unusual delays, completely new flight documentation may be requested by the flight crew from the meteorological office concerned. 5.2.4 For pre-flight planning and in-flight replanning by operators for supersonic aircraft, the information should include data covering the levels used for transonic and supersonic flights, together with the levels that may be used for subsonic flights. Particular mention should be made of occurrence and expected occurrence, location and vertical extent of cumulonimbus clouds, turbulence and precipitation. 5.2.5 For helicopter operations to offshore structures, pre-flight and in-flight planning information should include Not for Resale
  • Chapter 5. Meteorological Service for Operators and Flight Crew Members 5.2.6 For low-level operations, including those in accordance with the visual flight rules, the pre-flight and in-flight planning information on en-route conditions should cover the layer from ground to FL 100 or up to FL 150 or more in mountainous areas. The information should include en-route weather phenomena given in 3.13. in view of this, AIRMET information is of particular importance in planning low-level flights. 5.2.7 The upper wind and upper-air temperature information and the significant en-route weather information requested for pre-flight and in-flight planning by the operator is usually supplied in chart form as soon as it becomes available, but not later than three hours before departure. 5.2.8 Where operators can-y out computer flight planning, the necessary upper wind and upper-air temperature information is supplied at times and in formats agreed between the meteorological authority and the operator concerned. Digital grid-point forecasts, prepared by WAFCs, are widely used by the users. These forecast data are disseminated through the AFS satellite distribution systems to authorized users. Alternatively, and if arrangements have been made to that effect between the meteorological authority and such operators, this information may be obtained by the operators through direct reception of the data from the WAFC concerned (see 3.9). Note.- Further details on the use of meteorological data in computer as well as in manual flight planning by flight operations officers are given in Appendix 14 to this manual. directly by a person at the departure aerodrome or by telephone or other suitable telecommunication means from the meteorological ofifice who was notified of the flight and who issued the flight documentation, or through selfbriefing computer terminals. A consultation consists of a personal discussion, including questions and answers. The purpose of the briefing or consultation is to supply the latest available information of the type outlined in 5.2.1 and 5.2.3 on existing and expected meteorological conditions along the route to be flown, at the aerodrome of intended landing and at any necessary alternate aerodromes. Such information may be given either to explain and amplifi the contents of the flight documentation or, if so agreed between the meteorological authority and the operator, it may serve in lieu of flight documentation. 5.3.2 For supersonic flights and for low-level flights, a briefing or consultation should include information covering the levels of particular interest to these operations. In addition to weather phenomena that affects all flight operations, specific mention should be made of phenomena likely to affect supersonic operations, such as location and vertical extent of cumulonimbus clouds, turbulence and precipitation; in the case of low-level flights, including those in accordance with the visual flight rules, any phenomena causing a widespread reduction of visibility to below 5 O00 m and clouds which may affect the flight, should be mentioned. 5.3.3 To assist the flight crew members and others concerned with the preparation of a flight, and for use in a briefing or consultation, aerodrome meteorological offices also display aerodrome reports and forecasts, SIGMET and AIRMET information and special air-reports not covered by a SIGMET, as well as meteorological charts, including meteorological satellite images and ground-based weather radar information. This information can also be displayed for users by means of various self-briefing or meteorological infomation systems (see 5.7). Note.- A multilingual list of abbreviations and their decodes, which should be used in phraseologies in a briefing or consultation, is given in Appendix 15. 5.4 FLIGHT DOCUMENTATION METHODS OF PRESENTATION 5.3 BRIEFING CONSULTATION AND DISPLAY 5.3.1 A briefing or consultation is provided on request to flight crew members or other flight operations personnel. A briefing consists of an oral commentary, either Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5.4.1 Flight documentation is written or printed information that is provided to flight crew members before takeoff and which they take with them on the flight. It should comprise: Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- data from sea level to FL 100. The data will need to cover surface visibility, amount, type, when available, base and tops of cloud below FL 100, sea state and sea surface temperature, mean sea level pressure, turbulence and icing. Details of the requirements in this regard vary from region to region, and are therefore determined by regional air navigation agreement. Where available, AIRMET information and the area forecasts issued for these types of operations should also be provided to operators for flight planning purposes. 5-3
  • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5-4 Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f upper wind and upper-air temperatures; expected significant en-route weather phenomena and, if relevant, tropopause heights and jet streams; aerodrome forecasts: reports in the METAR code form and special reports in the SPECI code form for destination aerodromes and take-off, en-route and destination alternate aerodromes; SIGMET information and appropriate special air reports for a distance related to the whole route; and 5 4 4 Wherever possible, the charts included in flight .. documentation should be direct copies of charts received within the framework of the WAFS, as discussed in Chapter 3. The forms included in flight documentation are printed in English, French, Russian or Spanish; they should, wherever practicable, be completed in the language requested by the operator, preferably using one of those languages. The dimensional units used in flight documentation are normally those employed by the meteorological authority concerned, which are in compliance with Annex 5 - Units o Measurement to be Used in Air and f Ground Operations and are indicated for each element. Copies of flight documentation should be retained, either as printed copies or as computer files, by the issuing meteorological authority for at least 30 days. AIRMET information for low-level flights. However, in accordance with regional air navigation agreements or, in the absence thereof, when agreed between the meteorological authority and the operator concerned, flight documentation for flights of two hours duration or less, after a short stop or turnaround, may be limited to only the operational information; in all cases, however, the flight documentation should comprise information on at least c), d), e) and, if appropriate, f). 5 4 2 The information on upper winds and upper-air .. temperatures, expected significant en-route weather phenomena, tropopause heights, maximum winds and jet streams should be received by meteorological offices from within thehLmework ofhe WAFS or based on information obtained from that system. (This does not apply to the information relating to the layer from ground to FL 100 or FL 150 which is prepared by the meteorological offices concerned.) 5 4 3 The flight documentation is presented in one or .. more of the following forms: 5.4.5 The height indications used in aerodrome forecasts are always given as height above official aerodrome elevation. On charts and forms giving en-route meteorological conditions, height indications in terms of flight levels are preferred, but pressure-altitude, pressure or altitude (for low-level flights, height above ground level) may also be used; on such charts and forms, the height indication used is always indicated. Note.- Detailed characteristics o charts included in f f flight documentation, such as size, depiction o geographical features and grids, labels, etc., are given in Annex 3, 9.4. Examples of charts and forms included in flight documentation are shown in Appendix 9 to this manual. The appendix also includes MODEL SN containing a comprehensive set of important explanatory material f relating to charts, symbols, units o measurement, and abbreviations contained in flight documentation. This model should, therefore, be supplied, or be made available to flight crew members anaYor operators together with flight documentation. a) en-route information: 1) chart form; 5.5 FLIGHT DOCUMENTATION FORECASTS OF EN-ROUTE CONDITIONS . 2) tabular form; 3) abbreviated plain-language text; b) aerodrome information: 1) METAR, SPECI and TAF codes; 2 abbreviated plain language (usually in tabular ) form). Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5.5.1 The various types of forecasts of upper winds, upper-air temperatures and significant weather conditions en route are discussed in Chapter 3. The charts issued as flight documentation for flights between FL 250 and FL 450 include a high-level significant weather chart - an SWH chart (FL 250 to FL 450) and a forecast chart of upper winds and temperature for the level of 250 hPa. The medium-level significant weather chart - an SWM chart, issued in accordance with regional air navigation agreement Not for Resale
  • Chapter 5. Meteorological Service for Operators and Flight Crew Members 5.5.2 Where upper wind and upper-air temperature information is supplied in tabular form, it includes data for the same flight levels as the corresponding upper-air charts. This information should be given for spot locations on a regular grid. Forecasts of en-route conditions for low-level flights in tabular form include, in addition to upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts, significant weather forecasts containing the information given in 3.10.4. The upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts include data representative for individual, separated portions of the route concerned. These should not exceed a distance of 500 km.The following altitudes should be covered: 600 m, 1 500 m and 3 O00 m (2 O00 ft, 5 O00 It and 10 O00 It). 5.5.3 Where flight documentation is supplied in the form of an abbreviated plain-language text, it should cover the whole route to be flown. If such documentation covers more than one route, it should permit ready identification by the user of the information concerning the route to be flown. Forecasts of en-route conditions for low-level flights in abbreviated plain language include the information in 3.10.4, as well as upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts for the altitudes specified in 3.10.3. The lowest forecast QNH datum (for the whole route) or data (relating to individual portions of the route) should also be given. Where forecasts of en-route conditions are issued in the form of a GAMET area forecast, as described in 3.13.2, this forecast message should be the principal part of the flight documentation for low-level flights. Note.- The en-route forecasts for low-level flights refemd to in 5.5.1 to 5.5.3 are prepared by meteorological offices as agreed locally or in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. This applies particularly for the regions where AIRMET information is to be issued by regional air navigation agreement. In these regions, the GAMET forecasts are normalb prepared in support of the issuance of AIRMET information and SIGMET and AIRMET information relevant to the flight concerned is to be included in flight documentationfor low-level flights. 5.6 FLIGHT DOCUMENTATION AERODROME FORECASTS 5.6.1 The various types of aerodrome forecasts are discussed in Chapter 3. Flight documentation always Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS includes aerodrome forecasts for the aerodrome of departure, and for the aerodrome of intended landing. In addition, flight documentation includes aerodrome forecasts for one or more suitable altemate aerodromes, as needed, to complete the operational flight plan and as selected by agreement between the meteorological authority and the operator. By agreement between the meteorological authority and the operator, flight documentation may also include forecasts for a limited number of alternate aerodromes en route and for aerodromes where intermediate stops are planned. In such cases, use is normally made of available forecasts for regular aerodromes. 5.6.2 Aerodrome forecasts received from other meteorological offices should be included in flight documentation without any change in the substance. When an aerodrome forecast is not received in time, the meteorological office issuing the flight documentation should, if possible, prepare a provisional forecast. The meteorological office should inform the flight crew member that the forecast is provisional and record its origin in the fiight documentation. 5.6.3 Similarly, if during a briefing or consultation an opinion is expressed on developments in the meteorological situation at an aerodrome, which is appreciably different from the aerodrome forecast included in the flight documentation, the attention of all concerned needs to be drawn to this divergence and a record of the divergence supplied to the operator. 5.6.4 Aerodrome forecasts are normally presented in the TAF code form; they may also be presented in tabular form or in abbreviated plain-language text. Where presentation in the TAF code form is used, the location indicators and the abbreviations used are explained in the flight documentation and the presentation is in a form permitting ready identification of the beginning and end of each forecast. 5.7 AUTOMATED PRE-FLIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 5.7.1 Centralization and automation on the part of meteorological authorities prompted the development and implementation of automated pre-flight information systems. Re-flight information, self-briefing, consultation and flight documentation can be obtained by flight crew members, operators and other flight operations personnel through an automated pre-flight information system. The meteorological information to be displayed in meteorological offices can also be made available to the users Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- for limited geographical areas, is included in flight documentation for flights between FL 100 and FL 250. Upper wind and upper-air temperature charts and significant weather charts to be included in flight documentation are determined on the basis of agreements between meteorological authorities, users, and the WAFCs concerned. 5-5
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 5-6 through these systems. Some of these systems serve the above purposes exclusively while others allow for the provision of an integrated information system, which may not be confined to the meteorological part of pre-flight planning. Several systems already in place, or being developed, enable users a harmonized, common-point access to AIS and MET pre-flight information. Automated pre-flight information systems may form part of a multi-purpose aeronautical or public information system. Meteorological information and services supplied through an automated pre-flight information system to users should comply with Annex 3 provisions, primarily those in Chapters 3 and 5 of this manual. 5.7.2 5.7.3 The principal features and capabilities of automated pre-flight information systems should: a) provide for continuous updating of the system database and the monitoring of the validity and integrity of the meteorological information stored; b) permit access to the system by operators, flight crew members and other aeronautical users concerned through suitable telecommunications means (including public communications, such as telephone, fax, telex and data networks); and c) use access and interrogation procedures based on abbreviated plain-language, ICA0 location indicators, W M O aeronautical meteorological code data designators or based on a menu-driven interface or other mechanisms, as agreed between the meteorological authority and the operators Concerned; and d) provide for rapid response to user requests for information. 5.7.4 Where the AISIMET automated pre-flight information systems are established and used, the full responsibility for the MET data processed and supplied rests with the meteorological authority(ies) concerned, through all levels of processing up to the supply of the data to users. The same applies to the AIS authority(ies) designated by a State(s) for the AIS data processed and supplied by such systems. The information to be supplied through such systems to the personnel involved in the pre-flight planning, i.e. its quality, geographical and spacial coverage, format, content, validity, time and the frequency of supply etc., should be in conformity with the relevant provisions of Annex 3 and Annex 15. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 6 DISSEMINATION OF AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION the form of “bulletins”, each bulletin containing one or more reports, forecasts or other types of information (but always only one type per bulletin) and the appropriate builetin heading. The heading is essential to permit recognition by users and handlers, including computers, of type, time and origin of the data contained in the builetin. It should not be confused with the “AFTN message heading” which determines priority, routing and other telecommunication aspects of the message. All meteorological bulletins transmitted via the AFTN have to be “encapsulated” into the text part of the AFTN message format. 6.1 GENERAL --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 6.1.1 Efficient telecommunications are essential for the speedy dissemination of aeronautical meteorological information to ail users. Suitable telecommunication facilities must therefore be available at aerodromes to ensure rapid communications between meteorological offices and stations, and to allow these offices and stations to supply the necessary meteorological information to ATS units (control towers, approach control, etc.), operators and other aeronautical users at the aerodrome. Automatic telecommunication and information systems, telephones, and teletypewriters are used for this purpose; if used between meteorological offices and ATS units, telephones should allow contact with the required points within 15 seconds (even if switchboards are used), and printed communications within 5 minutes, including any necessary retransmission. Note.- Details concerning the AFTN message format are given in Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume II - Communication Procedures including those with PANS status. 6.2.2 The meteorological bulletin abbreviated heading consists of a single line, precedes the OPMET data contained in the bulletin, and normally comprises three groups as follows: 6.1.2 For the dissemination of operational meteorological (OPMET) information beyond the aerodrome, the aeronautical fixed telecommunication network (AFTN) and the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) satellite distribution broadcast systems (see 6.3 and Appendix 1) are the primary communication means. Both the network and the broadcast are part of the AFS, which embraces ail telecommunication systems used for international air navigation, except ground-to-air transmissions. Four ICA0 international OPMET databanks, which can be accessed primarily through the AFTN, support inter-regional and regional exchanges and dissemination of OPMET information. These OPMET databanks were established by regional air navigation agreement in Brasilia, Brussels, Vienna and Washington. AFS circuits, other than those within the AFTN, may also be used, if necessary, for exchanges, collection and dissemination of OPMET information. a) an identifier; b) an ICA0 location indicator; c) a date-time group; and d) if necessary, a fourth group can be added as an identifier for a delayed, corrected or amended bulletin. The meaning of these four groups is as follows: - The identifier comprises four letters and two figures: the first and second letters are the data type designators, the third and fourth letters are the geographical designators, and the figures are added to identi& two or more bulletins originated by the same centre. The data designators are: 6.2 DISSEMINATION OF OPMET INFORMATION ON THE AFTN SA 6.2.1 OPMET information in alphanumeric form is transmitted on the AFTN (and on most other networks) in 6-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Routine report (in the METAR code form), including trend-type forecast, if provided
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 6-2 SP Special report (in the SPEC1 code form), including trend-type forecasts, if provided FT Aerodrome forecast valid for 12 to 24 hours (in the TAF code form) FC Aerodrome forecast valid for 9 to 12 hours (in the TAF code form) W A AIRMET information ws SIGMET information wc SIGMET information for tropical cyclones wv SIGMET information for volcanic ash FK Tropical cyclone advisory message FV Volcanic ash advisory message UA Air-report (AIREP) FA Area forecasts (GAMET forecasts) FR Route forecast (in the ROFOR code form) Note.- In the case of bulletins, the time of observation of each report needs to be clearly identified. - If necessary, the abbreviated heading may include a fourth group consisting of three letters to identi@ delayed (RRA), corrected (CCA) or amended (AAA) bulletins. If additional delayed, corrected or amended bulletins are necessary, they should be identified by RRB, RRC, etc.; CCB, CCC, etc.; and AAB, AAC, etc. Example.- A complete heading will be as follows: SAZB02 YUDO 151200 RRA = Delayed second of two bulletins of routine reports in the METAR code form for 1200 UTC on the 15th from Zambia, compiled by YUDO'. Example.SAZB02 = Second of two bulletins containing routine reports in the METAR code form (SA) from Zambia (ZB). I Example.- 151200 = The routine reports are based on observations made on the 15th of the month at 1200 UTC. * Fictitious location I Note.- A complete list o geographical designators is f given in WMO Publication No. 386 - Manual of the Global Telecommunication System; the data designators listed above are taken from the same WMO publication. - Tie ICA0 iocation indicator consists of four ietters (e.g. YUDO [fictitious location]) and identifies the meteorological office that compiled the bulletin. The complete list of location indicators is published in Location Indicators (Doc 7910). - The date-time group consists of six figures, the first . two figures indicating the day of the month and the next four figures indicating: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a) for routine and special reports (METARS and SPECIs), the time of observation in UTC; .. b) for aerodrome, route and area forecasts, the full hour in UTC (of which the last two figures are always 00) preceding the transmission time; for other forecasts, the standard time of observation in UTC on which the forecast is based; c) for other meteorological bulletins, such as SIGMET information, the time of origin in UTC of the text of the bulletin(s). Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6.2.3 Bulletins containing OPMET information and disseminated on the AFTN are given priorities depending on their urgency; warnings (SIGMET information), amendments to forecasts, and other meteorological infoxmation of immediate concern to aircraft in flight or about to depart are given a relatively high priority; next are meteorological forecasts, reports, and other messages exchanged between meteorological offices. Note.- Details concerning message Priorities on the AFW are given in Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume II - Communication Procedures including those with PANS status. 6.2.4 Messages containing meteorological data should be filed promptly for transmission on the AFTN, METARS and SPECIs are normally filed within 5 minutes of the time of the observation, and aerodrome forecasts at least one hour before the commencement of their validity (unless otherwise determined by regional air navigation agreement). 6.2.5 The time interval between the time of filing to the time of receipt of a message is called the "transit" time. Messages containing OPMET data transmitted on the AFTN should normally have transit times of less than 5 minutes, except for METARS and SPECIs and aerodrome forecasts (TAFs) exchanged over distances exceeding 900 lan which may have transit times of up to 10 minutes. Not for Resale
  • Chapter 6. Dissemination of Aeronautical Meteorological Information 6.3 DISSEMINATION OF AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION ON CIRCUITS/SYSTEMS OTHER THAN THE AFTN Details on regional networks or systems for the exchange of OPMET information are published by ICAO regional offices on a regular basis. 6.3.1 OPMET data are also disseminated on AFS circuits (including AFS satellite distribution systems) or networks other than the AFTN. In some cases, use is made of special circuits dedicated only to the dissemination of OPMET data, while in other cases, whole networks may be used for entering and extracting information. In some regions, special collection and dissemination systems have been designed for the more efficient handling of OPMET information exchanged on AFTN circuits as, for example, the Regional Operational Meteorological Bulletin Exchange (ROBEX) in the MID/ASIA/PAC regions, and the Africa-Indian Ocean Meteorological Bulletin Exchange (AMBEX) in the AFI region. Non-aeronautical circuits or broadcasts, for example those of the WMO, are also sometimes used for the transmission of OPMET information; similarly, aeronautical circuits may be occasionally used for the collection and exchange of basic data (i.e. WMO-type). 6.3.2 WAFS data are disseminated through three satellite broadcasts, directly from WAFCs to the meteorological offices. Other OPMET data also become an important portion of the WAFS satellite broadcasts. Where the necessary arrangements have been made, the broadcasts may also be received by other users, such as ATS units and operators. The transmission of WAFS data through satellite broadcasts have two formats: digital data, comprising upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts in the GRIB code form (these data are tailored for direct use by computers), as well as significant weather forecasts in the BUFR code form; and digital facsimile charts, comprising both upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts, as well as significant weather forecasts. 6.3.3 The dissemination of WAFS data through satellite broadcasts is the most efficient method, as it combines excellent quality with relatively low-cost, user-fnendly receiving equipment. States are therefore encouraged to arrange for the reception of the broadcasts which now provide global coverage. The procedures and conditions concerning the authorized access to the WAFS satellite broadcasts are given in Appendix 1, paragraph 4. Note.- For details on the methoak to be used in the various ICAO regions for the exchange of OFMET information, see the ICAO air navigation plan publications. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6-3 Not for Resale 6.4 INTERROGATION PROCEDURES FOR INTERNATIONAL OPMET DATABANKS 6.4.1 In addition to the dissemination means described in 6.2 and 6.3, OPMET data can also be obtained by interrogation of one of the ICAO international OPMET databanks. This is effected by means of a standardized message which îriggers the automatic retrieval of the requested information and its immediate transmission to the originator. Except in special cases, the information given to the user is always the most recent available. 6.4.2 In order to be accepted by the databank, the interrogation message must be in agreement with the following principles: a) it must contain the proper AFTN address used for interrogation (e.g. SBBRYZYX for Brasilia, EBBRYZYX for Brussels, LOWMYZYX for Vienna, KWBCYZYX for Washington); and b) only one line of interrogation (69 characters of text) is allowed. 6.4.3 The standard interrogation for one message shall include the elements listed below in the following “RQW’ indicating the start of a data request line; data type identifier; a 4-letter ICAO location indicator; and the equal sign (=) indicating the end of the interrogation line, e.g. RQM/SAMTSJ=. Note.- MTSI is a fictitious location indicator. 6.4.4 The accepted data type designators are as given in 6.2.2. Some of the data types listed in that paragraph may not be available in all the international OPMET databanks. 6.4.5 The following special interrogation procedures are available if more than one message is needed: a) the same data type may be requested for a number of stations without repeating the data type
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 6-4 identifier. The location indicators have to be separated by commas (,) which indicate the continuation of the request for the same type of data, e.g. RQMI SAEHAM,EHRD=; b) various data types may be interrogated in the same message using the oblique (4 as a separator, e.g. RQM/SAKMIA/FTKMIA=. 6.4.6 There are additional features used for interrogation that are not available in ali the international OPMET databanks. These are described in detail in the ?catalogues of OPMET data available at the OPMET databanks?, prepared and updated on regular basis by the ICA0 regional ofices concerned. It should be noted that some international OPMET databanks restrict access to one authorized user per State, and the computer will not respond to an unauthorized interrogation. 6.5 DISSEMINATION OF AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT Coordination between Air Trafic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377). 6.5.2 VOLMET broadcasts by VHF or HF voice communications and D-VOLMET by data links? are parts of aeronautical mobile service communications. Both communication systems are established and operated in States, usually by the ATS authorities, in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. Depending on these agreements, METARs, SPECIs (including trend forecasts, where required), TAFs, and SIGMET information messages are supplied through these telecommunications systems to aircraft in flight. Details rFlating to the cooperation of the meteorological and ATS authorities in the provision of the services are dealt with in the Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377). The standard meteorological phraseologies to be used in VOLMET broadcasts by voice communication are given in Appendix 1 to this manual. 1. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 6.5.1 The transmission of aeronautical meteorological information to aircraft in flight is the responsibility of the ATS units. Details on the meteorological information provided to aircraft in flight can be found in the Manual on The following data link services of the data linkflight information service (O-FIS)application should be used for the supply of OPMETdata. referred to above, to aircraft in flight: D-METAR service, D-TAF service, D-SIGMET service. For details on these data link sewices, see the Manual of Air Trafic Services Data Link Applications (Doc 9694) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 7 AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS craft are made only during the en-route phase of the flight at ATS reporting points or intervals: 7.1 GENERAL 7.1.1 There are two kinds of aircraft observations as listed below and discussed in detail in the following paragraphs: a) at which the applicable ATS procedures require routine position reports; and a) routine aircraft observations during en-route and climb-out phases of the flight; and b) which correspond most closely to intervals of one hour of flying time. b) special and other non-routine aircraft observations during any phase of the flight. For helicopter operations to and from aerodromes on offshore structures, routine observations are to be made from helicopters at points and times as agreed between the meteorological authorities and the helicopter operators concerned. 7.2 REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS DURING FLIGHT Note 1.- In most ICAO regions, specific ATSIMET reporting points have been designated. Lists of these points are availablefiom the ICAO regional offices. 7.2.1 Aircraft observations are to be reported using the following means: Note 2.- On aeronautical charts, the ATS/MET reporting points are indicated by the following symbols: a) air-ground data link. This is the preferred mode of reporting; and COmPulSoW aircraft repoh b) voice communication. This is to be used only if the air-ground data link is not available or appropriate. a 7.2.2 Aircraft observations are to be reported during flight at the time the observation is made or as soon thereafter as is practicable. on request 7.3.2 Exemptions from reporting Where voice communications are used, an aircraft is exempted from making routine observations when: 7.3 ROUTINE AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS a) the aircraft is not equipped with RNAV equipment; or 7.3.1 Frequency of reporting b) the flight duration is 2 hours or less; or When air-ground data link is used and automatic dependent c) the aircraft is at a distance equivalent to less than one hour of flying time from the next intended point of landing; or surveillance (ADS) is being applied, automated routine observations are made every i 5 minutes during the en-route phase and every 30 seconds during the climb-out phase for the first 10 minutes of the flight. When voice communications are used, routine meteorological observations by air- d) the altitude of the flight path is below 1500m (5 O00 f) i. 7- I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 7-2 7.4 SPECIAL AND OTHER NON-ROUTINE AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS In some regions, with high-density air traffic andíor with adequate ground-based observing networks, additional exemptions are prescribed by regional air navigation agreement for ali aircraft. Note.- When air-ground data link is used, no exemptions are to be applied. 7.4.1 Special observations are required to be made by all aircraft operating on international air routes whenever the following conditions are encountered or observed: 7.3.3 Designation procedures ,+ Special aircraft observations In the case of air-routes with high-density air traffic (e.g. organized tracks), an aircraft from among the aircraft operating at each flight level shall be designated, at approximately hourly intervals, to make routine observations in accordance with the frequency specified in 7.3.1, as appropriate. These designation procedures for the en-route phase of the flight are prescribed by regional air navigation agreement. In the case of the requirement to report during the climb-out phase, an aircraft is to be designated, at approximately hourly intervals, at each aerodrome to make routine observations in accordance with 7.3.1. The details conceming the required frequency to make routine aircraft observations and the associated designation procedures are shown in Table 7-1. a) severe turbulence; or b) severe icing; or c) severe mountain wave; or d) thunderstorms, without hail, that are: obscured; or embedded; or widespread; or in squall lines; or e) thunderstorms, with hail, that are: obscyed; or embedded; or widespread; or in squall lines; or Note.- Details on exemption and designation procedures for the en-mute phare of the flight are contained in the Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030), Part 3 - Meteorology. Table 7-1. Frequency and associated designation procedures of routine air-reports ~~ I Voice communications I Air-ground data link En-rouie phase I Frequency 1 low-density traffic All aircraff I high-density traffic Designated aircraff En-route phase I low-density tratfic All aircraff 1 every ATSIMET reporting point (simultaneously with position reports) or 1 every hour Designation procedures 1. none An aircraft at hourly intervals1 1 high-density trafic Designated aircraiì 1 every 15 min none An aircraft at hourly intervals1 Clirnb-oui phase (Terminal area) Designated aircraff Ievery 30 s for the first 10 min of the flight An aircraft at hourly intervals at each international aerodrome Subject to regional air navigation agreement included in the Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030). Part 3 Meteorology. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale -
  • Chaoter 7. Aircraft Observations and Reoorts 7-3 0 heavy duststorms or heavy sandstorms; or Note 2.- Reports of turbulence and icing during climbout and approach are especially important, since no satisfactory method of observing these hazards fiom the ground is available at this time. g) volcanic ash cloud; or h) pre-emption volcanic activity or volcanic eruption. Note 1.- The exemptions f i . m routine observations, mentioned in 7.3.2 above, do not apply to special observations which are required to be made by all aircrafi during any phase of the flight and in all regions. Note 2.- Pre-eruption volcanic activity in this context means Únusual and/or increasing volcanic activity which could presage a volcanic eruption. In addition, in the case of transonic and supersonic flights: 7.4.2 Other non-routine observations Other non-routine aircraft observations are made when meteorological conditions are encountered which are different from those listed under 7.4.1 (e.g. wind shear) and which, in the opinion of the pilot-in-command, may affect the safety or markedly affect the efficiency of other aircraft operations. These observations are to be made through voice communications by advising the appropriate ATS unit as soon as practicable. In the case of wind shear reports: i) moderate turbulence; or a) the aircraft type must be included; and j) hail; or b) pilots must inform appropriate ATS units as soon as practicable if forecast wind shear conditions are not encountered. k) cumulonimbus clouds. Note I.- When air-ground data link is used, special air-reports constitute a data link application mentioned in 7.5.6, Note 1. To facilitate the issuance o special airf reports by the pilot in the data link environment, a jüture data link application with a menu-driven system for the cockpit is being developed. An example of this type of userfriendly system, not requiring any additions o jive text, is f shown in Table 7-2. 7.5 CONTENT OF AIR-REPORTS 7.5.1 A report consisting of a position report and of meteorological information is called a “routine air-report”. (It may also contain operational information.) Reports con- Table 7-2. Downlink message menu incorporating conditions prompting the issuance of special air-reports SEVERE TURBULENCE SEVERE ICING SEVERE MOUNTAIN WAVE THUNDERSTORMS WITHOUT HAIL‘ THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL‘ HEAVY DUSTSTORMISANDSTORM VOLCANIC ASH CLOUD PRE-ERUPTION VOLCAN IC ACTIVITYNOLCANIC ERUPTION SST2:MODERATE TURBULENCE SST HAIL SST CB CLOUDS 1. Only report-thunderstorms if they are a) forming a squall line or b) over a widespread area or c) obscured or d) embedded. 2. SST = supersonic transport (transonic levels and supersonic cruising levels). --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice taining special aircraft observations are called “special airreports” and, in most cases, constitute a basis for the issuance of SIGMETs. 7.5.2 When voice communications are used, the elements contained in routine and special air-reports are as follows: Routine air-reports Special air-reports Message type designator Message type designator Section 1 (position information) Aircraft identification Position or latitude and longitude Time Flight level or altitude Next position and time over Ensuing significant point Section 1 (position information) Aircraft identification Position or latitude or longitude Time Flight level or altitude Section 3 (meteorological information) Condition prompting the issuance of a special air-report’ ‘Section 2 (operational information) Estimated time of amval Endurance Section 3 (meteorologicai information) Temperature Wind direction Wind speed Turbulence .AircrabicingHumidity (if available) 1. One condition to be selected f o the list presented under rm 7.4.1. 7 5 3 When air-ground data link is used and ADS is .. being applied, the elements contained in routine air-reports are as follows: Message type designator Aircraft identification Wind quality flag Temperature Turbulence (if available) Humidity (if available) Note.- When ADS i being applied, the requirements s of routine air-reports may be the combination of the basic ADS data block (data block 1) and the meteorological information data block (data block 2), available f i m ADS reports. The ADS message format U specijìed in the Proce. dures for Air Navigation S d c e s - Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444), Chapter 13 and in Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume III - Part I - Digital Data Communication Systems. 7.5.4 When air-ground data link is used and ADS is not being applied, the elements contained in routine airreports are as in routine air-reports by voice communications, Le. as indicated in 7 5 2 ... Note.- The controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) application entitled “Position report” may be used for these air-reports. The details of the data link application are speciïied in the Manual of Air Trafic Services Data Link Applications (Doc 9694) and Annex 10 -Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume III - Part I Digital Data Communication Systems. 7 5 5 The meteorological content of routine reports .. using voice communications and air-ground data link, respectively, is summarized in Table 7-3. 7.5.6 When air-ground data link is used, the elements contained in special air-reports are as follows: Message designator Aircraft identification Data block 1 Latitude Longitude Level Time Data block 1 Latitude Longitude Level Time Data block 2 Wind direction Wind speed Wind quality flag Temperature Turbulence (if avaiIable) Humidity (if available) Data block 2 Wind direction Wind speed Data block 3 Condition prompting the issuance of a special air-report (one condition to be selected from the list in 7.4.1). Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 7-4
  • 7-5 Chapter 7. Aircraft Observations and Reports 7.7.2 Additional exchange of air-reports beyond MWOs Table 7-3. Meteorological content of routine air-reports (All the reports include information on the position of the aircraft in four dimensions) The MWO assembles the routine reports received by voice communications and transmits these to other meteorological ofices in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. Reports transmiff e d via voice communications and air-ground data link, ADS not applied air-ground data link ADS applied Temperature Wind direction Wind speed Turbulence Aircraft icing Humidity (if available) Wind direction Wind speed Wind quality flag Temperature Turbulence (if available) Humidity (if available) Special air-reports are not normally exchanged regionally beyond the MWO. However, further dissemination is required in the following circumstances: a) When a special air-report is received but the forecaster considers that the phenomenon causing the report is not expected to persist and, therefore, does not warrant issuance of a SIGMET, the special airreport should nevertheless be disseminated in the same way that SIGMET messages are disseminated, i.e. to MWOs and other meteorological offices in accordance with regional air navigation agreement; and Note 1 .-The data link flight information service (DFIS) application entitled “Special air-report service” may be used for these air-reports. The details of this data link application are specified in the Manual of Air Trafic Services Data Link Applications (Doc 9694) and Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume III - Part I - Digital Data Communication Systems. b) Special air-reports of pre-emption volcanic activity, volcanic emption or volcanic ash cloud are to be transmitted to the regional volcanic ash advisory centre(s) (VAACs). Note 2.-In the case of the transmission of a special air-report of pre-eruption volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption or volcanic ash cloud, there are additional requirements (see 7.8). 7.6 CRITERIA FOR REPORTING METEOROLOGICAL AND RELATED PARAMETERS IN AUTOMATED AIR-REPORTS When air-ground data link is used, the wind direction and speed, wind quality flag, temperature, turbulence and humidity, to be included in automated air-reports, are reported in accordance with the criteria shown in Appendix 16. 7.7.3 Additional exchange of air-reports beyond WAFCs Air-reports exchanged beyond WAFCs are considered as basic meteorological data and therefore their further dissemination is subject to WMO provisions. Note 1.- The exchange requirements o routine airf reports received by voice communications between meteorological offices are usually shown in the ICA0 air navigation plan publications. f Note 2.- An example of a disseminationpattern o airreports is shown in Table 7-4. 7.7 EXCHANGE OF AIR-REPORTS 7.7.1 Basic principles Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 7.8 RECORDING AND POST-FLIGHT REPORTING OF AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY Special aircraft ohervations of pre-emption volcanic activity, volcanic eruption or volcanic ash cloud are the only type of air-report that requires a post-flight report, which should be recorded using the special air-report of volcanic activity form (MODEL VAR). A copy of the form shown in --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Air trafic services and meteorological authorities should establish appropriate arrangements to ensure that routine and special air-reports reported by aircraft in flight to ATS units are transmitted without delay to the world area forecast centres (WAFCs). In the case of all special air-reports and those routine reports which are received by voice communications, these are also to be transmitted to the associated meteorological watch ofice (MWO).
