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    Annex 2 rules of the air Annex 2 rules of the air Document Transcript

    • International Standards Annex 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Rules of the Air This edition incorporates all amendments adopted by the Council prior to 24 February 2005 and supersedes, on 24 November 2005, all previous editions of Annex 2. For information regarding the applicability of the Standards, see Foreword. Tenth Edition July 2005 International Civil Aviation Organization Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Published in separate English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International Civil Aviation Organization. All correspondence, except orders and subscriptions, should be addressed to the Secretary General. International Civil Aviation Organization. Attention: Document Sales Unit, 999 University Street, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 Telephone: +1 (514) 954-8022; Facsimile: +1 (514) 954-6769; Sitatex: YULCAYA; E-mail: sales@icao.int; World Wide Web: http://www.icao.int Cameroon. KnowHow, 1, Rue de la Chambre de Commerce-Bonanjo, B.P. 4676, Douala, Telephone: +237 343 98 42, Facsimile: +237 343 89 25, E-mail: knowhow_doc@yahoo.fr China. Glory Master International Limited, Room 434B, Hongshen Trade Centre, 428 Dong Fang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 Telephone: +86 137 0177 4638; Facsimile: +86 21 5888 1629; E-mail: glorymaster@online.sh.cn Egypt. ICAO Regional Director, Middle East Office, Egyptian Civil Aviation Complex, Cairo Airport Road, Heliopolis, Cairo 11776 Telephone: +20 (2) 267 4840; Facsimile: +20 (2) 267 4843; Sitatex: CAICAYA; E-mail: icao@idsc.net.eg France. Directeur régional de l’OACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nord, 3 bis, villa Émile-Bergerat, 92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine (Cedex) Téléphone: +33 (1) 46 41 85 85; Fax: +33 (1) 46 41 85 00; Sitatex: PAREUYA; Courriel: icaoeurnat@paris.icao.int Germany. UNO-Verlag GmbH, Am Hofgarten 10, D-53113 Bonn / Telephone: +49 (0) 2 28-9 49 0 20; Facsimile: +49 (0) 2 28-9 49 02 22; E-mail: info@uno-verlag.de; World Wide Web: http://www.uno-verlag.de India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi 110001 or 17 Park Street, Calcutta 700016 Telephone: +91 (11) 331-5896; Facsimile: +91 (11) 51514284 India. Sterling Book House – SBH, 181, Dr. D. N. Road, Fort, Bombay 400001 Telephone: +91 (22) 2261 2521, 2265 9599; Facsimile: +91 (22) 2262 3551; E-mail: sbh@vsnl.com Japan. Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chome, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo Telephone: +81 (3) 3503-2686; Facsimile: +81 (3) 3503-2689 Kenya. ICAO Regional Director, Eastern and Southern African Office, United Nations Accommodation, P.O. Box 46294, Nairobi Telephone: +254 (20) 622 395; Facsimile: +254 (20) 623 028; Sitatex: NBOCAYA; E-mail: icao@icao.unon.org Mexico. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Norteamérica, Centroamérica y Caribe, Av. Presidente Masaryk No. 29, 3er Piso, Col. Chapultepec Morales, C.P. 11570, México D.F. / Teléfono: +52 (55) 52 50 32 11; Facsímile: +52 (55) 52 03 27 57; Correo-e: icao_nacc@mexico.icao.int Nigeria. Landover Company, P.O. Box 3165, Ikeja, Lagos Telephone: +234 (1) 4979780; Facsimile: +234 (1) 4979788; Sitatex: LOSLORK; E-mail: aviation@landovercompany.com Peru. Director Regional de la OACI, Oficina Sudamérica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100 Teléfono: +51 (1) 575 1646; Facsímile: +51 (1) 575 0974; Sitatex: LIMCAYA; Correo-e: mail@lima.icao.int Russian Federation. Aviaizdat, 48, Ivan Franko Street, Moscow 121351 / Telephone: +7 (095) 417-0405; Facsimile: +7 (095) 417-0254 Senegal. Directeur régional de l’OACI, Bureau Afrique occidentale et centrale, Boîte postale 2356, Dakar Téléphone: +221 839 9393; Fax: +221 823 6926; Sitatex: DKRCAYA; Courriel: icaodkr@icao.sn Slovakia. Air Traffic Services of the Slovak Republic, Letové prevádzkové sluzby Slovenskej Republiky, State Enterprise, Letisko M.R. Stefánika, 823 07 Bratislava 21 / Telephone: +421 (7) 4857 1111; Facsimile: +421 (7) 4857 2105 South Africa. Avex Air Training (Pty) Ltd., Private Bag X102, Halfway House, 1685, Johannesburg Telephone: +27 (11) 315-0003/4; Facsimile: +27 (11) 805-3649; E-mail: avex@iafrica.com Spain. A.E.N.A. — Aeropuertos Españoles y Navegación Aérea, Calle Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena, 14, Planta Tercera, Despacho 3. 11, 28027 Madrid / Teléfono: +34 (91) 321-3148; Facsímile: +34 (91) 321-3157; Correo-e: sscc.ventasoaci@aena.es Switzerland. Adeco-Editions van Diermen, Attn: Mr. Martin Richard Van Diermen, Chemin du Lacuez 41, CH-1807 Blonay Telephone: +41 021 943 2673; Facsimile: +41 021 943 3605; E-mail: mvandiermen@adeco.org Thailand. ICAO Regional Director, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 11, Samyaek Ladprao, Bangkok 10901 Telephone: +66 (2) 537 8189; Facsimile: +66 (2) 537 8199; Sitatex: BKKCAYA; E-mail: icao_apac@bangkok.icao.int United Kingdom. Airplan Flight Equipment Ltd. (AFE), 1a Ringway Trading Estate, Shadowmoss Road, Manchester M22 5LH Telephone: +44 161 499 0023; Facsimile: +44 161 499 0298; E-mail: enquiries@afeonline.com; World Wide Web: http://www.afeonline.com 6/05 Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual Training Aids Issued annually, the Catalogue lists all publications and audio-visual training aids currently available. Monthly supplements announce new publications and audio-visual training aids, amendments, supplements, reprints, etc. Available free from the Document Sales Unit, ICAO. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Orders should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the appropriate remittance (by bank draft, cheque or money order) in U.S. dollars or the currency of the country in which the order is placed. Credit card orders (American Express, MasterCard and Visa) are accepted at ICAO Headquarters.
    • TRANSMITTAL NOTE NEW EDITIONS OF ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION It has come to our attention that when a new edition of an Annex is published, users have been discarding, along with the previous edition of the Annex, the Supplement to the previous edition. Please note that the Supplement to the previous edition should be retained until a new Supplement is issued. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • International Standards Annex 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation Rules of the Air This edition incorporates all amendments adopted by the Council prior to 24 February 2005 and supersedes, on 24 November 2005, all previous editions of Annex 2. For information regarding the applicability of the Standards, see Foreword. International Civil Aviation Organization Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Tenth Edition July 2005
    • AMENDMENTS The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA AMENDMENTS No. 1-38 Date applicable Date entered CORRIGENDA Entered by No. Date of issue Incorporated in this edition (ii) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Date entered Entered by
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Page FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (v) CHAPTER 1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 CHAPTER 2. Applicability of the rules of the air . . . Page 2-1 2.1 Territorial application of the rules of the air . . . 2.2 Compliance with the rules of the air . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Responsibility for compliance with the rules of the air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft . . 2.5 Problematic use of psychoactive substances . . . CHAPTER 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 APPENDIX 1. 1. 2. 3. 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 General rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-9 3-9 1. 2. 3. Visual flight rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument flight rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 1-3 APP 1-3 APP 1-5 APP 2-1 Principles to be observed by States . . . . . . APP 2-1 Action by intercepted aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . APP 2-1 Radiocommunication during interception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 2-1 APP 3-1 Unmanned free balloons . . . . . . . APP 4-1 Classification of unmanned free balloons. . General operating rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating limitations and equipment requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flight notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position recording and reports. . . . . . . . . . . APP 4-1 APP 4-1 4. 5. 6. 5-1 APP APP APP APP 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-4 5-1 ATTACHMENT A. Interception of civil aircraft . ATT A-1 5-1 ATTACHMENT B. Unlawful interference . . . . . ATT B-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- all IFR flights . . . . . . . . . . . IFR flights within ....................... IFR flights outside ....................... Interception of civil aircraft . . . . . APP 1-2 Tables of cruising levels . . . . . . . 1. 2. 3. 5-1 5.1 Rules applicable to 5.2 Rules applicable to controlled airspace 5.3 Rules applicable to controlled airspace APP 1-1 APPENDIX 4. 4-1 CHAPTER 5. Distress and urgency signals . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals for use in the event of interception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visual signals used to warn an unauthorized aircraft flying in, or about to enter a restricted, prohibited or danger area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals for aerodrome traffic. . . . . . . . . . . . Marshalling signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX 3. 3-9 CHAPTER 4. APP 1-1 APPENDIX 2. 3-1 Protection of persons and property. . . . . . . . . . . Avoidance of collisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flight plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air traffic control service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unlawful interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 5. Signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (iii) Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • FOREWORD Historical background On 15 November 1972, when adopting Amendment 14 to Annex 2 relating to authority over aircraft operating over the high seas, the Council emphasized that the Amendment was intended solely to improve safety of flight and to ensure adequate provision of air traffic services over the high seas. The Amendment in no way affects the legal jurisdiction of States of Registry over their aircraft or the responsibility of Contracting States under Article 12 of the Convention for enforcing the Rules of the Air. In October 1945, the Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control (RAC) Division at its first session made recommendations for Standards, Practices and Procedures for the Rules of the Air. These were reviewed by the then Air Navigation Committee and approved by the Council on 25 February 1946. They were published as Recommendations for Standards, Practices and Procedures — Rules of the Air in the first part of Doc 2010, published in February 1946. The RAC Division, at its second session in December 1946– January 1947, reviewed Doc 2010 and proposed Standards and Recommended Practices for the Rules of the Air. These were adopted by the Council as Standards and Recommended Practices relating to Rules of the Air on 15 April 1948, pursuant to Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944) and designated as Annex 2 to the Convention with the title International Standards and Recommended Practices — Rules of the Air. They became effective on 15 September 1948. Action by Contracting States Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify the Organization of any differences between their national regulations and practices and the International Standards contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto. Contracting States are invited to keep the Organization currently informed of any differences which may subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences previously notified. Contracting States are also invited to notify the Organization of any differences between their national regulations and practices and the special recommendations contained in Attachment A to this Annex. A specific request for notification of differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after the adoption of each amendment to this Annex. On 27 November 1951, the Council adopted a complete new text of the Annex, which no longer contained Recommended Practices. The Standards of the amended Annex 2 (Amendment 1) became effective on 1 April 1952 and applicable on 1 September 1952. Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the dates on which the amendments were adopted by the Council, when they became effective and when they became applicable. Attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices through the Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of States under Article 38 of the Convention. Applicability The Standards in this document, together with the Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 11, govern the application of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444) and the Regional Supplementary Procedures — Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, contained in Doc 7030, in which latter document will be found subsidiary procedures of regional application. Promulgation of information. Information relating to the applicability of national rules and procedures, and changes thereto, established according to the Standards specified in this Annex shall be notified in accordance with Annex 15. Use of the text of the Annex in national regulations. The Council, on 13 April 1948, adopted a resolution inviting the attention of Contracting States to the desirability of using in their own national regulations, as far as practicable, the precise language of those ICAO Standards that are of a regulatory character and also of indicating departures from the Standards, including any additional national regulations that were important for the safety or regularity of air navigation. Wherever possible, the provisions of this Annex have been written in Flight over the high seas. It should be noted that the Council resolved, in adopting Annex 2 in April 1948 and Amendment 1 to the said Annex in November 1951, that the Annex constitutes Rules relating to the flight and manoeuvre of aircraft within the meaning of Article 12 of the Convention. Over the high seas, therefore, these rules apply without exception. ANNEX 2 (v) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Foreword such a way as would facilitate incorporation, without major textual changes, into national legislation. a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory material based on the action of the Council and including an explanation of the obligations of States with regard to the application of the Standards and Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption. Status of Annex components --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex; they have the status indicated: b) Introductions comprising explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the application of the text. 1. — Material comprising the Annex proper: a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council under the provisions of the Convention. They are defined as follows: c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give factual information or references bearing on the Standards or Recommended Practices in question, but not constituting part of the Standards or Recommended Practices. Standard. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38. d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to the Standards and Recommended Practices, or included as a guide to their application. Selection of language Recommended Practice. Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interests of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention. This Annex has been adopted in six languages — English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of national implementation and for other effects provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or through translation into its own national language, and to notify the Organization accordingly. b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately for convenience but forming part of the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council. Editorial practices The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been printed in light face roman; Notes have been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note. There are no Recommended Practices in Annex 2. c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and Recommended Practices which are not self-explanatory in that they do not have accepted dictionary meanings. A definition does not have an independent status but is an essential part of each Standard and Recommended Practice in which the term is used, since a change in the meaning of the term would affect the specification. d) Tables and Figures which add to or illustrate a Standard or Recommended Practice and which are referred to therein, form part of the associated Standard or Recommended Practice and have the same status. The units of measurement used in this document are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units. Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may, however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is achieved when either set of units is used exclusively. 2. — Material approved by the Council for publication in association with the Standards and Recommended Practices: Any reference to a portion of this document which is identified by a number includes all subdivisions of the portion. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (vi) Not for Resale
    • Foreword Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Table A. Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Adopted/approved Effective Applicable RAC Division, Second Session (1947) Standards and Recommended Practices — Rules of the Air. 15 April 1948 15 September 1948 — RAC Division, Fourth Session (1950) Complete revision and rearrangement of the Annex. 27 November 1951 1 April 1952 1 September 1952 RAC Committee of the EuropeanMediterranean Region Fourth Special Meeting (1952) Radiocommunication failure procedures; flight plan. 17 November 1953 1 April 1954 1 September 1954 Second Air Navigation Conference (1955) Definitions and terminology; VFR flight outside controlled airspace; distress and urgency signals; signals for aerodrome traffic; marshalling signals. 11 May 1956 15 September 1956 1 December 1956 Air Navigation Commission Guidance material on the application of the definitions of danger area; prohibited area and restricted area. 14 November 1958 — — 5 (4th Edition) RAC/SAR Divisions Meeting (1958); Air Navigation Commission Definitions; prohibition of VFR flights at night within controlled airspace; avoidance of collisions; flight plans; visual and instrument flight rules; SELCAL; marshalling signals. 6 RAC/SAR Divisions Meeting (1958); Airworthiness Committee, Fourth Meeting (1960) VFR flight; table of cruising levels; aircraft navigation lights. 13 December 1961 1 April 1962 1 July 1962 7 Fourth North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting (1961) Application of table of cruising levels in polar areas. 27 June 1962 1 November 1962 1 December 1962 RAC/OPS Divisional Meeting (1963); Air Navigation Commission Definitions; provisions regarding flight level and altitudes; submission of flight plans; establishment of a single table of VFR criteria; prohibition of VFR flights at night in uncontrolled airspace and above FL 200; communications for IFR flights outside controlled airspace; replacement of quadrantal table of cruising levels by a semi-circular table; vertical separation above FL 290. 29 November 1965 29 March 1966 25 August 1966 9 Air Navigation Commission Guidance material; excerpts from the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. 29 November 1965 — — 10 Air Traffic Control Automation Panel (ATCAP), Fifth Meeting (1966); Air Navigation Commission Flight plans; deletion of guidance material regarding the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea and of the associated application Standard. 1 (2nd Edition) 2 3 (3rd Edition) 4 8 (5th Edition) (vii) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 8 December 1959 1 May 1960 1 August 1960 7 June 1967 5 October 1967 8 February 1968 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1st Edition (1948) Amendments to Annex 2
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Amendment Foreword Source(s) Subject(s) Adopted/approved Effective Applicable Fifth Air Navigation Conference (1967) Air traffic services reporting office; marshalling signals. 23 January 1969 23 May 1969 18 September 1969 12 (6th Edition) Sixth Air Navigation Conference (1969) Definitions; minimum heights/levels; controlled VFR flights; new terminology for designating controlled airspace. 25 May 1970 25 September 1970 4 February 1971 13 Limited EuropeanMediterranean (RAC/COM) Regional Air Navigation Meeting (1969); Air Navigation Commission Radiocommunication failure procedures; unserviceability markings on manoeuvring areas. 24 March 1972 24 July 1972 7 December 1972 14 Air Navigation Commission Authority over aircraft operating over the high seas. 15 November 1972 15 March 1973 16 August 1973 15 Air Traffic Control Automation Panel (ATCAP), Fifth Meeting (1966) Repetitive flight plans. 13 December 1972 13 April 1973 16 August 1973 16 Seventh Air Navigation Conference (1972) Note relating to SSR Mode C transmission of pressure-altitude. 23 March 1973 — 23 May 1974 17 Council action in pursuance of Assembly Resolutions A17-10 and A18-10 Practices to be followed in the event that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. 7 December 1973 7 April 1974 23 May 1974 18 Air Navigation Commission Radiocommunication failure procedures; Note concerning lease, charter and interchange of aircraft. 8 April 1974 8 August 1974 27 February 1975 19 Technical Panel on Supersonic Transport Operations (SSTP), Fourth Meeting (1973); Air Navigation Commission Action by an aircraft which is being intercepted; visual signals for use in the event of interception; guidance material to assist States in eliminating or reducing interceptions; provision relating to flight at transonic and supersonic speeds; changes to reflect the concept of cruise climbs. 4 February 1975 4 June 1975 9 October 1975 20 Air Navigation Commission Time-keeping accuracy in ATS units and on board aircraft; use of SSR code 7500 in the event of unlawful interference. 7 April 1976 7 August 1976 30 December 1976 21 Ninth Air Navigation Conference (1976) Definitions relating to changeover points and transition altitudes; requirement for aircraft to adhere to the centre line of ATS routes and to comply with changeover points; cruising levels; flight plans and position reports; alignment of the definition of flight level with that in Annex 3 and Annex 10, Volume II. 7 December 1977 7 April 1978 10 August 1978 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 11 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (viii) Not for Resale
    • Foreword --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Amendment Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Source(s) Subject(s) Adopted/approved Effective Applicable 22 Air Navigation Commission Unmanned free balloons; estimated time of arrival. 2 March 1981 2 July 1981 26 November 1981 23 (7th Edition) Air Navigation Commission Interception of civil aircraft. 1 April 1981 1 August 1981 26 November 1981 24 Air Navigation Commission Aircraft exterior lights. 19 March 1982 19 July 1982 25 November 1982 25 Air Navigation Commission; AGA Divisional Meeting (1981) Definitions relating to height, instrument approach procedure, manoeuvring and movement area, taxiing, and taxiway; use of the phrase “HIJACK” in the event of interception of civil aircraft; note regarding lease, charter or interchange of aircraft; provisions related to surface movement of aircraft and taxiing; series 2 signals used by helicopters in the event of interception; units of measurement. 21 March 1983 29 July 1983 24 November 1983 26 ATS Data Acquisition, Processing and Transfer Panel, Third Meeting (1981); Air Navigation Commission Definitions; contents of flight plans; repetitive flight plans; ATS data interchange; pronunciations to be used by intercepting aircraft; alignment of the radiotelephony urgency signal with Annex 10, Volume II; Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). 22 June 1984 22 October 1984 21 November 1985 27 (8th Edition) Council; Air Navigation Commission Identification and interception of civil aircraft. 10 March 1986 27 July 1986 20 November 1986 Air Navigation Commission Definition of “apron”; special procedures for use during unlawful interference. 16 March 1987 27 July 1987 19 November 1987 29 (9th Edition) Visual Flight Rules Operations Panel, Third Meeting (1986); Secretariat; Visual Aids Panel, Eleventh Meeting (1987); Air Navigation Commission; amendments consequential to adoption of amendments to Annex 6 Operation of aircraft in mixed VFR/IFR environments; surface movement of aircraft and surface movement guidance and control; acts of unlawful interference; helicopters as intercepting aircraft. 12 March 1990 30 July 1990 14 November 1991 30 Secondary Surveillance Radar Improvements and Collision Avoidance Systems Panel, Fourth Meeting (SICASP/4) (1989) Definitions; airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS). 26 February 1993 26 July 1993 11 November 1993 31 Review of the General Concept of Separation Panel, Seventh Meeting (1990); Air Navigation Commission; Automatic Dependent Surveillance Panel, Second Meeting (1992) Definitions; air-taxiing; separation between aircraft; formation flights by civil aircraft in controlled airspace; automatic dependent surveillance. 18 March 1994 25 July 1994 10 November 1994 28 (ix) Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Amendment Foreword Source(s) Subject(s) Adopted/approved Effective Applicable 32 Air Navigation Commission Note related to carriage requirements of airborne collision avoidance systems. 19 February 1996 19 February 1996 — 33 Air Navigation Commission Communication failure procedures. 26 February 1997 21 July 1997 6 November 1997 34 Automatic Dependent Surveillance Panel, Fourth Meeting (1996); Review of the General Concept of Separation Panel, Ninth Meeting (1996); consequential to Amendment 162 to Annex 1 Definitions; automatic dependent surveillance systems and procedures; data interchange between automated ATS systems; ATS applications for air-ground data links; problematic use of psychoactive substances. 19 March 1998 20 July 1998 5 November 1998 35 Air Navigation Commission; Visual Aids Panel, Thirteenth Meeting (1997) ATS airspace classifications; visual meteorological conditions clearance; runway-holding position. 10 March 1999 19 July 1999 4 November 1999 36 Revised definitions of “air traffic control unit”, “approach control unit”, Consequential as a result “alternate aerodrome” “flight crew member”, “pilot-in-command” and of Amendment 40 to Annex 11; Amendments 23 “visibility”; editorial amendments. and 25 to Annex 6, Part I; Amendments 20 and 7 to Annex 6, Parts II and III, respectively; and Amendment 72 to Annex 3 12 March 2001 16 July 2001 1 November 2001 37 Separation and Airspace Safety Panel (SASP) Pilot procedures in the event of unlawful interference; editorial amendments. 28 February 2003 — — Secretariat Definitions; marshalling signals; communication failure procedures; interception manoeuvres; editorial amendments. 23 February 2005 11 July 2005 24 November 2005 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 38 (10th Edition) 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (x) Not for Resale
    • INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS DEFINITIONS Note 1.— Throughout the text of this document the term “service” is used as an abstract noun to designate functions, or service rendered; the term “unit” is used to designate a collective body performing a service. Aerodrome control service. Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic. Aerodrome control tower. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic. Note 2.— The designation (RR) in these definitions indicates a definition which has been extracted from the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (see Handbook on Radio Frequency Spectrum Requirements for Civil Aviation including statement of approved ICAO policies (Doc 9718)). Aerodrome traffic. All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome. Note.— An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit. When the following terms are used in the International Standards for Rules of the Air, they have the following meanings: Aerodrome traffic zone. An airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic. Acrobatic flight. Manoeuvres intentionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed. Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. ADS agreement. An ADS reporting plan which establishes the conditions of ADS data reporting (i.e. data required by the air traffic services unit and frequency of ADS reports which have to be agreed to prior to the provision of the ADS services). Aeronautical station (RR S1.81). A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea. Note.— The terms of the agreement will be exchanged between the ground system and the aircraft by means of a contract, or a series of contracts. Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. ADS contract. A means by which the terms of an ADS agreement will be exchanged between the ground system and the aircraft, specifying under what conditions ADS reports would be initiated, and what data would be contained in the reports. Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS). An aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of groundbased equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders. Note.— The term “ADS contract” is a generic term meaning variously, ADS event contract, ADS demand contract, ADS periodic contract or an emergency mode. Ground forwarding of ADS reports may be implemented between ground systems. Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface. Advisory airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which air traffic advisory service is available. Air-ground control radio station. An aeronautical telecommunication station having primary responsibility for handling communications pertaining to the operation and control of aircraft in a given area. Advisory route. A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available. Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Air-taxiing. Movement of a helicopter/VTOL above the surface of an aerodrome, normally in ground effect and at a ground speed normally less than 37 km/h (20 kt). 1-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- CHAPTER 1.