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f 7-6 Table 7-4. Dissemination pattern of air-reports (“+” indicates the centre(s)/ofíïce(s) to which the air-report is to be transmitted) Type of air-report received at the ATS unit air-ground data link initially by ATS unit Dissemination subsequently by MWO I- Routine by voice communications air-ground data link I+ + + MWO MWO WAFCs + VMCc’ -+ WAFCc -+ MET offices’ Special by voice communications I +MWo + WAFCs + VAACs2 + MET offices3 + MWOs3 ~~ 1. In accordance with regional air navigation agreement. 2. Only special air-reports of pre-eruption volcanic activity, volcanic eruption or volcanic ash cloud. 3. To be disseminated in the same way as SIGMET messages (¡.e. to MWOs and other MET offices in accordance with regional air navigation agreement) only if the special air-report does not warrant issuance of a SIGMET. Figure 7-1 is included with the flight documentation provided to flight crews operating on routes which could be affected by volcanic ash clouds. 7.9 DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS CONC.ERNING THE RETRANSMISSION OF AIR-REPORTS RECEIVED BY MWOS 7.9.1 The following paragraphs provide details on the xontentofkoutine and special air-reports received by voice communications (see also Example 7-1). It is essential that air-reports be retransmitted by the MWO concerned in the correct order and format to permit their use in meteorological and other computers. Of special importance is the application of the indicator (ARS) for a special air-report. i) the data transmitted is in accordance with that specijïed in the special air-report format; and ii) measures are taken to ensure that special air-report messages are forwarded to the appropriate meteorological unit and to other aircraft likely to be affected. 7.9.3 Aircraft identification (BAGABCD or VA812) Aircraft identification consists of either the operator’s I esignator (BA) and aircraft registration (GABCD), or flight number (VA812), reported as one unit without any spaces. Note.- MWOs do not need to retransmit information concerning “next position and time over”, “estimated time of amval” or “endurance”. 7.9.2 Message type designator (ARS) Air-reports are routine by default. A message type designator is, therefore, required only for special air-reports, i.e. “ARS”. Note.- Where air-reports are handled by automatic data processing equipment that cannot accept this message f type designator, the use o a different message type designator is permitted by regional air navigation agreement, provided that: 7.9.4 Position (49N050W, 2020N07005W) Position is given in degrees latitude and longitude in whole degrees (two figures for latitude, followed without a space by N or S, three figures for longitude, followed without a space by E or W); degrees and minutes may also be used (four figures for latitude and five for longitude). If a coded indicator (two to five characters) for a significant point (e.g. LN, MAY, HADDY), or a significant point followed by the magnetic bearing (degrees in three figures) and distance (three figures and KM or NM) of that point (e.g. DUB 180040NM) has been used in the message received, the MWO concerned should convert this information into a position expressed as latitude and longitude. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 7. Aircraft Observations and Reports 7- 7 MODEL VAR Aircraft identification Pilot-in(as per Item 7 of flight plan) ........ command Operator Dep. from . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time ............ UTC ........ Arr. at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time ............ UTC iddressee AIREP SPECIAL - i. Aircraft identification 2. Position 3. Time s E C T I O N 4. Flight level or altitude 1 8. Supplementary information (position or bearing and distance from aircraft) 5. Volcanic activity observed at 6. Air temperature 7. Spot wind - --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- (Brief descriptionof activiiy including verticaland lateral extent of ash cloud, horizontalmovement, rate of growth, etc. as available) T e following information is not for transmission by RTF h TICK 9. Density of ash cloud wispy o (b) moderate dense O (c) verydense O ............... (a) white .............. (a) O o (b) light grey O (c) dark grey o (d) black (a) continuous O (b) internment O (c) not visible O ................. (a) summit o (b) side (e) not observed (c) single O o O o (d) multiple .... (a) lightning O (b) glow (e) mushrooming cloud O o (c) large rocks. (f) nil O CI (b) nav. systems (e) windscreen CI o (c) engines (f) wmdows o o o (b) St. Elmos Fire 0 (c) fumes o 10. Colour of ash cloud s E c T I O N 11. Eruption ........................ 12. Position of activity 13. Other observed features of eruption (d) ash fallout 2. 14. Effect on aircraft .................. (a) cornmunicatians (b) pitot static (9) nil 15. Oîhereffects.. ................... (a) tutbulence (d) ash deposits - THE APPROPRIATE BOX 16. Other infomation o o o o o ................. Add any informationconsidered useful Figure 7-1. Special air-report of volcanic activiîy (MODEL VAR) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 7-8 Example 7-1. I AIREP and AIREP SPECIAL messages as recorded on the ground by the MWO concerned a) AIREP message BAGABCD 49N050W 1317 F310 MS47 255/65KMH TURB MOD ICE FBL RH075 Meaning: Routine air-report from British Airways aircraft GABCD. Report refers to position 49 degrees north and 50 degrees west at 1317 UTC, at flight level 310. The outside temperature is -47 degrees Celsius, the (spot) wind measured at the position i 255 degrees 65 kilometres per hour. Moderate turbulence and light aircraft icing are experienced at the s time of the observation. Relative humidity is 75 per cent. b) SPECIAL AIREP message ARS VA812 2020N07005W 1215 FI80 MTW SEV Meaning: Special air-report from VIASA flight number 812. Report refers to position 20 degrees 20 minutes north and 70 degrees 5 minutes west at 1215 UTC, at flight level 180. Severe mountain wave has been encountered. (two or three figures) separated by a “i”,indicating the unit used. Record calm as “00000”. 7.9.5 Time (1317, 1215) The time of aircraft, at the position indicated, is shown in hours and minutes UTC (4 numerics). 7.9.6 Flight level or altitude (F310, F180) The flight level is shown by an “F” followed by the actual level; the altitude is shown by an “F” followed by 3 numerics and “M’ or “FT”, as appropriate. This is followed by “ASC” (level) or “DES” (level) when ascending or descending to a new level after passing the significant point. 7.9.9 Turbulence (TURB MOD, MTW SEV) Turbulence is reported using the abbreviation TURB followed by FBL, MOD or SEV (light, moderate or severe), as appropriate. Note.- Severe turbulence in subsonic flight and moderate or severe turbulence in transonic or supersonic flight f are reported as soon as possible by means o an AIREP SPECIAL. 7.9.10 Aircraft icing (ICE FBL) 7.9.7 Air temperature (MS47) Temperature (corrected for instrument error and air speed) is shown in degrees Celsius (two figures) preceded, without a space, by “PS” (plus) or “MS” (minus), as appropriate. Icing is recorded in the same way as turbulence, using the abbreviation ICE followed by FBL, MOD or SEV, as appropriate. Note.- Severe icing requires an AIREP SPECIAL. 7.9.8 Wind direction and wind speed (255/65KMH) The wind report refers to a “spot” wind at the position given for the report. Direction is in degrees true (three figures) and wind speed in kilometres per hour or knots 7.9.11 Humidity (RH075) If reported, humidity is shown by “RH”followed, without a space, by the humidity in per cent (3 figures). --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • 7-9 ChaDter 7. Aircraft Observations and Reoorts moderate turbulence2 as “TURF3 M O D hail2 as “GR” cumulonimbus clouds2 as “ C B . Note.- The reporting of humid@ is optional and shall be included only when available. 7.9.12 Phenomenon prompting a special air-report (MTW SEV) Note.- Detailed instructionsfor making and transmitting air-reports, together with examples of air-reports, are contained in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM) (Doc 4444). Record the phenomenon reported as follows: . severe turbulence as “TURF3 SEV” severe icing as “ICE SEV” severe mountain wave as “MTW SEV” thunderstorm without hail’ as “TS’ thunderstorm with hail‘ as “TSGR” heavy duststorm or sandstorm as “HVY SS” volcanic ash cloud as “VA CLD’ pre-emption volcanic activity or a volcanic eruption as “VA” 1. The thunderstorms to be reported should be confined to those which are: obscured in haze; or embedded in cloud; or widespread; or forming a sqiaii line. 2. Applies only to supersonic transport at transonic levels and supersonic cruising levels. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 8 COORDINATION BETWEEN AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AND ATS AND SAR UNITS 8.1.3 In order to ensure orderly and timely provision of the meteorological information required by ATS units, each ATS unit usually has an associated meteorological office. The designation of associated meteorological ofices to the ATS units shown below is a responsibility of the meteorological authority in each State. 8.1 GENERAL 8.1.1 ATS units require a considerable amount of actual and forecast meteorological information to assist them in: a) providing control of air traffic in flight and at the aerodrome; andior ATS unit Aerodrome control tower (TWR) b) providing information to aircraft en route as well as prior to take-off and landing. Associated meteorological office’ Aerodrome meteorological office Approach control office (APP) Aerodrome meteorological office 8.1.2 The same applies to rescue coordination centres, which are designated by regional air navigation agreement and which can be regarded as having requirements for meteorological information similar to those of ATS units, with the addition of certain specific data, such as information on forecasts provided to the missing aircraft, and on meteorological conditions that existed at the last known position of a missing aircraft and along the intended route of that aircraft, with particular reference to: Area control centre (ACC) Meteorological watch office (MWO) Flight information centre (FIC) Meteorological watch office (MWO) Rescue coordination centre (RCC) 1. a) significant en-route weather phenomena; As designated by regional air navigation agreement (usually an MWO) One aerodrome meteorological ofice may be associated to more than one aerodrome and to the TWRs and/or APPs established at these aerodromes. Similarly, one MWO may be associated to more than one FICAJICíACC. b) cloud amount and type, particularly cumulonimbus; . height indications of bases and tops; 8.2 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION REQUIRED BY ATS UNITS c) visibility and phenomena reducing visibility; d) surface wind and upper wind; 8.2.1 e) state of the ground, in particular, any snow cover or flooding; ofices includes nearly all types of aeronautical meteorological information. Detailed listings of this information are given in the Manual on Coordination between Air Trafic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377). A summary of the types of information most frequently supplied to ATS units and to air-ground control radio stations (if established f ) sea-surface temperature, state of the sea, ice cover if any and ocean currents, if relevant to the search area; g) sea level pressure data. 8-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS The meteorological information required by ATS units and provided by their associated meteorological Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f to serve associated FICs/ACCs), the meteorological units responsible for providing the information, the frequency with which it is usually provided, and the communications means normally used for this purpose, is given in Table 8-1. 8.2.2 In view of the importance of the meteorological information supplied to ATS units for the safety and efficiency of aviation, it is essential that the information is always up to date, accurate, and provided in a timely manner. Of particular importance in this connection is information on significant changes in meteorological conditions. Such changes include not only changes requiring special reports but may also include, as agreed, changes in wind, temperatures, pressure and other elements that may require ATS units to take action (e.g. change of runway-in-use). 8.2.3 ATS units, in particular aerodrome control towers and approach control offices, need to have duplicate displays of meteorological elements such as surface wind, pressure and RVR, which are related to the same sensors as those providing information to meteorological offices or stations. In those cases, it is usually arranged that ATS units need not be provided with local special reports (SPECIALS) indicating significant changes in those elements. 8.2.4 In the case of area control centres and air traffic flow management centres (units established in some States which deal with large amounts of traffic), States sometimes have found it expedient to station meteorologists in the unit:AFafi-from ensuring that the unit is supplied with all the necessary meteorological information, the duty of the meteorologist is mainly to advise controllers on weather conditions that could influence the progress of traffic in their areas of responsibility, such as widespread thunderstorms, changes in jet stream configuration or heavy snow falls over large areas. This advice is of particular importance where quick decisions are needed in the face of rapid weather developments or in cases of in-flight emergencies. 8.3 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY ATS UNITS 8.3.1 As ATS units may have to provide information to aircraft at very short notice, and as even the best observation methods and the fastest communication means between meteorological offices and ATS units cause some time lag between the occurrence of a change in weather conditions and the transmission of relevant information to aircraft, arrangements often exist whereby ATS personnel Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS are given sufficient training to allow them to update routine observations provided by meteorological stations so as to reflect changed conditions. Such arrangements of course require close coordination between the ATS unit and the meteorological ofice or station, and are subject to specific agreements between MET and ATS authorities. 8.3.2 In view of their location on high towers, aerodrome controllers can often observe certain weather features better than meteorological pefsonnel. Such observations, which may include, for example, weather conditions in approach and climb-out directions, would not only be used by controllers to modi@ or ampli@ observations provided by the meteorological station (where such actions are agreed), but would also normally be provided to the meteorological station or ofice. Adequate basic training in meteorological observations is to be provided to the ATS personnel concerned. 8.3.3 ATS units are also required to transmit promptly to the WAFCs and meteorological watch offices, as appropriate, in accordance with 7.7 and Table 7-4, any air-reports they receive which contain meteorological information. This important responsibility of ATS units should be included in the Agreement on Coordination between the ATS and Meteorological Authorities to be developed in States. 8.4 COORDINATION BETWEEN ATS UNITS AND METEOROLOGICAL OFFICES AND STATIONS 8.4.1 To ensure that the cooperation between ATS units and aeronautical meteorological services functions efficiently, coordination arrangements are usually in written agreements between the national andor local ATS and meteorological authorities. Such agreements are especially necessary where the provision of ATS and aeronautical meteorological services are not the responsibility of the same government department. 8.4.2 The aforementioned Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377) provides detailed information on such agreements, together with a sample letter of agreement. It also contains information on the ICA0 Standards, Recommended Practices and procedures in the meteorological and ATS fields governing this subject, up-to-date information on available methods and means for the effective provision of meteorological information to ATS units, as well as procedures already in use in a number of States. Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 8-2
  • Chapter 8. Coordination between Aeronautical Meteorological Services and ATS and SAR Units Table û-1. 8-3 Aeronautical meteorological information supplied to ATS units Communications means Information Distributor Destination Frequency Aerodrome reports METAR [with TREND1] Aeronautical MET station [TREND prepared by MET office] TWR APP ACC FIC COM station Hourl? See See See See See Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 2 Selected special reports (SPECI) and Special reports [with TREND1] Aeronautical MET station [TREND prepared by MET office] TWR APP ACC FIC COM station When warranted See See See See See Note 1 Note 1 Note 2 Note 2 Note 2 Aerodrome forecasts $AF) MET office TWR APP ACC FIC COM station Every 3 or 6 hours See See See See See Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 or 2 Note 1 or 2 Note 2 Aerodrome warnings MET office TWR APP COM station When warranted See Note 1 See Note 1 or 2 See Note 2 Upper wind and temperature forecasts MET office andior MWO (data normally obtained through the WAFS) ACC FIC Every 12 hours See Note 2 See Note 2 SIGMET and AIRMET MWO TWR APP ACC FIC COM station When warranted See See See See See Wind shear warnings MET office TWR APP When warranted See Note 1 See Note 1 Information on accidental release of radioactive material, ¡.e. location of the accident and forecast trajectories of the radioactive material MWO (normally, the information obtained from the WMO RMSC concerned) ACC FIC When warranted See Notes 1 and 2 Note 1 Notes 1 and 2 Notes 1 and 2 Notes 1 and 2 Note 2 Note 1.- Cornmunications by closed-circuit N, video display unit, or similar. If none o f these are available, or during unserviceability periods, communications by phone, followed if possible by confirmation by other means. Note 2.- Communications by teleprinter. i . Trends to be added to METAWSPECI for those stations so identified in the air navigation plan. 2. Or half-hourly if so decided by regional air navigation agreement. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Chapter 9 INFORMATION ON AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES IN AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATIONS 9.1 NATURE OF AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATIONS Manual (Doc 8126). The information concerning meteorological services provided is summarized below in order to provide aeronautical meteorological personnel with the necessary background information so that essential information and data can be provided to the aeronautical information services (AIS) for inclusion in the AIP. Normally, the meteorological authority submits the necessary information to the AIS ofice concerned. 9.1.1 Aeronautical information publications (AIPs) are issued by States in accordance with ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices contained in Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services. These AIPs contain current information on aerodromes, communications facilities, navigation aids, meteorological services, air trafic services and other essential air navigation services. The information contained in AIPs is of a permanent nature, i.e. not expected to change frequently or at short notice, and is kept up to date by an amendment service. information on sudden or temporary changes is promulgated in the form of NOTAM, i.e. (Class I NOTAM), or (Class II NOTAM), depending on their nature and urgency. Changes to facilities, services or procedures which can be foreseen well in advance and which require corresponding changes in airline manuals, etc., are issued as NOTAM on predetermined dates each month under the so-called AIRAC system. In addition to the foregoing, long-term changes to procedures or facilities, providing information such as the effect of certain weather phenomena on aircraft operations, are issued as aeronautical information circulars. a) General (GEN). This section includes information about the meteorological authority under GEN 1.1, indicating: 1) designated authority (inclusion of this information in the AIP is required (Annex 3, 2.1.4)); 2) name of the authority; 3) postal address; 4) telephone number; 5) facsimile number; 6) telex number; and 9.1.2 In order to assist users, who are mainly operators and pilots, to obtain the necessary information from AIPs quickly and without risk of misunderstanding, AIPs must be constructed uniformly and according to the pattern prescribed by ICAO. The information contained in the AIP must be accurate and up to date and follow the prescribed layout and order. 7) aeronautical fixed service (AFS) address. This section also includes a detailed description of meteorological services provided in the State concerned, including the following items: 1) Responsible service (GEN 3.5.1); 9.2 INFORMATION CONCERNING MET SERVICES IN AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATIONS 2) Area of responsibility (GEN 3.5.2); 3) Meteorological observations and reports (GEN 3.5.3); 9.2.1 Details of the contents of AIPs may be found in Annex 15 and in the Aeronautical Information Services 4) Types of services (GEN 3.5.4); 9-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 9-2 5) Notification required from operators (GEN 3.5.5); 6) Aircraft reports (GEN 3.5.6); 7) VOLMET service (GEN 3.5.7); 8) SIGMET and AIRMET semices (GEN 3.5.8); and .. 9) other automated meteorological services (GEN 3.5.9). b) Aerodromes (AD 2). This section describes, under AD 2.1 1, meteorological information provided at each international aerodrome and an indication of the meteorological office responsible for the provision of the information, as follows: 1) name of the associated meteorological office; 2) hours of service and, where applicable, the designation of the responsible meteorological ofice outside these hours; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3) office responsible for preparation of TAFs and periods of validity and interval of issuance of the forecasts; 8) supplementary equipment and receiver for satellite images available for providing information on meteorological conditions (e.g. weather radar); 9) the air trafic services unit(s) provided with meteorological information; and 10) additional information (e.g. concerning any limitation of service, etc.). c) Heliports (AD 3). Meteorological information provided at each international heliport and an indication of the meteorological office responsible for the provision of the information. The relevant items to be published given in AD 3.11 are identical to those listed in AD 2.1 1 above. 9.2.2 The location of the sites of runway visual range transmissometers is included in aerodrome charts using the approved symbols in the Aerodromes (AD) section of the AIP. 9.2.3 Detailed examples of AIPs and other pertinent information and guidance for the preparation and updating of these publications are provided in the Aeronautical Information Services Manual (Doc 8126). 4) availability of the trend forecasts for the aero- drome, and interval of issuance; 5) information on how briefing andor consulîation is provided; 6) types of flight documentation supplied and language(s) used in flight documentation; 7) charts and other information displayed or available for briefing or consultation; Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Note.- Detailed guidance concerning requirementsfor the submissions by the Meteorological Authority (or by designated meteorological offices or aerodrome meteorological stations on its beham to the AIS of the necessary information and data for the preparation and issuance of NOTAMs, ASHTAMs, S N 0 WTAMs and aeronautical information circulars (AICs) is given in the Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377, Chapter 6). Not for Resale
  • Chapter 1O RELEVANT DOCUMENTS Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030) 10.1 ICAO DOCUMENTS OF A SPECIFICALLY METEOROLOGICAL NATURE Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS), are approved by the Council of ICAO for application in the respective regions. Currently, the document contains specific procedures for the regional application ,of Annex 3, Chapter 5 (Aircraft Observations and Reports) as well as various specific regional procedures related to communications, air traffic services, etc. The following ICAO documents give additional or more detailed. information on meteorological subjects that may be found useful. These documents contain: a) Standards, Recommended Practices and guidance material dealing with aeronautical meteorology, parts of which are summarized or reproduced in extract form in this manual (Annex 3 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation); Air Navigation Plan Publications (ANPP) These documents detail the requirements for facilities and services (including meteorology) in the various ICAO regions and the status of implementation of these recommended facilities and services. Each ANPP includes a meteorology section, both in the part containing the basic regional air navigation plan (ANP) and in the part containing the facilities and services implementation document (FASID). The former part introduces basic planning principles, operational requirements and planning criteria relating to the meteorological service to be provided to international air navigation in the ICAO region concerned. These principles, requirements and criteria stem from relevant provisions of Annex 3 and, in particular, those calling for regional air navigation agreement. This service is to be considered as the minimum for planning of meteorological facilities andor services by States in the region. A detailed description and the list of the meteorological facilities and services to be provided by States in order to fulfill the requirements of the Basic ANP is contained in the latter part of the ANPP, i.e. in the FASID. The meteorology parts of the Basic ANP and the FASID cover, as necessary, all or some of the following topics: meteorological service required at aerodromes, meteorological watch offices, meteorological observations and reports, aircraft observation and reports, forecasts, regional aspects of the world area forecast system (WAFS), tropical cyclone advisory information, volcanic ash advisory information, including regional aspects of the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW). Current air navigation plan publications include: b) specific regional meteorological procedures, facilities, services, etc. (Regional Supplementary Procedures, Air Navigation Plan Publications, regional guides); and c) detailed guidance on specific subjects connected with aeronautical meteorology (runway visual range, air trafic services and meteorological coordination, etc.). Annex 3 - Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation (International Standards and Recommended Practices) This Annex contains international regulatory material covering principles and objectives, Standards and Recommended Practices (SAWS) and guidance material which have worldwide applicability. It establishes the specific responsibilities of States for providing meteorological services and the responsibility of operators using these services. The Appendices, which form part of the SARPs, comprise the model charts and forms used in flight documentation, technical specifications for aerodrome reports, aerodrome forecasts, SIGMET and AIRMET information, special air-reports and criteria for reporting meteorological and related parameters in automated air-reports. The attachments (green pages) comprise material supplementary to the SARPs or included as a guide to their application. 10-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 10-2 Afiica-Indian Ocean Region (Doc 7474) Asia and Pacific Regions (Doc 9673) Caribbean and South American Regions (Doc 8733) European Region (Doc 7754) Middle East Region (Doc 9708) North Atlantic, North American and Pacific Regions (Doc 8755) North Atlantic Region (Doc 9634) Facilities and Services Implementation Document (FASID) - North Atlantic Region (Doc 9635) PCGRiDDS User’s Guide SADIS User Guide International Airways Volcano Watch documents: Handbook on the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) - Operational Procedures and Contact List (Doc 9766) 10.2 WMO DOCUMENTS Manuals: Apart from issuing documents of a general meteorological character, WMO also publishes documents which deal with aeronautical meteorology. The following documents are relevant: Manual of Runway Visual Range Observing and Reporting Practices (Doc 9328) Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (Doc 9377) Manual on the ICAO Standard Atmosphere (Doc 7488) Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds (Doc 9691) Manual on the Provision of Meteorological Service for International Helicopter Operations (Doc 9680; a joint ICAO/WMO ManuaVGuide) W O Technical Regulations, Volume II (WMO No. 49) (equivalent in status to ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices and Procedures for Air Navigation Services). --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- In addition to this manual, the following manuals provide .detailed guidance or information on specific aspects connected with meteorological services to international air navigation: - Circulars: Wind Shear (Cir 186) Regional guides: Most ICAO Regional Offices have prepared and make available regional guides on various subjects, including: preparation and dissemination of SIGMET information messages; the ROBEX system; the AMBEX system; catalogue of information available in international OPMET databanks; ATSIMET reporting points; facsimile broadcasts, etc. For details, Regional Offices should be approached directly. World area forecast system (WAFS) publications:’ Gridded Binary (GRIB code) Data on a “Thinned” Grid from World Area Forecast Centres London and Washington 1. Available in the ICAO Secretariat, Air Navigation Bureau, Meteorology Section. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Part C.3.1 - Standards and Recommended Practices: identical, except for a few minor editorial differences, to Annex 3. Part C.3.2 - Aeronautical Climatology: enlarges on Annex 3, Chapter 8, and gives model forms for aerodrome climatological summaries. Part C.3.3 - Format and Preparation of Flight Documentation: enlarges on Annex 3, Chapter 9, and gives model charts and forms. The latter are included in Appendix 9 to the present manual. Manuals (these often have a higher status than ICAO manuals): Manual on Codes ( W O No. 306): contains details of all meteorological codes, including those relevant to aviation. Manual on the Global Telecommunication System (WMO No. 386): contains practices and procedures to be used in the collection, exchange and distribution of observational and processed information on a worldwide scale. Manual on the Global Data-Processing System fWMO No. 485): contains practices and procedures to be used in the processing, storage and retrieval of meteorological information. The manual, among others, includes regulations relating to the provision of service by WMO regional specialized meteorological centres (RSMCs) in response to a nuclear emergency. Not for Resale
  • Chapter I O. Relevant Documents 10-3 Manual on the Global Observing System ( W O No. 544): contains practices and procedures for methods, techniques, and facilities to be used for making observations on a worldwide scale. Guides Part 2 - ICAO publications required mainly at the administrative level of meteorological services. 10.3.2 ICAO Regional Offices issue updated lists, based on the following list, providing details on the numbers and dates of current editions, loose-leaf amendments, comgenda, and the prices of the documents. Guide to Qualifications and Training of Meteorological f Personnel employed in the provision o Meteorological Services for International Air Navigation ( W O No. 114) ICAO PUBLICATIONS REQUIRED BY METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation ( W O No. 8): outlines basic standards of instrument and observing practices. PART 1 - ICAO publications required at the administrative and operational levels of meteorological services Guidelinesfor the Education and Training o Personnel f in Meteorology and Operational Hydrology ( W O No. 258, Volume II) Annex 3 - Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation Annex 5 - Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground Operations Guide on the Global Observing System ( W O No. 488). Part 1 - ICAO publications required at both the administrative and the operational levels of meteorological services. 2. States need to have available the ANPP for the region in which they are situated as well as ANPPs for adjacent regions to and from which they have flight operations. Guide on Meteorological Observation and Information Distribution Systems at Aerodromes ( W M O No. 731) Guide to Practices for Meteorological Ofices Serving Aviation ( W O No. 732) / Aerodrome Reports and Forecasts - A User’s Handbook to the Codes ( W O No. 782) Documentation on Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMC) Support for Environmental Emergency Response: target for meteorologists at NMSS ( W O- TD NO. 778) 10.3 OTHER ICAO DOCUMENTS Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 10.3.1 In addition to the above-mentioned documents dealing with aeronautical meteorological subjects, meteorological ofices serving international civil aviation also require other ICAO documents. A detailed list of these as well as of the ICAO meteorological documents needed is given below. The list is divided into two parts: Doc 8400, Procedures for Air Navigation Services -ICAO Abbreviations and Codes Doc 7030, Regional Supplementary Procedures Doc 7910, Location Indicators Doc 8585, Designators for Aircraji Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services ANPPs2 Air navigation plans and associated facilities and services implementation document (FASID) see 10.1. Doc 7488, Manual o the ICAO Standard Atmosphere f (extended to 80 kilometres (262 SOO feet)) Doc 8896, Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice Doc 97 13, International Civil Aviation Vocabulary Doc 9328, Manual of Runway Visual Range Observing and Reporting Practices Doc 9377, Manual on Coordination between Air Trafic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services Doc 9680, Manual on the Provision of Meteorological Service for International Helicopter Operations Doc 9691, Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds Doc 9766, Handbook on the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) - Operational Procedures and Contact List Cir 186, Wnd Shear ICAO Journal (official ICAO magazine issued ten times Per year) Guide on the Global Data-Processing System ( W O No. 305).
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice 10-4 PART 2 - ICAO publications required mainly at the administrative level of meteorological services Annex 2 - Rules of the Air Annex 4 -Aeronautical Charts Annex 6 - Operation of Aircraft, Part I - International Commercial Air Transport - Aeroplanes, Part II International General Aviation - Aeroplanes, and Part III - International Operations - Helicopters Annex 8 - Airworthiness of Aircraft Annex 1O - Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume I - Radio Navigation Aids, Volume II - Communication Procedures including those with PANS status, Volume III - Part I - Digital Data Communication Systems, Part II - Voice Communication Systems, Volume IV - Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance Systems and Volume V - Aeronautical Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization Annex 11 - Air Trafic Services Annex 12 - Search and Rescue Annex 13 - Aircrafl Accident and Incident Investigation Annex 14 - Aerodromes, Volume I -Aerodrome Design and Operations and Volume I I - Heliports Annex 15 - Aeronautical Information Services Doc 4444, Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Air Trafic Management (PANS-ATM) Doc 6920, Manual of Aircraft Accident Investigation Doc 7100, Targs for Airports and Air Navigation Services Doc 973 1, International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual ~Doc 7475, Working Arrangements between the International Civil Aviation Organization and the World Meteorological Organization Doc 8126, Aeronautical Information Services Manual ~ Doc 8259, Manual on the Planning and Engineering of the Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network Doc 8168, Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations, Volume I - Flight Procedures and Volume II - Construction of Visual and Instrument Flight Procedures Doc 9082, ICAO S Policies on Chargesfor Airports and Air Navigation Services Doc 9137, Airport Services Manual Part 1 - Rescue and Fire Fighting Part 2 - Pavement &$ace Conditions Part 3 -Bird Control and Reduction Part 5 - Removal of Disabled Aircraft Part 6 - Control of Obstacles Part 7 -Airport Emergency Planning Part 8 -Airport Operational Services Part 9 - Airport Maintenance Practices Doc 9150, Stolport Manual Doc 9 157, Aerodrome Design Manual Part 1 - Runways Part 2 - Taiiways, Aprons and Holding Bays Part 3 - Pavements Part 4 - Visual Aids Part 5 - Electrical Systems Doc 9161, Manual on Air Navigation Services Economics Doc 9 184, Airport Planning Manual Part 1 - Master Planning Part 2 - Land Use and Environmental Control Part 3 - Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services Doc 9261, Heliport Manual Doc 9683, Human Factors Training Manual Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual Training Aids --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 1 2.2 The first constraint was resolved with the introduction of powerful mainframe computers, through which forecasting of upper winds and upper-air temperatures became possible. However, fully objective forecasting of significant weather on a global scale remains an objective to be achieved. 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE WAFS 1.1 The world area forecast system (WAFS) brings to meteorological forecasting the concept of centralization, in designated centres, of forecasting activities for the preflight planning and the en-route phases of flights. Its general aspects were developed by the Communications/ Meteorology Divisional Meeting (1 982), held conjointly with the Seventh ‘Session of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology, and later by the Communications/ Meteorology/Operations Divisional Meeting (1 990), held conjointly with the Ninth Session of the same WMO Commission. After approval by the governing bodies of ICA0 and WMO, the WAFS provisions resulting from these two meetings were embodied in ICAO’s Annex 3 and in the WMO Technical Regulations, and became applicable in November 1984 and November 1992, respectively. 2.3 The second constraint was eliminated with the advent of the broadcast capabilities of communications satellites, when satellite broadcast of data in digital bitstream or facsimile formats became possible. Such systems allow for reception of the broadcast through small dish antennas coupled with inexpensive receiving systems. In fact, three so-called WAFS satellite broadcasts (Le. the aeronautical fixed service (AFS) satellite distribution systems) were implemented by two provider States (United Kingdom and United States). They provide for the global coverage by means of three International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) satellites. Diagrams of the coverage of these satellites are reproduced in Figures Al-1, Al-2 and Al-3. In addition to WAFS data and charts, a global set of alphanumeric OPMET messages is disseminated through the satellite distribution systems. 1.2 The main objectives of the system are to provide meteorological services, pilots and aeronautical operators with uniform grid-point upper wind and upper-air temperature forecasts, as well as significant weather forecasts, with worldwide coverage, in a format suitable for direct use in computer flight planning. In addition, the system is designed to provide data to be used for meteorological briefing and for direct copying as flight documentation, as well as for other aeronautical uses such as air traffic services (ATS) computer-assisted control of air trafic. 3. PLANNING OF THE WAFS 3.1 Planning of the WAFS has been based on the concept of a three-tiered system comprising: a) two World Area Forecast Centres (WAFCs), London and Washington - these centres produce global forecasts of upper winds and upper-air temperatures; 2. EVOLUTION OF THE SYSTEM 2.1 The concept of centralization of global forecasting was initially considered impossible to achieve due primarily to two constraints. Firstly, computers with the capability of preparing forecasts on a global basis were not available. Secondly, there were no communications systems capable of transmitting large amounts of data to a large number of centres in an economical and efficient manner. b) a number of Regional Area Forecast Centres (RAFCs) - these centres prepare significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts for selected “areas of coverage” with the assistance of upper-air data received from the WAFCs and, where applicable, SIGWX forecasts received from other RAFCs. Al-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- INFORMATION ON THE WORLD AREA FORECAST SYSTEM (WAFS)
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A l -2 4. AUTHORIZED ACCESS TO THE WAFS SATELLITE BROADCAST They are also responsible for the transmission of those SIGWX forecasts, as well as upper-air forecasts to users within their “service areas”; and c) the “users”, consisting essentially of meteorological services, operators and other aeronautical users. The users receive WAFS data from the WAFCs and/or RAFCs concerned. Note.- The definitions o “areas o coverage”, “areas f f of responsibility” and “service areas” are given in 6.1.1 below. 3.2 Work has been proceeding at a fast pace in a few States, aimed at the development of computer methods for the preparation of significant weather forecasts. Complete automatic production of significant weather forecasts in the format familiar to the aviation community is still a complex task to achieve, but this was resolved by the use of computer graphics systems. With these computer systems, meteorologists in WAFCs prepare the forecasts with the direct support of computer-prepared upper-air forecasts and other data that can be superimposed on computer screens, thereby permitting fast handling of large amounts of data. With these computer systems, significant weather charts covering large areas of the globe are being produced operationally and disseminated to users. In the near future, the W O Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological Data (BUFR) code will be used for the transmission of significant weather forecasts from WAFCs to users via the WAFS satellite distribution systems. 3.3 Since the WAFCs are producing significant weather forecasts on a global basis by computer systems, the requirement for the RAFCs has disappeared and all the RAFCs have been phased out. 3.4 The current phase of the implementation of the WAFS, is known as the final phase. In this phase, the two WAFCs prepare all the required significant weather and upper-air forecasts and disseminate these to all users through satellite broadcasts (see Figure Al -4). 4.1 As was mentioned in section 2, an international telecommunication service via satellite was developed and implemented in compliance with Annex 10, Volume III, 10.1 and 10.2, for the dissemination of WAFS data and products. This service, called the WAFS satellite broadcast, provides for global coverage by means of three satellite broadcasts, as follows: International Satellite Communications System i (ISCSl) from WAFC Washington covering the CAR, NAM, NAT and SAM Regions; International Satellite Communications System 2 (ISCS2) from WAFC Washington covering the Asia (eastern part) and PAC Regions; and Satellite Distribution System for Information Relating to Air Navigation (SADIS) from WAFC London covering the AFI, Asia (western part), EUR and MID Regions. 4.2 The OPMET information (broadcast by means of these services) currently includes: WAFS global grid-point upper wind, temperature, height of tropopause, maximum wind and humidity forecasts in the GRIB code; WAFS SIGWX and upper wind and temperature charts; and alphanumeric messages (e.g. METARs, TAFs and SIGMETs). Note.- SIGWX forecasts in the BUFR code will soon be introduced in the ‘broadcast. ICA0 regions have completed solutions appropriate for the. transition to the final phase of the WAFS in each region, and relevant details can be found in the air navigation plans for the regions concerned. . 4.3 The information broadcast is not encrypted; however, a mechanism exists to allow the control management centre of the service provider, on the advice from the provider State, to control which very small aperture terminal (VSAT) receives the information broadcast. Note.- The 0 elevation angle contour is the theor’ f etical extent o coverage, while the 5 elevation angle is f considered to be the practical extent o coverage according to nominal design criteria. 4.4 The guidelines for authorized access to the WAFS satellite broadcast were developed to assist States in arranging for access to the WAFS satellite broadcast. The guidelines are reproduced below: 3.5 Within the context of the regional planning, the. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale ’
  • Al-3 Appendix I . Information on the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) “4.4.1 General 4.4.1.1 The satellite broadcast constitutes a subsystem of the ICAO aeronautical fixed service (AFS), providing an international point-to-multipoint telecommunication service via satellite for the dissemination of aeronautical information to ICAO Contracting States. . 4.4.1.2 The aeronautical information disseminated by the satellite broadcast includes primarily operational meteorological (OPMET) information consisting of the WAFS upper wind, upper-air temperature and significant weather forecasts in digital gridpoint and graphical formats, and alphanumeric messages. 4.4.1.3 Through the use of the satellite broadcast, Contracting States may wish to meet their obligation under Article 28 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300) regarding the supply to users of meteorological information for the provision of meteorological service for international air navigation. 4.4.1.4 Recovery by Contracting States of associated costs through charges on international civil aviation should be based on the principies contained in Article 15 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and the Statements by the Council to Contracting States on Chargesfor Airports and Air Navigation Services (Doc 9082). 4.4.2 Authorized access to the satellite broadcast 4.4.2.1 It is the prerogative of each Contracting State to determine the distribution of the OPMET information to users, in the State concerned, as well as means, links and information flow to be used for this purpose. In view of this, it is for each Contracting State to determine the users in the State Concerned to be provided with the authorized access to the satellite broadcast. . 4.4.2.2 Where the meteorological service for international air navigation is provided by or through arrangements made by the Meteorological Authority in compliance with the Standard contained in 2.1.4 of --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Annex 3 - Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, the Meteorological Authorities, World Area Forecast Centres and aerodrome and other meteorological offices should fully enjoy the benefits of the satellite broadcast to receive the OPMET information broadcast. Furthermore, it is at the discretion of each Contracting State to determine, on advice from its Meteorological Authority, whether any of the following users will be provided with authorized access to the satellite broadcast: operators; air traffic services units; search and rescue services units; aeronautical information services units; volcanic ash and tropical cyclone advisory centres; and other aeronautical users. 4.4.2.3 Each Contracting State will notifj ICAO and, for the purpose of efficiency, also the provider State responsible for the satellite broadcast concerned, regarding the users in that State it has authorized to access the satellite broadcast. Note 1.- Where the satellite broadcast also comprises a sub-system of the World Meteorological Organization Global TelecommunicationSystem (WMO GTS), in accordance with the action by the ICAO Council on Recommendation 4.2/5 - Relationship of satellite communication system to the WMOk GTS of the Communications/Meteorology Divisional Meeting (I 982), the WMO Member State concerned determines the users authorized to receive basic synoptic data and analyses via the satellite broadcast and notifies ICAO through WMO, accordingb. Note 2.- The United States is the provider Statefor ISCSI and ISCS2; the United Kingdom is the provider State for SADIS. I’ 5. DUTIES OF METEOROLOGICAL OFFICES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WAFS It should be noted that while the WAFS provides enroute weather forecasts, the preparation of meteorological observations and aerodrome forecasts remains the responsibility of individual meteorological offices. With the full implementation of the WAFS, they can dedicate much more of their resources to these essential tasks.
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice AI4 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Figure A l ~ l . Footprint of-the International Satellite Communications System 1 (ISCSl) by WAFC Washington. The INTELSAT satellite over 34.5"W (an Atlantic Ocean satellite) is used for the broadcast. - Note.- The O" elevation angle contour is the theoretical extent of coverage, while the 5" elevation angle is considered the practical extent of coverage according to nominal design criteria. ."to be Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 1. Information on the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) Al-5 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Figure Al-2. Footprint of the International Satellite Communications System 2 (ISCS2) by WAFT Washington. The INTELSAT satellite over 177OW (a Pacific Ocean satellite) is used for the broadcast. Note.- The Oo elevation angle contour is the theoretical extent of coverage, while the 5' elevation angle i s considered to be the practical extent of coverage according to nominal design criteria. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice Al-6 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Figure Al-3. Footprint of the Satellite Distribution System for Information Relating to Air Navigation (SADIS) by WAFC London. The INTELSAT satellite over 63OE (an Indian Ocean satellite) is used for the broadcast, Note.- The O" elevation angle contour is the theoretical extent of coverage, while the 5" elevation angle is considered to be the practical extent of coverage according to nominal design criteria. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • AI-7 Appendix 1. Information on the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) .'. 4 . End users > - Satellite broadcast -WAFC to global satellite including ground station 1 -* -.. ' Note.- Dotted lines indicate optional elements. Figure A 1 4 Concept for satellite broadcast of WAFS products - the final phase of the WAFS --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR LOCAL ROUTINE REPORTS, LOCAL SPECIAL REPORTS AND REPORTS IN THE METAWSPEC1 CODE FORMS (See Chapter 4 of Annex 3.) Table A2-1. Template for the local routine (MET REPORT) and local special (SPECIAL) reports Key: M C O = = = inclusion mandatory, pari of every message inclusion conditional, dependent on meteorological conditions inclusion optional Note. - The ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in the local routine and special reports are shown in Table A2-4 of thk appendix. ~ Element as specifieú in Annex 3, Chapter 4 Detailed Content I implate@) dentificationof the ype of report (M) Type of report ncation indicator M) ICA0 location indicator (M) nnnn % e of the n ibservation(M) Date and time of the observation in UTC brface wind (M) Name of the element (M) Examples O' Runway () Runway section (O)3 Wind direction (M) MET REPORT or SPECIAL MET REPORT SPECIAL YUDO' nnnnnn2 1 2216302 WIND WIND 240/15KMH (WIND 240/8KT) I [RWY nnnl 1 [TDZ) I nnn/ WIND RWY 18 TDZ 190/22KMH (WIND RWY 18 TDZ 190/11KT) 1 BTN nnn/ AND rinn/ I I CALM- WIND VRB6KMH WIND CALM (WIND VRBSKT) WIND VRB BTN 350/AND 050/6KMH (WIND VRB BTN 3501 AND 050/3KT) iNind speed (M) [ABV]nn[n]KMHor [ABVlnnKT WIND 27WABV 199KMH (WIND 270/ABV 99KT) Significant speed iariations ( c ) ~ MAX[ABvnn[n] MNMnn WIND 120/12KMH MAX35 MNM8 (WIND 12016KT MAX18 MNM4) Significant directional iariations ( c ) ~ VRB BTN nndAND nnrú WIND 020/20KMH VRB BTN 350/AND 0701 (WIND 020/10KT VRB BTN 350/ AND 0704 - A2-I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • A2 -2 Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 4 Detailedcontent Templaie(s) Runway section (O)3 nnd Wind direction (M) 1;I; BTN rinn/ AND rinn/ --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Wind speed (M) MAX[ABV]nn[n]MNMnn Significant directional variations ( c ) ~ Runway section (O)3 VRB BTN AD :;; N 1 NIND RWY 14R MID 140/22KMH WIND RWY 14R MID 140111KT) “ M I [ABV]nn[n]KMHor [ABVInnKT Significant speed variations ( c ) ~ Examples I 1 1- [ENDI Wind direction (M) VRB BTN nnrd AND nnnl CALM VRB Wind speed (M) Name of the element (M) VIS [RWY nnn] Runway section (o)~ ITDZ] Visibility (M) ” VRB BTN nndAND nnd Runway (O)2 isibility (M) MAX[ABV]nn[n]MNMnn Significant directional variations ( c ) ~ I ’ . [ABV]nn[n]KMH or IABVjnnKT Significant speed variations ( c ) ~ NIND RWY 27 TDZ 240132KMH MAX54 MNM2O iND 250/28KMH WIND RWY 27 TDZ 240/16KT MAX27 MNM10 END 250/14KTj nnnnM or nnKM ~ ZAVOK / S350M I / S7KM I / S10KM I CAVOK /IS RWY O9 TDZ 800M END 1200M Runway section (O)3 /IC RWY 18 TDZ 6KM RWY 27 TDZ 4000M Visibility (M) Name of the element (M) RVR Runway (C)’ RWY nnn Runway section (C)8 TDZ RVR (M) [ABV or BLWJ nnnnM N R RWY 10 BLW 50M ìVR RWY 14 ABV 1500M IVR RWY 10 BLW 150M N R RWY 12 ABV 1200M qunway section ( c ) ~ MID 3VR RWY 12 TDZ 1100M MID ABV 1400M iVR (M) iVR (C)5 nnnnM or nnKM [ABV or BLWJ nnnnM iunway section ( c ) ~ IVR RWY 32 400M IVR RWY 20 500M END ìVR RWY 16 TDZ 600M MID 500M END 400M WR RWY 26 500M RWY 20 800M ~~ iVR (M) resent weather 99.10 [ABV or BLWJ nnnnM ntensity or proximity of )resent weather (c)” Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifications for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and ReDorts in the METAWSPECI Code Forms Element as specifid in Annex 3 , Chapter 4 DZ or RA or SN orSG or PL 0rlC or GR orGS or DS or SS or TS orTSRA orTSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS or SHRA or SHSN or SHPL or SHGR or SHGS or R A or R FZDZ or BLSN or ELSA or BLDU orpo or Fc Characteristics and type of present weather (M)'* --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- :loud (M)13 Hz 'G orBR )r SA or )U orHZ >r Fu or IA or SQ )r FZFG )r DRSN )r DRSA )r DRDU )r MIFG Ir EICFG PRFG FG or PO or Fc or DS or ss or TS or SH or BLSN or ELSA MOD RA HVYTSRA HVY DZ m L SN Or BLDU OBSC SKC or USC VCFG VCSH VCTS VCBLSA FBL DZ FG Hvy SHSN MOD BLSN CLD SCT NOM OVC 600M (CLD SCT 1000FT OVC 2000Fr) FG VA MIFG HVY TSRASN FBL SNRA Cu) Name of the element (M) I Examples Templatqs) Detailedcontent A2-3 I Cloud amount (M) or O' vertical visibility () I I Cloud ~ FEW or SCT or BKN or OVC CLD OBSC VER VIS 150M %F) (CLD OBSC VER VIS !O¡ - I CLD BKN TCU 270M (CLD BKN TCU 9OOFr) OrTCU Height of base or the value nnnnM [DIF of vertical visibility (C)' or RAG or FLUC] or nnnnFT (DiForRAG or FLUC] Cu) SKC CLD NSC [VER VIS nnnM or VER VIS nnnnw CLD RWY O8 BKN 60M RWY 26 BKN 90M (CLD RWY O8 BKN 200FT RWY 26 BKN NOW I Name of the element (M) T Air temperature (M) [MSInn T17 TMs8 iir temperature (M) DP Name of the element (M) )ew-point ?mprature Dewpoint temperature (M) [MSlnn 'ressure values (M) Name of the element (M) QNH I Q" (M) DP15 DPMS18 QNH 0995HPA QNH 1009HPA I nnnnHPA Name of the element (Of4 QFE QFE (O)' [RWY nnn] nnnnHPA [RWY nnn nnnnHPA] Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale QNH 1022HPA QFE 1001HPA QNH 0987HPA QFE RWY 18 0956HPA RWY 24 0955HPA
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A2-4 Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 4 Detailedcontent Template(s) Examples Significant meteorological phenomena (C)' 2B or TS or MOD TURB or SEV TURB or WS or GR or 5EV SQL or MOD ICE or SEV ICE or FZDZ or FZRA or 5EV MTW or SS or DS or BLSN or FC15 Location of the phenomenon (C)' Cupplementaiy nformation (c)' N APCH or IN CLIMEOUT or RWYnnn ~~ Recent weather (C)' Trend forecast (O)" Name of the element (M) Change indicator (M) FC IN APCH WS IN APCH WIND AT 60M 3W50KMH WS RWY 12 ~~ 3EFZDZ or REFZRA or REDZ or RE[SH]RA or 3E[SH]SN or RE[SH]SG or RE[SH]PL or REIC or 3E[SH]GR or RE[SH]GS or REBLSN or RESS or REDS ?rRETS or REFC or REVA REFZRA SB IN CLIMB-OUT RETS TREND VOSIG BECMG or TEMPO TREND NOSIG TREND BECMG FEW 600M (TREND BECMG FEW 2000FT) Period of change (C)' FMnnnn and/or TLnnnn or ATnnnn Wind (C)' nnnl[ABV]nn[n]KMH [MAX[ABV]nn[n]] or nnn/[ABV]nnKT [MAX[ABV]nn] TREND TEMPO 250ROKMH MAX 100 TREND TEMPO 250/35KT MAX 50) Visibility (C)' VIS nnnnM or VIS nnKM TREND BECMG AT1800 VIS 1OKM NSW TREND BECMG TL1700 VIS 800M FG TREND BECMG FM1030 TL1130 CAVOK Weather phenomenon: intensity (c)" FEL or MOD or HVY Weather phenomenon: characteristics and type.(C)9* 10, 12 DZ or RA or SN or SG or PL or IC or GR orGS or DS or SS orTS or TSRA or TSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS or SHRA or SHSN or SHPL or SHGR or SHGS or FZRA or R D Z or BLSN or ELSA or BLDU or PO or FC FG or BR or SA or DU orHZ or FU or VA or SQ or FZFG or DRSN or DRSA or DRDU or MIFG or BCFG or PRFG Cloud amount and vertical visibility (C)' FEW or SCT or BKN or OVC OBSC 2AVOK ~ vsw TREND TEMPO TL1200 VIS NOM BECMG 4T1200 VIS 8KM NSW NSC ~ --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ~ TREND TEMPO FM0300 TL0430 MOD FZRA TREND BECMG FM1900 VIS 500M H W SNRP TREND BECMG FM1100 MOD SN TEMPO W 1 3 0 MOD BLSN SKC or rlsc Not for Resale TREND BECMG AT1130 OVC 300M TREND BECMG AT1130 OVC 1OOOFT)
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifications for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and Reports in the METAWSPECI Code Forms Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 4 Examples Detailed content CBO~ TCU Height of base or the value of veröcal visibility (C)' 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. A2-5 - nnnnM or [VER VIS nnnnFT nnnM or VER VIS nnnnq TREND TEMPO TL1530 HVY SHRA BKN CB SOM (TREND TEMPO n50 HVY SHRA BKN CB i3 12oo!=r) Fictitious location. Optional values for one or more runways. Optional values for one or more sections of the runway. To be included if the maximum is exceeding the mean speed by 20 km/h (10 kt). To be included if the directional variations 2 60" but e 180" and the wind speed > 6 kmh (3 kt). To be included if visibility or RVR < 1 500 m. To be included if more than one runway in use. To be included if RVR is observed from more than one location along the runway. To be included whenever applicable. One or more, up to a maximum of three groups. To be included whenever applicable; only qualifiers MOD and H W (¡.e. well-developed) to be used with PO and FC. Precipitation types DZ, RA, SN, SG, PL, IC, GR and GS may be combined, where appropriate. Only moderate or heavy precipitation to be indicated in trend forecasts. Up to four cloud layers. Optional element. Any of the phenomena, or combinations thereof. Abbreviated plain language to be used to amplify the phenomena, as necessaty. To be included subject to regional air navigation agreement. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A24 Table A2-2. Template for reports in the METAWSPEC1 code forms Key: M C O inclusion mandatory, part of every message inclusion conditional, dependent on meteorological conditions or method of observation inclusion optional = = = Note. - The ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in reports in the METAWSPECK code forms are shown in Table A2-5 of this appendix. Element as specified , in Annex 3 Chapter 4 Detailedcontent Template(s) -.-Examples ~ Identificationof the bpe of report (M) Type of report (M) Location indicator (M: ICA0 location indicator (M) METAR or SPECI ~ METAR SPECI nnnn Time of the observation (M) nnnnnnï 22 16302 Surface wind (M) Wind direction (M) nnn I YUDO' Date and time of the observation in UTC (M) ~~ ~ 1 VRB Wind speed (M) Significant speed variations (CI2 Units of measurement (M) Visibility (M) nnnVnnn Minimum visibility (MI VRBOGKMH (VRBOJKT) 12012G35KMH (12006G18KT) 24032G54KMH (24016G27KT) KMH or KT Significant directional variations ( c ) ~ 24015KMH (24008Kl-J 19022KMH (19011KT) 00000KMH (0000OKT) 140P199KMH (140P99KT) I nnnn I- 02020KMH 350V070 (02010KT 350V070) 0350 CAVOK 7000 9999 Direction of the minimum visibility (C)4 0800E Maximum visibility ( q 5 nnnn Direction of the maximum visibility (C)5 RVR () C' N o r N E o r E o r S E o r S o r S W o r W orNW N or NE or E or SE or S or SW or W or NW 1100SE 7000NW 1200s m o w Name of the element (M) R Runway (M) R101M0050 R14UP1500 ~~~ RVR (M) [P or Mlnnnn R16UC650 R16C10500 R16W0450 R17U0450 RVR variations ( q 7 V[P or Mlnnnn R20/0700V1200 R19/0350VP1200 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- I
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifcations for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and Reports in the METAWSPECI Code Forms Element as specifiel: , in Annex 3 Chapter 4 Detailed content N R past tendency (C)’ A2- 7 Examples ïemplate(s) U, D or N R l ü l lO U O R0910375VOôûOU R1OIM0150VO5OOD ’resent weather q9.10 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- :hamtenstics and type of )resent weather >loud (M)13 - vc DZ or RA or SN or SG or PL orlC orGR or GS or DS or SS or TS or TSRA orTSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS or SHRA or SHSN orSHPL or SHGR or SHGS orFZRA or FZDZ or BLSN or ELSA or BLDU or PO or FC FG or BR or SA or DU or HZ or FU or VA or SQ or FZFG or DRSN or DRSA or DRDU or MIFG or BCFG or PRFG FG or PO or FC or DS or ss or TS or SH or BLSN or ELSA or BLDU FEWnnn or SCTnnn or BKNnnn or OVCnnn Wnnn or WIII SKC or NSC ntens’ity or proximity of present - o r + Neather (c)~’ l o u d amount and ieight of base or rertical visibility (M) RA +TSñA tDZ S N HZ FG VA MIFG tTSRASN SNRA -DZ FG +SHSN BLSN FEW015 VV005 OVC030 VVIII S T 0 1O OVC020 :loud i y p (C)’ BKNOOSTCU SCTOOô BKN025CB Ur and dewpoint emperature (M) Ur and dew-point temperatures .M) 1711O o0 m8 MOlM10 nnnn qecent weather (c)~, lo REFZDZ or REFZRA or REDZ or RE[SH]RA or RE[SH]SN REFZRA or RE[SH]SG or RE[SH]PL or REIC or RE[SH]GR or RETS RE[SH]GS or REBLSN or RESS or REDS or RETS or REFC or R N A WS RWYnn[n] or WS ALL RWY WS RWY03 WS ALL RWY Sea-surface temperature and ;tate of the sea (C)14 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Q Mind shear (C)’ hpplernentary niormation (c19 lame of the element (M) 2NH (M) ’ressure values (M) W[M]nn/Sn w151c2 Qo995 Q1009 Q1022 Qo987 Not for Resale VCFG VCSH VCTS VCBLSA SKC NSC