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 1 Note.— The actual height may vary, and some helicopters may require air-taxiing above 8 m (25 ft) AGL to reduce ground effect turbulence or provide clearance for cargo slingloads. Air traffic services unit. A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight information centre or air traffic services reporting office. Air traffic. All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome. Airway. A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor. Air traffic advisory service. A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure separation, in so far as practical, between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans. Alerting service. A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required. Air traffic control clearance. Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. Alternate aerodrome. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following: Note 1.— For convenience, the term “air traffic control clearance” is frequently abbreviated to “clearance” when used in appropriate contexts. Take-off alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure. Note 2.— The abbreviated term “clearance” may be prefixed by the words “taxi”, “take-off”, “departure”, “en route”, “approach” or “landing” to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the air traffic control clearance relates. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while en route. Air traffic control service. A service provided for the purpose of: ETOPS en-route alternate. A suitable and appropriate alternate aerodrome at which an aeroplane would be able to land after experiencing an engine shutdown or other abnormal or emergency condition while en route in an ETOPS operation. a) preventing collisions: 1) between aircraft, and 2) on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions, and Destination alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. Air traffic control unit. A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach control unit or aerodrome control tower. Note.— The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight. Air traffic service. A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service, air traffic control service (area control service, approach control service or aerodrome control service). Altitude. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL). Air traffic services airspaces. Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetically designated, within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of operation are specified. Approach control service. Air traffic control service for arriving or departing controlled flights. Approach control unit. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes. Note.— ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G. Air traffic services reporting office. A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure. Appropriate ATS authority. The relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned. Note.— An air traffic services reporting office may be established as a separate unit or combined with an existing unit, such as another air traffic services unit, or a unit of the aeronautical information service. Appropriate authority. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS a) Regarding flight over the high seas: The relevant authority of the State of Registry. 1-2 Not for Resale
    • Chapter 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Note.— The term “controlled aerodrome” indicates that air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome traffic but does not necessarily imply that a control zone exists. Apron. A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance. Controlled airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. Area control centre. A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. Note.— Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D and E as described in Annex 11, 2.6. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- b) Regarding flight other than over the high seas: The relevant authority of the State having sovereignty over the territory being overflown. Area control service. Air traffic control service for controlled flights in control areas. Controlled flight. Any flight which is subject to an air traffic control clearance. ATS route. A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services. Controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC). A means of communication between controller and pilot, using data link for ATC communications. Note 1.— The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc. Control zone. A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified upper limit. Note 2.— An ATS route is defined by route specifications which include an ATS route designator, the track to or from significant points (waypoints), distance between significant points, reporting requirements and, as determined by the appropriate ATS authority, the lowest safe altitude. Cruise climb. An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the aeroplane mass decreases. Automatic dependent surveillance (ADS). A surveillance technique in which aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data derived from on-board navigation and position-fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four-dimensional position and additional data as appropriate. Current flight plan. The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances. Cruising level. A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. Danger area. An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. Ceiling. The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6 000 metres (20 000 feet) covering more than half the sky. Data link communications. A form of communication intended for the exchange of messages via a data link. Changeover point. The point at which an aircraft navigating on an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges is expected to transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft. Estimated off-block time. The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence movement associated with departure. Estimated time of arrival. For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. For VFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. Note.— Changeover points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the same portion of a route segment. Clearance limit. The point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance. Control area. A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth. Expected approach time. The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a delay, will leave the holding fix to complete its approach for a landing. Controlled aerodrome. An aerodrome at which air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome traffic. Note.— The actual time of leaving the holding fix will depend upon the approach clearance. 1-3 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 1 Filed flight plan. The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated representative, without any subsequent changes. IMC. The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions. Instrument approach procedure. A series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply. Instrument approach procedures are classified as follows: Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight duty period. Flight information centre. A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service. Flight information region. An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. Non-precision approach (NPA) procedure. An instrument approach procedure which utilizes lateral guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance. Flight information service. A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. Approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV). An instrument approach procedure which utilizes lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the requirements established for precision approach and landing operations. Flight level. A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1 013.2 hectopascals (hPa), and is separated from other such surfaces by specific pressure intervals. Note 1.— A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard Atmosphere: Note.— Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the guidance provided either by: a) when set to a QNH altimeter setting, will indicate altitude; b) when set to a QFE altimeter setting, will indicate height above the QFE reference datum; a) a ground-based navigation aid; or b) computer-generated navigation data. c) when set to a pressure of 1 013.2 hPa, may be used to indicate flight levels. Instrument meteorological conditions. Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions. Note 2.— The terms “height” and “altitude”, used in Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes. Note.— The specified minima for visual meteorological conditions are contained in Chapter 4. Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. Landing area. That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. Flight visibility. The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. Ground visibility. The visibility at an aerodrome as reported by an accredited observer or by automatic systems. Level. A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight and meaning variously, height, altitude or flight level. Heading. The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, compass or grid). Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons. Height. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum. Movement area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s). IFR. The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules. Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight. IFR flight. A flight conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1-4 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Precision approach (PA) procedure. An instrument approach procedure using precision lateral and vertical guidance with minima as determined by the category of operation.
    • Chapter 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Pressure-altitude. An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the Standard Atmosphere.* Signal area. An area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals. Problematic use of substances. The use of one or more psychoactive substances by aviation personnel in a way that: Special VFR flight. A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC. a) constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the lives, health or welfare of others; and/or Taxiing. Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing. b) causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder. Taxiway. A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including: Prohibited area. An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. a) Aircraft stand taxilane. A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only. Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants, hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and tobacco are excluded. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- b) Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron. Radiotelephony. A form of radiocommunication primarily intended for the exchange of information in the form of speech. c) Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. Repetitive flight plan (RPL). A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS units. Terminal control area. A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes. Reporting point. A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported. Total estimated elapsed time. For IFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome. Restricted area. An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions. Runway. A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. Track. The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic or grid). Runway-holding position. A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/ MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower. Traffic avoidance advice. Advice provided by an air traffic services unit specifying manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a collision. Note.— In radiotelephony phraseologies, the expression “holding point” is used to designate the runway-holding position. Traffic information. Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight and to help the pilot avoid a collision. Safety-sensitive personnel. Persons who might endanger aviation safety if they perform their duties and functions improperly including, but not limited to, crew members, aircraft maintenance personnel and air traffic controllers. Transition altitude. The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to altitudes. Unmanned free balloon. A non-power-driven, unmanned, lighter-than-air aircraft in free flight. * As defined in Annex 8. 1-5 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 1 Note.— Unmanned free balloons are classified as heavy, medium or light in accordance with specifications contained in Appendix 4. Note 1.— The two distances have different values in air of a given extinction coefficient, and the latter b) varies with the background illumination. The former a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR). VFR. The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules. Note. 2.— The definition applies to the observations of visibility in local routine and special reports, to the observations of prevailing and minimum visibility reported in METAR and SPECI and to the observations of ground visibility. VFR flight. A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules. Visibility. Visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater of: Visual meteorological conditions. Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima. a) the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognized when observed against a bright background; Note.— The specified minima are contained in Chapter 4. b) the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1 000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background. 24/11/05 VMC. The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions. 1-6 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • CHAPTER 2. 2.1 APPLICABILITY OF THE RULES OF THE AIR Territorial application of the rules of the air Note 2.— A pilot may elect to fly in accordance with instrument flight rules in visual meteorological conditions or may be required to do so by the appropriate ATS authority. 2.1.1 The rules of the air shall apply to aircraft bearing the nationality and registration marks of a Contracting State, wherever they may be, to the extent that they do not conflict with the rules published by the State having jurisdiction over the territory overflown. 2.3 Note.— The Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization resolved, in adopting Annex 2 in April 1948 and Amendment 1 to the said Annex in November 1951, that the Annex constitutes Rules relating to the flight and manoeuvre of aircraft within the meaning of Article 12 of the Convention. Over the high seas, therefore, these rules apply without exception. 2.3.1 2.3.2 Pre-flight action For purposes of flight over those parts of the high seas where a Contracting State has accepted, pursuant to a regional air navigation agreement, the responsibility of providing air traffic services, the “appropriate ATS authority” referred to in this Annex is the relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing those services. Before beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall become familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended operation. Pre-flight action for flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and for all IFR flights, shall include a careful study of available current weather reports and forecasts, taking into consideration fuel requirements and an alternative course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned. Note.— The phrase “regional air navigation agreement” refers to an agreement approved by the Council of ICAO normally on the advice of a Regional Air Navigation Meeting. 2.4 Compliance with the rules of the air a) the visual flight rules; or 2.5 Problematic use of psychoactive substances b) the instrument flight rules. No person whose function is critical to the safety of aviation (safety-sensitive personnel) shall undertake that function while under the influence of any psychoactive substance, by reason of which human performance is impaired. No such person shall engage in any kind of problematic use of substances. Note 1.— Information relevant to the services provided to aircraft operating in accordance with both visual flight rules and instrument flight rules in the seven ATS airspace classes is contained in 2.6.1 and 2.6.3 of Annex 11. 2-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft while in command. The operation of an aircraft either in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome shall be in compliance with the general rules and, in addition, when in flight, either with: ANNEX 2 Responsibility of pilot-in-command The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or not, be responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air, except that the pilot-in-command may depart from these rules in circumstances that render such departure absolutely necessary in the interests of safety. 2.1.2 If, and so long as, a Contracting State has not notified the International Civil Aviation Organization to the contrary, it shall be deemed, as regards aircraft of its registration, to have agreed as follows: 2.2 Responsibility for compliance with the rules of the air Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • CHAPTER 3. 3.1 GENERAL RULES Protection of persons and property 3.1.6 Parachute descents, other than emergency descents, shall not be made except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit. 3.1.1 Negligent or reckless operation of aircraft An aircraft shall not be operated in a negligent or reckless manner so as to endanger life or property of others. 3.1.2 3.1.7 Minimum heights Acrobatic flight No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit. Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate authority, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. 3.1.8 Formation flights Aircraft shall not be flown in formation except by prearrangement among the pilots-in-command of the aircraft taking part in the flight and, for formation flight in controlled airspace, in accordance with the conditions prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority(ies). These conditions shall include the following: Note.— See 4.6 for minimum heights for VFR flights and 5.1.2 for minimum levels for IFR flights. 3.1.3 Parachute descents Cruising levels The cruising levels at which a flight or a portion of a flight is to be conducted shall be in terms of: a) the formation operates as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting; a) flight levels, for flights at or above the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, above the transition altitude; b) altitudes, for flights below the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, at or below the transition altitude. b) separation between aircraft in the flight shall be the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots-incommand of the other aircraft in the flight and shall include periods of transition when aircraft are manoeuvring to attain their own separation within the formation and during join-up and breakaway; and Note.— The system of flight levels is prescribed in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168). c) a distance not exceeding 1 km (0.5 NM) laterally and longitudinally and 30 m (100 ft) vertically from the flight leader shall be maintained by each aircraft. 3.1.4 3.1.9 Dropping or spraying Unmanned free balloons An unmanned free balloon shall be operated in such a manner as to minimize hazards to persons, property or other aircraft and in accordance with the conditions specified in Appendix 4. Nothing shall be dropped or sprayed from an aircraft in flight except under conditions prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit. 3.1.10 Prohibited areas and restricted areas 3.1.5 Towing Aircraft shall not be flown in a prohibited area, or in a restricted area, the particulars of which have been duly published, except in accordance with the conditions of the restrictions or by permission of the State over whose territory the areas are established. No aircraft or other object shall be towed by an aircraft, except in accordance with requirements prescribed by the appropriate authority and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit. ANNEX 2 3-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 3 3.2 Avoidance of collisions overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right, and no subsequent change in the relative positions of the two aircraft shall absolve the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear. Note.— It is important that vigilance for the purpose of detecting potential collisions be not relaxed on board an aircraft in flight, regardless of the type of flight or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, and while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome. 3.2.2.5 3.2.1 Proximity Landing 3.2.2.5.1 An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground or water, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land. An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a collision hazard. 3.2.2.5.2 When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders. 3.2.2 Right-of-way The aircraft that has the right-of-way shall maintain its heading and speed, but nothing in these rules shall relieve the pilot-in-command of an aircraft from the responsibility of taking such action, including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment, as will best avert collision. 3.2.2.5.3 Emergency landing. An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft. Note 1.— Operating procedures for use of ACAS are contained in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, Part VIII, Chapter 3. 3.2.2.6 Taking off. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off. Note 2.— Carriage requirements for ACAS equipment are addressed in Annex 6, Part I, Chapter 6. 3.2.2.7 Surface movement of aircraft 3.2.2.1 An aircraft that is obliged by the following rules to keep out of the way of another shall avoid passing over, under or in front of the other, unless it passes well clear and takes into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence. 3.2.2.7.1 In case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome the following shall apply: 3.2.2.2 Approaching head-on. When two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so and there is danger of collision, each shall alter its heading to the right. a) when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear; 3.2.2.3 Converging. When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way, except as follows: b) when two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way; a) power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons; c) an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft. b) airships shall give way to gliders and balloons; Note.— For the description of an overtaking aircraft see 3.2.2.4. c) gliders shall give way to balloons; 3.2.2.7.2 An aircraft taxiing on the manoeurvring area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower. d) power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects. 3.2.2.4 Overtaking. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees with the plane of symmetry of the latter, i.e. is in such a position with reference to the other aircraft that at night it should be unable to see either of the aircraft’s left (port) or right (starboard) navigation lights. An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and the 24/11/05 Note.— For runway-holding position markings and related signs, see Annex 14, Volume I, 5.2.10 and 5.4.2. 3.2.2.7.3 An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed further when the lights are switched off. 3-2 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Chapter 3 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Lights to be displayed by aircraft Note.— If suitably located on the aircraft, the navigation lights referred to in 3.2.3.1 b) may also meet the requirements of 3.2.3.2 b). Red anti-collision lights fitted to meet the requirements of 3.2.3.1 a) may also meet the requirements of 3.2.3.2 c) and 3.2.3.2 d) provided they do not subject observers to harmful dazzle. Note 1.— The characteristics of lights intended to meet the requirements of 3.2.3 for aeroplanes are specified in Annex 8. Specifications for navigation lights for aeroplanes are contained in the Appendices to Parts I and II of Annex 6. Detailed technical specifications for lights for aeroplanes are contained in Volume II, Part A, Chapter 4 of the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760) and for helicopters in Part A, Chapter 5 of that document. 3.2.3.3 Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, all aircraft in flight and fitted with anti-collision lights to meet the requirement of 3.2.3.1 a) shall display such lights also outside the period specified in 3.2.3.1. Note 2.— In the context of 3.2.3.2 c) and 3.2.3.4 a) an aircraft is understood to be operating when it is taxiing or being towed or is stopped temporarily during the course of taxiing or being towed. 3.2.3.4 Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, all aircraft: a) operating on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with anti-collision lights to meet the requirement of 3.2.3.2 c); or Note 3.— For aircraft on the water see 3.2.6.2. b) on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with lights to meet the requirement of 3.2.3.2 d); 3.2.3.1 Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, from sunset to sunrise or during any other period which may be prescribed by the appropriate authority all aircraft in flight shall display: shall display such lights also outside the period specified in 3.2.3.2. a) anti-collision lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and 3.2.3.5 A pilot shall be permitted to switch off or reduce the intensity of any flashing lights fitted to meet the requirements of 3.2.3.1, 3.2.3.2, 3.2.3.3 and 3.2.3.4 if they do or are likely to: b) navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights. a) adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties; or Note.— Lights fitted for other purposes, such as landing lights and airframe floodlights, may be used in addition to the anti-collision lights specified in the Airworthiness Manual, Volume II (Doc 9760) to enhance aircraft conspicuity. b) subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle. 3.2.4 Simulated instrument flights 3.2.3.2 Except as provided by 3.2.3.5, from sunset to sunrise or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority: An aircraft shall not be flown under simulated instrument flight conditions unless: a) all aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights; a) fully functioning dual controls are installed in the aircraft; and b) a qualified pilot occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument conditions. The safety pilot shall have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in communication with the safety pilot shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the observer’s field of vision adequately supplements that of the safety pilot. b) unless stationary and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure; c) all aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and 3.2.5 d) all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact. An aircraft operated on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall, whether or not within an aerodrome traffic zone: 3-3 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Operation on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.2.3
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 3 a) observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision; Note 1.— Specifications for lights to be shown by aeroplanes on the water are contained in the Appendices to Parts I and II of Annex 6. b) conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation; Note 2.— The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea specify that the rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset to sunrise. Any lesser period between sunset and sunrise established in accordance with 3.2.6.2 cannot, therefore, be applied in areas where the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea apply, e.g. on the high seas. c) make all turns to the left, when approaching for a landing and after taking off, unless otherwise instructed; d) land and take off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable. Note 1.— See 3.6.5.1. 3.3 Flight plans Note 2.— Additional rules may apply in aerodrome traffic zones. 3.3.1 Submission of a flight plan 3.2.6 Water operations 3.3.1.1 Information relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight, to be provided to air traffic services units, shall be in the form of a flight plan. Note.— In addition to the provisions of 3.2.6.1 of this Annex, rules set forth in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, developed by the International Conference on Revision of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (London, 1972) may be applicable in certain cases. 3.3.1.2 A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating: a) any flight or portion thereof to be provided with air traffic control service; 3.2.6.1 When two aircraft or an aircraft and a vessel are approaching one another and there is a risk of collision, the aircraft shall proceed with careful regard to existing circumstances and conditions including the limitations of the respective craft. b) any IFR flight within advisory airspace; c) any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate the provision of flight information, alerting and search and rescue services; 3.2.6.1.1 Converging. An aircraft which has another aircraft or a vessel on its right shall give way so as to keep well clear. d) any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate coordination with appropriate military units or with air traffic services units in adjacent States in order to avoid the possible need for interception for the purpose of identification; 3.2.6.1.2 Approaching head-on. An aircraft approaching another aircraft or a vessel head-on, or approximately so, shall alter its heading to the right to keep well clear. 3.2.6.1.3 Overtaking. The aircraft or vessel which is being overtaken has the right of way, and the one overtaking shall alter its heading to keep well clear. Note.— The term “flight plan” is used to mean variously, full information on all items comprised in the flight plan description, covering the whole route of a flight, or limited information required when the purpose is to obtain a clearance for a minor portion of a flight such as to cross an airway, to take off from, or to land at a controlled aerodrome. 3.2.6.1.4 Landing and taking off. Aircraft landing on or taking off from the water shall, in so far as practicable, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. 3.2.6.2 Lights to be displayed by aircraft on the water. Between sunset and sunrise or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority, all aircraft on the water shall display lights as required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (revised 1972) unless it is impractical for them to do so, in which case they shall display lights as closely similar as possible in characteristics and position to those required by the International Regulations. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3.3.1.3 A flight plan shall be submitted, before departure, to an air traffic services reporting office or, during flight, transmitted to the appropriate air traffic services unit or airground control radio station, unless arrangements have been made for submission of repetitive flight plans. 3.3.1.4 Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, a flight plan for a flight to be provided with air 3-4 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- e) any flight across international borders.