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A2-8 - bernent as specified , in Annex 3 Chapter 4 Detailed content state )f the 'unway C)14 Examples ïemplate(s) - 3421594 NOCLO SNOCLO Runway designator (Ml Runway deposits (M) Extent of runway contamination (M) or I I or11 Depth of deposit (M) 7 Friction coefficient or braking action (M) 1or Il ~ ,end forecast (0)14 :hange indicator (M)15 eriod of change (C)' OSIG IOSIG BECMG FEW020 3ECMG or TEMPO Unnnn andor rLnnnn x l'nnnn lind (C)' isibiliíy (C)' innn 'EMPO 25070GlûOKMH TEMPO 25035G50KT) inn[P]nn[n][G[P)nn[n]]KMH 9r inn[P]nn[G[P]nn]KT ileather phenomenon: itensiiy (c)li C A V - O N K S W -or+ iECMG FM1030 TL1130 CAVOK IECMG n i 7 0 0 o800 FG IECMG AT1800 9000 NSW IECMG FM1900 o500 +SNRA IECMG FM1100 SN TEMPO FM1130 ILSN 'EMPO FM0330 TL0430 FZRA Veather phenomenon: haracteristics and m e DZ or RA or SN orSG or PL or IC or GR or GS or DS or SS or TS orTSRA orTSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS or SHRA or SHSN or SHPL or SHGR or SHGS or FZRA or FZDZ or BLSN or BLSA or BLDU or PO or FC FG or BR or SA or DU or HZ or Fu or VA or SQ or FZFG or DRSN or DRSA or DRDU or MIFG or BCFG or PRFG - --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifications for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and Revorts in the METANSPECI Code Forms Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 4 Detailed content base or vertical visibility (C)' Template(s) FEWnnn or SCTnnn BKNnnn Wnnn or WIII A2-9 Examples TEMPO TL1200 O600 BECMG AT1200 8000 NSW NSC BECMG AT1130 OVCOIO OVCnnn C' Cloud type () 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. CB orTCU TEMPO TL1530 +SHIM BKNO12CB Fictitious location. To be included if the maximum is exceeding the mean speed by 20 km/h (10 kt). To be included if the directional variations 2 60" but < 180a and the wind speed > 6 kmlh (3 ki). To be included if the visibility in one or more directions is more than 50 per cent above the minimum visibility. To be included if the minimum visibility is less than 1 500 m and the visibility in another direction is more than 5 O00 m. To be included if visibility or RVR c 1 500 m; for up to a maximum of four runways. To be included if the i-minute RVR values during the 10-minute period immediately preceding the observation vary from the mean value more than 50 m or more than 20 per cent, whichever is greater; the i-minute mean minimum and the i-minute mean maximum values are reported (instead of the 10-minute mean value). To be included if the RVR values during the 10-minute period preceding the observation have shown a distinct tendency such that the mean RVR during the first 5 minutes varies by 100 m or more from the mean during the second 5 minutes of the period. No tendency indication where not available. To be included whenever applicable. One or more, up to a maximum of three groups. To be included whenever applicable. No qualifier for moderate intensity; only qualifier '+" (¡.e. welldeveloped) to be used with PO and FC. Precipitation types DZ, RA, SN, SG, PL, IC, GR and GS may be combined, where appropriate. Only moderate or heavy precipitation to be indicated in trend forecasts. Up to four cloud layers. To be included subject to regional air navigation agreement. Number of change indicators to be kept to a minimum; normally not exceeding three groups. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Meaning Time indicator and period Change indicator NOSIG - BECMG FMn, ni n,n, TL$n2n2n2 no significant changes are forecast the change is forecast to TLnnnn UTC and be completed by n2n2n2nz UTC commence at n,n,n,n, commence at the beginning of the trend forecast period and be completed by nnnn UTC FMnnnn cornmence at nnnn UTC and be completed by the end of the trend forecast period ATnnnn occur at nnnn UTC (specified time) - TEMPO a) commence at the beginning of the trend forecast period and be completed by the end of the trend forecast period; or b) the time is uncertain temporary fluctuationsare forecast to FMnlnlnl n, TL$n2n2n2 TLnnnn commence at nlnlnln, UTC and cease by n2n2n2n2 UTC commence at the beginning of the trend forecast period and cease by nnnn UTC commence at nnnn UTC and cease by the end of the trend forecast period FMnnnn - commence at the beginning of the trend forecast period and cease by the end of the trend forecast period Table A2-4. Ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in the local meteorological message Element as specifiedin Annex 3 chapter 4 , I Runway "true Wind speed: M M 1 010-360 10 1 -399' 1 - 199' , KMH KT 1 1 0-800 M 100 1 0-400 400-800 :I 50 800-5000 5-10 KM Vertical visibility: Res0lUb;on O -36 1 Wind-ction: Visibility: I Range 25 50 100 800-1500 Cloud: height of base: M 0-600 Fr 0-2000 30 100 M M Fr Fr 0-3000 3 O00 -20 O00 0-10000 10 O00 - 60 O00 30 300 100 1 o00 Air temperature; Dew-pointtemperature: I QNH;QFE: 1 hPa I I 0500-1 100 1 1. There is no aeronautical requirement to report surface wind speeds of 200 k d h (100 kt) or more; however, provision has been made for reporting wind speeds up to 399 knJh (199 kl) for non-aeronauticalpurposes, as necessary. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifications for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and Reports in the METAWSPECI Code Forms A2-Il Table A2-5. Ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in meteorological message-in the METWSPECI code forms I I Element as specified in Annex 3 Chapter 4 , Runway: 1 1 O0 ow0 - 0800 0800-5000 5000-9000 9000-9999 M M M M Visibility: 10 00 - 3991 - 1991 KMH KT 1 O00 - 360 true Wind speed: ~~ M I Vertical visibility: 30'sM (100'sFF) Cloud: height of base: 1 o00 999 ~ 25 50 100 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- o00 - 020 I o00 - 100 100 - 6od I I 1 1 10 "C -80-60 hPa 0850-1 100 1 "C QNH: -10 - 440 1 Sea-suriace temperature: I I 3 ' M (loo'sFI-) 0s 3 ' M (100's FI-) 0s Air temperature; Dew-point temperature: 50 100 0000 - 0400 0400 - 0800 0800-1500 M RVR: Resolution O1 - 36 (no units) Wind direction: I Range state oí the sea: (no units) L I 0-9 I 1 1 Runway designator: (no units) O1 - 36;51 - 8 ;88;99 6 1 Runway deposits: (no units) 0-9 1 Extent of runway contamination: (no units) 1; 2;5;9 - Depth of deposit: (no units) O0 - 90;92 - 99 1 Friction coeíficient/braking action: State of the runway (no units) 00 95;99 - 1 1. There is no aeronautical requirement to report surface wind speeds of 200 km/h (100M) or more; however, provision has been made for reporting wind speeds up to 399 km/h (199kt) for non-aeronautical purposes, as necessary. 2. 100 - 200 in trend forecasts. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A2-12 EXAMPLES OF REPORTS Example 1.- Routine report a) METAR for YUDO (Donlon/InternationaI)*: METAR YUDO 2216302 24015KMH 0600 R12í1000U FG DZ SCTO10 OVC020 17/16 41018 BECMG TLl700 0800 FG BECMG AT1800 9999 NSW b) Local routine report (same location and weather conditions as METAR): MET REPORT YUDO 22 16302 WíND 240/1SKMH VIS 600M RVR RWY 12 TDZ 1000M FG MOD DZ CLD SCT 300M OVC 600M T17 DP16 QNH 1018 TREND BECMG TL1700 VIS 800M FG BECMG AT1800 VIS 1OKM NSW c) Meaning of both reports: Routine report for Donlon/Intemational* issued on the 22nd of the month at 1630 UTC; surface wind direction 240 degrees; wind speed 15 kilometres per hour; visibility 600 metres; runway visual range representative of the touchdown zone for runway 12 is 1 O00 metres and the runway visual range values have shown an upward tendency during previous 10 minutes (RVR tendency to be included in METAR only); fog and moderate drizzle; scattered cloud at 300 metres; overcast at 600 metres; air temperature 17 degrees Celsius; dew-point temperature 16 degrees Celsius; QNH 1018 hectopascals; trend during next two hours visibility becoming 800 metres in fog by 1700 UTC; at 1800 UTC visibility becoming 10 kilometres or more and nil significant weather. * Fictitious location Note.- In this example, the primary units “kilometreper hour” and “metre” were used for wind speed and height o cloud base respectively. However, in accordance with Annex 5, the corresponding non-SI alternative f units “knot” and ‘Toot may be used instead. ’I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 2. Technical Specifications for Local Routine Reports, Local Special Reports and Reports in the METAWSPECI Code Forms A2-13 Example 2.- Special report a) SPECI for YUDO (DonlodIntemationaI)* SPECI YUDO 1511152 05025G37KT NE1200 S6000 + TSRA BKNOOSCB 25/22 Q1008 TEMPO TL1200 0600 BECMG AT1200 8000 NSW NSC b) Local special report (same location and weather conditions as SPECI: SPECIAL YUDO 151115Z WIND 050/25KT MAX37 MNMIO VIS 1200M HVY TSR4 CLD BKN CB 500FT T25 DP22 QNH 1008 TREND TEMPO TL1200 VIS 600M BECMG AT1200 VIS 8KM NSW NSC c) Meaning of both reports: Selected special report for Donlon/intemational* issued on the 15th of the month at 1115 UTC; surface wind direction 050 degrees; wind speed 25 knots gusting between 10 and 37 knots (minimum wind speed not to be included in SPECI); visibility lowest to north east at 1 200 metres, visibility 6 O00 metres to south (directional variations to be included in SPECI only; visibility representative of the runway included in the local special report); heavy thunderstorm with rain; broken cumulonimbus cloud at 500 feet; air temperature 25 degrees Celsius; dew-point temperature 22 degrees Celsius; QNH 1008 hectopascals; trend during next two hours, visibility temporarily 600 metres from 1115 to 1200, becoming at 1200 UTC visibility 8 km, thunderstorm ceases and nil significant weather and nil significant cloud. * Fictitious location Note.- In this example, the non-SI alternative units “knot” and ‘yoot” were used for wind speed and height of cloud base respectiveb. However, in accordance with Annex 5, the corresponding primary units “kilometre per hour” and “metre” may be used instead. Example 3.- Volcanic activiq report VOLCANIC ACTIVITY REPORT W S B * 23 1500 MT TROJEEN* VOLCANO N5605 W12652 ERUPTED 231445 LARGE ASH CLOUD EXTENDING TO APPROX 30000 FEET MOVING SW Meaning: Volcanic activity report issued by SibyIBistock meteorological station at 1500 UTC on the 23rd of the month. Mt Trojeen volcano 56 degrees 5 minutes north 126 degrees 52 minutes west erupted at 1445 UTC on the 23rd; a large ash cloud was observed extending to approximately 30 O00 feet and moving in a south-westerly direction. * Fictitious locations --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • IYGGggI - IDENTIFICATION GROUPS Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Ceptember 200 1 then min. vis n 1 500 r an( iaximum vis. iere IS a variation I wind direction of O" or more but :ss than 180" and m d speed i 3 K y group below lirection by: i another 5 O00 m 'ollowed Not for Resale .here are significant dariations in RVR by he group below Replaced when I ollowed when '199 KMH P99 KT. '49 MPS) mean f i r fmfm = 200 KMH 100 KT. 50 MPS) r more O0000 = calm SURFACE WIND I * W'W' m 5 " _. 3 3 9 I U O x AND DEW POINT TEMP REPORT c 8 F - VI -. 3 VI a g 3 m VI (Y U 3 <D 5 E. - I - CLOUDS' WEATHER RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) YHERE REQUIRED, UP TO FOUR KITIVE RUNWAYS AERODROME D W Significant'loud are no such clouds. no restriction on venical visibility and CAVOK and CCK are not appropriate by are no such clouds and CAVOK is not '* D 2 O II ~ FU Smoke 1 . I snow pellets PR Panial SG Snow grains VA Volcûnic ash (covering pan of DU Widepread the aerodrome) IC Ice (diamond dust dus! DR Low d r h a SA Sand HZ Haze FG Fog RA Rain SN Snow BR Mist 4 OBSCURATION BC Patches (supercooied) iñ E. PO DusUsand whirls (dust devils) SQ Squalls FC Funnel cloud(s) (tornado or waterspout) SS Sandstorm DS Duststorm 5 OTHER HER PHENC IENA Di! Dnzzle FZ Freezing m U O Q v (Y z ?J c ? STATE OF THE RUNWAY" 9 7 figure TTTTT A3-I gag m 30 E? ; l i O0000 = calm 8% E8 a <o? Very high Phenomenal Very rough Rough Moderate i Calm (glassy) , Calm (rippled) Smooth (wavelet$) terms c m VI 3 2 (Y v; g ;DE $ -w mo I -ORECAST WIND 0 0 CHANGE CHANGE NDICATORS AND TIME K 8 3 (T c c 7 C II expected to be obscurec Nil Si nificant Cloud and no cloud bdow 1 500 rn (5 o00 k) or highest minimum sector abtude whichever is greater. are forecast and CAVOK or SKC are not _ta_c Neather <eDlaCed casts are undertaken bv 7 vertical visibilty foreand U U E2 Replaced when sky U c I NsNsN,hshshs(cc: FORECASTCLOUD: OFOPERATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OR VERTICAL VISIBILIpi U D : < 9 V V V V w'w' 25 % 29 5 E9 5 TREND ORECAST l$VO HOURS FRO¡ TIME OF OBSERVATION I DECIQDE Clouds of opwational siqnificance1 e below 1 500 m (5 O00 ft) or below the highest minimum sector altitude whichever is greater and CB or K U ) State of the runway to be provided by appropriate airpon authority . NOTES . The w'w' groups are constructed by considering columns 1 to 5 in the table above in sequence. that is intensity. followed by description. followed by weather phenomena An examole could be: +SHRA íheaw showeris) of rain). 2 A precipiiation combination has dominant type first 3 DR (low drifting) less than two metres aboie ground BL (blowing) two metres or more above ground 4 GR used when hailstone diameter 5 mm or more When less than 5 mm GS used 5 BR - visibility at least 1 O00 m but not m a e than 5 O00 m FG - visibility less than 1 O00 m 6 VC - within 8 km of the aerodrome perimeter but not at the aerodrome VC In the vicinny + 1 Light Moderate (no qualifier) Heavy or welldeveloped in the case of PO and FC 'WT,T,/SS', ;TATE OF THE ;EA/SURFAC E TEMP SPECI FORECAST AND RECENT WEATHER unways are jffected by Nind shear by' NS ALL RWY Replaced Nhen all JVS RWYDRD, WIND SHEAR AND MI Shallow OUA IFIER ~~ INTENSITY OR PROXIMITY - RECENT INFORMA ON SUPPLEMENTARY METAR LTHEF - - SIGNIFICANT PRESENT, n 3 VI m 3 _. 3 in -. 5 I m 5 D - 3 - O o, 3 2. i ñ m c U i ABBREVIATED DECODE OF METAR AND SPEC1 MESSAGES Appendix 3
  • Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale a , Q Y dnoi6 ayi iaue paie3ipui suoiiipuo3 Lq papasiad aie dno~6 a~oiaq siyi suoiiipuo3 ise3aio4 IIV 3 sainuiw pue sinoy UI awii ayi SI 6633 pue ,,yUOJj,, uoiieihaiqqe ayi SI yu j aJayM6 6 3 3 y ~ 4 J O ~ sayei SI U ayi 663311 80 'I166d) aiou. JO (SdW OS '11O0 1) HW1 OOZ = "4"4 ueaw [SdN EPd i W 1 66 Ld ò c .- P m O .- O U m C O .e a, - 3 L =: a , - O e Q Q al N011V3iillN3ûl SdflOä3 B U m c Y .- E O L : c ..- O L 2 L m u m Y 2 3 I z3z3'3L3LA'i suoiieni3ny heJoduiai I siuawala JO luatuala aAiieuJaile ue 4 awaJn33o 0 Liiliqeqoid ayi aie3ip lSV33tlOi "4"4344PPP c .- JH313H QNV INiIOWV lSW332iOJ lSV33tl04 anon 01 pasn SI kiiiqeqo. 4 Ued pauieiuos-ilas iayioue 4 6uiuu16aqay] 6uiie311 0 0 snyi 'suoiiipuo~ ias iuaia~jip 01 hiaiaiduo3 ssal JO ~ J C 40 e a6uey3 01 pai3adxa SI suoiiipuo3 iaypaM 4 ias au( 0 11111 3Wll NI S39NVH3 3E)NVH3 - --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
  • Appendix 4 I SELECTED CRITERIA APPLICABLE TO AERODROME REPORTS l (The guidance in this table relates to Annex 3, Chapter 4 - Meteorological observations and reports, 4.5 to 4.12 inclusive.) RVR’ B -5 (lime, MIN) A 1-10 Visibility (VIS) I Directional variations4 Suiface wind I I I MinimumVIS VIS t 1.5 x Minimum VIS in one or more General rule directions I Past tenden$ speaal cases - R5W) I < 1 500 m Amount variations5 Layers reported if coverage I Ri - h o I i 1 Temperature I 7 No tendency available, the tendency is to be omitted Minimum and --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- If Step applicable If Step applicabie VS < 800 m I 300m<VIS<5000m 5 O00 m s VIS c 10 km VIS t 10 lon : 50 m :loom : 1 km : None, given as 1Olon or covered under CAVOK RVR<400m 4GûsRVRs800m 800 < RVR < 1 500 m I : 25 m :50m : 100 mí4 NIA If Step applicable Base s 3 o00 m (10 O00 8) Base > 3 o00 m (10 000 it) : 30 m (100 ft) : 300 m (1 o00 ft) (Reference level: Aerodrome elevationí5 or mean sea levei for offshore structures) QNH QFE’ Yes Allí0 No Recent WX of operational significance and wind shear13 Rounded of) to whole degrees: up (down) for] deamals 5-9 I In whole hPaí6 rounding down for deamals 1-917 N/A I I 13. Also sea-suiface temperature and state of the sea from offshore structures. Other infomation may only be inserted in accordance with regional air navigation agreement. 14. Reporl if RVR andor VIS < 1 500 m, limits for assessments 50 m and 1 500 m. 15. For landing at aerodromes with precision approach runways and with the threshold elevation : m below the aerodrome elevation, the Ihreshold 15 elevation to be used as a reference. 16. Measured in 0.1 hPa. 17. Reference elevation for QFE should be aerodrome elevation except for preasion approach runways, and non-preusion approach runways with l A4-I Not for Resale Supplementary infomation QNH TCU (insteadof 10-minute 1. Considered for the past 10 minutes (exception: if the 10-minute period indudes a m&ed dimnünuily (¡.e. RVR changes or passes 150 m, 350 m, 600 m or 800 m, lasting t 2 minutes), only data after the discontinuity to be used). A simple diagrammatic convention is used to illustratethose parts of the 10-minute period prior to the observation relevant to RVR criteria, ¡.e. AB, BC and AC. 2. Layer composed of CB and TCU WiIh a commn base should be reported as ‘CE. 3. Consideredfor the past 10 minutes (exception: if the 10-minute period indudes a m&ed discunünuiiy(i.e. the direction changes t 3 0 O with a speed 2 20 knvh orthe speed changes t 20 kmm lasting t 2 minutes), only data after the discontinuity to be used). 4. If seieral directions, the most operationally significant directtm used. 5. Let RI = any 1-minutezean RVR-value during period AC, R,, = 10-minute mean RVR-value during period AC, &(AB) = Sminute mean RVR-value during period AB and FIsW) = Sminute mean RVR-value during period BC. 6. CB (cumulonimbus) and TCU (towering cumulus = cumulus congestus of great vertical extent) if not already indicated as one of the other layers. 7. Time averaging, if applicable, indicated in the upper left-handcomer. 8. N/A = not applicable. 9. QFE is to be induded if required. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Pressure (QNH, QFE) Identification Upward (‘U”) Relevant Direction in three figunx Speed in 1 kmlr reporting rounded off to the or 1 kl scales for all nearest 10 degrees messages speed < 2 knvh (1 kl) (degrees 1-4 down, degrees 5-9 up) indicated as CALM Present weather > MAX (50 m and VIS > 5 km in another direction &o ,n & (OBS TIME)
  • Appendix 5 LOCATION OF INSTRUMENTS AND ACCURACY OF OBSERVATIONS AT AERODROMES PART 1 - LOCATION OF INSTRUMENTS 1. GENERAL 2. THE AERODROME ENVIRONMENT 1.1 The proper location of meteorological instruments, or of the sensors connected with the instruments’, presents many more difficulties at aerodromes than at synoptic meteorological stations. While in both cases the purpose of the instruments is to obtain as accurate information as possible on certain meteorological parameters, at the synoptic station the only requirement in respect of location is adequate instrument exposure. At aerodromes, there is a range of requirements and conditions in addition to adequate instrument exposure which the instrument location must satisfy, and in particular these include the following: 2.1 Before dealing with the location of instruments at aerodromes, there is a need for a brief description of the aerodrome environment in general. It is an environment of great complexity and size, covering at times large areas with runways attaining lengths of 4 km. The runway complex may be near built-up areas with public, administrative or technical functions. (Figure A5-1 gives a schematic representation of an aerodrome and its most important features.) 2.2 The difficulties that such a large and complex area as an aerodrome can create for the provision of timely and representative meteorological measurements are often considerable: a) a representative measurement for the aerodrome as a whole, and for take-off and landing operations in particular; - the size of the runway complex, which frequently cannot be adequately covered by a single instrument or sensor; b) compliance with obstacle restriction provisions; c) location in certain operational areas, requiring frangibility of instrument support construction; and - difficulty of access to certain parts of the aero- d) suitability of location in respect of terrain conditions, power supply and communication facilities. drome, which may prevent the location of instruments at the most suitable sites or access for maintenance purposes; 1.2 This Appendix deals with the location of the main types of meteorological instruments and instrument systems in use at aerodromes, i.e. those for the measurement of surface wind, runway visual range (RVR), height of cloud base, temperatures and pressure. The information is relatively general because aerodromes vary greatly in respect - _ _ of the types of operations for which they are used and the types of terrain; aspects which may considerably affect the location of instruments. 1. - the obstacle restriction regulations, which may have similar effects - the size of buildings or of other constructions (towers, masts, etc.), which may prevent adequate instrument exposure; - the effects of aircraft movements and exhausts (particularly during taxiing and turning operations), and of large car parks and their associated emissions. The term “instrument” is used in both senses. AS-l --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • A5-2 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS c Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f Figure A5-1. Schematic representation of an aerodrome and its most important features Not for Resale
  • Appendix 5. Location o Instruments and Accuracy o Observations at Aerodromes f f 2.3 To overcome these difficulties, the meteorological authority must maintain close contact with the authority responsible for the aerodrome and its master plan. This involves daily contact, as well as long-range planning, because the setting up of instrument sites and the laying of cables and other connected activities must not interfere with other aerodrome systems, disturb the normal functioning of the aerodrome, or become unduly expensive. Close cooperation with operators whose requirements often determine instrument location is also necessary. Finally, the local air trafic services (ATS) authority is also concerned with these dificulties as its units often use duplicate indicators and may have requirements of their own for the location of the relevant sensors. 2.4 In addition to close cooperation with aerodrome and ATS authorities and with operators, the effective determination of the most appropriate location of instruments requires a detailed on-site analysis by a meteorologist. The analysis could involve field trials, particularly in circumstances where the topography and/or prevailing weather are complex, while in more straightforward cases a simple onsite inspection may be sufficient. In the case of new aerodromes, it is usual to establish an observing station, or at least a minimum set of instruments, before the aerodrome is built in order to obtain information on meteorological conditions likely to affect operations at the aerodrome. A5-3 numerous specifications concerning the characteristics of aerodromes, so as to provide a series of aerodrome facilities that are suitable for the aeroplanes that are intended to operate at the aerodrome. The code is composed of two elements as shown in Table A5-1; the first element is numerical (1 to 4) and is related to aeroplane performance, the second is a letter (A, B, C, D or E) related to aircraft dimensions. The width of the runways, the runway strips and the slope of the obstacle limitation surfaces, etc., vary according to the aerodrome reference code. 3.3 The more important obstacle limitation surfaces, from the stagdpoint of the siting of meteorological instruments, are the transitional surfaces which limit obstacle height along the side of the runway. The recommended runway width, strip width and slope of the transitional surfaces are given in Table A5-2, which is derived from provisions given in Annex 14, Volume I. It may be seen that all runways should be protected by a transitional surface that begins at the edge of the runway strip and slopes upwards and outwards away from the runway. The width of the strip and the slope of the transitional surface depend on the runway reference code number. A precision approach runway is protected by a second “inner” transitional surface and the airspace over the runway between the two inner surfaces is referred to as the obstacle free zone (OFZ). Once the reference code number for a particular runway is known, on the basis of Table A5-1,it is possible to obtain the recommended minimum dimensions and slopes of the associated strip and transitional surfaces from Table A5-2. 3. OBSTACLE RESTRICTIONS 3.1 In the choice of sites for instruments at aerodromes, account must be taken first and foremost of obstacle restrictions at the aerodrome. The meteorological instrumentdsensors that are listed as objects which may constitute “obstacles” are anemometers, ceilometers and transmissometers (for details see the Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137), Part 6 - Control of Obstacles, Chapter 5). Specifications governing the restriction of obstacles at aerodromes are given in Annex 14, Volume I, Chapters 4 and 8. The objective of these specifications is to define the airspace at the aerodromes so as to ensure that it is free from obstacles thereby permitting intended aeroplane operations to be conducted safely. This is achieved by establishing a series of obstacle limitation surfaces that define the limits to which objects may project into the airspace. 3.2 Aerodromes intended for use by international civil aviation are classified according to a reference code. This code provides a simple method for interrelating the 3.4 A cross-section of the transitional surfaces recommended for a precision approach runway of reference code number 3 or 4 is shown in Figure A5-2. The positions closest to the runway at which various meteorological instruments may be located without infringing the transitional surfaces are also indicated in Figure A5-2. Unless there are exceptional local circumstances, no meteorological instruments should infringe upon the OFZ. Where this is unavoidable, in order to ensure representative observations, the sensor support must be frangible, lighted and preferably shielded by an existing essential navigation aid. The principle of “shielding” in relation to obstacles is dealt with in the Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137), Part 6 Control of Obstacles, Chapter 2. The most important provisions governing the siting of meteorological instruments are summarized in Table A5-3. (Meteorological instruments which may constitute obstacles are given in Doc 9137, Airport Services Manual, Part 6 - Control of Obstacles, Chapter 5. Minimum distances from runways are illustrated in Figure A5-2.) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A5-4 Table A5-1. Aerodrome reference code (extract from Annex 14, Volume I) Code element 2 Code element 1 Code number (1) Aeroplane reference field length Code letter () 2 () 3 1 Less than 800 m A Up to but not including 15 m 2 800 m up to but not including 1 200 m B 15 m u p to but not including 24 m m up to but not including 1 800 m c 24 1 800 m and over D 36 m up to but not including 52 m 3 4 1 200 Wing span (4) Outer main gear wheel span? () 5 Up to but not including 4.5 m m up to but not inchding 6 m 4.5 6 m up to but not including 9 m m up to but not including 36 m 52 m up to but not , 9 m up to but not including 14 m including 65 m F Note.- 9 m up to but not including 14 m 65 m up to but not including 80 m E 14 rn up to but not including 16 m Guidance on planning for aeroplanes with wing spans greater than 80 m is given in the Aerodrome 1. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels. 3.5 In addition to taking account of the distance fiom runway centre lines, in siting meteorological instruments, care must always be exercised to ensure that the instruments do not present an obstacle to aircraft using taxiways. The minimum distances that objects may be located from taxiway centre lines is given in Table AS-2 in terms of the aerodrome reference code letters (A to E) which are based on typical aircraft dimensions. 4. ADEQUATE INSTRUMENT EXPOSURE 4.1 On the whole, requirements for instrument exposure at aerodromes are similar to those at other (e.g. synoptic) stations? The main requirement is for the instrument or its sensor, be it an anemometer for surface wind measurement or a thermometer for temperature measurement, to be 2. Annex 3, 4.1.5, calls for meteorological instruments at aeronautical meteorological stations to be exposed, operated and maintained in accordance with the practices, procedures and specifications promulgated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Detailed guidance in this respect can be found in the WMO Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation ( W O - N o . 8). Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS freely exposed to atmospheric conditions. This is sometimes difficult to achieve at aerodromes where circumstances may force the meteorological instruments to be in a location where it is difficult to obtain representative measurements. At times, a meteorological station and its instruments may start out at an unobstructed site, only to be gradually surrounded by masts or buildings. In all such cases, full use needs to be made of modern distant reading instruments and techniques. 4.2 In some cases, instruments may need to be protected against non-atmospheric influences, for example, from jet aircraft exhausts. This applies particularly to wind and temperature instruments, which should not be affected by exhausts fiom moving or parked aircraft but should be moved to more suitable sites. 4.3 The adequate exposure of wind sensors often presents the most crucial and difficult problem in respect.of instrument location at aerodromes. Some details in this respect are given below under ?Representative Measurements?. 4.4 As far as temperature and dew point measurements are concerned, exposure problems may occur at Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Design Manual (Doc 9157). Parts 1 and 2.
  • Appendix 5. Location o Instruments and Accuracy o Observations at Aerodromes f f AS-5 Table A5-2. Minimum dimensions of runways and slopes of associated transitional surfaces (based on information contained in Chapters 3 and 4 of Annex 14, Volume I) Minimum distance of object from taxiway centre line Aerodrome reference code number 1 2 3 4 Width of runway (metres) for aerodrome reference code letter: A 18 23 30 18 23 30 - 16.25 B C 23 30 30 45 26.0 D - - 45 45 40.5 - 45 47.5 Precision approach 75 75 150 150 Non-precision approach 75 75 150 150 30 40 75 75 14.3% 14.3% 14.3% 14.3% 20% 20% 14.3% 14.3% 20% 20% 14.3% 14.3% CAT i: 45 CAT I: 45 CAT I, II or III: 60 CAT I, II or 111: 60 40% 40% 33.3% 33.3% - - - - t Semi-width of runway strips (metres) Instrument runway: Non-instrument runway Transitional surface (slope) Instrument runway: Precision approach Non-precision approach Non-instrument runway Inner transitional surface (minimum, semi-width on the ground, metres) Instrument runway: Precision approach Non-precision approach Non-instrument runway Inner transitional surface (slope) Instrument runway: Precision approach Non-precision approach Non-instrument runway --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 21.5
  • aids shall be mounted 4 !Y 150 m strip Siüng of aeronautical meteorological instrument sensors @ @ Obstaclefree zone -Generally speaking no MET sensors should infringe this region unless exceptional local circumstances so dictate. In the latter case sensor supports must be frangible, lighted and if possible sensor should be "shielded" by an existing obstacle. 1) Transmissometer sited between 66 m and 120 rn from ninway centre line. 2) Ceilometer may be sited in this region if not located near middle marker. 3) If essential to locate wlhin strip, anemometer height 6 m minimum distance from centre line = 78 m; for 10 m height = 90 m. Usual location of anemometer masts minimum distance from runway centre line for a 6 m mast = 192 m and for a 10 m mast = 220 m. Assuming surface wind observations made in this region are representative of conditions over runway. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 6m mast lim mast Orbeyond -W + Anemometer masts closest distance to runway for usual siting Cross-section of typical precision approach runway reference number 3 or 4 Scale 1/10" 5 m Note.- Slope angles not d r a y to scale.
  • AS-7 f Appendix 5. Location of Instruments and Accuracy o Observations at Aerodromes 5. REPRESENTATIVE MEASUREMENTS 5.1 The need for “representative” measurements arises largely because: one usually cannot measure atmospheric parameters at exactly those places where they affect the aircraft, i.e. at or over the runway; and even if one could, it would normally be impossible to carry out measurements on a sufficiently dense scale so as to obtain an accurate picture of atmospheric conditions over the whole runway or runway complex. 5.2 As a consequence, one is forced to adopt a sampling technique which, in turn, is made difficult by the inhomogeneity of the atmosphere over as large an area as that covered by an aerodrome, often made more complicated by terrain features or buildings. There is, therefore, a need for well thought-out and researched sampling techniques, tailored to the needs of and conditions at each individual aerodrome, which will provide measurements representing, within acceptable margins, conditions actually experienced in the area of interest. Experiments with surface wind measurements in a number of States unfortunately have shown that it is often not possible to state what “acceptable margins” are. They are not necessarily identical with “accuracy” requirements of measurements (see Part 2 of this Appendix) with which they are sometimes confused, although accuracy requirements can be used in the case of some parameters (for example, temperature [1”C, see 4 4 .1 as a first approximation. 5.3 As requirements for representative measurements depend to a considerable extent on types of aircraft and operations, close cooperation with operators will usually solve these problems. Frequently, it is the operators (Le. pilots) who are the first to notice if measurements are not representative, and they should be encouraged to report such cases. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5.4 While the question of representative measurements has a temporal as well as a spatial aspect, only the latter will be considered here, although the two are sometimes interconnected. For example, it has been shown that the degree of roughness of the terrain between the location of an anemometer and the runway may affect the optimum averaging period to be used for wind observations. Spatial representativeness has a vertical and a horizontal aspect, and the two will be considered separately in the following paragraphs. The vertical aspect is partly connected with the need to provide measurements of conditions at a level or levels above the runway surface of particular relevance to aircraft landing or taking off (e.g. height of jet intake); in addition, there is the need to avoid effects of the ground and of obstacles which may influence the height at which measurements are being taken. The horizontal aspects are those which determine the number and location of instrumentslsensors so as to provide satisfactory information on meteorological conditions for all operations at the airport, irrespective of its size or terrain configuration. 5.5 Surface wind 5.5.1 The location of the sensor(s) in the vertical should be such as to provide wind information representative of conditions 6 m to 10 m (20 ft to 30 ft) above the r u n ~ a yTo obtain information meeting this requirement it .~ is essential that the sensor(s) be installed over open terrain which, in this context, is defined as terrain where any obstacles to the wind flow (buildings, trees, etc.) are at a distance corresponding to at least ten times the height of the obstruction. However, thin masts or masts of open (lattice) construction may be disregarded in such calculations. 5.5.2 The WMO Guide to Meteorological Instruments f and Methods o Observation provides general guidance on what to do when normal, unobstructed exposure is not possible, including recommended use of the following formula for reduction of wind speed to a height of 10 m (30 ft), if the sensor (while still in the open) must be placed above that height: Vh = Vio [0.233 + 0.656 loglo (h + 4.75)] In this (Hellman’s) formula;Vh is the wind speed at height h metres, and Vio is the wind speed at 10 m (30 Et) above the ground. 3. Not for Resale WMO requirements for synoptic observations refer to a height of 10 m, and not 6 m to 10 m as the aeronautical requirements. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- some aerodromes, particularly those with high temperatures and little wind. Experiments have shown that in those cases temperatures measured over grass or in an area surrounded by vegetation may be considerably different from those experienced over the runway surface. Where those differences are found to exceed 1”C, arrangements need to be made to shift the site of the temperature measurement to one that is better exposed, or use distant reading thermometers. The latter solution is now employed at an increasing number of aerodromes.
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A5-8 Table AS-3. Location of meteorological instruments at aerodromes (Meteorological instruments w h i c h m a y constitute obstacles are g i v e n in Doc 9137, Airport Services Manual, Part 6 C o n t r o l of Obstacles, Chapter 5. Minimum distances from runways are illustrated in Figure AS-2.) Meteorological element observed or measured Typical equipment Typical dimensions of equipment Operational area for which element is to be representative Siting provision in Annex 3 Remarks Surface wind speed and direction Anemometer and wind vane Usually mounted on tubular or lattice mast 6 m to 10 m (20 ft to 30 ft) high. Single tube mast for both instruments appropriate in proximity to ninways. Take-off areas and touchdown zone. Where prevailing wind varies significantly at different sections of the runway, multiple anemometers may be required. No specific provisions so long as observa-tionsare representa-tive of relevant operational areas. Siting will be governed by obstacle limitation surfaces and local prevailing surface wind regime. Generally speaking, if the wind field over the aerodrome is homogeneous, one strategically sited anemometer may suffice, preferably sited so as not to infringe transitional surfaces. However, depending on local conditions, it may be necessary to locate a frangible and lighted mast within the runway strip. Only in exceptional circumstances should the mast inftinge the obstacle-free zone (¡.e. inner transitional surface) for precision approach runways. In the latter case, the mast must be frangible, lighted and preferably shielded by an existing essential navigation aid. The site must not be affected by buildings, etc., or by aircraft operations (e.g. jet efflux during taxiing). Runway visual range Transmissometer Usually two units, transmitter and receiver separated over baseline varying from 1O m to 200 m depending on range of visibilities to be assessed. Height of units less than 2 m (6.5 ft). Solid foundation plinths required. Up to three transmissometers per runway (¡.e. ninways for which RVR is required). For touchdown zone at both ends and at the midpoint. Not more than 120 m laterally from runway centre line. For touchdown zone, units should be 300 m along runway from threshold. Should be sited within 120 m laterally from runway centre line but not infringing obstacle free zone (¡.e. inner transitional surface) for precision approach runways. Should be frangible structure, e.g. tubular supports and shearing bolts at foundation. Height of cloud base Ceilometer Usually less than 1.5 m (5 fl) high but rather solid structure including foundation plinth. Generally representative of the approach area, but for precision approach runways, representative for the middle marker site (where pilot on approach has to decide whether to continue the approach or execute a missed approach procedure (decision height)). No specific provisions so long as observations representative of relevant operational areas. May be located at the middle marker site or within the runway strip but preferably not infringing the obstacle free zone (¡.e. inner transitional surface) for precision approach runways. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 5. Location of Instruments and Accuracy o Observations at Aerodromes f AS-9 5.5.3 As far as providing representative measurements of surface wind in the horizontal is concerned, the size, complexity of terrain and other features of aerodromes, and the different types of runway (non-precision, precision, etc.) and operations make this question particularly difficult. According to Annex 3,4.5.2, portions of the the aerodrome, runway or runway complex for which surface wind reports should be representative are as follows: provide answers for optimum and cost-effective (i.e. minimum numbers of sensors to provide the information required) installations. It is in this connection that close cooperation with aerodrome authorities and operators will be particularly necessary. For take-off along the runway (but particularly the lift-off zone - see 5 5 4 . ..) 5 6 1 The height corresponding to the average eye .. level of a pilot in an aircraft on the ground is approximately 5 m (15 fi). Since the runway lights are at or near ground level, this implies an average height of about 2 5 m (7.5fi) . for the light path to a pilot’s eye. According to the ICA0 Manual o Runway fisual Range Observing and Reporting f Practices (Doc 9328), in most States the light of the horizontal beam of transmissometers, the most frequently used instrument for runway visual range (RVR) measurement, is therefore between 2 m and 3 m, although values from as low as 1.5 m (mean path height) to as high as 4.25 m, as well as beams slanting from 5 m to 2 m are used in some States. For landing: the touchdown zone. For reports sent beyond the aerodrome: the whole runway (if only one); the runway complex (if more than one runway). 5.5.4 With regard to the siting of wind sensors, Annex 3 stipulates that: “Representative surface wind observations should be obtained by the use of sensors appropriately sited as determined by local conditions. Sensors for surface wind observations for reports for local routine and special reports should be sited to give the best practicable indication of conditions along the runway, e.g. lift-off and touchdown zones. At aerodromes where topography and/or prevalent weather conditions cause significant differences in surface wind at various sections of the runway, additional sensors should be provided.” (Annex 3, 4.5.3) 5.5.5 Information provided in States’ aeronautical information publications (AIPs) shows that anemometers are generally installed in the centrefield or near the intersections of runways. At some aerodromes, anemometers are installed close to approach ends or thresholds of runways, while in a few others they are near midpoints of a runway. At an increasing number of aerodromes multiple (up to four) anemometers are provided. The case of Amsterdam/ Schiphol (four sensors, one each near the threshold of a runway) is illustrated in Figure A5-3, which also provides a good example of how instrument location should be indicated on aerodrome charts. 5.5.6 The foregoing shows that it is not possible to give detailed guidance on where surface wind measurements at aerodromes should be carried out, and how many sensors are needed for the purpose. Conditions and requirements vary from aerodrome to aerodrome and, in many cases, only trials and experiments over periods of time will 5.6 Runway visual range 5.6.2 In respect of locations of observations, Annex 3, 4.7.2, calls for RVR observations to be representative of the touchdown zone and, as may be selected by the authority concerned, of the middle and corresponding far sections of the runway. The site for observations to be representative of the touchdown zone should be located about 300 m along the runway from the threshold. The sites for observations to be representative of the middle and far sections of the runway should be located at a distance of between 1 O00 m and 1 500 m respectively along the runway from the threshold and at a distance of about 300 m from the other end of the runway. The exact position of these sites and, if necessary, additional sites, should be decided after considering aeronautical, meteorological and climatological factors such as runway length, swamps and other fog-prone areas. 5.6.3 According to the above-mentioned RVR manual, existing installations follow these provisions closely. All have one observation site opposite the touchdown zone - usually 300 m from the threshold - and many transmissometer systems have one to three supplementary observation sites. One of these is usually near the stop-end, which becomes the touchdown zone when the runway is used in the reverse direction. 5.6.4 When RVR measurements are made in connection with Category I operations alone, one site opposite the touchdown zone is generally considered to be sufficient. For Category II operations, it is usual practice to have sites opposite both touchdown zones, or in a single position if --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f AS-IO LEGEND 4 0 0 ad RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE OBSERVATION SITE CUP ANEMOMETER TEMPERATURE OBSERVATION SITE CEILOMETER Figure A5-3. 'Qpical layout plan of meteorological instruments at an aerodrome --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • A5-II Appendix 5. Location of Instruments and Accuracy o Observations at Aerodromes f Category Z runways: one transmissometer near the touchdown zone. Category I runways: Z - less than 2 400 m long: two transmissometers; antenna) thus bringing the transmissometer baseline closer to the runway than would otherwise have been possible; however, adjacent structures can have a marked effect on local fog characteristics. For example, in the United States, obstacle restrictions require that the transmissometer unit be more than 120 m from the centre line of a runway, and more than 45 m from the centre line of a taxiway. 5.7 Cloud 5.7.1 Observations of the height of the cloud base should refer to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation of precision approach runways where these are 15 m (50 ft) or more below aerodrome elevation. 5.7.2 Cloud observations should, according to Annex 3, 4.9.3, be representative of the following portions of the aerodrome: For landing: - precision approach runways: the middle marker - more than 2 400 m long: three transmissometers. site; Category ZZZ runways: three transmissometers. - other runways: the approach area. 5.6.5 Because visibility can vary considerably along a runway, particularly when fog is forming, the RVR manual points out that useful information can be obtained from multiple transmissometers even if only Category I operations are being undertaken. To obtain timely information on formation and approach of advection fog, some States have also installed transmissometers at some distance from the aerodrome in the direction from which advection fog normally approaches. 5.6.6 As regards distance from runways, the point from which RVR assessment is made should be such as to present a minimum of hazard to aircraft, to instruments and to observers who should never be exposed to the risk of being hit by aircraft taking off or landing. However, in order that the observations may be closely representative of conditions over the runway, observation sites should be near the runway. This point is recognized in Annex 3,4.7.5, which indicates that it is desirable to locate the RVR observing site at a lateral distance from the runway centre line of not more than 120 m. 5.6.7 As outlined in the RVR manual, most States follow this guidance fairly closely, distances from the centre line being mainly between 11O m and 150 m. Occasionally, it is possible to place either the projector or the receiver close to another runway facility (such as the glide slope Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS For reports in the METAWSPECZ code forms: the aerodrome and its immediate vicinity. 5.7.3 Ceilometers are normally installed at middle markers. There is usually only one per aerodrome (sometimes with two detectors), although at some aerodromes separate ceilometers are used for each middle marker. In some cases, middle marker sites may be of difficult access, e.g. on small islands, in swamps, etc. However, the fact that a marker is installed there and needs to be serviced should usually mean that a power supply is available and access is possible for maintenance, etc. 5.8 Temperature/dew point 5.8.1 Requirements for temperature and dew point values are generally understood to refer to the average height of aircraft engines. This requirement is normally satisfied by dry and wet bulb temperature measurements in a well ventilated screen (from which the dew point temperature may be calculated). 5.8.2 Temperature measurements should be representative of the runways. As mentioned earlier under instrument exposure, this requirement may not be satisfied Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- landings are made only from one direction and the runway is of moderate length - usually less than 2 O00 m long (2 400 m is allowed in the United States). For longer runways, it is usual for the second supplementary site to be in the vicinity of the mid-point of the runway. One State utilizes a third supplementary site (i.e. four transmissometers per runway) when the runway length exceeds 3 600 m. All States involved in, or contemplating Category III operations, use or intend to use three sites per runway, irrespective of the landing direction. Some States using transmissometers have three sites as a standard system regardless of the category of operation. In the United States, the number of observation sites is decided in accordance with the following principles:
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f AS-12 by normal meteorological measurements in screens in instrument enclosures. For this reason, most aerodromes have dry bulb and wet bulb thermometers located somewhere on the runway complex, usually of a distant reading type. In fact, the thermometers are often collocated with (one of the) anemometers. 5.9 Pressure 5.9.1 The sensors (barometers) used for obtaining pressure values for the computation of altimeter settings are usually located inside buildings. They may be precision aneroid or mercury barometers; one mercury barometer is normally sufficient for an aerodrome, unless, as is sometimes the case, a separate barometer or altimeter is kept in the local ATS unit (normally an aerodrome control tower). If a precision aneroid barometer is used for convenience, it should be checked against the station mercury barometer at least weekly. 5.9.2 in accordance with Annex 3, 4.11.3, the reference level for the computation of the QFE should be the official aerodrome elevation or, in the case of precision approach runways whose thresholds are 2 m (7 fi) or more below the aerodrome elevation, the relevant threshold elevation. As barometers are normally located in the meteorological office, which is not necessarily at the reference height (i.e. aerodrome elevation or precision approach threshold), a correction has to be applied to the barometer reading to account for this height difference when computing the QFE. When installing the barometer in the meteorological office, care should be taken to ensure the wall on which the station mercury barometer is to be mounted, or the position chosen to hold a precision aneroid barometer, is not subject to vibrations, direct sunlight or draughts. 5.9.3 Another aspect to be taken into consideration is the use of air-conditioning in large (or sometimes even smaller) buildings as this creates an artificial atmosphere. In that case, the sensor should be vented to the outside atmosphere (e.g. Pitot-static arrangements). 6. CONCLUSION The siting of meteorological instruments at aerodromes requires close coordination between the meteorological and civil aviation authorities. The most important practical steps to be taken in choosing appropriate locations may be summarized as follows: Step 1: Ascertain the geometry of the relevant obstacle limitation surfaces at the aerodrome, particularly the transitional and inner transitional surfaces. Particular aerodromes could comprise parallel and crossing runways which complicates the geometry. Assess the type of aircraft operations at the aerodrome (e.g. visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR) traffic) and frequency of use of runways (e.g. preferred landing directions), which runways are equipped with instrument landing system (ILS), possible noise abatement take-off directions, etc. Check aerodrome master plan for possible plans for expansion of the aerodrome runways, taxiways, buildings, etc. Check location and height of existing essential navigation aids such as glide path antenna, localizer, etc. Step 2: Prepare meteorological survey of the aerodrome based upon climatological statistics of the aerodrome itself or nearby observing stations. The assistance of pilots and air traffic control officers familiar with the aerodrome will be essential in this regard. In preparing the survey, account should be taken of the topography of the aerodrome and surrounding land, preferably by on-site inspection by an aviation meteorologist. Location and effect of swamp areas, hills, coastline, slope of runways, local industrial pollution, etc., and their possible effect on the operationally significant points around the aerodrome, e.g. touchdown zone, take-off areas, etc., should be considered. Step 3: Decide on the location of the instruments/sensors that would provide representative measurements as required by Annex 3 and, at the same time, allows for adequate exposure. Observe obstacle limitation surfaces in choosing sites as shown in Figure A5-2. in particular, anemometer masts normally should be sited outside runway strips and should not infringe the transitional slope. Where it is necessary to locate them within the strip, the mast should be frangible, lighted and the site should only be as close to the runway as is absolutely essential. Unless there are exceptional local circumstances, anemometer masts should not infringe the obstacle free zone. If the latter is necessary, then the mast must be frangible, lighted and preferably shielded by an existing essential navigation aid. Take into account also the accessibility of the sites, the availability of power, telephone and other lines without undue costs or interference with aerodrome use. Consideration should also be given to installing the minimum number required to provide representative values. This is cost-effective and ensures a minimum number of possible obstacles on the aerodrome. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 5. Location of Instruments and Accuracv of Observations at Aerodromes A5-13 PART 2 - OPERATIONALLY DESIRABLE AND CURRENTLY ATTAINABLE ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT OR OBSERVATION (extract from Annex 3, Attachment B; see also Annex 3, 4.1.13) Element to be observed Operationally desirable accuracy of measurement or observation' Attainable accurac? of measurement or observation ( 1994) Mean surface wind Direction: 10" Speed: I 2 kmlh (1 kt) up to 19 km/h (10 kt) I10% above 19 kmlh (10 kt) Direction: 15" Speed: 12 kmlh (1 kt) up to 37 kmlh (20 kt) I5%above 37 kmlh (20 kt) Variations from the mean surface wind 1 kmlh (2 kt), in terms of longitudinal 4 and lateral components As above Visibility 150 m up to 600 m f50 m up to 500 m I í O % between 500 rn and 2 O00 rn I20% above 2 O00 m up to 10 km * I O % between 600 m and 1 500 m 320% above 1 500 m Runway visual range I10 r up to 400 m n I25 m between 400 m and 800 rn *lo% above 800 m I25 m up to 150 rn 150 m between 150 m and 500 rn 110% above 500 m up to 2 O00 m Cloud amount *o b I In daylight, an observer can attain an accuracy of f 1 okta at the point of observation. In darkness, and when atmospheric phenomena limit the viewing of low cloud, there will be difficulty in attaining that accuracy. Cloud height I 1 0 m (33 ft) up to 100 m (330ft) *IO% above 100 m (330ft) f10 m (33ft) up to I O00 m (3300 ft) I30 m (100 ft) above 1 O00 m (3 300 R) up to 3 O00 m ( I O O00 ft) Airtemperature and dew point f l o c temperature IO.2"C Pressure value (QNH, QFE) Io.5 hPa f0.3 hPa 1. The operationally desirable accuracy is not intended as an operational requirement; it is to be understood as a goal that has been 2. expressed by the operators. The accuracy stated refers to assessment by instruments (except for cloud amount); it is not normally attainable in observations made without the aid of instruments. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 6 OPERATIONALLY DESIRABLE ACCURACY OF FORECASTS Note 1.- The guidance contained in this table relates to Annex 3, Chapter 6 - Forecasts, in particular to 6.1.1. Note 2.- Ifthe accuracy of the forecasts remains within the operationally desirable range shown in the second column, for the percentage of cases indicated in the third column, the effect offorecast errors is not considered serious in comparison with the effects of navigational e m r s and o other operational uncertainties. f Element to be forecast Minimum percentage of cases within range Operationally desirable accuracy of forecasts -~~~~ ~ AERODROME FORECAST Wind direction f 30" 80% of cases Wind speed f 9 krnih (5 kt) up to 46 krníh (25 kt) i 20% above 46 krnlh (25 kt) 80% of cases Visibility f 200 rn up to 700 rn f 30% between 700 rn and 10 krn 80% of cases Precipitation Occurrence or non-occurrence 80% of cases Cloud amount f 2 oktas 70% of cases Cloud height f 30 rn (100 ft) up to 120 rn (400 ft) f 30% between 120 rn (400 ft) and 3 O00 rn (10 O00 ft) 70% of cases Air temperature f 1°C 70% of cases Wind direction f 30" 90% of cases Wind speed f 9 kmlh (5 kt) up to 46 kmíh (25 kt) f 20% above 46 k d h (25 kt) 90% of cases Visibility f 200 rn up to 700 rn f 30% between 700 rn and 10 krn 90% of cases Precipitation Occurrence or non-occurrence 90% of cases Cloud amount f 2 okias f 30% between 700 rn and 10 krn 90% o cases f Cloud height f 30 rn (100 ft) up to 120 rn (400 ft) f 30% between 120 rn (400 ft) and 3 O00 rn (10 O00 ft) 90% of cases LANDING FORECAST FORECAST FOR TAKE-OFF Wind direction f 30" 90% of cases Wind speed f 9 kmíh (5 kt) up to 46 kmih (25 kt) f 20% above 46 kmlh (25 kt) 90% of cases Temperature f 1°C 90% of cases Pressure value (QNH) f 1 hPa 90% of cases A6-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A6-2 Element to be forecast Operationally desirable accuracy of forecasts Minimum percentage of cases within range AREA, FLIGHT AND ROUTE FORECASTS Upper-air temperature f 3°C (Mean for 900 kmi500 NM) 90% of cases Upper wind f 28 k d h (15 kt) up to flight level 250 f 37 km/h (20 kt) above flight level 250 (Modulus of vector difference for 900 km/500NM) 90% of cases Significant en-route weather phenomena and cloud Occurrence or non-occurrence 80% of cases Location: f 100 km160 NM 70% of cases Verücal extent: f 600 m12 O00 R 70% of &ses --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 7 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR AERODROME FORECASTS IN THE TAF CODE FORM (See Chapter 6 of Annex 3.) Table A7-1. Key: M C O = = = Template for aerodrome forecasts in the TAF code form inclusion mandatory, part of every message inclusion conditional, dependent on meteorological conditions or method of observation inclusion optional Note.- The ranges and resolutionsfor the numerical elements included in aerodromeforecasts in the TAF code form are shown in Table A7-3 of this appendix. in Annex 3, Chapter 6 Examples Detailed content Type of repori (M) TAF or TAF AMD TAF TAF AMD ICA0 location indicator (M) nnnn YUDO’ type of report (M) I Location indicator (M) Date and time of origin Date and time of the origin of the nnnnnnZ forecast in UTC (M) of forecast (M) 16OOO02 Date and period of validity of forecast (M) Date and period of the validity of the forecast in UTC (M) nnnnnn 160624 080918 Surface wind (M) Wind direction (M) nnn or VRB3 24015KMH; VRBOGKMH (24008KT); (VRûO3KT) 19022KMH (19011KT) Wind speed (M) 00000KMH (oooOOKT) 140P199KMH (140P99KT) Significant speed variations ( * C I 12012G35KMH (12006G18KT) 24032G54KMH (24016G27KT) Visibility (M) KMH orKT Minimum visibility (M) nnnn C A V O K - A7-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 0350 7000 CAVOK 9000 9999 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Units of measurement (M)
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A7-2 Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 6 Detailed content ~ Neather (C14* Intensity of weather phenomena ( q 6 Characteristics and type of weather phenomena (M)' :loud (M)' Cloud amount and height of base or vertical visibility (M) Examples Template(s) - or + I- DZ or RA or SN or SG or PL or IC or GR or GS or DS or SS or TS or TSRA or TSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS or SHRA or SHSN or SHPL or SHGR or SHGS or FZRA or FZDZ or BLSN or BLSA or BLDU or PO or FC FEWnnn I u FG or BR or SA or DU or HZ or FU or VA or SQ or FZFG or DRSN or DRSA or DRDU or MIFG or BCFG or PRFG SKCor NSC Wnnnor w 111 or +ZDZ PRFG ITSRASN SNRA FG -EWOIO 3VC020 SCTnnn or BKNnnn or OVCnnn Cloud type (C)4 CB Name of lhe element (M) HZ FG ITSRA WO O5 Wlll SKC NSC ET005 BKNO12 - Tx ' XT008 BKNO25CB ~_______ nnz Name of the element (M) TN Minimum temperature (M) 3xpected significant hanges to one or nore of lhe above !lements during the enod of validity C)4,10 nnl Time of occurrence of the maximum temperature (M) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Maximum temperature (M) nnl Time of occurrence of the minimum temperature (M) nnz Change or probability indicator (M)" PROB30 FEMPO] or PROB40 FEMPO] BECMG FM or TEMPO Period of occurrence or change ( c ) ~ Wind (C)4 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS nnn[P]nn[n][G[P]nn[nlKMH or VRBnnKMH or nnn[P]nn[G[P]nn]KT or VRBnnKT Not for Resale EMPO 1518 25070GlWKMH TEMPO 1518 25035G50KT) EMPO 1214 17025G050KMH 1000 5 R A SCTOlOCB BKNO2O TEMPO 1214 17012G025KT 1000 SRA SCTOlOCB BKN020)
  • A 7-3 Appendix 7. Technical Specijications for Aerodrome Forecasts in the TAF Code Form Element as specified in Annex 3 Chapter 6 , lisibility (C)4 Examples Template(s) Detailed content 3ECMG 1011 00000KMH 2400 OVCOlO BECMG 1011 00000KT 2400 OVCOlO) nnnn ’ROB30 1214 0800 FG Meather phenomenon: ntensity (C)6 - -or+ 4sw 3ECMG 1214 RA TEMPO 0304 FZRA 341030 SN TEMPO 1215 BLSN ’ROB40 TEMPO O608 O500 FG Meaîher phenomenon: :haracteristics and type (q4.7.10 DZ or RA or SN or SG or PL or IC or GR or GS or DS or SS or TS or TSRA or TSSN or TSPL or TSGR or TSGS orSHRA or SHSN or SHPL orSHGR or SHGS or R A orFZü2 R of BLSN or BLSA or BLDU or Po o r K ;loud amount and height of base FEWnnn or ir vertical visibiïi ( q 4 SCTnnn or BKNnnn of OVCnnn ;loud lyp8 (C)4 CB FG or BR or SA or DU or Mz or FU or VA o r S û or FZFG or DRSN or DRSA or DRDU or MIFG or BCFG or PRFG Wnnn or WIII ;KC or NSC Ml230 15015KMH9999 BKNMO BKNlMJ FM1230 15M)ôKT 9999 BKNOPO BKNlOo) IECMG 1820 ao00 NSW NSC - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. %ECMG 0608 cCT015CB BKNO20 Fictitious location. To be included if the maximum is exceeding the mean speed by 20 kmlh (10 kt). To be used only if the wind speed s 6 km/h (3 kt). To be included whenever applicable. One or more, up to a maximum of three groups. To be included whenever applicable. No qualifier for moderate intensity; only qualifier ’+” (¡.e. welldeveloped) to be used with PO and FC. Precipitation types DZ,RA, SN, SG, PL, IC, GR and GS may be combined, where appropriate. Only moderate or heavy precipitation should be indicated. 8. Up to four cloud layers. 9. To be included subject to regional air navigation agreement. 10. To be included when a change in some or all of the elements forecast is expected to occur; may be placed after any element forecast, as appropriate. 11. Number of change indicators to be kept to a minimum; normally not exceeding five groups. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A74 Table A7-2. Use of change and time indicators in aerodrome forecasts in the TAF code form Change or time hdicafor S M Meaning Time period used to indicate a significant change in most weather elements occurring at nhnhhours and nmnm minutes (UTC); ail the elements given before 'FM" are to be included following "FM" (¡.e. they are all superseded by those following the abbreviation) nhnhnmnrn --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3ECMG n1n1nznz the change is forecast to commence at nlnl hours (UTC) and be completed by n2n2hours (UTC); only those elements for which a change is forecast are to be given following "BECMG"; the tim period nln1n2n2 should normally be less than 2 hours and in any case should not exceed 4 hours TEMPO n1n1nznz temporary fluctuations are forecast to commence at n,nt hours (UTC) and cease by n2n2 hours (UV; oniy those elements for which fluctuations are forecast are to be given following TEMPO"; temporary fluctuations should not last more than one hour in each instance, and in the aggregate, cover less than half of the period ntn,n2n2 I- probability of occurrence (in %) of an alternative value of a forecast element or elements; probability nn = 30 or nn = 40 only; to be placed after the element(s) concerned fluctuations I i of occurrence of temporary EXAMPLE OF AN AERODROME FORECAST TAf for YUDO (Donlon/ln!emational). TAF YUDO 1600002 160624 13018KMH 9000 BKN020 BECMG 0608 SCT015CB BKN020 TEMPO 0812 17025G40KMH 1000 TSRA SCTOlOCB BKN020 FM1230 15015KMH 9999 BKN020 BKNlOO Meaning of the forecast: Aerodrome forecast for Donlon/lnternational' issued on the 16th of the month at O000 UTC valid from 0600 UTC to 2400 UTC on the 16th of the month; surface wind direction 130 degrees; wind speed 18 kilometres per hour; visibility 9 kilometres, broken cloud at 600 metres; becoming between 0600 UTC and 0800 UTC, scattered cumulonimbus cloud at 450 metres and broken cloud at 600 metres; temporarily between 0800 UTC and 1200 UTC surface wind direction 170 degrees; wind speed 25 kilometres per hour gusting to 40 kilometres per hour; visibility 1 O00 metres in a moderate thunderstorm with rain, scattered cumulonimbus cloud at 300 metres and broken cloud at 600 metres; from 1230 UTC surface wind direction 150 degrees; wind speed 15 kilometres per hour; visibility 10 km or more; broken cloud at 600 metres and broken cloud at 3 O00 metres. Note.- In this example, the primary units "kilometre per hour" and "metre" were used for wind speed and height of cloud base respectively. However, in accordance with Annex 5, the corresponding non-SI alternative units "knot" and "foot" may be used instead. * Fictitious location Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • A7-5 Appendix 7. Technical Specijìcations for Aerodrome Forecasts in the TAF Code Form Table A7-3. Ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in meteorological messages in the TAF code form Element as specified in Annex 3 Chapter 6 , ~ ~~ ~~~ Wind direction: Wind speed: Visibility: ~~ ~ ~ I Range I Resolution true O00 - 360 10 KMH KT 00 - 399' 00 - 199' 1 1 0000 - 0800 0800 - 5000 5OOO-9OOO 9000 9999 - 50 100 loo0 999 M M M M Vertical visibility: 30's M (loo's Fi) o00 - 020 1 Cloud: height of base: 30's M (loo's Fi) 30's M ( 0 ' Fi) 10s 000- 100 100 - 200 1 10 Air temperature (maximum and minimum): OC I -8O-t60 I 1 1 There is no aeronautical requirement to repoti surface wind speeds of 200 knilh (100kt) or more; however, provision has been made for reporting . wind speeds up to 399 kmlh (199kt) for non-aeronautical purposes, as necessary. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 8 CRITERIA FOR TREND-TYPE LANDING FORECASTS ~ Element . Observed value (given in report) Surface wind Trend-type landing forecasts to be issued when one or more of the following changes are expected Aean speed Change in direction .1 Less than 20 km/h (10 kt) io" or more 2 km/h (10 kt) or more 0 .2 20 kmlh (10 kt) or more io" or more Any speed .3 Any speed :banges through values of Iperationai significance' :hange in mean speed ~ .4 I. Any speed Visibility !O kmlh (10 kt) or more lisibility reaching or passing iny one of the following values: 150 m 350 m 600m 800m 1600m 3000m 5 0O 0d ;. Weather freezing precipitation freezing fog moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof) low drifting dust, sand or snow blowing dust, sand or snow (including snowstorm) duststorm or sandstorm thunderstom (with or without precipitation) squall funnel cloud (tomado or water spout) other weather phenomena given in 4.8.4 of Annex 3 only if they are expected to cause a significant change in visibility hset, cessation or change iintensity A8-I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Mean speed after the change in direction