    • Chapter 3 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air traffic control service or air traffic advisory service shall be submitted at least sixty minutes before departure, or, if submitted during flight, at a time which will ensure its receipt by the appropriate air traffic services unit at least ten minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note 3.— The term “aerodrome” where used in the flight plan is intended to cover also sites other than aerodromes which may be used by certain types of aircraft, e.g. helicopters or balloons. a) the intended point of entry into a control area or advisory area; or 3.3.3 3.3.3.1 Whatever the purpose for which it is submitted, a flight plan shall contain information, as applicable, on relevant items up to and including “Alternate aerodrome(s)” regarding the whole route or the portion thereof for which the flight plan is submitted. b) the point of crossing an airway or advisory route. 3.3.2 Completion of a flight plan Contents of a flight plan A flight plan shall comprise information regarding such of the following items as are considered relevant by the appropriate ATS authority: 3.3.3.2 It shall, in addition, contain information, as applicable, on all other items when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or when otherwise deemed necessary by the person submitting the flight plan. — Aircraft identification — Flight rules and type of flight 3.3.4 — Number and type(s) of aircraft and wake turbulence category Changes to a flight plan Subject to the provisions of 3.6.2.2, all changes to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight, or a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight, shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit. For other VFR flights, significant changes to a flight plan shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit. — Equipment — Departure aerodrome (see Note 1) — Estimated off-block time (see Note 2) Note 1.— Information submitted prior to departure regarding fuel endurance or total number of persons carried on board, if incorrect at time of departure, constitutes a significant change to the flight plan and as such must be reported. — Cruising speed(s) — Cruising level(s) Note 2.— Procedures for submission of changes to repetitive flight plans are contained in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444). — Route to be followed — Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time 3.3.5 — Alternate aerodrome(s) 3.3.5.1 Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, a report of arrival shall be made in person, by radiotelephony or via data link at the earliest possible moment after landing, to the appropriate air traffic services unit at the arrival aerodrome, by any flight for which a flight plan has been submitted covering the entire flight or the remaining portion of a flight to the destination aerodrome. — Fuel endurance — Total number of persons on board — Emergency and survival equipment — Other information. 3.3.5.2 When a flight plan has been submitted only in respect of a portion of a flight, other than the remaining portion of a flight to destination, it shall, when required, be closed by an appropriate report to the relevant air traffic services unit. Note 1.— For flight plans submitted during flight, the information provided in respect of this item will be an indication of the location from which supplementary information concerning the flight may be obtained, if required. 3.3.5.3 When no air traffic services unit exists at the arrival aerodrome, the arrival report, when required, shall be made as soon as practicable after landing and by the quickest means available to the nearest air traffic services unit. Note 2.— For flight plans submitted during flight, the information to be provided in respect of this item will be the time over the first point of the route to which the flight plan relates. 3-5 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Closing a flight plan Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 3 3.3.5.4 When communication facilities at the arrival aerodrome are known to be inadequate and alternate arrangements for the handling of arrival reports on the ground are not available, the following action shall be taken. Immediately prior to landing the aircraft shall, if practicable, transmit to the appropriate air traffic services unit, a message comparable to an arrival report, where such a report is required. Normally, this transmission shall be made to the aeronautical station serving the air traffic services unit in charge of the flight information region in which the aircraft is operated. 3.5 Time 3.5.1 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) shall be used and shall be expressed in hours and minutes and, when required, seconds of the 24-hour day beginning at midnight. 3.5.2 A time check shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight and at such other times during the flight as may be necessary. Note.— Such time check is normally obtained from an air traffic services unit unless other arrangements have been made by the operator or by the appropriate ATS authority. 3.3.5.5 Arrival reports made by aircraft shall contain the following elements of information: a) aircraft identification; 3.5.3 Wherever time is utilized in the application of data link communications, it shall be accurate to within 1 second of UTC. b) departure aerodrome; c) destination aerodrome (only in the case of a diversionary landing); 3.6 d) arrival aerodrome; Air traffic control service e) time of arrival. 3.6.1 Note.— Whenever an arrival report is required, failure to comply with these provisions may cause serious disruption in the air traffic services and incur great expense in carrying out unnecessary search and rescue operations. 3.4 3.6.1.1 An air traffic control clearance shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight, or a portion of a flight as a controlled flight. Such clearance shall be requested through the submission of a flight plan to an air traffic control unit. Note 1.— A flight plan may cover only part of a flight, as necessary, to describe that portion of the flight or those manoeuvres which are subject to air traffic control. A clearance may cover only part of a current flight plan, as indicated in a clearance limit or by reference to specific manoeuvres such as taxiing, landing or taking off. Signals 3.4.1 Upon observing or receiving any of the signals given in Appendix 1, aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given in that Appendix. Note 2.— If an air traffic control clearance is not satisfactory to a pilot-in-command of an aircraft, the pilot-incommand may request and, if practicable, will be issued an amended clearance. 3.4.2 The signals of Appendix 1 shall, when used, have the meaning indicated therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used. 3.6.1.2 Whenever an aircraft has requested a clearance involving priority, a report explaining the necessity for such priority shall be submitted, if requested by the appropriate air traffic control unit. 3.4.3 A signalman shall be responsible for providing standard marshalling signals to aircraft in a clear and precise manner using the signals shown in Appendix 1. 3.4.4 No person shall guide an aircraft unless trained, qualified and approved by the appropriate authority to carry out the functions of a signalman. 3.6.1.3 Potential reclearance in flight. If prior to departure it is anticipated that depending on fuel endurance and subject to reclearance in flight, a decision may be taken to proceed to a revised destination aerodrome, the appropriate air traffic control units shall be so notified by the insertion in the flight plan of information concerning the revised route (where known) and the revised destination. 3.4.5 The signalman shall wear a distinctive fluorescent identification vest to allow the flight crew to identify that he or she is the person responsible for the marshalling operation. 3.4.6 Daylight-fluorescent wands, table-tennis bats or gloves shall be used for all signalling by all participating ground staff during daylight hours. Illuminated wands shall be used at night or in low visibility. 24/11/05 Note.— The intent of this provision is to facilitate a reclearance to a revised destination, normally beyond the filed destination aerodrome. 3-6 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Air traffic control clearances Not for Resale
    • Chapter 3 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 3.6.1.4 An aircraft operated on a controlled aerodrome shall not taxi on the manoeuvring area without clearance from the aerodrome control tower and shall comply with any instructions given by that unit. 3.6.2.2.1 Additionally, when an ADS agreement is in place, the air traffic services unit (ATSU) shall be informed automatically via data link whenever changes occur beyond the threshold values stipulated by the ADS event contract. Adherence to flight plan 3.6.2.1 Except as provided for in 3.6.2.2 and 3.6.2.4, an aircraft shall adhere to the current flight plan or the applicable portion of a current flight plan submitted for a controlled flight unless a request for a change has been made and clearance obtained from the appropriate air traffic control unit, or unless an emergency situation arises which necessitates immediate action by the aircraft, in which event as soon as circumstances permit, after such emergency authority is exercised, the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be notified of the action taken and that this action has been taken under emergency authority. 3.6.2.3 Intended changes. Requests for flight plan changes shall include information as indicated hereunder: a) Change of cruising level: aircraft identification; requested new cruising level and cruising speed at this level, revised time estimates (when applicable) at subsequent flight information region boundaries. b) Change of route: 1) Destination unchanged: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of new route of flight including related flight plan data beginning with the position from which requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; any other pertinent information. 3.6.2.1.1 Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, or directed by the appropriate air traffic control unit, controlled flights shall, in so far as practicable: a) when on an established ATS route, operate along the defined centre line of that route; or 2) Destination changed: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of revised route of flight to revised destination aerodrome including related flight plan data, beginning with the position from which requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; alternate aerodrome(s); any other pertinent information. b) when on any other route, operate directly between the navigation facilities and/or points defining that route. 3.6.2.1.2 Subject to the overriding requirement in 3.6.2.1.1, an aircraft operating along an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges shall change over for its primary navigation guidance from the facility behind the aircraft to that ahead of it at, or as close as operationally feasible to, the changeover point, where established. 3.6.2.4 Weather deterioration below the VMC. When it becomes evident that flight in VMC in accordance with its current flight plan will not be practicable, a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight shall: 3.6.2.1.3 Deviation from the requirements in 3.6.2.1.1 shall be notified to the appropriate air traffic services unit. a) request an amended clearance enabling the aircraft to continue in VMC to destination or to an alternative aerodrome, or to leave the airspace within which an ATC clearance is required; or 3.6.2.2 Inadvertent changes. In the event that a controlled flight inadvertently deviates from its current flight plan, the following action shall be taken: b) if no clearance in accordance with a) can be obtained, continue to operate in VMC and notify the appropriate ATC unit of the action being taken either to leave the airspace concerned or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; or a) Deviation from track: if the aircraft is off track, action shall be taken forthwith to adjust the heading of the aircraft to regain track as soon as practicable. b) Variation in true airspeed: if the average true airspeed at cruising level between reporting points varies or is expected to vary by plus or minus 5 per cent of the true airspeed, from that given in the flight plan, the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be so informed. c) if operated within a control zone, request authorization to operate as a special VFR flight; or d) request clearance to operate in accordance with the instrument flight rules. c) Change in time estimate: if the time estimate for the next applicable reporting point, flight information region boundary or destination aerodrome, whichever comes first, is found to be in error in excess of 3 minutes from that notified to air traffic services, or such other period of time as is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority 3.6.3 Position reports 3.6.3.1 Unless exempted by the appropriate ATS authority or by the appropriate air traffic services unit under conditions 3-7 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.6.2 or on the basis of air navigation regional agreements, a revised estimated time shall be notified as soon as possible to the appropriate air traffic services unit.