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteoroloaical Practice A8-2 Observed value (given in report) Element Trend-type landing forecasts to be issued when one or more of the foilowing changes are expected ~ 1. Cloud mount ieight of base imount Yeight of base A 1. I 3KN or OVC 3elow 450 rn 1 500 ft) 3KN or OVC :hanging to or passing [either upwards or jownwards) any one of the following values: 30 rn (100 ft) 60 rn (200 ft) 150 rn (500 ft) 300 rn (1 O00 it) 450 rn (1 500 ft) 2.2 3KN or OVC U or above 3IKINI or OVC Below 450 rn [I ft) 500 . i50 rn (1 500 it) t.3 ;KC, FEW or SCT 3elow 450 m 1500 fi) 3KN or OVC 1.4 3KN or OVC 3elow 450 rn 1 500 fi) ;KC, FEW or SCT U or above 3KN or OVC Jelow 450 m :1 500 ft) ;KC, FEW or ;CT Below450 rn . [l 500 ft) 1.5 i50 rn (1 500 ft) 3KN or OVC t.6 5. 1. Sky expected to becorne or ernain obscured ilertical visibility passing my one of the following wlues: 30 rn (100 íî) 60 m (200 fi) 150 rn (500 ft) 300 rn (1 O00 fi) The threshold values considered to be of operational significance are to be established by the meteorological authonly in consultation with the appropriate ATS authority and the operators concerned, taking into account changes in the wind which would require a change in the runway(s) in use, and/or which would indicate that the runway tailwind or crosswind component will change through values representing the main operating limits for typical aircraft operating at the airport. 5 O00 r is also used as a criterion when significant numbers of flights are conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules. n --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2. Vertical visibility (at aerodromes where such observations are available) 4t or above 150 rn (1 500 ft) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 9 MODEL CHARTS AND FORMS (See 9.4 to 9.8 o Annex 3.) f MODEL A - Aerodrome forecasts MODEL TA -Tabular forecast of en-route conditions Example 1 - Tabular form Example 2 - TAF code form Example 1 - Low level Example 2 - Mediumkigh level MODEL TI3 -Tabular forecast of upper winds and upper-& temperatures Example 1 - Spot locations Example 2 - Grid mesh MODEL IS -Upper wind and temperature chart for standard isobaric surface Example 1 - Arrows and feathers (Mercator projection) Example 2 - Arrows and feathers (Polar stereographic projection) MODEL SWH - Significant weather chart (high level) MODEL SWM - Significant weather chart (mediumlevel) MODEL SWL - Significant weather chart (low level) Example 1 - Mercator projection Example 2 - Polar stereogaphic projection Example 1 Example 2 MODEL VAG -Volcanic ash advisory information in graphical format MODEL SN -Sheet of notations used in flight documentation A9-I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Model A. Aerodrome forecasts Example 1 Tabular form - ISSUED BY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE DATE . . .. ... .. . TIME.. .. .. .. . (UTC) HEIGHTS ABOVE AERODROME ELEVATION Cloud Aerodrome Period of validity (UTC) MOMBASA Surface wind mean direction (degrees true) mean wind speed maximum wind speed t TEMPO 09-12 NAIROBI 500 M 10 KM 030/05 KT 100 M 060/10 KT 12-06 BKN 1500 FG NSW Remarks MAX 30 AT 12002 MIN 20 AT 04002 EXTRACTED FROM TAF 00-24 SCT 1500 I 2000M 5 O00 M 10 KM I Not for Resale I I I EXTRACTED FROM TAF 06-06 SCT 2500 MAX 30 AT 1300 Z MOD BLSA A HVY DZRA MOD RA NSW V I I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Forecast temperature (degrees Celsius) OVC O200 C 270110 KT 270/10 KT 330/15 KT FM 1400 FM 1800 I FEW 1500 SCT 1000 CB 10 KM 030/20 KT 06-06 I H M SHRA I PROB 30 TEMPO 12-15 ROME Higher layers amount, height of base (feet) and type (if CS) 2000M VRW03 KT 060/10 KT 12-1 8 CAIRO Significant weather Lowest layer amount, height of base (feet) and type (if C6) N/A PROB 40 TEMPO 03-05 , BECMG05-06 KHARTOUM 10 KM 200 M 060105 KT 06-06 Surface visibility (minimum) 150/15 KT VRBl20 KT MAX 30 KT Type and time of change O BKN 500 BKN 1200 BKN 2500 MAX 25 AT 1400 Z MIN 06 AT 0500 2 K I l OVC 1500 OVC 2000 I I TAF 06-06 AMENDED MAX 06 AT 1500 2 MIN MS 02 AT 0400 Z I I
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A9-4 Model A. Aerodrome forecasts Example 2 TAF code form - ~ ISSUED BY ~ ~ ~~~ ~ . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~ METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE (DATE, TIME UTC) ............... INTENSITY '-" (light); no indicator (moderate); "+" (heavy, or well-developed in the case of dusüsand whirls (dust devils) and funnel clouds) are used to indicate the forecast intensity of certain phenomena DESCRIPTORS - shallow MI BCPR- DRBL low drifting - blowing patches partial SHTS shower($) - thunderstorm FZ - freezing (supercooled) FORECAST WEATHER ABBREVIATIONS DZ -drizzle RA rain SN snow SG - snow grains ice crystals (diamond dust) IC PL -ice pellets GR -hail GS -small hail and/or snow pellets - BR -mist FG -fog FU -smoke VA -volcanic ash DU -widespread dust sand SA HZ -haze - - PO dusüsand whirls (dust devils) SQ -squall FC -funnel cloud(s) (tomado or waterspout) SS sandstorm DS duststorm - EXAMPLES +SHRA -heavy shower of rain RDZ -moderate freezing drizzle +TSSNGR -heavy thunderstorm with snow and hail ~ ~ ~~ ~~ TSSN -moderate thunderstorm with snow moderate snow and rain SNRA - ~~~ SELECTED ICA0 LOCATION INDICATORS CYUL Montreal IntVDorval EDDF FrankfuNMain EGLL LondonlHeathrow HKNA Nairobi/Jomo Kenyatta Intl KJFK New YoMJohn F. Kennedy Intl LFPG PaWCharles de Gaulle NZAA Auckland Intl OB61 Bahrain Intl RJTT Tokyo Intl SBGL Rio de Janeiro IntVGaleáo YSSY Sydney/Kingsford Smith Intl ZBAA BeijinglCapital 130024 VRBO3KT 4000 SCTO25 BECMG 0305 9999 T30112Z T20106Z = EGLL 0908452 091212 27010KT 9999 SCTO20 BKN080 FM2100 30015KT 3000 FZDZ BKNOO6 OVC060 FM0000 30015KT 0800 +RASN BKN004 OVC060 BECMG 0305 33020KT 5000 NSW SCT020 BKN100 BECMG 0709 9999 = LFPG 1609102 161212 10008KT CAVOK FM2000 VRB03KT 8OOO SCT012 FM0400 VRB03KT 0800 FG FM0900 10008KT CAVOK = OBBI O303002 030624 03010KT 9999 SCT010 PROB30 TEMPO O915 03030KT 0500 BLSA FM1800 VRB02KT 8000 SCTO20 = HKNA ' 1221302 2802152 280624 06010KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO 1216 3000 SHRA BKN015 PROB40 TEMPO 1416 VRB20G30KT +TSRA SCT010CB BKN015 = Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- RJTT
  • Appendix 9. Model Charts and Forms A9-5 Model TA. Tabular forecast of en-route conditions Example 1 -Low level ZONE LONDON UPPER WINDS (DEGREES TRUE AND KNOTS) 10 O00 f i TEMPERATURES 5 O00 ft (DEGREES CELSIUS) 2 O00 ft 02"E 280130 MS 12 290125 MS 03 290120 PS 03 AMSTERDAM 250145 MS09 240135 O0 230130 PS 06 ISOLEMBDCB CLOUD xXx 1O00 BKNSC 10000 BKNST 800 500 ~ BKNACLYR SURFACE VISIBILITY XXX 12 O00 1 500 M IN SHOWERS ovcsc xxx AS LYR 2000 4000 M IN MODERATE RAIN AND 1000 M IN THUNDERSTORMS ISOL THUNDERSTORMS SIGNIRCANT WEATHER MODERATE OCNL 10 o00 SEVERE ICING 3500 MODERATE OCNL SEVERE ICING MX 5000 MODERATE OCNL SEVERE xXx TURBULENCE IN FRONTAL ZONE 1000 HEIGHT OF 0% ISOTHERM 3500 FORECAST LOWEST QNH (hPa) 1008 Issued b y . . . . . . . . . . at . . . . . . . . . . . UTC on ............. .20 . . . . b y . . . . . . . . . . Forecaster. Notes: 1. Positive and negative values are indicated by the prefix "PS" (plus) and WS" (minus) respectively. 2. When a single numerical value of an element is given in a forecast it is to be interpreted as representing the most probable mean of a range of values which the element may assume during the period of the forecast. Abbreviations: - - 1Isolated, OCNL - Occasional, FRQ --5 to 7 oktas, OVC -8 oktas, LYR - Layered, - to 2 oktas, SCT -3 to 4 oktas, BKN Frequent, EMBD - Embedded. SKC O oktas, FEW LOC - Locally, ISOL --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A9-6 Model TA. Tabular forecast of en-route conditions Example 2 Mediumhigh level - ROUTE FROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO r I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~~ VALID FOR DEPARTURE BETWEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UTC AND. FOR ARRIVAL BETWEEN ........................ UTC AND. ............ ............ UTC AND UTC SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SITUATION (SURFACE CENTRES AND FRONTS): ACTIVE COLD FRONT FROM HUMBER TO CHANNEL ISLES AT 1000 UTC MOVING EAST AT 20 KNOTS TO LIE NORTWSOUTH ACROSS TRACK ABOUT 40 NM WEST OF AMSTERDAM BY 1900 UTC. ZONE LONDON FL 300 FL 240 FL 180 FL 100 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- UPPER WINDS (DEGREES TRUE AND KNOTS) TEMPERATURES (DEGREES CELSIUS) SIGNIFICANT WEATHER AND ASSOCIATED CLOUD I I 02"E MODERATE TURBULENCE . 230165 MS 50 240160 MS 36 240150 MS 24 250145 MS O9 250150 MS 52 260140 MS 40 270135 MS 26 280130 MS 12 10 8 ISOL THUNDERSTORMS XXX I I 3-1 MODERATE TO SEVERE XXX ICING AND TURBULENCE TROPOPAUSE HEIGHT I JET STREAM Above planned cruise level if not specified. Issued by . . . . . . . . . . at . . . . . . . . . . UTC on . . . . . . . . . . . .20 . . . . by . . . . . . .,..Forecaster. Notes: 1. Pressure altitude is the height in feet of a level in the standard atmosphere above the datum level corresponding to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa. 2. Positive and negative values are indicated by the prefix "PS" (plus) and "MS" (minus) respectively. 3. Only cloud associated with significant weather is shown. Low stratus and fog, when expected, will be shown for terminal areas in appropriate aerodrome forecasts. 4. When a single numerical value of an element is given in a forecast, it is to be interpreted as representing the most probable mean of a range of values which the element may assume during the period of the forecast. - Abbreviations: SKC - O oktas, FEW 1 to 2 oktas, SCT - 3 to 4 oktas, BKN - 5 to 7 oktas, OVC - 8 oktas, LYR LOC - Locally, ISOL - Isolated, OCNL - Occasional, FRQ - Frequent, EMBD - Embedded. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale - Layered,
  • A9- 7 Appendix 9. Model Charts and Forms Model TB. Tabular forecast of upper winds and upper-air temperatures Example 1 -Spot locations --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ISSUED BY ................................. ..................................................... FIXED TIME PROGNOSTIC CHART VALID AI............. UTC ON .................................... ........... BASED ON .......... UTC DATA ON............................... NEXT ISSUE VALID AT .............. UTC........... 24 280 40 -32 10 VRB 05 - 08 05090 15-03 02080 15+03 -- 24 290 18290 10 340 05 050 02 VRB 55 - 32 40-22 10-09 10 - 03 05 + 03 18 220 35 - 17 18 260 30- 16 10280 20+00 18 200 25 - 17 10 170 15+02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 24 220 18 240 10 VRB 05 VRB 02 VRB Not for Resale 25 - 28 20 - 14 05 + O1 05 i14 05 +15 24 240 18 250 10230 05180 25 - 25 20 - 13 10+04 70+13
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A9-8 Model TB. Tabular forecast of upper winds and upper-air temperatures Example 2 - Grid mesh (from WINTEM) DATA PRESENTATION ...................... At .......... UTC ............. Valid ........ UTC ............. ISSUED BY Based on 0"s .... UTC data on ....... FL of tropopause Legend FL = FL, dd, Hf, of maximum wind dd, fff, M7T FL450/150 hPa dd = fff = dd, fff, MTT FL390/200 hPa dd, fff, MTT FL34ûi2W hPa TT = dd, ffí, MTT FL300/300 hPa dd, fff, MTT FL240/4ûû hPa dd,-íff, MTT FLIüû/5ûû hPa Forecast values apply to centre points of 5% flight level wind direction (tens of degrees) wind speed (knots) temperature ('C) preceded by M or P as appropriate squares of superimposed grid 550 550 540 : : 550 540 43006020 42002015 39031020 37030030 3 9 0 3 w 3793Q030 36032~UO 06015M66 O801OM66 1001OM66 35005M66 3l!OlOM68"""18qiûb66 1601 @6 35010M56 35010M55 31020M56 30025M57 30P20M57 29620M58 3202iM38 02010M44 01010M44 31015M44 31025M45 Jd025M45 3 1P20M45 3302pMdQ 33005M34 30005M34 36005M33 361)1PM34 i29020M34 32825M34 340*M34%.. .O 35005M18 35005M18 3301OM18 +& 1 CIMI 8 j28020M19 2Q20M18 290f5M19 20005M06 23005M06 21005M0& '* 34005MDf*' 04005M07 34Q05M07 32095M07 5' 4" 0 550 550 480 500 540 E 549' 40032025 39032020 390&4&0 37038045 38027050 390270b .a8027060 32020M64 29015M65 250BM66 21005M66 25010M66 26020M85 25025M65 33025M56 32020M56 290PM56 28040M57 27045M58 27050M58 28050M59 30020M44 29020M45 28020M45 28040M45 28040M45 27040M45 29050M46 29025M33 29015M33 2Ml5M33 28050M34 28045M34 28040M34 29050M35 2902ÖM18 28Ö15MI8.., , 3 O OM18 29030M19 27025M19 27020M20 26035M19 211 29015~07 28o~snKbs 3501OM06 32015M07 2301OM08 23005M09 23030M08 520 520 460 500 *..48.6 480 500 36029 100.'' 38032065 38030055 38028040 38026060 38026055 38025110 31060M61 31040M64 29040M65 26030M66 26045M66 26040M65 27050M64 3108C&54 32060M57 30050M57 27035M57 26055M58 26050M58 28075M57 29095M41 30055M45 30045M46 28030M45 26050M44 27045M47 26090M43 30093M34 28060M34 29050M34 28035M34 26050M34 27050M35 26100M33 3006EiM20 30040M19 30035M19 29025M19 25035M20 25035M21 24080M21 3104!$400 31030M08 31025M07 29020M08 25020M1O 22030M10 23070M11 410 390 430 450 390 41O 400 370311kO 39031125 39031090 38028070 39026080 38024115 38022140 291l W $ 6 30Ö95M60 30065M63 27060M64 26050M63 25065M63 25080M62 29056.M52 31125M54 31090M56 28065M58 26080M57 24110M58 25115M56 30155M42 30120M45 31080M47 30055M48 25070M49 241lOM50 24120M43 30145&7 30115M37 30080M37 30060M36 25065M38 24105M38 24110M33 30115M26 31090M24 30060M23 29045M22 25040M24 23075M24 22085M24 30090Mlx 32075M15 31045M12 28035M11 25020M12 22050M14 21070M18 320 350 400 430 400 390 360 31030160 30031150 37031170 3902911O 37024120 37022145 31022115 29105M50 i 30110M57 30105M61 28090M62 27080M62 26085M63 23070M60 30150M49 i 31140M55 30130M54 29110M57 24115M60 22140M61 23105M57 30135M44 i 31150M47 30135M48 2 9 . l 0 ~ 2 ~ " ~ * 2 4 7 1 W 5 22140M53. 23110M47 4 30120M41 i 31135M41 30095M.W '"'lj'0070M4 1 2308OMk.. 20130M41 22100M39 29085M32 i 32100M29 3104m27 31045M26 23040M28 *.20080&28 20085M29 29060M25.2 33080MW'57Ö65M 18 32025M15 25010M17 %O45619 18060M22 -~ 34p 290 360 380 370 300 28029105 3'ï032140 35031155 27029130 36027120 28018120 27045M50 30075M56 30095M59 30090M61 28085M62 26070M64 23040M59 29105M50 31135M57 31135M56 29120M60 26105M64 22105M6&.. 22095M58 29100M51 31135M54 31120M56 31105M59 26095M60 21110M58 f 22105M54 29080M48 32135M47 32105M48 31080M47 25075M47 20105M47 *'fZ1090M45 31035M36 33095M33 33085M33 32065M31 26040M32 20065M32 1$480M32 9063M.'' 02015M26 34065M23 34070M21 33055M20 30020M21 21035M21 320 370 350 36027100 33024070 31020050 28080M60 26065M60 25045M59 28090M66 24065M64 22045M61 27070M65 23055M63 20040M59 28060M52 23045M52 20040M50 29050M35 25035M35 20035M35 31045M22 25030M23 20035M24 '540 540 ' .... 0"s .... '- oos : . ..... .......... I 0"s l1O"E Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 120"E 130"E 140"E Not for Resale 530 530 37033025 37035020 15015M66 12015M67 34020M59 36015M59 33020M45 3201OM45 .30020M33 28015M33 3W15M18 31010M18 359310M06 04015M06 52b 520 38630060 38029050 26Q25M65 24015M65 30065M58 30040M58 300GM45 29045M42 2905hJ34 28060M32 28040w9 30040M17 26035MOt 33035M06 460 460 37027130 i 32027150 27070M62 i.27075M61 28095M53 271i OM53 28100M38 2WOM40 27100M31 3009. M34 27075M21 3108 .M20 26055M13 3008lyl3 320 300 * 31026100 29030GO 25065M55 27 80 01 . 26085M48 30140M47 25080M41 30145M45 26080M37 30135M4 24050M29 29080M.1 20040M22 28040Ma 280 260 31023070 26031078 24035M54 29035Ms 23060M48 32070t@8 23065M45 31060M49 22065M46 31050M48 20050M33 2701m34 18030M24 19026M23 280 280 i 26019060 27&0040 23035M54 2Tû25M51 21045M52 27020M49 21045M53 A7025M49 19045M49"' 22025M50 20030M36 .4a955~~5 18d;)oP;125 19035M25 300 300 29016050 29014040 -MS. 24020M53 '19020M56: 19015M53 &3 M $ ' 05 5 ' 16020M54 16040MY 14030M53 1@45hps7 14035M38 16045kl26 15035M27 10"s 20"s B ' 30"s ~ 150"E 40"s --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- GRID POINT FORECAST
  • Model IS. Upper wind and temperature chart for standard isobaric surface Example 1 -Arrows and feathers (Mercator projection) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Model IS. Upper wind and temperature chart for standard isobaric surface Example 2 -Arrows and feathers (Polar stereographic projection) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Model SWH. Significant weather chart (high level) Example 1 Mercator projection --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- - ......m,.: ....... ..:. .I*, CAT AREAS rl(l0 ISSUED BY........................... mA3 0 - -0 m. ~ Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale F L 2 5 0 FIXEDTIME PROQNOSTIC CHART 10 ............ m ........... ...... -her. Ichg nd h.L Uad-.iaidrh8@tk. ar El ~ lo w 3 R m mm
  • A9-12 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice
  • Model SWM. Significant weather chart (medium level) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A9-14 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Model SWL. Significant weather chart (low level) Example 1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 9. Model Charts and Forms 4 c Q h I cl . Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Not for Resale 8 I 0 o 3 8 Y) o o i f J U A9-15
  • A9-16 Manual of Aeronautical Meteorolopical Practice Model VAG. Volcanic ash advisory information in graphical format nw -o( F=DiLl-Cll*RIWU) VAAC ............................................................... VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY INFORMATION IN GRAPHICAL FORMAT (VAG) x L.1 VOLCANO (NAME............... ) LAT,.............N (ORS) LONG..........E (OR W) DATE AND TIME OF FIRST ERUPTION.......................... UTC..............19...... DURATION........... HOURI9 HEIGHT OF ASH CÓLUMNTO FL........... H VISIBLE ASH CLOUD Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .........VIC.........le... e " ww wa,ON ...... onam...... ... UIO 19 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ......vrC.._.... le... ......mDmON."...lO... FDODTWIPIP00(mCOURT WID., IwJpnon
  • l I I Appendix 9. Model Charts and Forms Model SN. Sheet of notations used in flight documentation l. Symbols for significant weather T(I 6 Thunderstorms Tropical cyclone I 1 3. Abbreviations used to describe clouds Drizzle 9 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Widespread blowing snow Severe sand or dust haze f- I Widespread sandstorm ordust storm Severe aircraft icing A I/ m O 0 0 Widespread haze Widespread fog - AS = Altostratus NS = Nimbostratus SC = Stratocumulus ST = Stratus CU = Cumulus Ci3 = Cumulonimbus 3 2 Amount . Clouds except CE SKC = sky clear (OB) FEW = few (118 to 2/8) SCT = scattered (38to 4/8) BKN = broken (518 to 7/6) OVC = overcast (W8) Ci3 only ISOL = individual CBs (isolated) OCNL = well-separated CES (occasional) FRQ = CBs with little or no separation (frequent) EMBD = CBs embedded in layers of other clouds or concealed by haze (embedded) 0 0 0 Volcanic eruption" Mountain obscuration I 1 I Freezing precipitation - Visible ash cloud **** * In fligM documentationfor flights operating up to FLlW.This symbol refers to "squall line". The foilowinginformation refemng to t e symbol should be included in the side of the char(: h Voicanlc eruption Name of volcana known) Latltudelloogiude Date and time 01 the first eruption 61 krown) C h s k SIGMETSfor volcanic ash. '** This symbol does not refer ta icing due to precipitstioncorning into contact wim an aircraft W c h Is at a very low temperature. -* Visible ash dood syrnbi applies only to model VAG not to SIGWX charts NOTE: Hei@ithacationcbetween which phenanena are expected. top above base as per diait Rgend ** of 2. Fronts and convergence zones and other symbols used ace I * A Warmfront at the surface a a I %FLzio Position, speed anc level of max. wind Convergence line Quasi-stationary front at the surface Intertropical convergence zone Tropopause High State of the sea Tropopause Low Tropopause Level I @ Sea-surface temperature Strongsurface wind - The heavy line delineating theet axe beginslendsat the pants where a wind speed of 150 lon/h -80 M i s forecast Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 4 5.56, 5 6 7 8 9 7.41 9.26 11.11 12.96 14.82 16.67 18.52 20.37 25.93 27.78 29.63 31.48 33.34 35.19 38.89 22.22 40.74 24.08 37.04 42.60 44.45 46.30 48.15 50.00 51.86 53.71 55.56 57.41 59.26 61.12 66.67 68.52 70.38 72.23 75.93 77.78 79.64 62.97 81.49 64.82 74.08 83.34 85.19 87.04 88.90 90.75 50 92.60 94.45 96.30 98.16 100.01 101.86 103.71 105.56 107.42 109.27 120.38 122.23 124.08 125.94 80 148.16 112.97 114.82 116.68 118.53 131.49 133.34 135.20 137.05 150.01 151.86 153.72 155.57 127.79 138.90 140.75 142.60 144.46 146.31 157.42 159.27 161.12 162.98 164.83 90 166.68 168.53 170.38 172.24 174.09 175.94 177.79 179.64 181.50 183.35 187.05 188.90 190.76 192.61 194.46 196.31 198.16 200.02 205.57 207.42 209.28 211.13 212.98 214.83 216.68 218.54 220.39 60 111.12 100 185.20 110 203.72 4.1 W e i s SWH and SWM -Significant weather charts (high and medium) Scalloped line = demarcation of areas of significant weather = delineation of area of CAT Heavy broken line Heavy solid line = positionof jet stream axis with indication of wind direction, 150 277.80 279.65 281.50 160 296.32 298.17 300.02 283.36 285.21 301.88 303.73 287.06 288.91 290.76 292.62 305.58 307.43 309.28 311.14 interrupted by wind speed in kt or kmlh and height in flight levels arrow and flight level Figures on arrows = speed in kt or km/h of movements of frontal system Flight levels = height in flight levels of tropopause at spot locations, e.g. inside small rectangles Low and High points of the tropopause topography are indicated by the letters L or H respectively inside a pentagon with the height in flight levels. 201.87 231.50 233.35 235.20 237.06 140 259.28 227.80 229.65 246.32 248.17 261.13 262.98 264.84 266.69 120 222.24 130 240.76 4. Deaicting of lines and systems on saecific charts 224.09 225.94 242.61 244.46 238.91 250.02 251.87 253.72 255.58 257.43 268.54 270.39 272.24 274.10 275.95 294.47 312.99 170 314.84 316.69 318.54 320.40 322.25 180 333.36 335.21 337.06 338.92 344.47 346.32 348.18 350.03 190 351.88 353.73 355.58 357.44 359.29 361.14 362.99 364.84 366.70 368.55 M: 200 kmlh:370.40 210 388.92 220 230 240 407.44 425.96 444.48 250 290 4 3 0 481.52 500.04 518.56 8.0 kt: 310 574.12 330 1340 320 592.64 611.16 629.68 648.20 666.72 685.24 703.76 340.77 324.10 325.95 327.80 329.66 331.51 342.62 m. 4.2 Model SWL - Significant weather charts (low level) = position of pressure centres given in hectopascals = centre of low pressure H = centre of high pressure Scalloped lines = demarcation of area of significant weather = altitude of 0°C isotherm in feet (hectofeet) or metres Dashed lines NOTE: 0°C level may also be indicated by [o": 060 ¡.e. 0°C level is at an altitude of 6 O00 ft Figures on arrows = speed in kt or k m h of movement of frontal systems, depressions or anticyclones Figure inside the state of the sea symbol = total wave height in feet or metres Figure inside the sea-surface temperature symbol = sea-surface temperature in O C Figures inside the strong surface wind symbol = wind in kt or kmlh 260 270 280 537.08 X L 300 kmlh:535.60 360 350 370 380 390 722.28 1, kt: 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 05 . 0.6 0.7 0.8 km/h: 0.19 0.37 0.56 0.74 0.93 1.11 1.30 1.48 25 50 4.3 Arrows and feathers Arrows indicate direction. Number of pennants and/or feathers correspond to speed. Example: Wind arrows indcate the maximum wnd in jet a d the Right ievel at which i1 occurs Sgniñcanl changec n (speed of 20 knots oc mwe, 3ooo ít (e if practicable) in flight W)are marked by lhe double bar i s In the exarnpb a the Quae bar the wr speed IS 225 kmm 120 ki t id 3.70 3 10 70 129.64 Heights are indicated on SWH and SWM charts in flight levels (FL), top over base. When XXX is used, tops or bases are outside the layer of the atmosphereto which the chart applies. In SWL charts: i) Heights are indicated as altitudes above mean sea level; ¡i) The abbreviation SFC is used to indicate ground level. 2 20 30 40 3.3 Heights Widespreadsmoke 1 1.85 x Widespread mist Hail O C CI =cirrus CC = Cirrocumulus CS = Cirrostratus AC = Altocumulus Moderate turbulence Severe turbulence . 3.1 Type /I//// Rain Moderate aircraft icing A9-I 7 270"/115 kt (equivalent to 213 k d h ) Pennants correspond to 50 kt or 93 kmlh Feathers correspond to 1O kt or 18 km/h Half-feathers correspond to 5 kt or 9 km/h O I O I 75 100 125 150 I 250 100 I 200 knots I 50 175 0.9 1.67 350 400 kmBl
  • Appendix 10 GUIDANCE ON AREA FORECASTS IN ABBREVIATED PLAIN LANGUAGE (See 3.2.14, 3.2.15, 3.3.1 and 3.3.9 o Annex 3.) f PART 1 - FORMAT FOR ABBREVIATED PLAIN-LANGUAGE SIGNIFICANT WEATHER FORECAST MESSAGES AND AMENDMENTS THERETO TO SERVE INTERNATIONAL C M L AVIATION IN OPERATIONS ABOVE FLIGHT LEVEL 250 1. Specifications 1.1 For the purpose of these instructions, “abbreviated plain language” refers to a language conveying to aeronautical personnel a directly intelligible meaning through the use of abbreviations (except signals of the Q code) approved by ICAO and numerical values of selfexplanatory nature supplemented, if suitable ICAOapproved abbreviations are not available, by other words taken with their usual meaning in aviation. Note.- ICAO-approved abbreviations are published in the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400). Signals o the Q code should f not be used in abbreviated plain-language significant weather area forecast messages. 1.2 In abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast messages, the term “CB’ should be understood to include pertinent weather phenomena normally associated with cumulonimbus, namely thunderstorms, moderate or severe turbulence, moderate or severe icing, and hail. 1.3 An abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast message should be consistent with the significant weather forecast chart from which it was derived. 1.4 The format should be as follows: World Meteorological Organization abbreviated heading. Type o message; applicable vertical range; valid f time; area to which the forecast message relates. AIO-I --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Describe the forecast area by reference to latitude, to longitude, to 1atitudeAongitude coordinates, to major geographical features, or to any combination thereof. Describe, in the same manner, any part of the area for which a significant weather forecast cannot be given because of lack of data. c) Synopsis. Include descriptions of significant weather features, such as tropical cyclones, surface positions of frontal systems and well-defined convergence zones; their forecast positions; their speed and direction of movement; and intensification or weakening, if considered significant. Give forecast positions as in b). Describe direction of movement in terms of eight points of the compass related to true north; give speed of movement in kilometres per hour or knots. d) Significant weather phenomena. Describe areas as in b). Describe the amount of cumulonimbus as ISOL EMBD CB (individual embedded cumulonimbus with a maximum spatial coverage of cumulonimbus less than 50 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon) or ISOL CB IN HAZE (individual cumulonimbus concealed in haze with a maximum spatial coverage less than 50 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon); OCNL EMBD CB (well-separated embedded cumulonimbus with a maximum spatial coverage of cumulonimbus between 50 and 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon) or OCNL CB IN HAZE (wellseparated cumulonimbus concealed in haze with a maximum spatial coverage between 50 and 75 per
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A l 0-2 Note.- See Note under 1.4 d) for similar application. cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon); or FRQ CB (cumulonimbus clouds with little or no separation with a maximum spatial coverage greater than 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon). Describe cumulonimbus clouds contained in layers of other clouds as EMBD. Give bases and tops of significant weather phenomena as flight level (FL). If no significant weather is forecast, enter the term “SIGWX NIL,‘’. Volcanic eruptions. Include information on the location of volcanic eruptions which are producing ash clouds of significance to aircraft operations, including those producing only steam, comprising: the name of the volcano, its international number, latitudeílongitude, the date and time of first eruption, if known, together with a reminder to users that reference should be made to SIGMETs and NOTAM or ASHTAM issued for the area concerned. Note.- Give bases o significant weather f phenomena only if expected to be at or above the lowest level of the atmosphere for which the forecast is prepared. Similarly, give the tops of significant weather phenomena only i f expected to be at or below the highest level of the atmosphere for which the forecast is prepared. e) Turbulence. This should include turbulence, other than that associated with cumulonimbus, if expected to be moderate or severe, and the intensity thereof. Describe areas as in b). Give bases and tops of Phenomenon as FL. If no turbulence in this category is forecast, no entry for turbulence should be given. g) Radioactive materials in the atmosphere. Information on the location of an accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, of significance to aircraft operations, comprising: latitude/ longitude of the site of the accident, date and time of accident and a reminder to users to check NOTAM for the area concerned. 2. Examples Examples of abbreviated plain-language significant weather messages are given below. Example 1 FAPN13 KWBC 101200 AREA FCST FL250 TO FL450 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N37E135 N48W108 N28W130 N28E158 N37E135. SYNOPSIS. COLD FRONT N45W179 N33W179 MOV E 20 KT. COLD FRONT N43W152 N44W140 N35W131 N29W134 MOV NE 15 KT INTSF. ’ SIGWX NIL TURB. MOD’CAT FL260 TO FL340 N36E140 N36E150 N34E141 N36E140. MOD CAT FL280 TO FL380 N41W133 N45W125 N42W117 N40W120 N41W133. 1 I Example 2 FAEWI EJJJ 101300 AREA FCST FL250 TO FL450 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N50W20 N50E20 N30E20 N30W20 N50W20. SYNOPSIS. NO MAJOR WX SYSTEM. SIGWX NIL. I 1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix I O. Guidance on Area Forecasts in Abbreviated Plain Language AIO-3 Example 3 FANT10 KWBC 101200 AREA FCST FL250 TO FL600 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N55W88 N50E42 N33E13 N27W59 N55W88. SYNOPSIS. WARM FRONT N42W84 N43W79 N39W62 MOV NE 30 KT. OCCLUDED FRONT N63W40 N60W25 N50W29 MOV E 35 KT. COLD FRONT N50W29 N40W43 N31W60 MOV SE 10 KT INTSF. SIGWX AND ASSOCIATED CLD. ISOL EMBD CB TOPS FL340 N55E20 N55E30 N46E34 N44E24 N55E20. TURB. MOD CAT FL250 TO FL340 N46W41 N53W40 N56W28 N50W32 N46W41. MOD CAT FL250 TO FL350 N62W30 N67W13 N63W08 N61W20 N62W30. Example 4 FANT10 KWBC 101400 AMD AMD AREA FCST FL250 TO FL600 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N55W88 N50E42 N33E13 N27W59 N55W88. SYNOPSIS. NO MAJOR WX SYSTEM. SIGWX AND ASSOCIATED CLD. FRQ CB TOPS FL480 N48W80 N46W65 N41W65 N45W79 N48W80. OTHER AMD NIL. Example 5 FAXT1 KWBC 101200 AREA FCST FL250 TO FL600 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N50W160 N50W43 S20W43 S20W160 N50W160. FCST NIL FOR AREA SOUTH OF EQUATOR DUE LACK OF DATA. SYNOPSIS. WARM FRONT N41W85 N43W80 N39W70 N39W61 MOV NE 30 KT. COLD FRONT N41W85 N29W94 MOV SE 25 KT. STNR FRONT N40W43 N30W63. COLD FRONT N49W132 N45W130 N40W133 N30W144 MOV NE 15 KT INTSF. SIGWX NIL. TURB. MOD CAT FL280 TO FL380 N41W116 N44W120 N45W125 N43W130 N42W133 N41W130 N39W116 N41W116. MOD CAT FL280 TO FL380 N44W105 N41W109 N39W105 N44W105. MOD CAT FL240 TO FL350 N50W70 N50W81 N44W87 N42W85 N45W75 N48W70 N50W70. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A l 0-4 - PART 2 FORMAT FOR ABBREVIATED PLAIN-LANGUAGE SIGNIFICANT WEATHER FORECAST MESSAGES AND AMENDMENTS THERETO TO SERVE INTERNATIONAL C M L AVIATION IN OPERATIONS BETWEEN FLIGHT LEVELS 100 AND 250 1. I For the purpose of these instructions, “abbreviated plain language” refers to a language conveying to aeronautical personnel a directly intelligible meaning through the use of abbreviations (except signals of the Q code) approved by ICAO and numerical values of selfexplanatory nature supplemented, if suitable ICAOapproved abbreviations are not available, by other words taken with their usual meaning in aviation. Note.- ICAO-approved abbreviations are published in the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400). Signals of the Q code should not be used in abbreviated plain-language significant weather area forecast messages. 1.2 In abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast messages, the term “CB’ should be understood to include pertinent weather phenomena normally associated with cumulonimbus, namely thunderstorms, moderate or severe turbulence, moderate or severe icing, and hail. 1.3 An abbreviated plain-language significant weather forecast message should be consistent with the significant weather forecast chart from which it was derived. 1.4 The format should be as follows: a) World Meteorological Organization abbreviated heading. b) Type of message; applicable vertical range; valid time; area to which the forecast message relates. Describe the forecast area by reference to latitude, to longitude, to latitudellongitude coordinates, to major geographical features, or to any combination thereof. Describe, in the same manner, any part of the area for which a significant weather forecast CaMOt be given because of lack of data. c) Synopsis. Include descriptions of significant weather features, such as tropical cyclones, surface positions of frontal systems and well-defined convergence zones; their forecast positions; their speed and direction of movement; and intensification or weakening, if considered significant. Give forecast Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS positions as in b). Describe direction of movement in terms of eight points of the compass related to true north; give speed of movement in kilometres per hour or knots. d) Significant weather phenomena and associated clouds. Describe areas as in b). Give cloud amounts, except for cumulonimbus clouds, in terms of FEW (1 to 2 oktas), SCT (3 to 4 oktas), BKN (5 to 7 oktas), or OVC (8 oktas). Describe the amount of cumulonimbus as ISOL EMBD CB (individual embedded cumulonimbus with a maximum spatial coverage of cumulonimbus less than 50 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon) or ISOL CB IN HAZE (individual cumulonimbus concealed in haze with a maximum spatial coverage less than 50 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon); OCNL EMBD CB (well separated embedded cumulonimbus with a maximum spatial coverage of cumulonimbus between 50 and 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon) or OCNL CB IN HAZE (wellseparated cumulonimbus concealed in haze with a maximum spatial coverage between 50 and 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon); or FRQ CB (cumulonimbus clouds with little or no separation with a maximum spatial coverage greater than 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon). Describe cumulonimbus clouds contained in layers of other clouds as EMBD. Give bases and tops of significant weather phenomena and associated clouds as flight level (FL). If no significant weather is forecast, enter the term “SIGWX NIL”. e) Turbulence. This should include turbulence, other than that associated with cumulonimbus, if expected to be moderate or severe, and the intensity thereof. Describe areas as in b). Give bases and tops of phenomenon as FL. If no turbulence in this category is forecast, no entry for turbulence should be given. I Icing. This should include icing, other than that ) associated with cumulonimbus, if expected to be moderate or severe, and the intensity thereof. Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1. Specifications