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 3 specified by that authority, a controlled flight shall report to the appropriate air traffic services unit, as soon as possible, the time and level of passing each designated compulsory reporting point, together with any other required information. Position reports shall similarly be made in relation to additional points when requested by the appropriate air traffic services unit. In the absence of designated reporting points, position reports shall be made at intervals prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or specified by the appropriate air traffic services unit. a) continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions; land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; and report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit; b) if considered advisable, complete an IFR flight in accordance with 3.6.5.2.2. 3.6.5.2.2 If in instrument meteorological conditions or when the pilot of an IFR flight considers it inadvisable to complete the flight in accordance with 3.6.5.2.1 a), the aircraft shall: 3.6.3.1.1 Controlled flights providing position information to the appropriate air traffic services unit via data link communications shall only provide voice position reports when requested. a) unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreement, in airspace where radar is not used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; Note.— The conditions and circumstances in which SSR Mode C transmission of pressure-altitude satisfies the requirement for level information in position reports are indicated in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444). 3.6.4 Termination of control b) in airspace where radar is used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following: A controlled flight shall, except when landing at a controlled aerodrome, advise the appropriate ATC unit as soon as it ceases to be subject to air traffic control service. 1) the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached; or 3.6.5 Communications 2) the time the transponder is set to Code 7600; or 3.6.5.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. 3) the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point; whichever is later, and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; c) when being radar vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using RNAV without a specified limit, rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude; Note 1.— SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch. Note 2.— The requirement for an aircraft to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch remains in effect after CPDLC has been established. 3.6.5.2 Communication failure. If a communication failure precludes compliance with 3.6.5.1, the aircraft shall comply with the voice communication failure procedures of Annex 10, Volume II, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals. e) commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in d) at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan; 3.6.5.2.1 If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall: 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS f) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix; and 3-8 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- d) proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with e) below, hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent;
    • Chapter 3 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air g) land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in e) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later. an aircraft in distress, in accordance with Volumes II and III of the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual (Doc 9731). Note 1.— The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the premise that an aircraft experiencing communication failure will comply with the rules in 3.6.5.2.2. 3.8.1 Interception of civil aircraft shall be governed by appropriate regulations and administrative directives issued by Contracting States in compliance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation, and in particular Article 3(d) under which Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft, to have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft. Accordingly, in drafting appropriate regulations and administrative directives due regard shall be had to the provisions of Appendix 1, Section 2 and Appendix 2, Section 1. Note 2. — See also 5.1.2. 3.7 Unlawful interference An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavour to notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact, any significant circumstances associated therewith and any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances, in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft and to minimize conflict with other aircraft. Note.— Recognizing that it is essential for the safety of flight that any visual signals employed in the event of an interception which should be undertaken only as a last resort be correctly employed and understood by civil and military aircraft throughout the world, the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization, when adopting the visual signals in Appendix 1 to this Annex, urged Contracting States to ensure that they be strictly adhered to by their State aircraft. As interceptions of civil aircraft are, in all cases, potentially hazardous, the Council has also formulated special recommendations which Contracting States are urged to apply in a uniform manner. These special recommendations are contained in Attachment A. Note 1.— Responsibility of ATS units in situations of unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11. Note 2.— Guidance material for use when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact is contained in Attachment B to this Annex. Note 3.— Action to be taken by SSR-equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11, the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) and the PANS-OPS (Doc 8168). 3.8.2 The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft, when intercepted, shall comply with the Standards in Appendix 2, Sections 2 and 3, interpreting and responding to visual signals as specified in Appendix 1, Section 2. Note 4.— Action to be taken by CPDLC-equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11, the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444), and guidance material on the subject is contained in the Manual of Air Traffic Services Data Link Applications (Doc 9694). Note.— See also 2.1.1 and 3.4. 3.9 3.8 Interception Note.— The word “interception” in this context does not include intercept and escort service provided, on request, to VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima are contained in Table 3-1. 3-9 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 3 Table 3-1* (see 4.1) Altitude band Flight visibility A*** B C D E F G 8 km 1 500 m horizontally 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically Distance from cloud Below 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL and above 900 m (3 000 ft) AMSL, or above 300 m (1 000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher A***B C D E F G 5 km 1 500 m horizontally 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically At and below 900 m (3 000 ft) AMSL, or 300 m (1 000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher A***B C D E 5 km 1 500 m horizontally 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically FG 5 km** Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight * When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft. ** When so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority: a) flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1 500 m may be permitted for flights operating: 1) at speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or 2) in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels. b) HELICOPTERS may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. ***The VMC minima in Class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in Class A airspace. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3-10 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Airspace class At and above 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL
    • CHAPTER 4. VISUAL FLIGHT RULES 4.1 Except when operating as a special VFR flight, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in Table 3-1. 4.7 Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3 000 ft) from the ground or water, or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3. 4.2 Except when a clearance is obtained from an air traffic control unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern: 4.8 VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6: a) when the ceiling is less than 450 m (1 500 ft); or a) when operated within Classes B, C and D airspace; b) when the ground visibility is less than 5 km. 4.3 VFR flights between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be operated in accordance with the conditions prescribed by such authority. b) when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or 4.4 Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights shall not be operated: 4.9 A VFR flight operating within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with 3.3.1.2 c) or d) shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service. c) when operated as special VFR flights. a) above FL 200; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- b) at transonic and supersonic speeds. 4.5 Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 290 shall not be granted in areas where a vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied above FL 290. Note.— See Notes following 3.6.5.1. 4.6 Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown: 4.10 An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to change to compliance with the instrument flight rules shall: a) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft; a) if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan; or b) elsewhere than as specified in 4.6 a), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water. b) when so required by 3.3.1.2, submit a flight plan to the appropriate air traffic services unit and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace. Note.— See also 3.1.2. ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 4-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • CHAPTER 5. INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES 5.1 Rules applicable to all IFR flights 5.1.1 5.2 Rules applicable to IFR flights within controlled airspace Aircraft equipment 5.2.1 IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6 when operated in controlled airspace. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Aircraft shall be equipped with suitable instruments and with navigation equipment appropriate to the route to be flown. 5.1.2 5.2.2 An IFR flight operating in cruising flight in controlled airspace shall be flown at a cruising level, or, if authorized to employ cruise climb techniques, between two levels or above a level, selected from: Minimum levels a) the tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3; or Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except when specifically authorized by the appropriate authority, an IFR flight shall be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight altitude established by the State whose territory is overflown, or, where no such minimum flight altitude has been established: b) a modified table of cruising levels, when so prescribed in accordance with Appendix 3 for flight above FL 410; except that the correlation of levels to track prescribed therein shall not apply whenever otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority in Aeronautical Information Publications. a) over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 600 m (2 000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft; 5.3 Rules applicable to IFR flights outside controlled airspace b) elsewhere than as specified in a), at a level which is at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft. 5.3.1 Cruising levels Note 1.— The estimated position of the aircraft will take account of the navigational accuracy which can be achieved on the relevant route segment, having regard to the navigational facilities available on the ground and in the aircraft. An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside of controlled airspace shall be flown at a cruising level appropriate to its track as specified in: a) the tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3, except when otherwise specified by the appropriate ATS authority for flight at or below 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level; or Note 2.— See also 3.1.2. 5.1.3 Change from IFR flight to VFR flight b) a modified table of cruising levels, when so prescribed in accordance with Appendix 3 for flight above FL 410. 5.1.3.1 An aircraft electing to change the conduct of its flight from compliance with the instrument flight rules to compliance with the visual flight rules shall, if a flight plan was submitted, notify the appropriate air traffic services unit specifically that the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate thereto the changes to be made to its current flight plan. Note.— This provision does not preclude the use of cruise climb techniques by aircraft in supersonic flight. 5.3.2 Communications 5.1.3.2 When an aircraft operating under the instrument flight rules is flown in or encounters visual meteorological conditions it shall not cancel its IFR flight unless it is anticipated, and intended, that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of time in uninterrupted visual meteorological conditions. ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS An IFR flight operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with 3.3.1.2 c) or d) shall maintain an air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate 5-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Chapter 5 communication channel and establish two-way communication, as necessary, with the air traffic services unit providing flight information service. — maintain an air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel and establish two-way communication, as necessary, with the air traffic services unit providing flight information service, Note.— See Notes following 3.6.5.1. shall report position as specified in 3.6.3 for controlled flights. 5.3.3 Position reports Note.— Aircraft electing to use the air traffic advisory service whilst operating IFR within specified advisory airspace are expected to comply with the provisions of 3.6, except that the flight plan and changes thereto are not subjected to clearances and that two-way communication will be maintained with the unit providing the air traffic advisory service. An IFR flight operating outside controlled airspace and required by the appropriate ATS authority to: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- — submit a flight plan, 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5-2 Not for Resale
    • APPENDIX 1. SIGNALS (Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.4 of the Annex) 1. DISTRESS AND URGENCY SIGNALS Note 1.— None of the provisions in this section shall prevent the use, by an aircraft in distress, of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain help. transmitted by hand but its transmission by means of an automatic instrument is recommended. 3270 The radiotelephone alarm signal consists of two substantially sinusoidal audio frequency tones transmitted alternately. One tone shall have a frequency of 2 200 Hz and the other a frequency of 1 300 Hz, the duration of each tone being 250 milliseconds. Note 2.— For full details of telecommunication transmission procedures for the distress and urgency signals, see Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 5. 3271 The radiotelephone alarm signal, when generated by automatic means, shall be sent continuously for a period of at least thirty seconds but not exceeding one minute; when generated by other means, the signal shall be sent as continuously as practicable over a period of approximately one minute. Note 3.— For details of the search and rescue visual signals, see Annex 12. 1.1 Distress signals The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that grave and imminent danger threatens, and immediate assistance is requested: a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group SOS (. . . — — — . . . in the Morse Code); 1.2 1.2.1 The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance: b) a radiotelephony distress signal consisting of the spoken word MAYDAY; a) the repeated switching on and off of the landing lights; or c) a distress message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the word MAYDAY; d) rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time at short intervals; e) a parachute flare showing a red light. Note.— Article 41 of the ITU Radio Regulations (Nos. 3268, 3270 and 3271 refer) provides information on the alarm signals for actuating radiotelegraph and radiotelephone auto-alarm systems: b) the repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such manner as to be distinct from flashing navigation lights. 1.2.2 The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight: a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group XXX; b) a radiotelephony urgency signal consisting of the spoken words PAN, PAN; 3268 The radiotelegraph alarm signal consists of a series of twelve dashes sent in one minute, the duration of each dash being four seconds and the duration of the interval between consecutive dashes one second. It may be ANNEX 2 c) an urgency message sent via data link which transmits the intent of the words PAN, PAN. APP 1-1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Urgency signals Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 2. SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION 2.1 Signals initiated by intercepting aircraft and responses by intercepted aircraft Series INTERCEPTING Aircraft Signals 1 DAY or NIGHT — Rocking aircraft and flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals (and landing lights in the case of a helicopter) from a position slightly above and ahead of, and normally to the left of, the intercepted aircraft (or to the right if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter) and, after acknowledgement, a slow level turn, normally to the left (or to the right in the case of a helicopter) on the desired heading. Meaning INTERCEPTED Aircraft Responds You have been intercepted. Follow me. DAY or NIGHT — Rocking aircraft, flashing navigational lights at irregular intervals and following. Meaning Understood, will comply. Note.— Additional action required to be taken by intercepted aircraft is prescribed in Chapter 3, 3.8. Note 1.— Meteorological conditions or terrain may require the intercepting aircraft to reverse the positions and direction of turn given above in Series 1. Note 2.— If the intercepted aircraft is not able to keep pace with the intercepting aircraft, the latter is expected to fly a series of racetrack patterns and to rock the aircraft each time it passes the intercepted aircraft. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2 DAY or NIGHT — An abrupt breakaway manoeuvre from the intercepted aircraft consisting of a climbing turn of 90 degrees or more without crossing the line of flight of the intercepted aircraft. You may proceed. DAY or NIGHT — Rocking the aircraft. Understood, will comply. 3 DAY or NIGHT — Lowering landing gear (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and overflying runway in use or, if the intercepted aircraft is a helicopter, overflying the helicopter landing area. In the case of helicopters, the intercepting helicopter makes a landing approach, coming to hover near to the landing area. Land at this aerodrome. DAY or NIGHT — Lowering landing gear, (if fitted), showing steady landing lights and following the intercepting aircraft and, if, after overflying the runway in use or helicopter landing area, landing is considered safe, proceeding to land. Understood, will comply. 2.2 Signals initiated by intercepted aircraft and responses by intercepting aircraft Series INTERCEPTED Aircraft Signals Meaning INTERCEPTING Aircraft Responds 4 DAY or NIGHT — Raising landing gear (if fitted) and flashing landing lights while passing over runway in use or helicopter landing area at a height exceeding 300 m (1 000 ft) but not exceeding 600 m (2 000 ft) (in the case of a helicopter, at a height exceeding 50 m (170 ft) but not exceeding 100 m (330 ft)) above the aerodrome level, and continuing to circle runway in use or helicopter landing area. If unable to flash landing lights, flash any other lights available. Aerodrome you have designated is inadequate. DAY or NIGHT — If it is desired that the intercepted aircraft follow the intercepting aircraft to an alternate aerodrome, the intercepting aircraft raises its landing gear (if fitted) and uses the Series 1 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. Understood, follow me. If it is decided to release the intercepted aircraft, the intercepting aircraft uses the Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. Understood, you may proceed. 5 DAY or NIGHT — Regular switching on and off of all available lights but in such a manner as to be distinct from flashing lights. Cannot comply. DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. Understood. 6 DAY or NIGHT — Irregular flashing of all available lights. In distress. DAY or NIGHT — Use Series 2 signals prescribed for intercepting aircraft. Understood. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-2 Not for Resale Meaning
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 3. VISUAL SIGNALS USED TO WARN AN UNAUTHORIZED AIRCRAFT FLYING IN, OR ABOUT TO ENTER A RESTRICTED, PROHIBITED OR DANGER AREA aircraft that it is flying in or about to enter a restricted, prohibited or danger area, and that the aircraft is to take such remedial action as may be necessary. By day and by night, a series of projectiles discharged from the ground at intervals of 10 seconds, each showing, on bursting, red and green lights or stars will indicate to an unauthorized 4. SIGNALS FOR AERODROME TRAFFIC 4.1 Light and pyrotechnic signals 4.1.1 Instructions From Aerodrome Control to: Light Aircraft in flight Aircraft on the ground Directed towards aircraft concerned (see Figure A1-1). Steady green Cleared to land Cleared for take-off Steady red Give way to other aircraft and continue circling Stop Series of green flashes Return for landing* Cleared to taxi Series of red flashes Aerodrome unsafe, do not land Taxi clear of landing area in use Land at this aerodrome and proceed to apron* Red pyrotechnic Notwithstanding any previous instructions, do not land for the time being * Clearances to land and to taxi will be given in due course. Series of white flashes N FLA RED PYROTECHNIC EE GR ND A DY OL EA DT RE EA CL ST NOTWITHSTANDING ANY PREVIOUS INSTRUCTIONS, DO NOT LAND FOR THE TIME BEING N STE GIV AD C EW YR SHES ONTIN AY TO E UE OTH D RETU CIR RN FO RED FLAS CLI ER AI R LAN HES NG RCR DING AFT AERODRO AND ME UNSAFE . DO NOT LA ND WHITE FLASHES GREE Return to starting point on the aerodrome LAND AT THIS AERODROME AND PROCEED TO APRON OF HE LA S ND IN G AR EA IN US TAXI AS E D TO AR N FLA FL CLEAR LE D GREE RE IC D RE DY EA ST OP ST TA X SHES TAXIING AIRCRAFT E WH IT L EF ME RO OD ER EA TH AS ON INT PO ING RT STA HE S TO RN TU EN RE Y GRE -OFF STEAD R TAKE RED FO TAKE-OFF POSITION CLEA Figure A1-1 (see 4.1.1) TOWER APP 1-3 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.1.2 Appendix 1 Acknowledgement by an aircraft a) When in flight: 1) during the hours of daylight: Figure A1-3 — by rocking the aircraft’s wings; Note.— This signal should not be expected on the base and final legs of the approach. 2) during the hours of darkness: — by flashing on and off twice the aircraft’s landing lights or, if not so equipped, by switching on and off twice its navigation lights. 4.2.3 Use of runways and taxiways 4.2.3.1 A horizontal white dumb-bell (Figure A1-4) when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are required to land, take off and taxi on runways and taxiways only. b) When on the ground: 1) during the hours of daylight: — by moving the aircraft’s ailerons or rudder; Figure A1-4 2) during the hours of darkness: — by flashing on and off twice the aircraft’s landing lights or, if not so equipped, by switching on and off twice its navigation lights. 4.2 Visual ground signals 4.2.3.2 The same horizontal white dumb-bell as in 4.2.3.1 but with a black bar placed perpendicular to the shaft across each circular portion of the dumb-bell (Figure A1-5) when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are required to land and take off on runways only, but other manoeuvres need not be confined to runways and taxiways. Note.— For details of visual ground aids, see Annex 14. 4.2.1 Prohibition of landing A horizontal red square panel with yellow diagonals (Figure A1-2) when displayed in a signal area indicates that landings are prohibited and that the prohibition is liable to be prolonged. Figure A1-5 4.2.4 Closed runways or taxiways Crosses of a single contrasting colour, yellow or white (Figure A1-6), displayed horizontally on runways and taxiways or parts thereof indicate an area unfit for movement of aircraft. Figure A1-2 4.2.2 Need for special precautions while approaching or landing A horizontal red square panel with one yellow diagonal (Figure A1-3) when displayed in a signal area indicates that owing to the bad state of the manoeuvring area, or for any other reason, special precautions must be observed in approaching to land or in landing. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Figure A1-6 APP 1-4 Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 4.2.5 Directions for landing or take-off 4.2.8 4.2.5.1 A horizontal white or orange landing T (Figure A1-7) indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing and take-off, which shall be in a direction parallel to the shaft of the T towards the cross arm. Glider flights in operation A double white cross displayed horizontally (Figure A1-11) in the signal area indicates that the aerodrome is being used by gliders and that glider flights are being performed. Note.— When used at night, the landing T is either illuminated or outlined in white lights. Figure A1-11 Figure A1-7 5. 4.2.5.2 A set of two digits (Figure A1-8) displayed vertically at or near the aerodrome control tower indicates to aircraft on the manoeuvring area the direction for take-off, expressed in units of 10 degrees to the nearest 10 degrees of the magnetic compass. MARSHALLING SIGNALS 5.1 From a signalman to an aircraft Note 1.— These signals are designed for use by the signalman, with hands illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the pilot, and facing the aircraft in a position: a) for fixed-wing aircraft, on left side of aircraft, where best seen by the pilot; and Figure A1-8 4.2.6 b) for helicopters, where the signalman can best be seen by the pilot. Right-hand traffic When displayed in a signal area, or horizontally at the end of the runway or strip in use, a right-hand arrow of conspicuous colour (Figure A1-9) indicates that turns are to be made to the right before landing and after take-off. Note 2.— The meaning of the relevant signals remains the same if bats, illuminated wands or torchlights are held. Note 3.— The aircraft engines are numbered, for the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left (i.e. No. 1 engine being the port outer engine). Note 4.— Signals marked with an asterisk (*) are designed for use to hovering helicopters. Note 5.— References to wands may also be read to refer to daylight-fluorescent table-tennis bats or gloves (daytime only). Figure A1-9 4.2.7 Air traffic services reporting office The letter C displayed vertically in black against a yellow background (Figure A1-10) indicates the location of the air traffic services reporting office. Figure A1-10 Note 6. — References to the signalman may also be read to refer to marshaller. 5.1.1 Prior to using the following signals, the signalman shall ascertain that the area within which an aircraft is to be guided is clear of objects which the aircraft, in complying with 3.4.1, might otherwise strike. Note.— The design of many aircraft is such that the path of the wing tips, engines and other extremities cannot always be monitored visually from the flight deck while the aircraft is being manoeuvred on the ground. APP 1-5 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 1. Wingwalker/guide Raise right hand above head level with wand pointing up; move left-hand wand pointing down toward body. Note.— This signal provides an indication by a person positioned at the aircraft wing tip, to the pilot/ marshaller/ push-back operator, that the aircraft movement on/off a parking position would be unobstructed. 2. Identify gate Raise fully extended arms straight above head with wands pointing up. 3. Proceed to next signalman or as directed by tower/ground control Point both arms upward; move and extend arms outward to sides of body and point with wands to direction of next signalman or taxi area. 24/11/05 APP 1-6 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 4. Straight ahead Bend extended arms at elbows and move wands up and down from chest height to head. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5 a). Turn left (from pilot’s point of view) With right arm and wand extended at a 90-degree angle to body, make “come ahead” signal with left hand. The rate of signal motion indicates to pilot the rate of aircraft turn. 5 b). Turn right (from pilot’s point of view) With left arm and wand extended at a 90-degree angle to body, make “come ahead” signal with right hand. The rate of signal motion indicates to pilot the rate of aircraft turn. APP 1-7 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 6 a). Normal stop Fully extend arms and wands at a 90-degree angle to sides and slowly move to above head until wands cross. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 6 b). Emergency stop Abruptly extend arms and wands to top of head, crossing wands. 7 a). Set brakes Raise hand just above shoulder height with open palm. Ensuring eye contact with flight crew, close hand into a fist. Do not move until receipt of “thumbs up” acknowledgement from flight crew. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-8 Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 7 b). Release brakes Raise hand just above shoulder height with hand closed in a fist. Ensuring eye contact with flight crew, open palm. Do not move until receipt of “thumbs up” acknowledgement from flight crew. 8 a). Chocks inserted With arms and wands fully extended above head, move wands inward in a “jabbing” motion until wands touch. Ensure acknowledgement is received from flight crew. 8 b). Chocks removed With arms and wands fully extended above head, move wands outward in a “jabbing” motion. Do not remove chocks until authorized by flight crew. APP 1-9 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 9. Start engine(s) 10. Cut engines Extend arm with wand forward of body at shoulder level; move hand and wand to top of left shoulder and draw wand to top of right shoulder in a slicing motion across throat. 11. Slow down Move extended arms downwards in a “patting” gesture, moving wands up and down from waist to knees. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-10 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Raise right arm to head level with wand pointing up and start a circular motion with hand; at the same time, with left arm raised above head level, point to engine to be started.