  • Appendix 10. Guidance on Area Forecasts in Abbreviated Plain Language AIO-5 Should also include icing in area(s) of forecast, freezing precipitation. Describe areas as in b). Give bases and tops of phenomenon as FL. If aircraft icing, other than that associated with cumulonimbus, is not forecast, no entry for icing should be given. to be at or above the lowest level of the atmosphere for which the forecast is prepared. Similarly, give the tops of significant weather phenomena (and associated clouds, ifany) only ifexpected to be at or below the highest level of the atmosphere for which the forecast is prepared. g) Volcanic eruptions. Include information on the location of volcanic eruptions which are producing ash clouds of significance to aircraft operations, including those producing only steam, comprising: the name of the volcano, its international number, latitudeilongitude, the date and time of first eruption, if known, together with a reminder to users that reference should be made to SIGMETs and NOTAM or ASHTAM issued for the area concerned. h) Radioactive materials in the atmosphere. Information on the location of an accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, of significance to aircraft operations, comprising: latitudel longitude of the site of the accident, date and time of accident and a reminder to users to check NOTAM for the area concerned. Note.- Give bases of significant weather phenomena (and associated clouds, ifany) only ifexpected Examples of abbreviated plain-language significant weather messages are given below. 2. Examples FAPN16 KWBC 101200 AREA FCST FLIOO TO FL250 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N37E135 N48W108 N28W130 N28E158 N37E135. SYNOPSIS. COLD FRONT N45W179 N33W179 MOV E 20 KT. COLD FRONT N43W152 N44W140 N35W131 N29W134 MOV NE 15 KT INTSF. SIGWX NIL. ICE. MOD ICE INC FLIOO TO FL180 N42W140 N46W145 N47W138 N42W140. _ _ _ _ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ Example 2 FANT14 KWBC 101200 AREA FCST FLIOO TO FL250 VALID 110000 FOR AREA N55W88 N50E42 N33E13 N27W59 N55W88. SYNOPSIS. WARM FRONT N42W84 N43W79 N39W62 MOV NE 30 KT. OCCLUDED FRONT N63W40 N60W25 N50W29 MOV E 35 KT. COLD FRONT N40W29 N40W43 N31W60 MOV SE 10 KT INTSF. SIGWX AND ASSOCIATED CLD. ISOL EMBD CB N44E20 N55E30 N46E34 N44E24 N44E20. TURB. MOD CAT BASE FL240 N47W41 N53W40 N56W28 N50W32 N47W41. MOD CAT BASE FL250 N62W30 N67W13 N63W08 N61W20 N62W30. ICE. MOD ICE INC FLIOO TO FL130 N55W03 N49W08 N43W00 N44E10 N50E14 N55E03. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Example 1
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice Alo-6 Example 3 FANT14 KWBC 101400 AMD AMD AREA FCST FLIOO TO FL250 VALID I10000 FOR AREA N55W88 N40E42 N33E13 N27W59 N55W88. SYNOPSIS. WARM FRONT N42W84 N43W79 N39W62 MOV NE 10 KT INTSF. SIGWX AND ASSOCIATED CLD. FRQ CB N48W80 N46W65 N41W65 N45W79 N48W80 INTSF. OTHER AMD NIL. PART 3 - FORMAT FOR MESSAGES CONTAINING ABBREVIATED PLAIN-LANGUAGE AMENDMENTS TO UPPER-AIR FORECASTS 1 Specifications . --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1.1 For the purpose of these instructions, “abbreviated plain language” refers to a language conveying to aeronautical personnel a directly intelligible meaning through the use of abbreviations (except signals of the Q code) approved by ICAO and numerical values of selfexplanatory nature supplemented, if suitable ICAOapproved abbreviations are not available, by other words taken with their usual meaning in aviation. Note.- ICAO-approved abbreviations are published in the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400). Signals of the Q code should not be used in abbreviated plain-language messages issued as amendments to relevant upper-air wind and temperature forecasts. 1.2 Abbreviated plain-language aniendments to upper-air forecasts should be understood to apply to all relevant forecasts prepared by world and regional area forecast centres for any specified area, level and valid time(s). Such forecasts could include meteorological charts, gridpoint data in numerical form and grid-point data in digital form. 1.3 The area and levels for which amendments to upper-air forecasts are to be issued should be described with regard to horizontal dimensions by applicable latitude/ longitude coordinates and with regard to vertical dimensions by applicable ICAO flight levels related to standard constant pressure surfaces. 1.4 To minimize the possibility of misinterpretation of the amendments, the procedures given below should be followed: Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS a) amendments should be issued in abbreviated pìain language as an amended area forecast under a World Meteorological Organization abbreviated heading, using as date time group the standard time of observation in UTC on which the original forecast was based; b) the amendment criteria given by Annex 3, 3.2.12 should be followed; c) the valid time(s) to which an amendment is intended to apply should be given in terms of 12, 18, 24 andor 30 hours following the standard time in UTC on which the original forecast was based; d) the area to which an amendment to be issued is intended to apply should be described as a foursided polygon in terms of 1atitudeAongitude intersections giving comer coordinates of the polygon. To minimize the risk of misinterpretation, the comer coordinates should be given in a clockwise or counter-clockwise sequence. Latitude should be given in whole degrees (two digits) followed by N (north) or S (south). Longitude should be given in whole degrees (three digits) followed by E (east) or W (west); e) the ICAO flight levels to which an amendment is intended to apply should be given in the text of the amendment messages; I amendments to forecasts of wind speed should be ) given in terms of percentage increase, using three digits (010,020,030, 120 and so forth) preceded by PS (plus) or of percentage decrease (010, 020, 030 Not for Resale ’
  • Appendix I O. AIO-7 Guidance on Area Forecasts in Abbreviated Plain Language and so forth up to a maximum decrease of 099) preceded by MS (minus); or decreases, in degrees Celsius, preceded by PS (plus) or MS (minus). g) amendments to forecasts of wind direction should be given in terms of clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation from the forecast being amended, using three digits (010, 020 and so forth up to 180) preceded by CW (for clockwise) or CC (for counterclockwise); and Note.- No entry should be made for any feature for ,,,hich an amendment is not being issued. h) amendments to upper-air temperature forecasts should be given in three digits as absolute increases Examples of messages containing amendments to upper-air forecasts are given below. 2. Examples Example 1 FXPAI KWBC 241200 AMD. AMD AREA FCST. SPEED CHANGE PER CENT INCR (PS) OR DECR (MS). DIRECTION CHANGE CLOCKWISE (CW) OR COUNTER-CLOCKWISE (CC). TEMPERATURE CHANGE ABSOLUTE INCR (PS) OR DECR (MS). AMEND WIND AND TEMPERATURE FORECAST IN AREA N38E160 N46E160 N47W178 N35W178. AMENDMENT VALID 18 HR 24 HR AND 30 HR AFTER 241200. AMENDMENT FORFL250FL300FL340FL390. WIND SPEEDIPER CENTPS035PS035PS035PSO35. WIND D1RECTIONIDEGCC020CC020CC02OCC020. TEMPERATUREIDEG CPSOO5PSOO5PSOO5PSOO5. AMEND WIND AND TEMPERATURE FORECAST IN AREA N47W177 N40W161 N30W161 N35W177. AMENDMENT VALID 18 HR 24 HR AND 30 HR AFTER 241200. AMENDMENT FORFL250FL300FL340FL390. WIND SPEEDIPER CENTMS025MS040MS050MS040. Example 2 FXPA2 KWBC 241200 AMD. AMD AREA FCST. SPEED CHANGE PER CENT INCR (PS) OR DECR (MS). DIRECTION CHANGE CLOCKWISE (CW) OR COUNTER-CLOCKWISE (CC). TEMPERATURE CHANGE ABSOLUTE INCR (PS) OR DECR (MS). AMEND WIND AND TEMPERATURE FORECAST IN AREA N33E143 N43E147 N45E159 N33E 59. AMENDMENT VALID 18 HR AND 24 HR AFTER 241200. AMENDMENT FORFL250FL300FL340FL390. WIND SPEEDIPER CENTPS040PS050PS070PS050. WIND DIRECTION/DEGCW020CWO2OCWO20CWO20. TEMPERATUREIDEG CMS005MS008MS01OMS008. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 11 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SIGMET AND AIRMET MESSAGES AND SPECIAL AIR-REPORTS (See Chapter 7 of Annex 3.) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Table All-1. Key: Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages and special air-reports inclusion mandatory, part of every message inclusion conditional, included whenever applicable - - a double line indicates that the text following it should be placed on the subsequent line M C = = Note.- The ranges and resolutions for the numerical elements included in SIGMET/AIRMET messages and in special air-reports are shown in Table A l l - 2 of this appendix. Element as specified in Annex 3 , Chapters 5 and 7 ïempIate(s) SPECIAL AIR- REPORTP Defaileá content Location indicator of FIWCTA (M)3 ICA0 location indicator of ihe ATS unit sewing the FIR or CTA to which the SIGMET/AIRMET refers (M) nnnn Identification (Ml Message identificationand sequence numbeP (M) SIGMET [nn]n Validity period Date-time groups indicatingthe period of validity in UTC (M) VALID nnnnnnlnnnnnn Location indicator of MWO (M) Location indicator of MWO originating the message with a separating hyphen (M) nnnn- Name of the FIW CTA or aircraft identification(M) Name of the FIRI CTA' for which the SIGMETI AIRMET is issued or aircraft radiotelephony call sign (M) nnnnnnnnnn FIR[/UIR] or nnnnnnnnnn CTA Examples (Ml Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS SIGMET SST [nnln AIRMET [nn]n ARS -6 SIGMET 5 SIGMET A3 SIGMET SST 1 AIRMET 2 ARS VALID 221215/221600 VALID 1015201101800 VALID 251600/252200 YUDO-4 YUSO-4 nnnnnnnnnn FIR[/n] nnnnnn AMSWELL FIR4 SHANLON FIRNIP AMSWELL F I W ~ SHANLON FIR4 VA812 Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice All-2 I I I TempIate(s) Element as specified in Annex 3 , Chapters 5 and 7 SPECIAL AIRSIGMET Detailed content I I I REWRTP AIRMET SIGMET SST' I I Examples I F THE SIGMET IS TO BE CANCELLED, SEE DETAILS AT THE END OF THIS TEMPLATE. lescription of )henomenon =using the ssuance of 3lGMETíAIRMET OBSC' TS [GR'O] EMBD1* TS [GR] FRQ13 TS [GR] SQL14 TS [GR] :cl 'henomenon (M)' TC nnnnnnnnnn SEV T U R B ~ ~ SEV ICE" SN ICE (FZRA)" S R I MTW" H W DS H W SS IS0Ll5 CB16 OCNL" CB FRQ13 CB S R I TURB FRQ TS OBCC TS GR EMD TS GR TC GLORIA VA ERUPTION MT ASNAL LOC SI5 E073 VA CLD SFC WSPD nn[n]KMH TS (SFC WSPD nn[n]KT) TSGR MOD TURB'l SEV TURB ' SFC VIS nnnnM (nn)17 SEV TURB SEV ICE ISOL'5 TS[GR]" SRI MTW OCNL" TS[GR] GR MT OBSC VA[ERUPTION] [MT nnnnnnnnnn] [LOC Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn] Ennn[nn] or Wnnn[nn]] VA CLD VIIERUPTION] [MT nnnnnnnnnn] [LûC Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn] Ennn[nn] orWnnn[nn]] VA CLD HVï SS BKN CLD nnqABV]nnnnM (BKN CLD nnnl(A6VjnnnnFT) MOD TURB VA CLD [FL nndnnn] VA [MT nnnnnnnnnn] MOD MTW ISOL CB BKN CLD 120/900M (BKN CLD -m OVC Cu) nnnl[ABV]nnnnM (OVC CLD nnill[ABVjnnnnFT) OVC Cu) 2701ABV3oOoM (OVC CLD W A B V 1OOOOFT) MOD TURB" GR~O 1 ~ 0 ~ ~1 5 ~ 1 6 CB" SN ICE OCNL" CB FRQ13 CB 1 ~ 0 ~T C 1 5 U~~ OCNL" TCU" FRQ13 TCU MOD TURB" MOD ICE1' MOD M M ' lbserved or orecast >henomenon'(M) .ocation (C) ndicationwhether he information is 9bserved and 2xpected to :onthue, or 'orecast (M) OBS [AT nnnnz] FCST OBS [AT nnnnz] AND FCST mation (referring o latitude and ongitude (in legrees and ninutes) or ocations or aeographic ieatures well mown nternationally) [N OF, NE OF, E OF,SE OF, S OF, SW OF, W OF, NW OF] [Nnn[nn]][Wnnn[nn]] or [N OF, NE OF, E OF, SE OF,S OF, SW OF, W OF, NW OF] [Nnn[nn]f[Ennn[nn]] or [N OF, NE OF, E OF, SE OF, S OF, SW OF, W OF, NW OF] [Snn[nn]][Wnnn[nn]] or [N OF, NE OF, E OF, SE OF, S OF, SW OF,W OF,NW OF] [Snn[nn]][Ennn[nn]] or [N OF, NE OF, E OF, SE OF, S OF, SW OF,W OF, NW OF] nnnnnnnnnnnn OBS AT nnnnZ - OBS AT 22452 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ' OBS AT 12102 OBS OBS AND FCST Not for Resale NnnnnWnnnnn or NnnnnWnnnnn or SnnnnWnnnnn or SnnnnEnnnnn S OF N54 N OF N50 N2020 WO7005 YUSB4 N2706 WO7306 N48 E010
  • Appendix I I . Element as specified in Annex 3 , Chapters 5 and 7 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- .eve1 (C) Technical Specificationsfor SIGMET and AIRMET Messages and Special Air-Reports AII-3 Temp/ate(s) Detailedcontent :light level ind :xtenP(C) SIGMET SIGMET SST? AIRMET FLnnn or FLnndnnn orTOP FLnnn or[TOP] ABV FLnnn or[TOP] BLW FLnnn OP CB TOP [ABV] FLnnn WI nnnKM OF CENTRE (CB TOP [ABV] FLnnn WI nnnNM OF CENTRE) or CB TOP [BLW] FLnnn WI nnnKM OF CENTRE (CB TOP [BLW] FLnnn WI nnnNM OF CENTRE) OT FLnndnnn [APFIX nnnKM BY nnnKM] [Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennnlnn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] [TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]] [TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]] SPECIAL AIRßEFURp :Lnnn Examples FL180 FL050/080 TOP FL390 BLW FL200 TOP ABV FL100 FL310/450 CB TOP FL500 WI 270KM OF CENTRE (CB TOP FL500 WI 150NM OF CENTRE) FL310/350 APRX 220KM BY 35KM FL390 (FLnndnnn [APFIX nnnNM BY nnnNM] [Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] [TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]] [TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]]) dovernent or Iyected novernent (C) lovernent or !xpected novement with eference to one if the eight points if compass, or tationaiy (C) MOV N [nnKMH] or MOV NE [nnKMH] or MOV E [nnKMH] or MOV SE [nnKMH] or MOV S [nnKMH] or MOV SW [nnKMH] or MOV W [nnKMH] or MOV NW [nnKMH] or (MOV N [ n n w or MOV NE [nnKT] or MOV E [nnKT] or MOV SE [nnKT] orMOV S [nnKT] orMOV SW [nnKT] orMOV W [nnKTj orMOV NW [ n n w ) or STNR MOV E 40KMH (MOV E 20KT) MOV SE STNR ihanges in itensity (C) :xpeCted hanges in itencity (C) INTSF or WKN or NC WKN orecast position :orecast position f volcanic ash loud or the entre of the TC t the end of the alidity period of ie SIGMET Essage (C) FCST nnnnZ TC CENTRE Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] or FCST nnnnZ VA CLD Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennnlnn] [TONnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]] 70Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn]] FCST 22002 TC CENTRE N2740 WO7345 y Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale FCST 17002 VA CLD S15 E075 TO Sí5 EO81 TO S17 E083 ro s i 8 ~ 0 7 9 515 TO E75
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice All-4 Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapters 5 and 7 SIGMET SST' SIGMET Detailed content SPEClAl AIRREPORf AIRMET Examples I Outlook providing infomiation beyond the period of validity of the trajecioty of the volcanic ashcloud and positions of the tropical cyclone centre (C) CNL SIGMET [nnln nnnnnnlnnnnnn OTLK 260400 TC CENTRE N28030 WO7430 261000 TC CENTRE N3100 WO7600 OTLK nnnnnn TC CENTRE Nnnnn or SnnnnWnnnnn or Ennnnn nnnnnn TC CENTRE Nnnnn or SnnnnWnnnnn or Ennnnn or OTLK nnnnn VA CLD APRX [Flnndt~nn]~ Nnn[nn] orSnn[nn] Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] of Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] [TO Nnn[nn] or Cnn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nnn [TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennnlnn]] nnnnnn VA CLD APRX Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] TO Nnn[nn] or Snn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nn] I 0 Nnn[nn] orSnn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nnn T [TONnn[nn] orSnn[nn]Wnnn[nn] or Ennn[nnn Cancellationof SIGMETIAIRMET refemng to its identification IUUWP (C) OTLK 212300VA Cu) APRX S16 E078 TO SI7 E084 TO Si8 E089 TO Si9 E081 TO Si6 E078 220300 V CLD APRX Si7 A E81 TO Sí8 E86 TO S20 E92 TO S21 E84 TO Cl7 E81 OR I CNL SIGMET CST CNL AIRMET [nnln [nnln nnnnndnnnnnn nnnnnnlnnnnnn CNL SIGMET SST 1 I I i I I I CNL AIRMET 1515201 15180Oz6 l . Only for transonic and supersonic flights. 2. Automated special air-reports also include information on wind and temperature which does not need to be uplinked to other aircraft in flight. 3. In cases where the airspace is divided into a flight information region (FIR) and an upper flight information region (UR), the SIGMET is identified by the location indicator of the air traffic services unit serving the FIR; nevertheless, the SIGMET message applies to the whole airspace within the lateral limits of the FIR, ¡.e. to the FIR and to the UIR. The particular areas andlor flight levels affected by the meteorological phenomena causing the issuance of the SIGMET are given in the text of the message. 4. Fictitious location. 5. Corresponding with the number of SIGMET/AIRMET messages issued for the FIWCTA since o001 UTC on the day concerned. 6. Special air-reports are to be uplinked for 60 minutes after their issuance. 7. Or a sub-area thereof in the case of AIRMET messages. 8. Only one of the weather phenomena listed should be selected and included in each SIGMET. 9. Obscured (OBSC) indicates that the thunderstorm (including, if necessary, cumulonimbus cloud which is not accompanied by a thunderstorm) is obscured by haze or smoke or cannot be readily seen due to darkness. 10. Hail (GR) may be used as a further description of the thunderstorm as necessary. 11. Severe and moderate turbulence (TURB) refers only to: low-level turbulence associated with strong sutiace winds; rotor streaming; or turbulence whether in cloud or not in cloud (CAT) near to jet streams. Turbulence is not required to be used in connection with convective clouds. Turbulence is considered: a) severe whenever the turbulence index is between 15 and 27 (¡.e. the peak value of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) exceeds 0.5); and b) moderate whenever the turbulence index is between 6 and 14 (¡.e. the peak value of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) exceeds 0.3 while not exceeding 0.5). 12. Embedded (EMBD) indicates that the thunderstorm (including cumulonimbus cloud which is not accompanied by a thunderstorm) is embedded within cloud layers and cannot be readily recognized. 13. Frequent (FRQ) indicates an area of thunderstorms within which there is little or no separation between adjacent thunderstorms with a maximum spatial coverage greater than 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon (at a fixed time or during the period of validity). 14. Squall line (SQL) indicates thunderstorm along a line with little or no space between individual clouds. 15. Isolated (ISOL) indicates an area of individual cumulonimbus andior thunderstorms with a maximum spatial coverage l e s than 50 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon (at a fixed time or during the period of validity). Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- :ancellation of SIGMETI 4iRMETX (C)
  • All-5 Appendix II. Technical Specificationsfor SIGMET and AIRMET Messages and Special Air-Reporis I I I Temp/ate(s) Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapters 5 and 7 SPECIAL AIR- Detailed content I SIGMET I SIGMET SST' I REFURTP AIRMET l l Examples l General Note.- Severe or moderate icing and severe or moderate turbulence (SEV ICE, MOD ICE, SEV TURB, MOD TURB) associated with thunderstorms, cumulonimbus clouds or tropical cyclones should not be included. EXAMPLES SIGMET YUDD SIGMET 3 VALID 101345/101600 YUSOSHANLON FIWUIR CNL SIGMET 2 1012001 Cancellation o AIRMET f YUDD AIRMET 1 VALID 151520/151800 YUSOSHANLON FIR ISOL T S OBS TOP A B V FLIOO N OF S50 STNR WKN ' YUDD SIGMET 2 VALID 1012001101600 YUSOSHANLON FIWUIR OBSC TS F C S T TOP FL390 S OF N54 MOV E WKN AIRMET , Cancellation o SIGMET f YUDD AIRMET 2 VALID 151650/151800YUSOSHANLON FIR CNL AIRMET 1 1515201151800 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 101600 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 16. The use of cumulonimbus, CB, is restricted to AIRMETs and SIGMETs related to SST flight during transonic and supersonic cruise; the use of towering cumulus, TCU, is restricted to AIRMETs. 17. The weather phenomenon causing the reduction in visibility in brackets; choose one from the following list: DZ, RA, SN,SG, PL, IC, GR, GS, FG, BR, SA, DU, HZ, FU, VA, PO, SQ, FC, DS or CS. 18. Occasional (OCNL) indicates an area of well-separated cumulonimbus andor thunderstorms with a maximum spatial coverage between 50 and 75 per cent of the area affected, or forecast to be affected, by the phenomenon (at a fixed time or during the period of validity). 19. Severe and moderate icing (ICE) refers to severe icing in other than convective clouds. 20. Freezing rain (RRA) refers to severe icing conditions caused by freezing rain. 21. A mountain wave (MTW) is considered: a) severe whenever an accompanying downdraft of 3.0 mls (600 ftlmin) or more andor severe turbulence is observed or forecast; b) moderate whenever an accompanying downdraft of 1.75-3.0 mls (350-600ftlmin) andor moderate turbulence is observed or forecast. 22. Oniy for SIGMET messages for volcanic ash cloud and tropical cyclones. 23. Only for SIGMET messages for tropical cyclones. 24. Only for SIGMET messages for volcanic ash. 25. Up to four layers (or levels) to be included in the SIGMET outlook for volcanic ash. 26. End of the message (as the SIGMETIAIRMET message is being cancelled).
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice All-6 EXAMPLES ADVISORY MESSAGE FOR TC TC ADVISORY DTG: TCAC: TC: NR: PSN: MOV: C: MAX WIND: FCST PSN + 12 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 12 HR: FCST PSN + 18 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 18 H R FCST PSN + 24 HR: FCST MAX WIND + 24 HR: NXT MSG: 19970925116002 YUFO GLORIA o1 N2706 WO7306 NW 2OKMH 965HPA 9OKMH 260400 N2830 WO7430 9OKMH 261000 N2852 WO7500 85KMH 261600 N2912 WO7530 80KMH 19970925120002 ADVISORY MESSAGE FOR VA VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY ISSUED: VAAC: VOLCANO: LOCATION: AREA: SUMMIT ELEVATION: ADVISORY NUMBER: INFORMATION SOURCE: AVIATION COLOUR CODE: ERUPTION DETAILS: OBS ASH DATEITIME: OBS ASH CLD: FCST ASH CLD + 6 HR: FCST ASH CLD + 12 HR: FCST ASH CLD + 18 HR: NEXT ADVISORY: REMARKS: 20000402107002 TOKYO USUZAN 805-03 N4230E14048 JAPAN 732M 20001432 GMS - JMA RED ERUPTED 20000402/06142 ERUPTION OBS ASH TO ABV FL300 O2106452 FLI501350 N4230E14048-N4300E14130-N4246EI 4230-N4232EI4150N4230E14048 SFCIFL150 MOV NE 25KT FLI501350 MOV E 30KT 02112452 SFCIFL200 N4230E14048-N4232E14I 50-N4238E14300-N4246 E14230 FL2001350 N4230E14048-N4232El4150N4238E14300-N4246E14230 FL350/600 NO ASH EXP 02118452 SFCIFL300 N4230El4048-N4232E14150-N4238E14300-N4246E14230 FL3001600 NO ASH EXP 03100452 SFCIFL600 NO ASH EXP 20000402113002 ASH CLD CAN NO LONGER BE DETECTED ON SATELLITE IMAGE SIGMET FOR TC YUCC SIGMET 3 VALID 2516001252200 YUDO AMSWELL FIR TC GLORIA OBSN2706 WO7306 AT 16002 CB TOP FL500 WI 150NM OF CENTRE MOV NW IOKT NC FCST 22002 TC CENTRE N2740 WO7345 OTLK TC CENTRE 260400 N2830 WO7430 261000N2912 WO7530 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 11. Technical Specificationsfor SIGMET and AIRMET Messages and Special Air-Reports All-7 SIGMET FOR VA YUDD SIGMET 2 VALID 211100/211700 YUSOSHANLON FIR/UIR VA ERUPTION MT ASHVAL LOC E SI500 E07348 VA CLD OBS AT 11002 FL310/450 APRX 220KM BY 35KM SI500 E07348E TO SI530 E07642 MOV ESE 65KMH FCST 17002 VA CLD APRX SI506 E07500 TO SI518 E08112 TO SI712 E08330 TO SI824 E07836 OTLK 2123002 VA CLD APRX S1600 E07806 TO SI642 E08412 TO SI824 E08900 TO SI906 E08100 2205002 VA CLD APRX SI700 E08100 TO,S1812 E08636 TO S2000 E09224 TO S2130 E08418 EXAMPLE OF SIGMET MESSAGE . YUCC SIGMET 5 VALID 221215/221600 YUDOAMSWELL FIR SEV TURB OBS AT 12102 YUSB FL250 MOV E 40KMH WKN Meaning: The fifih SIGMET message issued for the AMSWELL' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC Amswell area control centre) by the Donlorúlntemational' meteorological watch office (YUDO) since O001 UTC; the message is valid from 1215 UTC to 1600 UTC on the 22nd of the month; severe turbulence was observed at 1210 UTC over SibylBictock' aerodrome (YUSB) at flight level 250; the turbulence is expected to move eastwards at 40 kilometres per hour and to weaken in intensity. Fictitious locations EXAMPLE OF AIRMET MESSAGE YUCC AIRMET 2 VALID 221215/221600 YUDOAMSWELL FIR MOD M l W OBS AT 12052 AND FCST N48 E10 FL080 STNR NC Meaning: The second AIRMET message issued for the AMSWELL' flight information region (identified in abbreviated plain language and by YUCC Amswell area control centre) by the Donlon/lnternational* meteorological watch office (YUDO) since 0001 UTC; the message is valid from 1215 UTC to 1600 UTC on the 22nd of the month; moderate mountain wave was observed at 1205 UTC at 48 degrees north and 10 degrees east at flight level 080; the mountain wave is expected to remain stationary and not to undergo any changes in intensity. Fictitious locations --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Element as specified in Annex 3, Chapter 7 Surface wind speed: Range KMH KT Sudace visibility: 1 1 30-99 0000 - 0800 O00 - 300 30 Ooo-1 000 100 M M Fr Fr Latitudes: 0800- 5 OW M Fr Cloud: height of top: 000-3 WO 3 O00 -20 O00 000-10000 10 O -60 O W W 30 300 100 1 o00 00-90 00-60 1 1 000-180 00-60 1 1 000-650 10 (degrees) ' (minutes) o (degrees) ' (minutes) Flight levels: Movement: 60- 199 M M Cloud: height of base: Longitudes: Resolution KMH KT o- --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 100 0-50 Not for Resale 50 100 10 5
  • Appendix 12 LIST OF TROPICAL CYCLONE ADVISORY CENTRES AND VOLCANIC ASH ADVISORY CENTRES 1. The following tropical cyclone advisory centres (TCACs) were designated by regional air navigation agreements: VAAC Anchorage (United States) VAAC Buenos Aires (Argentina) VAAC Darwin (Australia) VAAC London (United Kingdom) VAAC Montréal (Canada) VAAC Tokyo (Japan) VAAC Toulouse (France) VAAC Washington (United States) VAAC Wellington (New Zealand) Note.- Complete information on areas of responsibilities assigned to the TCACs and lists of MWOs associated to the TCACs are given in the regional air navigation plan publications (ANPPs) under Meteorology, and in the related Facilities and Services Implementation Documents (FASID) under Meteorology. AI2-I Not for Resale Note.- Complete information on areas of responsibilities assigned to the VAACs and lists of MWOs associated to the VAACs are given in the regional air navigation plan publications (ANPPs) under Meteorology, and in the related Facilities and Services Implementation Documents (FASID) under Meteorology. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- TCAC Darwin (Australia) TCAC Honolulu (United States) TCAC Miami (United States) TCAC Nadi (Fiji) TCAC New Delhi (India) TCAC Reunion (France) TCAC Tokyo (Japan) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2. The following volcanic ash advisory centres (VAACs) were designated by regional air navigation agreements:
  • Appendix 13 AN OPERATIONAL WIND SHEAR AND INVERSION WARNING SYSTEM FOR HELSINKI-VANTAA AIRPORT 1. THE MEASURING SITE AND AIRPORT 1.1 A 300 m high (1 O00 ft) mast was installed 20 km southwest of the airport. Its elevation is 50 metres, the same as that of the airport. The terrain around the mast station is sparse forest. This kind of terrain covers most of the final approaches to Helsinki-Vantaa airport. The mast station is 7 km from the seashore while the airport itself is 15 km from the seashore, thus allowing for timely sea fog observations. axial heating, the anemometers have IR-radiators situated above them. These radiators have a maximum output of 1.5 kw. Temperature is measured with Pt-100 thermoelements and humidity with linearized Lambrecht hair hygrometers. Temperature and humidity sensors are shielded against radiation and rain and all sensors are also shielded against falling ice blocks. 3. WEATHER-WATCH 1.3 During strong inversions, the surface temperatures at the airport and at the mast station coincide within *1"C and surface inversions measured at the mast station also represent conditions at the airport. 2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 2.1 The system is a modified automatic weather station, which has several additional wind, temperature and humidity sensors compared to the usual surface weather station. Figure A13-1 represents the system near Kuopio airport. In this system, the data collection is performed via a cassette count. 2.2 Because of freezing conditions during the winter, wind is measured with modified Vaisala anemometers, equipped with Lambrecht cups. These cups give more torque and also absorb IR-radiation more easily, because their aluminium surface is painted black. Besides normal 3.1 Vertical wind shear is calculated between measuring levels using 2-minute mean winds. Levels 90 m to 210m (300 fi to 700 ft) and 210 m to 300 m (700 ft to 1 O00 fi) are used in routine warning services; measuret ments from levels 30 m to 90 m (100 f to 300 ft) are affected by local terrain. Calculation of wind shear magnitude is done by the formula vws = + v2, - 2VIVZ cos p where V, and V2 are wind speeds at the levels in question and p the angle between winds. This shear magnitude is then scaled to the unit W100 ft. If a predetermined value is exceeded, the system reports it by a bell signal and shows the shear values. The shear alarm limit at the mast station is set at 42 W 1 0 0 m (7 W100 fi), and this means about 0.1 per cent of the cases or about 10 shear cases of this strength or more per year. The number of aircraft reports concerning wind shear has been about 9 cases per year at Helsinki-Vantaa airport. 3.2 A watch is also kept for temperature inversions by comparing temperatures at higher levels with the surface temperature. Adjacent levels are also compared, which means a total of 13 comparisons in this subroutine. If a predetermined value is exceeded, the system reports it by a bell signal and gives temperature values. The inversion alarm limit at the mast station is set to correspond to an inversion of 10°C in the lowest 300 m (i O00 ft) layer. A13-I Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS v2, Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1.2 The effect of distance of the mast station from the airport was studied by comparing aircraft-measured INSwinds with mast-measured 2-minute mean winds. Results show a correlation of 0.83-0.85 for speed and 0 . 9 8 4 9 9 for direction at measuring levels of 90 m to 300 m (300 ft to 1 O00 fi) lNS-winds with mast-measured 2-minute mean winds. The INS-winds are on average 4 km/h (2 kt) higher than mast winds.