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 12. Slow down engine(s) on indicated side With arms down and wands toward ground, wave either right or left wand up and down indicating engine(s) on left or right side respectively should be slowed down. 13. Move back With arms in front of body at waist height, rotate arms in a forward motion. To stop rearward movement, use signal 6 a) or 6 b). 14 a). Turns while backing (for tail to starboard) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Point left arm with wand down and bring right arm from overhead vertical position to horizontal forward position, repeating right-arm movement. APP 1-11 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 14 b). Turns while backing (for tail to port) Point right arm with wand down and bring left arm from overhead vertical position to horizontal forward position, repeating left-arm movement. 15. Affirmative/all clear Raise right arm to head level with wand pointing up or display hand with “thumbs up”; left arm remains at side by knee. Note.— This signal is also used as a technical/ servicing communication signal. *16. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Hover Fully extend arms and wands at a 90-degree angle to sides. APP 1-12 Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air *17. Move upwards Fully extend arms and wands at a 90-degree angle to sides and, with palms turned up, move hands upwards. Speed of movement indicates rate of ascent. *18. Move downwards Fully extend arms and wands at a 90-degree angle to sides and, with palms turned down, move hands downwards. Speed of movement indicates rate of descent. Extend arm horizontally at a 90-degree angle to right side of body. Move other arm in same direction in a sweeping motion. APP 1-13 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- *19 a). Move horizontally left (from pilot’s point of view)
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 *19 b). Move horizontally right (from pilot’s point of view) Extend arm horizontally at a 90-degree angle to left side of body. Move other arm in same direction in a sweeping motion. *20. Land --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Cross arms with wands downwards and in front of body. 21. ENGINE Fire Move right-hand wand in a “fanning” motion from shoulder to knee, while at the same time pointing with left-hand wand to area of fire. BRAKE 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-14 Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 22. Hold position/stand by Fully extend arms and wands downwards at a 45-degree angle to sides. Hold position until aircraft is clear for next manoeuvre. 23. Dispatch aircraft --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Perform a standard salute with right hand and/or wand to dispatch the aircraft. Maintain eye contact with flight crew until aircraft has begun to taxi. 24. Do not touch controls (technical/servicing communication signal) Extend right arm fully above head and close fist or hold wand in horizontal position; left arm remains at side by knee. APP 1-15 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 25. Connect ground power (technical/servicing communication signal) Hold arms fully extended above head; open left hand horizontally and move finger tips of right hand into and touch open palm of left hand (forming a “T”). At night, illuminated wands can also be used to form the “T” above head. 26. Disconnect power (technical/servicing communication signal) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Hold arms fully extended above head with finger tips of right hand touching open horizontal palm of left hand (forming a “T”); then move right hand away from the left. Do not disconnect power until authorized by flight crew. At night, illuminated wands can also be used to form the “T” above head. 27. Negative (technical/servicing communication signal) Hold right arm straight out at 90 degrees from shoulder and point wand down to ground or display hand with “thumbs down”; left hand remains at side by knee. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-16 Not for Resale
    • Appendix 1 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air 28. Establish communication via interphone (technical/servicing communication signal) Extend both arms at 90 degrees from body and move hands to cup both ears. 29. Open/close stairs (technical/servicing communication signal) With right arm at side and left arm raised above head at a 45-degree angle, move right arm in a sweeping motion towards top of left shoulder. Note.— This signal is intended mainly for aircraft with the set of integral stairs at the front. 5.2 From the pilot of an aircraft to a signalman b) Brakes released: raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of face, then extend fingers. Note 1.— These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the signalman, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the signalman. 5.2.2 Note 2.— The aircraft engines are numbered in relation to the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left (i.e. No. 1 engine being the port outer engine). a) Insert chocks: arms extended, palms outwards, move hands inwards to cross in front of face. b) Remove chocks: hands crossed in front of face, palms outwards, move arms outwards. Brakes Note.— The moment the fist is clenched or the fingers are extended indicates, respectively, the moment of brake engagement or release. a) Brakes engaged: raise arm and hand, with fingers extended, horizontally in front of face, then clench fist. 5.2.3 Raise the appropriate number of fingers on one hand indicating the number of the engine to be started. APP 1-17 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Ready to start engine(s) Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5.2.1 Chocks
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 1 5.3 Technical/servicing communication signals 5.3.1 Manual signals shall only be used when verbal communication is not possible with respect to technical/servicing communication signals. 5.3.2 Signalmen shall ensure that an acknowledgement is received from the flight crew with respect to technical/servicing communication signals. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note.— The technical/servicing communication signals are included in Appendix 1 to standardize the use of hand signals used to communicate to flight crews during the aircraft movement process that relate to servicing or handling functions. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 1-18 Not for Resale
    • APPENDIX 2. INTERCEPTION OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT (Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.8 of the Annex) Principles to be observed by States 2. 1.1 To achieve the uniformity in regulations which is necessary for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft due regard shall be had by Contracting States to the following principles when developing regulations and administrative directives: Action by intercepted aircraft 2.1 An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: a) follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft, interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 1; a) interception of civil aircraft will be undertaken only as a last resort; b) notify, if possible, the appropriate air traffic services unit; b) if undertaken, an interception will be limited to determining the identity of the aircraft, unless it is necessary to return the aircraft to its planned track, direct it beyond the boundaries of national airspace, guide it away from a prohibited, restricted or danger area or instruct it to effect a landing at a designated aerodrome; c) practice interception of civil aircraft will not be undertaken; c) attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, giving the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight; and if no contact has been established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243 MHz; d) navigational guidance and related information will be given to an intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony, whenever radio contact can be established; and d) if equipped with SSR transponder, select Mode A, Code 7700, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit. e) in the case where an intercepted civil aircraft is required to land in the territory overflown, the aerodrome designated for the landing is to be suitable for the safe landing of the aircraft type concerned. Note.— In the unanimous adoption by the 25th Session (Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly on 10 May 1984 of Article 3 bis to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Contracting States have recognized that “every State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight”. 2.2 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. 2.3 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. 1.2 Contracting States shall publish a standard method that has been established for the manoeuvring of aircraft intercepting a civil aircraft. Such method shall be designed to avoid any hazard for the intercepted aircraft. Note.— Special recommendations regarding a method for the manoeuvring are contained in Attachment A, Section 3. 1.3 Contracting States shall ensure that provision is made for the use of secondary surveillance radar, where available, to identify civil aircraft in areas where they may be subject to interception. ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3. Radiocommunication during interception If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible, attempts shall be made to convey instructions, acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in Table A2-1 and transmitting each phrase twice: APP 2-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1.
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 2 Table A2-1 Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING aircraft Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED aircraft Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN What is your call sign? FOL-LO Follow me KOL SA-IN (call sign) My call sign is (call sign) FOLLOW CALL SIGN (call sign)2 DESCEND DEE-SEND Descend for landing WILCO Will comply VILL-KO Understood YOU LAND YOU LAAND Land at this aerodrome CAN NOT KANN NOTT Unable to comply PROCEED PRO-SEED REPEAT REE-PEET Repeat your instruction AM LOST AM LOSST Position unknown MAYDAY MAYDAY I am in distress HIJACK HI-JACK I have been hijacked LAND (place name) LAAND (place name) I request to land at (place name) DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent You may proceed 3 1. In the second column, syllables to be emphasized are underlined. 2. The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3. Circumstances may not always permit, nor make desirable, the use of the phrase “HIJACK”. 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 2-2 Not for Resale
    • APPENDIX 3. TABLES OF CRUISING LEVELS The cruising levels to be observed when so required by this Annex are as follows: TRACK** From 000 degrees to 179 degrees*** FL IFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet –90 10 30 50 70 90 300 900 1 500 2 150 2 750 110 130 150 170 190 3 3 4 5 5 210 230 250 270 290 FL From 180 degrees to 359 degrees*** VFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet 1 3 5 7 9 000 000 000 000 000 – – 35 55 75 95 – – 1 050 1 700 2 300 2 900 350 950 550 200 800 11 13 15 17 19 000 000 000 000 000 115 135 155 175 195 3 4 4 5 5 500 100 700 350 950 11 13 15 17 19 6 7 7 8 8 400 000 600 250 850 21 23 25 27 29 000 000 000 000 000 215 235 255 275 6 7 7 8 550 150 750 400 21 23 25 27 310 330 350 370 390 9 10 10 11 11 450 050 650 300 900 31 33 35 37 39 410 450 490 etc. 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc. FL – – 3 500 5 500 7 500 9 500 0 20 40 60 80 100 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 IFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet FL VFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet 1 1 2 3 600 200 850 450 050 2 4 6 8 10 000 000 000 000 000 – – 45 65 85 105 – – 1 350 2 000 2 600 3 200 – – 4 500 6 500 8 500 10 500 120 140 160 180 200 3 4 4 5 6 650 250 900 500 100 12 14 16 18 20 000 000 000 000 000 125 145 165 185 205 3 4 5 5 6 800 400 050 650 250 12 14 16 18 20 500 500 500 500 500 220 240 260 280 300 6 7 7 8 9 700 300 900 550 150 22 24 26 28 30 000 000 000 000 000 225 245 265 285 6 7 8 8 850 450 100 700 22 24 26 28 500 500 500 500 000 000 000 000 000 320 340 360 380 400 9 10 10 11 12 750 350 950 600 200 32 34 36 38 40 000 000 000 000 000 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc. 430 470 510 etc. 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc. 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc. * Except when, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a modified table of cruising levels based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is prescribed for use, under specified conditions, by aircraft operating above FL 410 within designated portions of the airspace. ** Magnetic track, or in polar areas at latitudes higher than 70 degrees and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed on a polar stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as the Grid North. *** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090 to 269 degrees and from 270 to 089 degrees is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified. Note.— Guidance material relating to vertical separation is contained in the Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574). ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 3-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a) in areas where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements and in accordance with conditions specified therein, a vertical separation minimum (VSM) of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive:*
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 3 b) in other areas: TRACK* From 000 degrees to 179 degrees** FL IFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet –90 10 30 50 70 90 300 900 1 500 2 150 2 750 110 130 150 170 190 3 3 4 5 5 210 230 250 270 290 6 7 7 8 8 FL From 180 degrees to 359 degrees** VFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet 1 3 5 7 9 000 000 000 000 000 – – 35 55 75 95 – – 1 050 1 700 2 300 2 900 350 950 550 200 800 11 13 15 17 19 000 000 000 000 000 115 135 155 175 195 3 4 4 5 5 500 100 700 350 950 11 13 15 17 19 400 000 600 250 850 21 23 25 27 29 000 000 000 000 000 215 235 255 275 300 6 7 7 8 9 550 150 750 400 150 21 23 25 27 30 FL – – 3 500 5 500 7 500 9 500 0 20 40 60 80 100 500 500 500 500 500 IFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet FL VFR Flights Altitude Metres Feet 1 1 2 3 600 200 850 450 050 2 4 6 8 10 000 000 000 000 000 – – 45 65 85 105 – – 1 350 2 000 2 600 3 200 – – 4 500 6 500 8 500 10 500 120 140 160 180 200 3 4 4 5 6 650 250 900 500 100 12 14 16 18 20 000 000 000 000 000 125 145 165 185 205 3 4 5 5 6 800 400 050 650 250 12 14 16 18 20 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 000 220 240 260 280 310 6 7 7 8 9 700 300 900 550 450 22 24 26 28 31 000 000 000 000 000 225 245 265 285 320 6 7 8 8 9 850 450 100 700 750 22 24 26 28 32 500 500 500 500 000 10 050 11 300 33 000 37 000 340 380 10 350 11 600 34 000 38 000 350 390 10 650 11 900 35 000 39 000 360 400 10 950 12 200 36 000 40 000 410 450 490 etc. 12 500 13 700 14 950 etc. 41 000 45 000 49 000 etc. 420 460 500 etc. 12 800 14 000 15 250 etc. 42 000 46 000 50 000 etc. 430 470 510 etc. 13 100 14 350 15 550 etc. 43 000 47 000 51 000 etc. 440 480 520 etc. 13 400 14 650 15 850 etc. 44 000 48 000 52 000 etc. * Magnetic track, or in polar areas at latitudes higher than 70 degrees and within such extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed on a polar stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as the Grid North. ** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090 to 269 degrees and from 270 to 089 degrees is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified. Note.— Guidance material relating to vertical separation is contained in the Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574). 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS APP 3-2 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 330 370
    • APPENDIX 4. UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS (Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.1.9 of the Annex) 1. Classification of unmanned free balloons Unmanned free balloons shall be classified as: a) light: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload of one or more packages with a combined mass of less than 4 kg, unless qualifying as a heavy balloon in accordance with c) 2), 3) or 4) below; or b) medium: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload of two or more packages with a combined mass of 4 kg or more, but less than 6 kg, unless qualifying as a heavy balloon in accordance with c) 2), 3) or 4) below; or c) heavy: an unmanned free balloon which carries a payload which: 2.3 The authorization referred to in 2.2 shall be obtained prior to the launching of the balloon if there is reasonable expectation, when planning the operation, that the balloon may drift into airspace over the territory of another State. Such authorization may be obtained for a series of balloon flights or for a particular type of recurring flight, e.g. atmospheric research balloon flights. 2.4 An unmanned free balloon shall be operated in accordance with conditions specified by the State of Registry and the State(s) expected to be overflown. 2.5 An unmanned free balloon shall not be operated in such a manner that impact of the balloon, or any part thereof, including its payload, with the surface of the earth, creates a hazard to persons or property not associated with the operation. 2.6 A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated over the high seas without prior coordination with the appropriate ATS authority. 1) has a combined mass of 6 kg or more; or 2) includes a package of 3 kg or more; or 3) includes a package of 2 kg or more with an area density of more than 13 g per square centimetre; or 4) uses a rope or other device for suspension of the payload that requires an impact force of 230 N or more to separate the suspended payload from the balloon. 3. Operating limitations and equipment requirements 3.1 A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated without authorization from the appropriate ATS authority at or through any level below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude at which: Note 1.— The area density referred to in c) 3) is determined by dividing the total mass in grams of the payload package by the area in square centimetres of its smallest surface. a) there are clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than four oktas coverage; or b) the horizontal visibility is less than 8 km. Note 2.— See Figure A4-1. 2. General operating rules 2.1 An unmanned free balloon shall not be operated without appropriate authorization from the State from which the launch is made. 3.2 A heavy or medium unmanned free balloon shall not be released in a manner that will cause it to fly lower than 300 m (1 000 ft) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or an open-air assembly of persons not associated with the operation. 3.3 A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated unless: 2.2 An unmanned free balloon, other than a light balloon used exclusively for meteorological purposes and operated in the manner prescribed by the appropriate authority, shall not be operated across the territory of another State without appropriate authorization from the other State concerned. ANNEX 2 a) it is equipped with at least two payload flighttermination devices or systems, whether automatic or operated by telecommand, that operate independently of each other; APP 4-1 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 4 PAYLOAD MASS (kilogrammes) CHARACTERISTICS 1 2 3 4 5 ROPE or OTHER SUSPENSION 230 Newtons or MORE HEAVY INDIVIDUAL PAYLOAD PACKAGE AREA DENSITY CALCULATION MASS (g) Area of smallest surface (cm 2 ) AREA DENSITY more than 13 g/cm 2 AREA DENSITY less than 13 g/cm 2 LIGHT COMBINED MASS MEDIUM (if Suspension OR Area density OR Mass of individual package are not factors) Figure A4-1. 24/11/05 Classification of unmanned free balloons APP 4-2 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 6 or more
    • Appendix 4 Annex 2 — Rules of the Air b) for polyethylene zero-pressure balloons, at least two methods, systems, devices, or combinations thereof, that function independently of each other are employed for terminating the flight of the balloon envelope; a) when it becomes known that weather conditions are less than those prescribed for the operation; b) if a malfunction or any other reason makes further operation hazardous to air traffic or to persons or property on the surface; or Note.— Superpressure balloons do not require these devices as they quickly rise after payload discharge and burst without the need for a device or system designed to puncture the balloon envelope. In this context a superpressure balloon is a simple non-extensible envelope capable of withstanding a differential of pressure, higher inside than out. It is inflated so that the smaller night-time pressure of the gas still fully extends the envelope. Such a superpressure balloon will keep essentially constant level until too much gas diffuses out of it. c) the balloon envelope is equipped with either a radar reflective device(s) or radar reflective material that will present an echo to surface radar operating in the 200 MHz to 2 700 MHz frequency range, and/or the balloon is equipped with such other devices as will permit continuous tracking by the operator beyond the range of ground-based radar. 3.4 A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated in an area where ground-based SSR equipment is in use, unless it is equipped with a secondary surveillance radar transponder, with altitude reporting capability, which is continuously operating on an assigned code, or which can be turned on when necessary by the tracking station. c) prior to unauthorized entry into the airspace over another State’s territory. 5. Flight notification 5.1 Pre-flight notification 5.1.1 Early notification of the intended flight of an unmanned free balloon in the medium or heavy category shall be made to the appropriate air traffic services unit not less than seven days before the date of the intended flight. 5.1.2 Notification of the intended flight shall include such of the following information as may be required by the appropriate air traffic services unit: a) balloon flight identification or project code name; b) balloon classification and description; 3.5 An unmanned free balloon that is equipped with a trailing antenna that requires a force of more than 230 N to break it at any point shall not be operated unless the antenna has coloured pennants or streamers that are attached at not more than 15 m intervals. c) SSR code or NDB frequency as applicable; d) operator’s name and telephone number; e) launch site; 3.6 A heavy unmanned free balloon shall not be operated below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude between sunset and sunrise or such other period between sunset and sunrise (corrected to the altitude of operation) as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, unless the balloon and its attachments and payload, whether or not they become separated during the operation, are lighted. f) estimated time of launch (or time of commencement and completion of multiple launches); g) number of balloons to be launched and the scheduled interval between launches (if multiple launches); h) expected direction of ascent; 3.7 A heavy unmanned free balloon that is equipped with a suspension device (other than a highly conspicuously coloured open parachute) more than 15 m long shall not be operated between sunrise and sunset below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude unless the suspension device is coloured in alternate bands of high conspicuity colours or has coloured pennants attached. i) cruising level(s) (pressure-altitude); j) the estimated elapsed time to pass 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude or to reach cruising level if at or below 18 000 m (60 000 ft), together with the estimated location; Note.— If the operation consists of continuous launchings, the time to be included is the estimated time at which the first and the last in the series will reach the appropriate level (e.g. 122136Z–130330Z). 4. Termination The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon shall activate the appropriate termination devices required by 3.3 a) and b) above: k) the estimated date and time of termination of the flight and the planned location of the impact/recovery area. In APP 4-3 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Appendix 4 the case of balloons carrying out flights of long duration, as a result of which the date and time of termination of the flight and the location of impact cannot be forecast with accuracy, the term “long duration” shall be used. medium or heavy unmanned free balloon, previously notified in accordance with 5.1, has been cancelled. Note.— If there is to be more than one location of impact/recovery, each location is to be listed together with the appropriate estimated time of impact. If there is to be a series of continuous impacts, the time to be included is the estimated time of the first and the last in the series (e.g. 070330Z–072300Z). 6. Position recording and reports 5.2 Notification of launch Immediately after a medium or heavy unmanned free balloon is launched the operator shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit of the following: a) balloon flight identification; b) launch site; c) actual time of launch; d) estimated time at which 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressurealtitude will be passed, or the estimated time at which the cruising level will be reached if at or below 18 000 m (60 000 ft), and the estimated location; and 6.2 The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon operating above 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude shall monitor the flight progress of the balloon and forward reports of the balloon’s position as requested by air traffic services. Unless air traffic services require reports of the balloon’s position at more frequent intervals, the operator shall record the position every 24 hours. 6.3 If a position cannot be recorded in accordance with 6.1 and 6.2, the operator shall immediately notify the appropriate air traffic services unit. This notification shall include the last recorded position. The appropriate air traffic services unit shall be notified immediately when tracking of the balloon is re-established. 6.4 One hour before the beginning of planned descent of a heavy unmanned free balloon, the operator shall forward to the appropriate ATS unit the following information regarding the balloon: a) the current geographical position; b) the current level (pressure-altitude); e) any changes to the information previously notified in accordance with 5.1.2 g) and h). c) the forecast time of penetration of 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude, if applicable; d) the forecast time and location of ground impact. 5.3 Notification of cancellation The operator shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit immediately it is known that the intended flight of a 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6.5 The operator of a heavy or medium unmanned free balloon shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit when the operation is ended. APP 4-4 Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5.1.3 Any changes in the pre-launch information notified in accordance with 5.1.2 above shall be forwarded to the air traffic services unit concerned not less than 6 hours before the estimated time of launch, or in the case of solar or cosmic disturbance investigations involving a critical time element, not less than 30 minutes before the estimated time of the commencement of the operation. 6.1 The operator of a heavy unmanned free balloon operating at or below 18 000 m (60 000 ft) pressure-altitude shall monitor the flight path of the balloon and forward reports of the balloon’s position as requested by air traffic services. Unless air traffic services require reports of the balloon’s position at more frequent intervals, the operator shall record the position every 2 hours.
    • ATTACHMENT A. INTERCEPTION OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT (Note.— See Chapter 3, 3.8 of the Annex and associated Note) Note.— In the interest of completeness, the substance of the provisions in Appendix 2 to the Annex is incorporated in this Attachment. c) the establishment of additional navigation aids be considered where necessary to ensure that civil aircraft are able safely to circumnavigate prohibited or, as required, restricted areas. 2.3 To eliminate or reduce the hazards inherent in interceptions undertaken as a last resort, all possible efforts should be made to ensure coordinated actions by the pilots and ground units concerned. To this end, it is essential that Contracting States take steps to ensure that: a) all pilots of civil aircraft be made fully aware of the actions to be taken by them and the visual signals to be used, as specified in Chapter 3 and Appendix 1 of this Annex; 2. General 2.1 Interception of civil aircraft should be avoided and should be undertaken only as a last resort. If undertaken, the interception should be limited to determining the identity of the aircraft, unless it is necessary to return the aircraft to its planned track, direct it beyond the boundaries of national airspace, guide it away from a prohibited, restricted or danger area or instruct it to effect a landing at a designated aerodrome. Practice interception of civil aircraft is not to be undertaken. b) operators or pilots-in-command of civil aircraft implement the provisions in Annex 6, Parts I, II and III, regarding the capability of aircraft to communicate on 121.5 MHz and the availability of interception procedures and visual signals on board aircraft; c) all air traffic services personnel be made fully aware of the actions to be taken by them in accordance with the provisions of Annex 11, Chapter 2, and the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444); 2.2 To eliminate or reduce the need for interception of civil aircraft, it is important that: a) all possible efforts be made by intercept control units to secure identification of any aircraft which may be a civil aircraft, and to issue any necessary instructions or advice to such aircraft, through the appropriate air traffic services units. To this end, it is essential that means of rapid and reliable communications between intercept control units and air traffic services units be established and that agreements be formulated concerning exchanges of information between such units on the movements of civil aircraft, in accordance with the provisions of Annex 11; d) all pilots-in-command of intercepting aircraft be made aware of the general performance limitations of civil aircraft and of the possibility that intercepted civil aircraft may be in a state of emergency due to technical difficulties or unlawful interference; e) clear and unambiguous instructions be issued to intercept control units and to pilots-in-command of potential intercepting aircraft, covering interception manoeuvres, guidance of intercepted aircraft, action by intercepted aircraft, air-to-air visual signals, radiocommunication with intercepted aircraft, and the need to refrain from resorting to the use of weapons; b) areas prohibited to all civil flights and areas in which civil flight is not permitted without special authorization by the State be clearly promulgated in Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) in accordance with the ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Note.— See paragraphs 3 to 8. ATT A-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 1. In accordance with Article 3 d) of the Convention on International Civil Aviation the Contracting States of ICAO “undertake, when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft”. As interceptions of civil aircraft are, in all cases, potentially hazardous, the Council of ICAO has formulated the following special recommendations which Contracting States are urged to implement through appropriate regulatory and administrative action. The uniform application by all concerned is considered essential in the interest of safety of civil aircraft and their occupants. For this reason the Council of ICAO invites Contracting States to notify ICAO of any differences which may exist between their national regulations or practices and the special recommendations hereunder. provisions of Annex 15, together with the risk, if any, of interception in the event of penetration of such areas. When delineating such areas in close proximity to promulgated ATS routes, or other frequently used tracks, States should take into account the availability and overall systems accuracy of the navigation systems to be used by civil aircraft and their ability to remain clear of the delineated areas;
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Attachment A f) intercept control units and intercepting aircraft be provided with radiotelephony equipment compatible with the technical specifications of Annex 10, Volume I, so as to enable them to communicate with intercepted aircraft on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz; participating aircraft should stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft, preferably above and behind. After speed and position have been established, the aircraft should, if necessary, proceed with Phase II of the procedure. Phase II g) secondary surveillance radar facilities be made available to the extent possible to permit intercept control units to identify civil aircraft in areas where they might otherwise be intercepted. Such facilities should permit recognition of discrete four-digit codes in Mode A, including immediate recognition of Mode A, Codes 7500, 7600 and 7700. 3. Interception manoeuvres --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.1 A standard method should be established for the manoeuvring of aircraft intercepting a civil aircraft in order to avoid any hazard for the intercepted aircraft. Such method should take due account of the performance limitations of civil aircraft, the need to avoid flying in such proximity to the intercepted aircraft that a collision hazard may be created and the need to avoid crossing the aircraft’s flight path or to perform any other manoeuvre in such a manner that the wake turbulence may be hazardous, particularly if the intercepted aircraft is a light aircraft. 3.2 An aircraft equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS), which is being intercepted, may perceive the interceptor as a collision threat and thus initiate an avoidance manoeuvre in response to an ACAS resolution advisory. Such a manoeuvre might be misinterpreted by the interceptor as an indication of unfriendly intentions. It is important, therefore, that pilots of intercepting aircraft equipped with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder suppress the transmission of pressure-altitude information (in Mode C replies or in the AC field of Mode S replies) within a range of at least 37 km (20 NM) of the aircraft being intercepted. This prevents the ACAS in the intercepted aircraft from using resolution advisories in respect of the interceptor, while the ACAS traffic advisory information will remain available. 3.3 Manoeuvres for visual identification The following method is recommended for the manoeuvring of intercepting aircraft for the purpose of visually identifying a civil aircraft: Phase I The intercepting aircraft should approach the intercepted aircraft from astern. The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should normally take up a position on the left (port) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft, within the field of view of the pilot of the intercepted aircraft, and initially not closer to the aircraft than 300 m. Any other 24/11/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should begin closing in gently on the intercepted aircraft, at the same level, until no closer than absolutely necessary to obtain the information needed. The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should use caution to avoid startling the flight crew or the passengers of the intercepted aircraft, keeping constantly in mind the fact that manoeuvres considered normal to an intercepting aircraft may be considered hazardous to passengers and crews of civil aircraft. Any other participating aircraft should continue to stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft. Upon completion of identification, the intercepting aircraft should withdraw from the vicinity of the intercepted aircraft as outlined in Phase III. Phase III The element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should break gently away from the intercepted aircraft in a shallow dive. Any other participating aircraft should stay well clear of the intercepted aircraft and rejoin their leader. 3.4 Manoeuvres for navigational guidance 3.4.1 If, following the identification manoeuvres in Phase I and Phase II above, it is considered necessary to intervene in the navigation of the intercepted aircraft, the element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, should normally take up a position on the left (port) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft, to enable the pilotin-command of the latter aircraft to see the visual signals given. 3.4.2 It is indispensable that the pilot-in-command of the intercepting aircraft be satisfied that the pilot-in-command of the intercepted aircraft is aware of the interception and acknowledges the signals given. If repeated attempts to attract the attention of the pilot-in-command of the intercepted aircraft by use of the Series 1 signal in Appendix 1, Section 2, are unsuccessful, other methods of signalling may be used for this purpose, including as a last resort the visual effect of the reheat/afterburner, provided that no hazard is created for the intercepted aircraft. 3.5 It is recognized that meteorological conditions or terrain may occasionally make it necessary for the element leader, or the single intercepting aircraft, to take up a position on the right (starboard) side, slightly above and ahead of the intercepted aircraft. In such case, the pilot-in-command of the intercepting aircraft must take particular care that the intercepting aircraft is clearly visible at all times to the pilot-incommand of the intercepted aircraft. ATT A-2 Not for Resale
    • Attachment A Guidance of an intercepted aircraft b) notify, if possible, the appropriate air traffic services unit; 4.1 Navigational guidance and related information should be given to an intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony, whenever radio contact can be established. c) attempt to establish radiocommunication with the intercepting aircraft or with the appropriate intercept control unit, by making a general call on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, giving the identity of the intercepted aircraft and the nature of the flight; and if no contact has been established and if practicable, repeating this call on the emergency frequency 243 MHz; 4.2 When navigational guidance is given to an intercepted aircraft, care must be taken that the aircraft is not led into conditions where the visibility may be reduced below that required to maintain flight in visual meteorological conditions and that the manoeuvres demanded of the intercepted aircraft do not add to already existing hazards in the event that the operating efficiency of the aircraft is impaired. 4.3 In the exceptional case where an intercepted civil aircraft is required to land in the territory overflown, care must also be taken that: a) the designated aerodrome is suitable for the safe landing of the aircraft type concerned, especially if the aerodrome is not normally used for civil air transport operations; b) the surrounding terrain is suitable for circling, approach and missed approach manoeuvres; c) the intercepted aircraft has sufficient fuel remaining to reach the aerodrome; d) if the intercepted aircraft is a civil transport aircraft, the designated aerodrome has a runway with a length equivalent to at least 2 500 m at mean sea level and a bearing strength sufficient to support the aircraft; and e) whenever possible, the designated aerodrome is one that is described in detail in the relevant Aeronautical Information Publication. 4.4 When requiring a civil aircraft to land at an unfamiliar aerodrome, it is essential that sufficient time be allowed it to prepare for a landing, bearing in mind that only the pilot-incommand of the civil aircraft can judge the safety of the landing operation in relation to runway length and aircraft mass at the time. 4.5 It is particularly important that all information necessary to facilitate a safe approach and landing be given to the intercepted aircraft by radiotelephony. 5. d) if equipped with SSR transponder, select Mode A, Code 7700, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic services unit. “2.2 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by visual signals, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the visual instructions given by the intercepting aircraft. “2.3 If any instructions received by radio from any sources conflict with those given by the intercepting aircraft by radio, the intercepted aircraft shall request immediate clarification while continuing to comply with the radio instructions given by the intercepting aircraft.” 6. The visual signals to be used by intercepting and intercepted aircraft are those set forth in Appendix 1 to this Annex. It is essential that intercepting and intercepted aircraft adhere strictly to those signals and interpret correctly the signals given by the other aircraft, and that the intercepting aircraft pay particular attention to any signals given by the intercepted aircraft to indicate that it is in a state of distress or urgency. 7. Radiocommunication between the intercept control unit or the intercepting aircraft and the intercepted aircraft 7.1 When an interception is being made, the intercept control unit and the intercepting aircraft should: a) first attempt to establish two-way communication with the intercepted aircraft in a common language on the emergency frequency 121.5 MHz, using the call signs “INTERCEPT CONTROL”, “INTERCEPTOR (call sign)” and “INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT” respectively; and Action by intercepted aircraft The Standards in Appendix 2, Section 2, specify as follows: “2.1 An aircraft which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately: b) failing this, attempt to establish two-way communication with the intercepted aircraft on such other frequency or frequencies as may have been prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, or to establish contact through the appropriate ATS unit(s). a) follow the instructions given by the intercepting aircraft, interpreting and responding to visual signals in accordance with the specifications in Appendix 1; ATT A-3 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Air-to-air visual signals Not for Resale 24/11/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4. Annex 2 — Rules of the Air
    • Annex 2 — Rules of the Air Attachment A 7.2 If radio contact is established during interception but communication in a common language is not possible, attempts must be made to convey instructions, acknowledgement of instructions and essential information by using the phrases and pronunciations in Table A-1 and transmitting each phrase twice. The use of tracer bullets to attract attention is hazardous, and it is expected that measures will be taken to avoid their use so that the lives of persons on board and the safety of aircraft will not be endangered. 9. 8. Refraining from the use of weapons Note.— In the unanimous adoption by the 25th Session (Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly on 10 May 1984 of Article 3 bis to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Contracting States have recognized that “every State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight”. Coordination between intercept control units and air traffic services units It is essential that close coordination be maintained between an intercept control unit and the appropriate air traffic services unit during all phases of an interception of an aircraft which is, or might be, a civil aircraft, in order that the air traffic services unit is kept fully informed of the developments and of the action required of the intercepted aircraft. Table A-1 Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING aircraft Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED aircraft Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning Phrase Pronunciation1 Meaning CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN What is your call sign? FOL-LO Follow me KOL SA-IN (call sign) My call sign is (call sign) FOLLOW CALL SIGN (call sign)2 DESCEND DEE-SEND Descend for landing WILCO VILL-KO Understood Will comply YOU LAND YOU LAAND Land at this aerodrome CAN NOT KANN NOTT Unable to comply PROCEED PRO-SEED REPEAT REE-PEET Repeat your instruction AM LOST AM LOSST Position unknown MAYDAY MAYDAY I am in distress HIJACK3 HI-JACK I have been hijacked LAND (place name) LAAND (place name) I request to land at (place name) DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent You may proceed 1. In the second column, syllables to be emphasized are underlined. 2. The call sign required to be given is that used in radiotelephony communications with air traffic services units and corresponding to the aircraft identification in the flight plan. 3. Circumstances may not always permit, nor make desirable, the use of the phrase “HIJACK”. 24/11/05 ATT A-4 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • ATTACHMENT B. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE 1. General considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise. Other equipment such as on-board transponders and data links should also be used when it is advantageous to do so and circumstances permit; and The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact. 2. b) proceed in accordance with applicable special procedures for in-flight contingencies, where such procedures have been established and promulgated in the Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030); or Procedures 2.1 Unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate otherwise, the pilot-in-command should attempt to continue flying on the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level at least until able to notify an ATS unit or within radar coverage. c) if no applicable regional procedures have been established, proceed at a level which differs from the cruising levels normally used for IFR flight by: 1) 150 m (500 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied; or 2.2 When an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful interference must depart from its assigned track or its assigned cruising level without being able to make radiotelephony contact with ATS, the pilot-in-command should, whenever possible: --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a) attempt to broadcast warnings on the VHF emergency frequency and other appropriate frequencies, unless ANNEX 2 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2) 300 m (1 000 ft) in an area where a vertical separation minimum of 600 m (2 000 ft) is applied. Note.— Action to be taken by an aircraft which is intercepted while being subject to an act of unlawful interference is prescribed in 3.8 of this Annex. — END — ATT B-1 Not for Resale 24/11/05
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ICAO TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS The following summary gives the status, and also describes in general terms the contents of the various series of technical publications issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization. It does not include specialized publications that do not fall specifically within one of the series, such as the Aeronautical Chart Catalogue or the Meteorological Tables for International Air Navigation. International Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted by the Council in accordance with Articles 54, 37 and 90 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and are designated, for convenience, as Annexes to the Convention. The uniform application by Contracting States of the specifications contained in the International Standards is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation while the uniform application of the specifications in the Recommended Practices is regarded as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation. Knowledge of any differences between the national regulations or practices of a State and those established by an International Standard is essential to the safety or regularity of international air navigation. In the event of non-compliance with an International Standard, a State has, in fact, an obligation, under Article 38 of the Convention, to notify the Council of any differences. Knowledge of differences from Recommended Practices may also be important for the safety of air navigation and, although the Convention does not impose any obligation with regard thereto, the Council has invited Contracting States to notify such differences in addition to those relating to International Standards. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) are approved by the Council for worldwide application. They contain, for the most part, operating procedures regarded as not yet having attained a sufficient degree of Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS maturity for adoption as International Standards and Recommended Practices, as well as material of a more permanent character which is considered too detailed for incorporation in an Annex, or is susceptible to frequent amendment, for which the processes of the Convention would be too cumbersome. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) have a status similar to that of PANS in that they are approved by the Council, but only for application in the respective regions. They are prepared in consolidated form, since certain of the procedures apply to overlapping regions or are common to two or more regions. The following publications are prepared by authority of the Secretary General in accordance with the principles and policies approved by the Council. Technical Manuals provide guidance and information in amplification of the International Standards, Recommended Practices and PANS, the implementation of which they are designed to facilitate. Air Navigation Plans detail requirements for facilities and services for international air navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions. They are prepared on the authority of the Secretary General on the basis of recommendations of regional air navigation meetings and of the Council action thereon. The plans are amended periodically to reflect changes in requirements and in the status of implementation of the recommended facilities and services. ICAO Circulars make available specialized information of interest to Contracting States. This includes studies on technical subjects. Not for Resale
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- © ICAO 2005 8/05, E/P1/2200 Order No. AN 2 Printed in ICAO Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 31/3/05 Transmittal Note Amendment No. 2 to the SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 — RULES OF THE AIR (Ninth Edition) 1. Amendment No. 2 to the Supplement to Annex 2 provides additional information received from States up to 31 March 2005 with respect to all amendments up to and including Amendment 36. 2. To incorporate Amendment No. 2 to this Supplement: a) Replace pages (iii) to (vii) by the attached new pages dated 31/3/05. b) Insert the attached new country pages for Germany, Kenya, Latvia, New Zealand and Vanuatu dated 31/3/05. ___________________ Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- c) Record this amendment on page (ii) of the Supplement.