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A13-2 BS MAST FT GND Cassette 300 BPS processor system 7 W = WIND: anemometer T = Temperature: PT-I00 H = Humidity: hair hygrometer ~~ Figure A13-1. System configuration 4. ROUTINE WARNING SERVICES AND USE OF MAST DATA 4.1 The mast system is a part of the unified warning service (see flow diagram in Figure A13-2). 4.2 On receiving an alarm signal from the mast system, the meteorologist on duty makes the final decision as to whether a warning should be given. The warning message is immediately reported in the ATIS broadcast. The warning message is also shown on the airport internal video network. 4.3 Besides wind shear and inversions, the strength of low-level turbulence can be estimated by the mast system. The system reports wind speed and direction variations over the averaging interval. If the speed variations exceed 40 km/h (20 kt) at levels 90 m to 300 m (300 ft to 1 O00 ft), a turbulence warning is given. 4.4 Besides its use for warning purposes, the mast data is also used for routine forecasting. The uppermost level gives a fairly good estimate of wind for approach and holding purposes. Continuous temperature profiles provide important information when estimating the passage of a front. For example, the temperature rise associated with warm fronts (especially in winter) is seen clearly starting from the top of the mast. Humidiîy profiles have been used successfully when making TREND forecasts, especially in case of advective fog or low cloud from the sea sector. The humidity rise is always very rapid and starts from the lowest levels in the case of a dense sea fog. Fog associated with a frontal warm advection causes the humidity to rise first at upper levels. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 13. An Operational Wind Shear and Inversion Warning System for Helsinki- Vantaa Airport A13-3 Wind shear Turbulence Inversion 1. ACFTS Wind shear Turbulence Inversion METE0 WEATHER RADAR/ SURFACE OBSERVATIONS BRIEFING Video Figure A13-2. Warning service --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Broadcast Not for Resale + PILOTS
  • Appendix 14 USE OF METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING BY OPERATORS AND FLIGHT CREW 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The meteorological information to be supplied to operators and flight crew is covered in Chapter 9 of Annex 3 and in Chapter 5 of this manual. The purpose of this Appendix is to describe the type of information used in pre-flight planning, which provides aviation meteorologists and assistants with a basic understanding of the significance each item .of information has in the preparation for a flight. Although some re-planning is often camed out in flight (e.g. when considering the acceptance of a different flight level, an alternative airway routing offered by air trafic control or a change of destination), the use made of the meteorological information required for such replanning is similar to that in pre-flight planning. 1.2 Flight preparation has three phases: the take-off and climb to cruise altitude; the cruise to top of descent; and the approach and landing. These phases are not treated separately as they are interdependent, but for explanatory purposes, it is convenient to consider the specific use made of meteorological information in each of the three phases. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2. TAKE-OFF AND CLIMB-OUT 2.1 General 2.1.1 It is the pilot’s duty to optimize the performance of the aircraft, in order to maximize the economics of the operation while at the same time complying with all the requirements for take-off (including take-off minima) specified by the operator and approved by the State of the Operator and by the authority responsible for the aerodrome. The planning for the take-off and climb-out phases include calculating, by the pilot, the maximum permissible take-off mass (standard operating mass + passengers + cargo + fuel, etc.) given the constraints at a particular aerodrome. These constraints include runway length, runway slope, climb-out gradients (which ensure clearance of obstacles with one engine failed), aerodrome elevation, and current meteorological conditions, i.e. surface wind (specifically headwind component and limiting tailwind and crosswind components), temperature and pressure. Humidity, although theoretically also affecting aircraft performance, can be neglected as its effect is minimal. Runway contamination (snow or slush covered, wet, icy, etc.) also plays an important role, but is not usually regarded as “meteorological information”. Where aircraft take-off mass is not limited by aircraft performance considerations in the prevailing meteorological conditions, temperature has an effect on take-off speeds and on engine power settings and on the possible need to initiate engine and airframe anti-ice procedures. 2.1.2 The list of items that have to be considered in take-off calculations is rendered more manageable by the use of graphs, charts, nomograms and tables, etc., produced by the operator to assist the pilot or flight operations officer. In many operations, flight planning, particularly for the en-route stage, is carried out by computer. The pilot is able to control at least some of the many variables affecting the take-off performance of the aircraft; one example would be the choice of flap setting, another would be the cargo mass andor fuel to be uplifted, although clearly the desire is to maximize the payload consistent with take-off requirements. Any of the various requirements may limit the Operation, resulting in a lower payload or fuel uplift than desired, which may result in the need to land en route in order to refuel or, in extreme circumstances, preclude takeoff (at a given mass) altogether. 2.2 2.2.1 The magnitude of the effects of meteorological parameters on take-off performance varies with different aircraft types, although the sense of the effect (positive or negative) is the same. Headwinds permit a greater mass to be lifted on take-off, as the presence of a headwind permits a higher airspeed to be achieved on the runway and therefore more lift to be generated by the aerodynamic surfaces. A14-I Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Surface wind Not for Resale
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A14-2 In contrast, a tailwind results in the reduction of the maximum permissible take-off mass as a lower airspeed is achieved. Otherwise expressed, headwinds permit more weight to be lifted on take-off, while tailwinds decrease the maximum permissible take-off weight. 2.4 Pressure 2.4.1 Pressure also affects air density; the lower the surface pressure, the lower the air density and the lower the lift and the poorer the engine performance (and vice versa). 2.2.2 The following are some figures to indicate the magnitudes of the above effects. For example, in the case of a DC-8 aircraft, a 10 kt tailwind component increases the runway length requirement for take-off by about 500 m over still air conditions, while a 10 kt headwind component decreases this requirement by about 100 m (assuming all other factors are equal). Another example expressed in terms of mass would be that for each knot increase in headwind component, an Airbus A300 can lift some 400 kg more mass on take-off. In addition to the headwindtailwind component, consideration must also be given to the crosswind component. Each aircraft has crosswind limits (for large jet transports, typically between 15 kt and 35 kt for different runway conditions, e.g. wet or icy, or dry), beyond which it is very difficult for the pilot to maintain aircraft alignment along the runway, particularly in the case of an engine failure. 2.4.2 For a DC-8, a 10 hPa pressure change at a sea level aerodrome has about the same effect as a 3°C temperature change. Similarly, for each hectopascal that the pressure rises above 1 013.2 hPa, an additional 150 kg can be camed by an Airbus A300. 2.3 Temperature 3.1 General 2.3.1 Temperature affects air density; higher temperatures cause a decrease in density which reduces lift and hence' maximum permissible take-off mass and also has detrimental effects on engine efficiency and hence attainable speeds. Lower temperatures have the opposite effect. The meteorological parameters of importance in the preparation of flight plans for the cruise phase of flights consist in the first instance of upper-air temperatures and upper winds. Weather conditions en route and meteorological conditions at destination and at destination alternate and en-route alternate aerodromes also play an important role. 2.3.2 A temperature rise of 10°C can, for a B737, reduce the permissible take-off mass by 600 kg. A decrease in temperature allows an increase in permissible take-off mass. In the case of the A310, for each degree that the temperature is below reference, the mass can be increased by 210 kg, all other factors being equal. Temperature also has an effect on the relationship between true airspeed and the airspeed indicated in the cockpit (indicated airspeed). Therefore, high ambient temperatures mean that for a given indicated airspeed the true airspeed is higher and the kinetic energy to be absorbed by the brakes and tires after landing or an abandoned take-off is also greater. Landing an aircraft on a short runway or abandoning take-off from high speed requires the aircraft brakes to absorb extremely large amounts of kinetic energy which, in turn, results in the brake assembly being heated to such high temperatures that brake cooling times as long as one hour could be necessary. The cooling time depends on, among other things, the outside air temperature. Flight crew are provided with nomogram to calculate this effect. 2.5 Combined effects of surface wind, temperature and pressure Figure A14-1 illustrates the combined effects of the above-mentioned parameters on take-off performance, and Figure A14-2 gives a sample illustration of an actual takeoff mass versus runway length calculation. 3. CRUISE TO TOP OF DESCENT 3.2 Temperature As in the case of take-off performance, temperature is an important element In flight planning because, by affecting air density, it influences engine. performance, fuel efficiency, true airspeed, and aircraft operating ceilings and optimum cruising levels, irrespective of aircraft type (piston, jet, etc.). For early types of jet engines, the fuel consumption increased by about 1 per cent for each degree Celsius rise in temperature above standard. For modem wide-bodied aircraft, the engines of which are more powerful and fuel efficient, fuel consumption increases only by about 3 per cent for each 10°C temperature increase. However, as fuel constitutes about 30 per cent of the total take-off mass of modem jets which can exceed 200 tonnes, this means that some 2 tonnes of additional fuel may be required for a 10°C temperature rise. For a given aircraft --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Figure A14-1. Effects of meteorological parameters on take-off performance Appendix 14. Use o Meteorological Information for f Pre-Flight Planning by Operators and Flight Crew Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS A14-3
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A14-4 Calculation for maximum permissible take-off m a s s (for DC8) ype of A/C oc-9-62 RW Condi- rions OAT Wind We QNH /mil-10 /@US 230’ && 22R+22 “rponCp/L/ Actual IighVDati Calculation 31’ Flap8 ? Systems UIS Sum of eq. RW short m fZP4 m,-31.6 Sum oí nsgative corrections -3. 30 TOW VI RW and 0ESTACLE.S -- 33.4 - _ - - Climb req. limited mass + - Ratinglinterrnix (not DCS) OATmrr. O”corr. (/3 a 6QQ) (g x / 6 0 ) ICBprotection (not 7 4 7 ) € ~ 9 +A + 17q.3 Rain removai íW-8 o n i y ) d N Frostlice on tanks (not 747) m I ‘NEVER EXCEED MASS @ U X . PERMISSIBLE T O W F Of O@ Figure A14-2. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS /? S& / 43.2 Sample of an actual take-off mass calculation Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- n P)
  • Appendix 14. Use of Meteorological Informationfor Pre-Flight Planning by Operators and Flight Crew A14-5 CAPAßI L.ITY OPERATIONS . . . 40 ! , . . . .. . _ . : . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 ! . . . . . ....................... ! . 35 40 i ............ .................... .. .. .. . . . . ! M A N UA 1 1 35 35 U c . t 330 U t- . 30 c r W W O O : 3 3 I - 5 25 25 a I W K W 2 w 0 a K ? i v) 15 W 20 Ern 15 15 50 40 GROSS MASS 30 1000 KG GROSS MASS 30 1000 KG 50 GROSS MASS 40 t30 8 c 35 Y Z2O I- t O ä ! 830 E 10 3 w E w o 3 k t- O O $25 W a 100 200 TRIP DISTANCE 3 0 0 4 0 0 NAM 3 3 a & m 15 50 GROSS MASS ~~ Figure A14-3. 40 30 lo00 KG Optimum flight level (for B737) as a function of take-off mass and temperature deviation from standard --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale loo0 KO
  • A14-6 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS n LL f I z N P Nu7 II II Ica zz zz N N ++ O N NO> zz zz O O N o a P I U Y) .- o m - v) P <D y> z Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f Figure A 1 4 4 The effects of wind on aircraft performance --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Not for Resale
  • Appendix 14. Use of Meteorological Information for Pre-Flight Planning by Operators and Flight Crew AI4-7 mass, temperature together with wind determines the flight level at which fuel efficiency and range (with a given cruise speed) will be at an optimum. Figure A14-3 illustrates the effects of various temperature deviations from standard temperature on optimum flight levels for a B737 aircraft. 3.3 Upper winds Upper winds have an even more obvious effect on aircraft efficiency, decreasing or increasing flight time and consequently decreasing or increasing fuel consumption (if same ground speed is to be maintained). With modem wide-bodied jet aircraft, a 50 k headwind decreases the t range of the aircraft by about 11 per cent at best cruise speed; a tailwind has the reverse effect. For flight planning, the effects of wind components are usually calculated in terms of “equivalent still air distance” which is as follows: equivalent still-air distance = 3.4.2 During flight, pilots may wish to optimize the aircraft performance by taking advantage of more favourable winds at another flight level. This situation may anse because initially the aircraft was unable to climb to this level due to air trafic control constraints, or it was too heavy to climb to the level with the most favourable tailwinds. As the aircraft mass progressively decreases as fuel is bumed off, the pilot may request reclearance to a higher level. The information available to the pilot in considering these matters is greatly enhanced by the increased use of an on-board inertial reference system (IRS), which has the capability of giving instantaneous wind readouts. Many systems also give information on the increased headwind that can be tolerated by going to a higher level so as to take advantage of the decreased fuel consumption normally found at higher flight levels. This is usually referred to as a “windaltitude trade”. TAS * 4. LANDING CALCULATIONS TAS wind component An example of a graph used for this calculation is given in Figure A 1 4 4 This figure illustrates the effects of wind components, sometimes called “equivalent headwinds”, on aircraft performance. In this connection, it should be noted that the wind component used in the still-air distance equation does not take into account only headwind or tailwind components but also the effect of crosswinds. The equivalent still-air distance is then used to calculate the fuel required for the flight, including necessary reserves. 3.4 Meteorological conditions 3.4.1 Meteorological conditions en route and meteorological conditions at destination and altemate aerodromes are elements that are superimposed on the initial flight plan based on temperature and wind. Adverse enroute weather conditions may force the choice of a flight level or route segment not conforming with the optimum one given by the flight plan, although such changes are rare with modem high-flying jet aircraft. Unfavourable conditions expected at a destination may force a delay in takeoff, or the preparation of additional flight plan segments to alternate aerodromes. 4.1 For landing there are two basic considerations: the length of the runway and missed-approach capability. The speed flown by the aircraft on approach is a function of the stall speed which is determined by the aircraft mass, all other things being equal. The speed on touchdown will be the indicated airspeed flown plus or minus the headwind tailwind. The presence of a headwind means that the aircraft will land at a lower ground speed and will therefore use less distance to stop. The opposite effect is felt with a tailwind. The stopping distance on the runway is also affected by the runway being wet, as brakes are less effective in these conditions. In addition, aircraft have tailwind and crosswind limits, and again these are lower in wet conditions than in dry; typical limits are shown in Figure A14-5. 4.2 For the missed approach possibility the same factors as runway length must be considered, e.g. temperature and pressure-altitude. Also, when icing conditions are present, ice formation on the wing and fuselage will adversely affect performance. A chart illustrating the effect of relevant meteorological factors on landing performance including climb capability for a missed approach procedure is given i Figure A14-6. n --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A14-8 ~~ Wind inclination --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Figure A14-5. Typical wind limit diagram Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 14. Use of Meteorological Informationfor Pre-Flight Planning by Operators and Flight Crew Figure A14-6. Landing performance calculations Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- A14-9
  • Appendix 15 COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS IN METEOROLOGICAL MESSAGES (extract from the Procedures for Air Navigation Services ICA0 Abbreviations and Codes (PANS-ABC, Doc 8400)) Note.-Decodes of the abbreviations should be applied in phraseologies used in meteorological briefings and consultations. AAA ABV AC ADS AFTNS AIREPt AIRMET? ALT AMD APCH AS ASHTAM* AT ... ATS (or AAB, AAC . . . etc., in sequence) Amended meteorological message (message type designator) Above Altocumulus Automatic dependent surveillance Aeronautical fixed telecommunication network Air-report Information concerning en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations Altitude Amend or amended (used to indicate amended meteorological message; message type designator) Approach Altostratus A special series NOTAM notifymg a preeruption or post-eruption change in activity of a volcano, a volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash cloud of operational significance At dfollowed by time at which weather change is forecast to occur) Air traffic services BECMG BKN BL . . . BLW BR BTN BUFR. C C C CALM* CAT CAVOKt CBS cc CCA CI CLD COR B BC . . .* BCFG CPDLCS cs Patches dfollowed by FG =fog,fogpatches randomly covering the aerodrome) Fog patches CTA CU AI5-I Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Becoming Broken Blowing Cfollowed by DU = dust, SA = sand or SN = snow) Below. . . Mist Between Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological Data (a WMO code form) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- A Centre (runway identification) Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) Calm Clear air turbulence (to be pronounced “IUV-OH-KAY’? Visibility, cloud and present weather better than prescribed values or conditions (to be pronounced “CEE BEE’? Cumulonimbus Cirrocumulus (or CCB, CCC . . . etc., in sequence) Corrected meteorological message (message type designator) Cirrus Cloud Correct or correction or corrected (used to indicate corrected meteorological message; message type designator) Controller-pilot data link communication Cirrostratus Control area Cumulus
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f A1.5-2 Downward (tendency in RVR during previous I O minutes) Degrees DEG Diffuse DIF Dew point temperature DP Low drifting followed by DU = dust, SA = DR . . . sand or SN = snow) Duststorm DS Dust DU D-VOLMET Data link VOLMET Drizzle DZ GRIB D GS H H* HPA HR HURCN HVY E EMBD END Embedded in a layer (to indicate cumulonimbus embedded in layers of other clouds) Stop-end (related to RVR) Processed meteorological data in the form of grid point values expressed in binary form (aeronautical meteorological code) Small hail andor snow pellets Hz High pressure area or the centre of high pressure Hectopascal Hours Hurricane Heavy (used to indicate the intensity o f weather phenomena, e.g. H W RA = heavy rain) Haze I F FBL FC FCST FEW FG FIR$ FL FLUC FM . . . FRONTt FT FU FZ FZDZ FZFG FZRA Light (used to indicate the intensity o f weather phenomena, inte$eri?nce or static reports, e.g. FBL RA = light rain) Funnel cloud (tomado or water spout) Forecast Few Fog Flight information region Flight level Fluctuating or fluctuation or fluctuated From followed by time weather change is forecast to begin) Front (relating to weather) Feet (dimensional unit) Smoke Freezing Freezing drizzle Freezing fog Freezing rain I.* IAVW' IC ICE INC MTSF ISOL K KM KMH KT L* GAMET GR Indicator for variations from the mean wind speed (gusts) (used in the METAR, SPECI and TAF code forms) Area forecast for low-level flights Hail Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Kilometres Kilometres per hour Knots L G G* Island (IS. Islands) International airways volcano watch Ice crystals (very small ice crystals in suspension, also known as diamond dust) Icing In cloud intensifi or intensifjnng Isolated LAT LOC LONG LTD LVL LYR Not for Resale Low pressure area or the centre of low pressure Latitude Local or locally or location or located Longitude Limited Level Layer or layered --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- D
  • Appendix I (i. Commonly Used Abbreviations in Meteorological Messages O M M* M MAX MBST METt METARt MET REPORT* M I . . .* MID MIFG MNM MOD MOV MS MSL MT MTW MWO Indicator for minimum value of runway visual range (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) Metres (preceded by figures) Maximum Microburst Meteorological or meteorology Aviation routine weather report (in aeronautical meteorological code) OBS OBSC OCNL OPMET? OTLK Local routine meteorological report (in abbreviated plain language) Shallow Cfollowed by FG =fog, less than 2 m (63) above ground level) Mid-point (related to RVR) Shallow fog Minimum Moderate (used to indicate the intensity of weather phenomena, inte~erenceor static reports, e.g. MOD RA = moderate rain) Move or moving or movement Minus Mean sea level Mountain Mountain waves Meteorological watch ofice P' N NC NE NIL**? NM NOSIGT NOTAM? NS NSC NSW NW OVC No distinct tendency (in R VR during previous 1O minutes) North or northern latitude No change North-east None or I have nothing to send to you Nautical miles No significant change (used in trend-type landing forecasts) A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations Nimbostratus Nil significant cloud Nil significant weather North-west PL PO PR PRFG PROBT PS PSYS Indicator for maximum value of wind speed or runway visual range (used in the METAR, SPECI and TAF code forms) Ice pellets Dususand whirls (dust devils) Partial Cfollowed by FG =fog, a substantial part of the aerodrome covered by fog while the remainder is clear) Aerodrome partially covered by fog Probabiliîy Plus Pressure system(s) Q QFES Atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation (or at runway threshold) Altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain elevation when on the ground R R* RA RAG RE... RNAVt ROBEXt ROFOR RRA --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Observe or observed or observation Obscure or obscured or obscuring Occasional or occasionally Operational meteorological (information) Outlook (used in SiGMET messages for volcanic ash and tropical cyclones) overcast P QS " N N AIS-3 Not for Resale Indicator for runway visual range (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) Rain Ragged Recent (used to qualzfl weather phenomena, e.g. RERA = recent rain) (to be pronounced "AR-NAVY Area navigation Regional OPMET bulletin exchange (scheme) Route forecast (in aeronautical meteorological code) (or RRB, RRC . . . etc., in sequence) Delayed meteorological message (message Vpe designator)
  • Manual o Aeronautical Meteorological Practice f AIS-4 RVRS RWY Delayed (used to indicate delayed meteorological message; message type designator) Runway visual range Runway S S' S SA SARPS sc SCT SEA SECN SEV SFC SG SH . . . SIG SIGMET? SKC SN SNOCLO+ SPECI? SPECIAL? SQ SQL ss SST STNR STS sw SYNOP* Indicator for state of the sea (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) South or southern latitude Sand Standards and Recommended Practices (ICAO) Stratocumulus Scattered Sea (used in connection with sea-surfce temperature and state of the sea) Section Severe (used e.g. to qualzfl icing and turbulence reports) Surface Snow grains Showers Cfollowed by RA = rain, SN = snow, PE = icepellets, GR = hail, GS = small hail andor snow pellets or combinations thereof; e.g. SHRASN = showers of rain and snow) Significant Information concerning en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations Sky clear Snow Indicator for aerodrome being closed due to snow on the runway (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) Aviation selected special weather report (in aeronautical meteorological code) Special meteorological report (in abbreviated plain language) Squall Squall line Sandstorm Supersonic transport Stationary Stratus South-west Report of surface observation from a fixed land station Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS T T TAFt TC TCAC* TCU TDO TEMPO? TL . . . TN* TO TOPt TFENDt'l TS . . . TS TURB TX' Temperature Aerodrome forecast Tropical cyclone Tropical cyclone advisory centre Towering cumulus Tomado Temporary or temporarily Till followed by time by which weather change is forecast to end) Indicator for minimum temperature (used in the TAF code form) To. . . (place) Cloud top Trend forecast Thunderstom Cfollowed by RA = RAIN, SN = snow, PE = icepellets, GR = hail, GS = small hail and/or snow pellets or combinations thereof; e.g. TSRASN = thunderstorm with rain and snow) Thunderstorm (in aerodrome reports and forecasts, TS used alone means thunder heard but no precipitation at the aerodrome) Turbulence Indicator for maximum temperature (used in TAF code form) U U URS UTCf Upward (tendency in RVR during previous I O minutes) Upper flight information region Co-ordinated Universal Time V V' VA VAAC' vc Not for Resale Indicator for variations from the mean wind direction (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) Volcanic ash Volcanic ash advisory centre Vicinity of the aerodrome followed by FG = fog, FC =funnel cloud, SH = showers, PO = dusthand whirls, BLDU = blowing dust, BLSA = blowing sand or BLSN blowing snow, e.g. VC FG = vicini9 fog) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- RTD
  • Appendix 15, Commonly Used Abbreviations in Meteorological Messages AI5-5 WAFS WI WIND WINEM World area forecast system Within Wind Forecast 'upper wind and temperature for aviation Weaken or weakening Warning Wind shear Wind speed Weather VER VHFS VIS VOLMETt VRB W* Vertical Very high frequency [30 MHz to 300 MHz] Visibility Meteorological information for aircraft in flight Variable Vertical visibility (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) WKN WRNG ws WSPD wx W W* W WAFC Indicator for sea surface temperature (used in the METAR and SPECI code forms) West or western longitude World area forecast centre 2 Z Co-ordinated Universal Time (in meteorological messages) t When radiotelephony is used, the abbreviations and terms are transmitted as spoken wora!s. $ When radiotelephony is used, the abbreviations and terms are transmitted using the individual letters in non-phonetic form. * Abbreviation not included in the PANS-ABC (Doc 8400). ** Abbreviation is also available for use in communicating with stations of the maritime mobile service. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Appendix 16 CRITERIA FOR REPORTING METEOROLOGICAL AND RELATED PARAMETERS IN AUTOMATED AIR-REPORTS (See Chapter 5 o Annex 3.) f 1. WIND DIRECTION The wind direction shall be reported in terms of degrees true, rounded to the nearest whole degree. WIND SPEED The wind speed shall be reported in kilometres per hour or knots, rounded to the nearest 2 kmih (1 knot). The units used shall be indicated. Interpretation o the turbulence index f Turbulence shall be considered: a) severe when the turbulence index is between 15 and 21 (i.e. the peak value of the EDR is exceeding 0.5); 3. WIND QUALITY FLAG The wind quality flag shall be reported as O when the roll angle is less than 5 degrees and as 1 when the roll angle is 5 degrees or more. 4. TEMPERATURE The temperature shall be reported to the nearest tenth of a degree Celsius. b) moderate when the turbulence index is between 6 and 14 (i.e. the peak value of the EDR is exceeding 0.3 while not exceeding 0.5); c) light when the turbulence index is between 1 and 5 (i.e. the peak value of the EDR is between 0.1 and 0.3); and d) nil when the turbulence index is O (i.e. the peak value of the EDR is less than 0.1). 5. TURBULENCE The turbulence shall be observed in terms of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR). Note.- The EDR is an aircraft-independentmeasure o f turbulence. However: the relationship between the EDR f f index and the perception o turbulence is a function o aircraft type, and the mass, altitude, configuration and f airspeed o the aircraft. Routine air-reports The turbulence shall be reported during the en-route phase of the flight and shall refer to the 15-minute period immediately preceding the observation. Both the average and peak value of turbulence, together with the time of AI6-1 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Special air-reports Special air-reports on turbulence shall be made during any phase of the flight whenever the peak value exceeds the --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2. occurrence of the peak value to the nearest minute, shall be observed. The average and peak values shall be reported in terms of a turbulence index comprising seven intensity levels of EDR as indicated in TableA16-1. The time of occurrence of the peak value shall be reported as indicated in Table A16-2.
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A162 EDR value of 0.5. The special air-report on turbulence shall be made with reference to the 1-minute period immediately preceding the observation. Both the average and peak value of turbulence shall be observed. The average and peak values shall be reported in terms of a turbulence index as indicated in the shaded part of Table A16-1. Special airreports shall be issued every minute until such time that the peak values of turbulence fall below the EDR value of 0.5. Table A16-1. -~ 6. HUMIDITY The humidity shall be reported as the relative humidity, rounded to the nearest whole per cent. Note.- The ranges and resolutions for the meteorological elements included in air-reports are shown in Table Ai6-3. ïùrbulence index to be reported as a function of the average and peak value of turbulence (Classes corresponding to severe turbulence are shaded) r ~ Peak value of turbulence Table A16-2. Time of occurrence of the peak value to be reported I 0-1 I Value to be reported I Peak value of turbulence occuning during the I-minute period ....... minutes prior to the observation O I 2 2-3 ... I ... - 14 14 - 15 13 No timing information available 15 13 14 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS I Not for Resale I
  • Appendix 16. Criteria for Reporting Meteorological and Related Parameters in Automated Air-Reports Al6- Table A16-3. Ranges and resolutions for the meteorological elements included in air-reports I Wind direction: Wind speed: Wind quality flag: I true I (index)’ I Humidity: * Nondimensional --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS I 2 I -80 - +60 1 I O - 28 O - 15 (index)’ (time of occurrence)’ Turbulence: special air-report: - 1 0-1 (index)* Temperature: ~~ O00 - 360 O0 - 500 O0 - 250 KMH KT Turbulence: routine air-report: I I I Not for Resale 15 - 27 0.1 1 1 I I
  • Appendix 17 NOTIFICATION OF WAFC CONCERNING SIGNIFICANT DISCREPANCIES of Annex 3 refers) (see also the attachment to this Appendix); no other differences should be reported; 1. PURPOSE OF THE REPORT a) To permit the meteorological offices to inform the WAFCs about significant discrepancies on significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts issued by WAFCs, in accordance with Annex 3 criteria (3.2.13 of Annex 3 refers); and c) the meteorological office describes the significant discrepancy using the following rules: 1) a notification of significant discrepancy concerning a forecast shall be elaborated and sent between six and nine hours before the commencement of the validity period of the forecast; b) to report significant discrepancies efficiently and unambiguously, and only when an amendment to the SIGWX forecast is required. 2) the notification is to be sent only to the WAFC concerned; Note.- I a meteorological ofice finds a discrepancy, f or a recurrent discrepancy, that does not necessitate an amendment to the SIG WX according to Annex 3, it has the option to inform the WAFC concerned by using route forecast (ROFOR) messages. 3) the notification is to be sent via e-mail or fax using the following e-mail addresses or fax numbers: I Centre 2. USEFULNESS OF THE REPORT FOR THE WAFCs I Fax Number I E-MailAddress I Washington WAFC benefits from the notification by: London a) being informed of possible discrepancies; b) analysing the proposal coming from a meteorological office; 4) the notification of significant discrepancies shall be prepared using the form in the attachment to this Appendix; c) re-initiating the forecasts model, if appropriate, taking into account the proposal; or 5) the notification is to be written in English. d) sending an amendment for the SIGWX forecast Concerned. 4. 3. STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED BY A METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED BY A WAFC a) The WAFC conceped acknowledges the receipt of the notification of the significant discrepancy to the meteorological office that originated it, together with a brief comment thereon and any action taken, using the same means of communication employed by the meteorological office; and a) WAFS SIGWX forecast is received by a meteorological office; b) a meteorological office detects a significant discrepancy, in accordance with the criteria for the amendment of SIGWX forecasts in Annex 3 (3.2.13 b) if necessary, the WAFC issues an amendment for the SIGWX forecast concerned. A l 7-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Practice A l 7-2 ATTACHMENT TO APPENDIX 17 FORM TO BE USED FOR THE NOTIFICATION OF A SIGNIFICANT DISCREPANCY ON SIGNIFICANT WEATHER FORECASTS FORECAST INVOLVED Originating WAFC ICA0 Area I Flight Level I 1 Validity Time I I Validity Date I I I DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCREPANCY(1ES) (Error in expected position or intensity of phenomena; new expected phenomena.) Dusistoms Volcanic activity Radioactive material into the atmosphere Note.- The column "Reference" is to spec& for example, the observation, aircralì report or the forecast model field that directed the meteorological office to inform of a significant discrepancy. A copy of this information may be added to the form, if necessaty - END - --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
  • ICAO TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS The following summary gives the status, and also describes in general terms the contents of the various series of technical publications issued b y the International Civil Aviation Organization. It does not include specialized publications that do not fall specijically within one of the series, such as the Aeronautical Chart Catalogue or the Meteorological Tables for International Air Navigation. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- International Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted by the Council in accordance with Articles 54, 37 and 90 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and are designated, for convenience, as Annexes to the Convention. The uniform application by Contracting States of the specifications contained in the International Standards is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of intemational air navigation while the uniform application of the specifications in the Recommended Practices is regarded as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation. Knowledge of any differences between the national regulations or practices of a State and those established by an International Standard is essential to the safety or regularity of international air navigation. In the event of non-compliance with an International Standard, a State has, in fact, an obligation, under Article 38 of the Convention, to notify the Council of any differences. Knowledge of differences from Recommended Practices may also be important for the safety of air navigation and, although the Convention does not impose any obligation with regard thereto, the Council has invited Contracting States to notify such differences in addition to those relating to International Standards. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) are approved by the Council for worldwide application. They contain, for the most part, operating procedures regarded as not yet having attained a sufficient degree of Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS maturity for adoption as International Standards and Recommended Practices, as well as material of a more permanent character which is considered too detailed for incorporation in an Annex, or is susceptible to frequent amendment, for which the processes of the Convention would be too cumbersome. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) have a status similar to that of PANS in that they are approved by the Council, but only for application in the respective regions. They are prepared in consolidated form, since certain of the procedures apply to overlapping regions or are common to two or more regions. The following publications are prepared by authority of the Secretary General in accordance with the principles and policies approved by the Council. Technical Manuals provide guidance and information in amplification of the International Standards, Recommended Practices and PANS, the implementation of which they are designed to facilitate. Air Navigation Plans detail requirements for facilities and services for intemational air navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions. They are prepared on the authority of the Secretary General on the basis of recommendations of regional air navigation meetings and of the Council action thereon. The plans are amended periodically to reflect changes in requirements and in the status of implementation of the recommended facilities and services. ICAO Circulars make available specialized information of interest to Contracting States. This includes studies on technical subjects. Not for Resale
  • Order No. 8896 Printed in ICAO Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- O ICAO 2004 10104, E/P1/1500