    • 28/1/04 Transmittal Note Amendment No. 1 to the SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 — RULES OF THE AIR (Ninth Edition) 1. Amendment No. 1 to the Supplement to Annex 2 provides additional information received from States up to 28 January 2004 with respect to all amendments up to and including Amendment 36. 2. To incorporate Amendment No. 1 to this Supplement: Replace pages (iii) to (vii) by the attached new pages dated 28/1/04. b) Insert the attached new country pages for Belarus and Chile dated 28/1/04. c) Record this amendment on page (ii) of the Supplement. Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a)
    • 12/12/02 Transmittal Note SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 — RULES OF THE AIR (Ninth Edition) 1. The attached Supplement supersedes all previous Supplements to Annex 2 and includes differences notified by Contracting States up to 12 December 2002 with respect to all amendments up to and including Amendment 36. 2. This Supplement should be inserted at the end of Annex 2, Ninth Edition. Additional differences and revised comments received from Contracting States will be issued at intervals as amendments to this Supplement. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 — NINTH EDITION RULES OF THE AIR Differences between the national regulations and practices of States and the corresponding International Standards contained in Annex 2, as notified to ICAO in accordance with Article 38 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and the Council's resolution of 21 November 1950. DECEMBER 2002 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale ORGANIZATION
    • (ii) SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT Date Entered by 1 28/1/04 ICAO 2 31/3/05 No. Date Entered by ICAO RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) No. Date of adoption or approval Date applicable 30 26/2/93 11/11/93 31 18/3/94 10/11/94 32 19/2/96 — 33 26/2/97 6/11/97 34 19/3/98 5/11/98 35 10/3/99 4/11/99 36 12/3/01 1/11/01 37 28/2/03 — No. 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Date of adoption or approval Date applicable --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- No.
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 1. (iii) Contracting States which have notified ICAO of differences The Contracting States listed below have notified ICAO of differences which exist between their national regulations and practices and the International Standards of Annex 2, Ninth Edition, up to and including Amendment 36, or have commented on implementation. The page numbers shown for each State and the dates of publication of those pages correspond to the actual pages in this Supplement. State Pages in Supplement Date of publication 6/8/01 26/8/02 9/5/01 20/9/01 20/8/02 28/9/01 13/10/02 21/5/01 27/8/01 1/11/01 3/5/02 22/3/05 26/9/01 27/9/01 28/2/05 15/6/04 19/4/01 2/10/01 20/8/04 16/10/01 9/6/01 15/1/02 18/4/02 3/9/02 27/9/01 21/9/01 10/7/02 16/9/02 5/7/04 1-2 1-2 1 1-4 1 1-2 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3 1 1 1 1-2 1 1 1-2 1-5 1 1 1-4 1-4 1 1 1 1-5 1-2 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 28/1/04 28/1/04 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 31/3/05 12/12/02 12/12/02 31/3/05 31/3/05 12/12/02 12/12/02 31/3/05 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 12/12/02 31/3/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Argentina Australia Barbados Belarus Chile China (Hong Kong SAR) Cook Islands Denmark Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Iceland Kenya Latvia Lithuania Mauritius New Zealand Norway Oman Papua New Guinea Poland Russian Federation Slovakia Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Vanuatu Date of notification 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • (iv) Contracting States which have notified ICAO that no differences exist State Bahrain Canada Eritrea Ghana Jordan Kuwait Lesotho Luxembourg Netherlands 3. Date of notification 21/7/01 22/10/01 10/5/01 22/5/01 10/7/01 10/6/01 28/5/01 27/9/01 4/6/01 Date of notification State Pakistan Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Sri Lanka The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Uganda 22/9/01 12/10/01 23/10/01 9/10/01 12/2/01 29/6/01 12/6/01 Contracting States from which no information has been received Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bangladesh Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad China Colombia Comoros Congo Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Gabon Gambia Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Kazakhstan Kiribati Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Lebanon Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Palau Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2. SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION)
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Republic of Korea Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore 4. (v) Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sudan Suriname Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Republic of Tanzania United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Paragraphs with respect to which differences have been notified Paragraph Differences notified by Paragraph General Sweden Chapter 3 Chapter 1 General General China (Hong Kong SAR) Definitions Argentina Belarus Cook Islands Finland France Georgia New Zealand Poland United Kingdom Vanuatu 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.7 3.1.8 Chapter 2 3.1.10 General Norway 2.1.2 2.2 New Zealand Denmark Norway France Denmark Finland Norway Vanuatu 2.4 2.5 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3 Differences notified by Finland Norway Denmark China (Hong Kong SAR) France Norway Norway Latvia Latvia Norway Australia Chile France Norway Sweden Vanuatu Chile Poland Sweden Germany Poland Belarus France Russian Federation Finland France Germany Poland 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • (vi) Paragraph 3.2.2.6 3.2.2.7.1 3.2.2.7.2 3.2.2.7.3 3.2.3 3.2.3.1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.2.3.2 3.2.3.3 3.2.3.4 3.2.3.5 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.6.2 3.3.1 3.3.1.2 3.3.1.4 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5.1 3.3.5.2 3.3.5.3 SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Differences notified by Australia Papua New Guinea Finland Latvia Australia Denmark Finland Latvia Papua New Guinea Norway China (Hong Kong SAR) Germany Georgia New Zealand Papua New Guinea New Zealand Papua New Guinea New Zealand Belarus Denmark Finland Germany Norway Poland Russian Federation Slovakia Norway Georgia Denmark Oman Finland Germany Greece Latvia New Zealand Norway Poland United Kingdom Vanuatu Kenya Norway Georgia Finland Georgia Denmark Latvia Latvia Finland Georgia Norway Paragraph 3.3.5.4 3.4 3.5 3.5.3 3.6.1.1 3.6.1.3 3.6.2.1.1 3.6.2.1.2 3.6.2.1.3 3.6.2.2.1 3.6.2.4 3.6.3.1.1 3.6.4 3.6.5.1 3.6.5.2 3.6.5.2.1 3.6.5.2.2 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.9 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale Differences notified by United Kingdom Denmark United Kingdom New Zealand Poland Australia New Zealand Papua New Guinea Norway Australia Papua New Guinea Australia Denmark Australia Papua New Guinea Belarus Russian Federation Vanuatu Papua New Guinea Australia Finland Germany New Zealand Denmark Germany Norway Belarus Germany New Zealand Russian Federation Australia Finland France Germany Iceland Russian Federation Slovakia Sweden United Kingdom Denmark Finland New Zealand New Zealand Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Argentina Georgia Lithuania Papua New Guinea
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Paragraph Differences notified by (vii) Paragraph United Kingdom Table 3-1 Cook Islands France Germany Lithuania Switzerland 4.6 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.3 4.4 4.5 Belarus Cook Islands Denmark France Germany Latvia New Zealand Norway Papua New Guinea United Kingdom Argentina Belarus Georgia Germany Latvia Norway Poland Russian Federation United Kingdom Finland Georgia Latvia Lithuania Mauritius Norway Papua New Guinea United Kingdom Belarus Cook Islands Georgia Latvia Mauritius New Zealand Norway Oman United Kingdom Australia Belarus Cook Islands Georgia 4.7 4.8 4.9 Differences notified by Mauritius New Zealand Papua New Guinea Sweden United Kingdom Barbados Denmark Finland France Georgia Latvia Mauritius Norway Oman Russian Federation United Kingdom Vanuatu Australia Finland France Latvia Poland Slovakia United Kingdom Georgia Lithuania Norway Vanuatu Chapter 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3.2 5.2.1 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 Appendix 1 Poland Georgia Belarus Germany Mauritius Norway Russian Federation United Kingdom Australia Australia Belarus Russian Federation France United Kingdom Vanuatu France Vanuatu Belarus 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- (viii) Paragraph SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Differences notified by Georgia Germany Norway Poland Russian Federation United Kingdom Vanuatu Paragraph Differences notified by Russian Federation United Kingdom Appendix 4 France New Zealand United Kingdom Attachment A Appendix 2 Appendix 3 United Kingdom Georgia 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) ARGENTINA 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Pilot-in-command. Aircraft commander (pilot-in-command): Pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during the flight time, irrespective of whether the pilot is operating the controls of the aircraft. Remark. Argentina prefers to apply the term “aircraft commander” in accordance with the name used in its legislation (aeronautical code) and the scope of responsibility is applied whether or not that pilot is operating the controls of the aircraft. Advisory route. A designated route within a flight information region, along which advisory service is available. Air traffic advisory service: A service provided on advisory routes outside controlled airspace to ensure separation, insofar as practical, between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans. CHAPTER 3 3.9 Visibility and distance from cloud minima for VFR flights are indicated in the relevant chapters of “Visual Flight Rules”. No minima have been established for airspace Class E, because that class of controlled airspace has not been adopted. No minima have been established for airspace Class F. VFR flight is not permitted at visibilities of less than 5 km, down to 1 500 m, except for helicopters and special VFR flight within a control zone (CTR), for which a reduced visibility requirement of 2.5 km has been specified. The VMC minima are presented in the following table, which is similar to Table 3-1 in Annex 2 and is published in the Flight Regulations with appropriate explanatory notes. Remark. Argentina has not established any Class E airspace. Advisory airspace has been established only in the upper airspace (above FL 245), where VFR flight is not permitted. It is believed that aeroplanes cannot fly slowly enough to operate safely in visibilities of less than 5 km, except in the case of a flight that has received special authorization from an ATC unit responsible for a control zone (special VRFR). VFR TABLE Airspace Class B DISTANCE FROM CLOUD C and D Clear of cloud Below FL 100 1 500 m horizontally, 1 000 ft vertically Within a CTR or ATZ 1 500 m horizontally, 1 000 ft vertically 1 500 m horizontally (1) 1 000 ft vertically 1 500 m horizontally (1) 500 ft vertically 1 500 m horizontally (1) 500 ft vertically 1 500 m horizontally (1) 500 ft vertically At or above FL 100 8 km 8 km 8 km Below FL 100 FLIGHT VISIBILITY At or above FL 100 G 5 km 5 km 5 km (2), (3) 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 ARGENTINA SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) (1) Except for flight below 1 000 ft AGL, in which case there must be no cloud beneath or to the side of the aircraft. (2) At uncontrolled aerodromes outside a CTR, minimum visibility is 2 500 m. (3) Helicopters can fly in Class G airspace (except at an aerodrome within a CTR) in visibilities of less than 5 km but never less than 500 m. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note 1. — Every VFR flight must maintain constant visual ground reference. Note 2. — Vertical distance from cloud is measured both above and below the aircraft. CHAPTER 4 4.2 a) The minimum ceiling for VFR flight is 1 000 ft. Remark. It is believed that a ceiling of 1 000 ft is appropriate, given the fact that the aircraft must maintain a height of 500 ft vertical separation from cloud. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) AUSTRALIA 1 CHAPTER 3 3.1.8 Australia does not stipulate separation distances. However, Australia does require training and certification for pilots to operate aircraft flying in formation. Remark. Separation distances are not stipulated because they cannot be judged accurately by pilots in a formation flight. Additionally, even if such a rule were to be written, it would be unenforceable because the distance cannot be determined accurately. 3.2.2.6 Australian legislation requires than an aircraft should not attempt to take off until there is no apparent risk of collision with other aircraft. Remark. Pilots flying Australian aircraft overseas must abide by the requirements of the country in which they are operating. 3.2.2.7.3 Currently, stop bars are not used in Australia. Remark. Pilots flying Australian aircraft overseas must abide by the requirements of the country in which they are operating. 3.5.3 Australia does not specify the accuracy required for time used in the application of data link communications. Remark. The definition for required communication performance (RCP) is under development. 3.6.1.3 Australia does not mandate a fuel plan for each flight. Remark. Fuel planning instructions are required to be detailed in the company’s Operations Manual. 3.6.2.1.1 and 3.6.2.1.3 Change-over points are not defined in Australia. However, deviations from track must be notified to ATS. Remark. Under Australian legislation, the pilot-in-command is responsible for the start, continuation, diversion and end of a flight. 3.6.4 There is no requirement to advise ATC when a controlled flight ceases to be subject to air traffic control. Remark. The point at which an aircraft ceases to be subject to control is evident to ATC by flight progress. 3.6.5.2.2 The requirement to maintain heading and altitude for 20 minutes is not documented in the radio failure procedures. Remark. Details of the radio failure procedures are contained in the AIP. CHAPTER 4 4.5 Flights conducted above FL 200 are subject to approval. There is no additional approval required for flights above FL 290. Remark. Approval of VFR flights above FL 200 is given on the basis the aircraft is equipped for operations under the IFR. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 AUSTRALIA 4.7 SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Australia requires compliance with the tables of cruising levels above 5 000 ft above mean sea level, and aircraft below 5 000 ft must comply whenever it is practicable. Remark. The selection of a 5 000 ft level is consistent with the level above which the carriage of radio on flights under VFR is mandatory. CHAPTER 5 5.1.3.2 The decision to cancel IFR is left to the discretion of the pilot-in-command. Remark. Under Australian legislation, the pilot-in-command is responsible for the start, continuation, diversion and end of a flight. Australia does not differentiate between the requirements for IFR aircraft inside or outside controlled airspace. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 5.2.1 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) BARBADOS 1 CHAPTER 4 4.6 a) An aircraft other than a helicopter shall not be flown over any congested area of a city, town or settlement below a height of 1 500 ft (450 m) above the highest fixed object within 2 000 ft (600 m) of the aircraft. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 12/12/02
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) BELARUS 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Pilot-in-command. A person qualified to act as pilot-in-command is one who holds the pilot certificate (licence) prescribed in the legislation of the Republic of Belarus and has the training and experience necessary for independent control of a given type of aircraft. The pilot-in-command directs the work of the aircraft crew, is responsible for discipline and order on the aircraft, and takes the steps necessary to ensure the safety of the aircraft and the persons and property on-board. The procedure for designating a pilot-in-command and the competency levels required are established in the aviation regulations. Visibility. The greatest distance at which one can see and recognize an unlighted object (reference point) during the day and a light marker at night. CHAPTER 3 3.2.2.2 When aircraft are on intersecting tracks, the aircraft at the same altitude and on the left shall descend, and the aircraft at the same altitude and on the right shall climb, so that the difference in their altitudes will ensure safe separation. During this manoeuvre, the pilots of the two aircraft are required not to lose sight of one another. 3.2.5 c) Make all turns in accordance with the established approach or departure procedure, unless otherwise instructed. 3.6.2.4 If the weather deteriorates below VMC, the aircraft commander is required to: — change to IFR if both pilot and aircraft are rated for such operations. Coordinate the flight level with the air traffic controller; — return to the departure aerodrome or land at the closest alternate aerodrome if either the pilot or the aircraft is not rated for IFR flight. 3.6.5.2.1 If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall: a) Continue to fly to the destination aerodrome in visual meteorological conditions at the assigned VFR altitude. If the flight crosses the State borders of Belarus (of a State included in the AIP), comply with paragraph 4.1.8 of RAC 1-1.8. b) If it is impossible to continue visual flight to the destination aerodrome and the flight crosses the borders of Belarus (of a State included in the current AIP), return to the departure aerodrome or land at the nearest alternate aerodrome at which the weather permits a VFR landing. 28/1/04 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 BELARUS SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHAPTER 4 4.1 Visual flight rules apply in the lower airspace up to 6 100 m for flights operating at a speed of no more than 550 km/h down to the lowest safe flight level and 450 km/h below the lowest safe flight level: — during the day — at dusk, in the case of flights operating in polar regions (above 60º latitude) and in other regions by special permission. The meteorological minima for a VFR flight are presented in the following table: VFR minima Terrain Flight speed (true) (km/h) Height of cloud base above highest point of terrain (m) Visibility (m) Vertical distance between aircraft and cloud base (m) IN THE LANDING AND TAKE-OFF ZONES Level and hilly 150 2 000 50 301–550 Mountainous 300 or less 300 5 000 100 550 or less 300 5 000 100 IN THE APPROACH ZONE, ON AIRWAYS, LOCAL AIR ROUTES AND ESTABLISHED ROUTES Level and hilly 150 2 000 50 301–550 300 5 000 100 Mountainous (elevation to 2 000 m) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 300 or less 550 or less 300 5 000 100 Mountainous (elevation 2 000 m or more) 550 or less 700 10 000 100 Note.— In the take-off and landing zones, the weather minima are established according to the circling speed. 4.2 For VFR flights at aerodromes within a zone controlled by an ATC unit, permission must be obtained from the ATC unit to enter or manoeuvre within the aerodrome area. 4.4 Except as necessary for taking off and landing, or when permission has been obtained from the appropriate authorities, VFR flights may operate: a) over populated areas or open-air assemblies (where authorized) at a height from which, in the case of an engine failure, the aircraft can glide beyond the area in question, but not below the height indicated in the table of minimum safe heights (paragraph 4.4 b)). 28/1/04 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) BELARUS 3 When weather conditions make it impossible to maintain the appropriate height, the aircraft commander is required to fly around the populated area or open-air assembly, as a rule on the right-hand side at a distance of not less than 500 m, unless some other avoidance procedure is established. b) at heights not less than the minimum safe heights indicated in the following table: Airspeed (true) (km/h) Safe height (true) for a VFR flight (m) IN THE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING AREAS 300 or less (circling) More than 300 (circling) 100 200 Note.— High points of terrain and artificial obstacles within a strip extending 5 km to each side of the route centre line are taken into account in calculating the safe height for a VFR flight. IN THE APPROACH AREA a) over level and hilly terrain or over water 300 or less from 301 to 550 100 200 b) over mountainous terrain (peaks to 2 000 m) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- less than 550 300 c) over mountainous terrain (peaks above 2 000 m) less than 550 600 Note.— High points of terrain and artificial obstacles located within the boundaries of the airway are taken into account when calculating the safe indicated altitude for a VFR flight. 4.5 VFR flights at altitudes above the lowest flight level must be conducted with the separation established for a VFR flight in the lower airspace (up to 6 100 m). CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 Except for take-off and landing, or when authorized by the appropriate authorities, instrument flights must not be conducted at levels below the minimum safe true altitude indicated in the following table: 28/1/04 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4 BELARUS SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Airspeed (true) (km/h) Safe IFR altitude (true) (m) IN THE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING AREAS 300 or less (circling) Over 300 (circling) 300 300 IN THE APPROACH AREA OR ON THE AIRWAY a) over level and hilly terrain, over water 300 or less 301–550 500 and over b) over mountainous terrain (peaks to 2 000 m) under 550 550 and over c) 600 600 600 900 900 over mountainous terrain (peaks above 2 000 m) under 550 550 and over 900 900 Note.— High points of terrain and artificial obstacles located within a strip extending 25 km to each side of the airway centre line are taken into account when calculating the safe indicated altitude for IFR flight. 5.3 The airspace of Belarus (of a State included in the AIP), as determined in accordance with regional air navigation agreements, is controlled. Aircraft in flight should be guided by the rules established for controlled airspace. Appendix 1 2.1 2) 2.2 4) Distress and emergency signals in these paragraphs are not used. 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.6, 4.2.7, 4.2.8 Aerodrome traffic signals in these paragraphs are not used. 28/1/04 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHILE 1 CHAPTER 3 3.1.8 c) In respect of formation flights, Chile does not establish maximum separation distances between aircraft comprising a formation. The next amendment to the national regulations will incorporate a standard governing this situation. Our regulations prohibit the carriage of passengers in formation flights for profit. 3.1.10 Chile goes further in providing information on restricted airspace. In addition to prohibited areas and restricted areas, it also has danger areas, which have the following definition: “Airspace of defined dimensions in which at a given moment activities may take place which are dangerous to flight by aircraft.” --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 28/1/04 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHAPTER 1 CHINA (HONG KONG SAR) 1 Aerobatic flight: “Aerobatic manoeuvres” include loops, spins, rolls, bunts stall turns, inverted flying and any other similar manoeuvres. Aerodrome: Any area of land or water designed, equipped, set apart or commonly used for affording facilities for the landing and taking off of aircraft and includes: a) any area or space, whether on the ground, on the roof of a building or elsewhere, which is designed, equipped or set apart for affording facilities for the landing and taking off of aircraft capable of descending or climbing vertically; and b) any such area of land or water or any such area or space the management of which is vested in the Government or in the Chief Executive, but does not include any area for which facilities for the landing and taking off of aircraft have been abandoned and have not been resumed. Aeronautical station: “Aeronautical radio station” is a radio station on the surface, which transmits or receives signals for the purpose of assisting aircraft. Air traffic control unit/service: A person appointed by the Chief Executive, or by any other person maintaining an aerodrome or place, to give instructions or advice or both by means of radio signals to aircraft in the interest of safety. Air traffic control service shall be construed accordingly. Ceiling: “Cloud ceiling” in relation to an aerodrome means the vertical distance from the elevation of the aerodrome to the lowest part of any cloud visible from the aerodrome, which is sufficient to obscure more than one-half of the visible sky. Control area: Airspace which has been notified as such, and which extends upwards from a notified altitude. Controlled airspace: Airspace which has been notified as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D or Class E airspace. Control zone: Airspace which has been notified as such, and which extends upwards from the surface. Flight level: One of a series of levels of equal atmospheric pressure, separated by notified intervals and each expressed as the number of hundreds of feet, which would be indicated at that level on a pressure altimeter calibrated in accordance with the International Standard Atmosphere and set to 1 013.2 hectopascals (29.92 inches mercury). Ground visibility: The horizontal visibility at ground level. Instrument meteorological conditions: Weather precluding flight in compliance with visual flight rules. Manoeuvring area: The part of an aerodrome provided for the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the movement of aircraft on the surface, excluding the apron and any part of the aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft. Runway: An area, whether or not paved, that is provided for the take-off or landing of aircraft. Visual meteorological conditions: Weather permitting flight in accordance with visual flight rules. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 CHINA (HONG KONG SAR) SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHAPTER 3 3.1.2 Minimum heights: 1. a) An aircraft other than a helicopter shall not fly over any congested area of a city, town or settlement below: i) --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- such height as would enable the aircraft to alight clear of the area and without danger to persons or property on the surface, in the event of failure of a power unit and if such an aircraft is towing a banner, such height shall be calculated on the basis that the banner shall not be dropped within the congested area; or ii) a height of 1 500 ft above the highest fixed object within 2 000 ft of the aircraft, whichever is the higher. b) A helicopter shall not fly below such height as would enable it to alight without danger to persons or property on the surface, in the event of failure of a power unit. c) Except with the permission in writing of the Chief Executive and in accordance with conditions therein specified, a helicopter shall not fly over a congested area of a city, town or settlement below a height of 1 500 ft above the highest fixed object within 2 000 ft of the helicopter. d) An aircraft shall not fly: i) over or within 3 000 ft of any assembly in the open air of more than 1 000 persons assembled for the purpose of witnessing or participating in any organized event except with the permission in writing of the Chief Executive and in accordance with any conditions therein specified and with the consent in writing of the organizers of the event; or ii) below such height as would enable it to alight clear of the assembly in the event of failure of a power unit, and if such an aircraft is towing a banner such height shall be calculated on the basis that the banner shall not be dropped within 3 000 ft of the assembly. e) An aircraft shall not fly closer than 500 ft to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure. 2. Paragraph 1 e) of this Rule shall not apply to any aircraft while it is landing or taking off in accordance with normal aviation practice. 3. Nothing in this Rule shall prohibit any aircraft from: a) b) flying for the purpose of checking navigation aids or procedures in accordance with normal aviation practice at a Government or licensed aerodrome in Hong Kong or at any aerodrome elsewhere, or c) 3.2.3.1 taking off, landing, or practising approaches to landing in accordance with normal aviation practice at a Government or licensed aerodrome in Hong Kong or at any aerodrome elsewhere, or flying in such a manner as may be necessary for the purpose of saving lives. a) Anti-collision lights: this requirement is only applicable to aircraft registered in Hong Kong having a maximum total mass authorized of more than 5 700 kg. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) COOK ISLANDS 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Flight crew member means a crew member assigned by an operator for duty in an aircraft during flight time as a pilot or flight engineer. Pilot-in-command, in relation to any aircraft, means the pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft. Visibility means the ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. CHAPTER 4 4.1 and Table 3-1 For Classes C, D and E airspace, the minimum permitted distance from cloud is 2 km horizontally and, within a control zone, 500 ft vertically. The minimum required vertical distance from cloud outside a control zone within Class C, D or E airspace is 1 000 ft. The pilot of a glider, above an altitude of 3 000 ft and above a height of 1 000 ft, but below an altitude of 11 000 ft, shall fly no closer than 500 ft below cloud within Class E or G airspace. 4.4 a) VFR flights may be operated above FL 460, the upper limit of controlled airspace in the Auckland Oceanic and Cook Sector FIRs. 4.5 VFR flights may be authorized in RVSM airspace (FL 290 to FL 410) above the Cook Sector of the Auckland Oceanic FIR. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 12/12/02
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) DENMARK 1 CHAPTER 2 2.2 Additional rule. Operation of an aircraft in flight must be conducted in accordance with the requirements in the ATS airspace classification table applicable to each airspace Class A to G, unless otherwise indicated in the AIP. 2.5 Additional rule. No person may perform or attempt to perform duty on board an aircraft in any of the positions mentioned in Section 35 of the Danish Air Navigation Act if under the influence of intoxicating liquor to such an extent that he or she is unable to perform his or her duties in a fully safe way, or — except for duties of minor importance to safety — if he or she has an alcohol concentration in his or her blood of 0.20 per thousand or more. Neither may any person perform or attempt to perform duty on board an aircraft in any of the positions mentioned in Section 35 of the Danish Air Navigation Act if, on account of illness, impairment, strain, lack of sleep, or being under the influence of narcotics or drugs or for similar causes he or she is in such a state that he or she is unable to perform his or her duties on board an aircraft in a fully safe way. CHAPTER 3 3.1.1 Additional rule. The pilot-in-command shall take care that other air traffic is not unnecessarily impeded or disturbed. The pilot-in-command shall take care that the flight interferes with the surroundings as little as possible. This applies in particular when flying over built-up areas, recreational areas and areas with sensitive fauna. Note.— Areas with sensitive fauna are specified in AIPs. 3.2.2.7.3 Additional rule. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed only when the lights are switched off and a clearance is received from the control tower. 3.2.5 d) Additional rule. The runway in use determined by the appropriate ATS unit shall be used unless safety determines that another runway is preferred. 3.3.1 Additional rule. A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating: b) any IFR flight; d) any flight across the Danish border or the Danish territorial waters, unless the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark has permitted exceptions. 3.3.4 Additional rule. Unless otherwise prescribed by the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark, a departure report shall be made at the earliest possible moment after departure, to the appropriate air traffic services unit, by any flight for which a flight plan has been submitted. Submission of a departure report is not required after departure from an aerodrome where air traffic services are provided on condition that radio communication or visual signals indicate that the departure has been observed. 3.3.5.4 Additional rule. If it is expected that the report of arrival cannot be submitted to the appropriate air traffic services unit within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival, information on the time at which the report is expected to be submitted shall be included in the flight plan under the item “Other Information”. 3.6.2.1.2 Additional rule. The mentioned provision also applies to aircraft operating along an ATS route segment defined by reference to non-directional beacons (NDB). 3.6.5.2 Additional rule. If the aircraft is equipped with an SSR transponder, the pilot-in-command shall select Mode A Code 7600. 3.7 Additional rule. If the aircraft is equipped with an SSR transponder, the pilot-in-command shall, if possible, select Mode A Code 7500. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 DENMARK SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHAPTER 4 4.1 Additional rule. VFR flights not in sight of the surface shall be operated in accordance with Regulations for Civil Aviation BL 5-43. 4.6 Additional rule. Flying between the pylons of bridges and under bridges, under overhead lines or similar installations is prohibited unless specially authorized by the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) FINLAND 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Additional definition: Night. The hours between sunset and sunrise during which an unlit object (e.g. chimney, mast, etc.) cannot be clearly discerned from a distance of 8 km. Where any doubt exists, it is considered that night prevails. CHAPTER 2 2.5 No person shall act as a crew member of an aircraft while the alcohol concentration in the blood is elevated due to consuming alcohol or after having used detectable quantities of other narcotics or drugs. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- A person entrusted with duties relative to flight safety on board an aircraft shall abstain from the duties while being unable to perform them without hazarding flight safety as a result of illness, fatigue or other such reason. CHAPTER 3 3.2.2.3 Additional note. Hang gliders and paragliders are considered equal to gliders. This also applies to powerdriven hang gliders and paragliders. 3.2.2.7.2 Additional note. An aircraft may taxi without stopping provided that it has received instructions for taxiing from the AFIS unit and causes no hazard to other traffic. 3.2.2.7.3 An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed further in accordance with the ATC clearance when lights are switched off. 3.2.5 Additional note. Unless otherwise prescribed by the Civil Aviation Administration, an aircraft may make turns to the right after take-off and when approaching for a landing at an aerodrome where aerodrome flight information is available providing that this can be done without hazard to other air traffic and the intention to turn right is reported to the AFIS unit. 3.3.1.2 b) A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating any IFR flight outside controlled airspace, any VFR enroute flight by night or any flight operated within a flight information zone surrounding an AFIS aerodrome. Note.— An en-route flight is a flight exceeding more than 30 km (16 NM) from the aerodrome of departure. 3.3.3 Additional provision. A flight plan submitted for a flight across the Finnish territorial border shall contain information for the entire flight up to the aerodrome of intended landing. 3.3.5.3 Additional provision. The ATS unit to which the arrival report will be given shall be included in the flight plan. In case the arrival report cannot be expected to reach the appropriate ATS unit within 30 minutes from the estimated time of arrival, the time by which the arrival report is expected to be submitted shall be included in the flight plan. 3.6.5.1 Note.— SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices are not regarded as satisfying the requirement to maintain a listening watch. 3.6.5.2.2 Additional note. When experiencing communication failure, aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder shall select Mode A and Code 7600. If the transponder is provided with Mode C, it shall be operated continuously unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATC unit. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 FINLAND SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 3.7 Additional note. An aircraft provided with an SSR transponder may select Mode A and Code 7500 to indicate that unlawful interference has taken place. If the transponder is provided with Mode C, it shall be operated continuously unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATC unit. General Additional provisions: ATS airspace classification has been added to the Finnish Rules of the Air as paragraph 3.9. 3.10 This paragraph is headed “VMC minima”. The following paragraphs have been added: 3.11.1 Flights at transonic or supersonic speeds. Flights at transonic or supersonic speed by civil aircraft over the Finnish territory are allowed only by a special permission of the Civil Aviation Administration. Permission may be granted only if such flights are not considered to constitute a hazard for general interests or private rights. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.11.2 Orders followed in the military aviation in Finland are given by the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force. CHAPTER 4 4.3 The difference to this paragraph is shown in Section ENR 1.2 of the AIP SU OMI/FINLAND in paragraph 3. 4.6 b) Elsewhere than as specified in 4.6 a), the minimum height is 150 m (500 ft) by day and 300 m (1 000 ft) by night above ground or water. 4.7 VFR flights operated within airspace Class B or C shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in column “IFR flights” of the table of cruising levels. These provisions do not apply to non-power-driven aircraft, in cases when otherwise instructed in the ATC clearance or when prescribed by the Civil Aviation Administration. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) FRANCE 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Additional definition. AFIS unit. Air traffic unit responsible for the provision of flight information service and alerting service to the aerodrome traffic of a non-controlled aerodrome. 2.4 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- CHAPTER 2 Additional provision. The pilot-in-command is responsible for compliance with control measures. CHAPTER 3 3.1.2 More restrictive measures may exist above cities and other installations. 3.1.8 c) The maximum horizontal distance between aircraft flying in formation is 1 NM (1.852 km). 3.2.2.2 Additional provision. In the case of heavier-than-air aircraft flying near and parallel to the side of a mountain, the aircraft which has the slope to its right has the right of way, and only the other aircraft must alter its trajectory. 3.2.2.3 d) Additional provision. Aircraft engaged in in-flight refuelling and formations of over two aircraft also have the right of way. 3.6.5.2.2 a) The provisions of a) are applied, with the 20-minute period being replaced by the clearance limit. Table 3-1 The provisions concerning VMC conditions in Class A and B airspace will soon be incorporated into French regulations. Outside of controlled airspace, and below the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface, flight visibility must be at least equal to the higher of the two values: — 1 500 m (or 800 m for helicopters), — the distance covered in 30 seconds of flight. CHAPTER 4 4.1 Outside controlled airspace, and below the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface, flight visibility must be at least equal to the higher of the two values: — 1 500 m (or 800 m for helicopters), — the distance covered in 30 seconds of flight. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 FRANCE SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 4.6 b) Elsewhere than as specified in a), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water, and at a distance of less than 150 m from any person, vehicle or vessel on the surface or any artificial obstacle. Non-power-driven aircraft engaged in ridge soaring are exempted from this rule, provided they pose no risk to persons or property on the ground. 4.7 The value selected is the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface. Additional provision. A VFR flight must be equipped with radiocommunication equipment and radio navigation equipment adapted to the route when it loses sight of the ground or water. CHAPTER 5 5.3.1 a) The value selected is the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface. Additional provisions: 1. The first level which can be used must ensure clearance of at least 150 m (500 ft) above the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface. 2. Outside controlled airspace, an IFR flight cannot fly below the higher of the following two levels: — 900 m (3 000 ft) above mean sea level, — 300 m (1 000 ft) above the surface, except when necessary for take-off, landing and related manoeuvres. Below that level: — if an instrument approach procedure has been published for the aerodrome used, the aircraft must comply with it unless it is flying in VMC and the pilot decides to make a visual approach; — in the absence of a published instrument approach or departure procedure, the aircraft must continue in VMC. 5.3.2 An IFR flight, whether controlled or not, must establish two-way communication with the unit concerned and then maintain listening watch. Appendix 4 These provisions have not yet been formally included in the French regulations but are already being applied. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) GEORGIA 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Special VFR flights. In Georgia, this definition contains complementary wording as follows: Special VFR flights are conducted for ambulance and search and rescue purposes. CHAPTER 3 3.2.3.2 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions set out in 3.2.3.2, all aircraft shall display their navigation and wing clearance lights during daytime when visibility is 2 000 m or less. 3.2.6.2 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions set out in 3.2.6.2, all aircraft shall display lights during daytime when visibility is 2 000 m or less. 3.3.2 Note This Note contains complementary wording as follows: In the case where a flight plan is submitted more than 24 hours but not more than 144 hours (6 days) prior to the estimated chocks-removing time, the flight plan shall contain the date of flight. 3.3.3 Additional rule. A flight plan submitted for conducting an international flight shall contain information for the entire flight up to the aerodrome of intended landing and the date of the flight. 3.3.5.3 Additional rule. When the arrival report cannot be expected to reach the appropriate ATS unit within 30 minutes from the estimated time of arrival, the time by which the arrival report is expected to be submitted shall be included in the flight plan. 3.9 The Georgian airspace classification is included in the Georgian Rules of the Air as paragraph 3.9. Additional paragraph. The airspace of Georgia is classified into Classes A, B and G. The classes are described in accordance with Annex 2. Additional paragraph. An aircraft shall not exceed the speed of 460 km/h (250 kt) IAS below flight level 3 050 m (FL 100) when: a) conducting IFR flights in airspace Class G; b) conducting VFR flights in airspace Classes C and G. For aircraft conducting special VFR flights, the indicated speed shall be 260 km/h (140 kt). Additional paragraph. Flights at transonic and supersonic speeds. In the airspace of Georgia, supersonic flights are allowed only at such flight levels where detrimental effect on the environment is excluded. The overcoming of a sound barrier by civil aircraft in the Georgian airspace is forbidden. CHAPTER 4 4.2 Additional paragraph. Special VFR flights are permitted; a) by day — when the ground visibility is less than 5 km but not less than 3 km, and the height of the cloud base shall be such that the flight can be conducted at assigned minimum heights; b) by night — when the ground visibility is not less than 3 km, the sky is clear and there is sight contact with objects on the ground. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 GEORGIA SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 4.3 VFR flights by night. VFR flight shall not be conducted during night-time by civil one-engined aircraft and helicopters of Category 3 aircraft performance. 4.4 VFR flights above FL 195. VFR flights shall not be operated above FL 195. 4.5 Not applicable. Reduced vertical separation above FL 290 is not implemented in the airspace of Georgia. 4.6 VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 300 m (1 000 ft) from the ground or water shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the tracks as specified in the Tables of Cruising Levels. 4.8 a) VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6 a) when operated within Class C airspace. CHAPTER 5 5.1.1 Additional paragraph. IFR flights and night flights are prohibited for operation by civil one-engined airplanes and helicopters of Category 3 aircraft performance. Appendix 1 Additional rule. The following signals are also used in addition to the visual ground signals shown in Figures 1.2 to 1.11: Heliport identification. A white letter H, readable from the primary approach direction, painted in the middle of touchdown area. Hospital heliport identification. A white letter H, readable from the primary approach direction and surrounded by a red cross, painted in the middle of the hospital heliport touchdown area. Georgia has not ratified Article 3 bis to the Convention on International Civil Aviation adopted by the 25th Session (Extraordinary) of the ICAO Assembly on 10 May 1984. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Appendix 2 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) GERMANY 1 CHAPTER 3 3.2.2 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions of 3.2.2, an aircraft shall give way to another aircraft that is obviously impeded in its manoeuvrability. 3.2.2.3 For the application of the rules of right-of-way, powered gliders, the engines of which are not in operation, are considered as gliders. 3.2.3.1 All aircraft operated during day and night shall display the anti-collision light. Exceptions may be granted by the competent authority. 3.2.5 On aerodromes, traffic taxiing on their own power have the right-of-way over other vehicles and pedestrians. 3.3.1.2 a) Additional rule. In addition to the provisions of 3.3.1.2 a), a flight plan shall be filed in the following cases: 1) VFR flights during night in controlled airspace; 2) aerobatic flights in controlled airspace and over aerodromes with ATC unit; 3) cloud flights of gliders; 3.3.1.2 e) The following is a deviation as far as VFR flights from and to Austria, Denmark, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg are concerned. On 22 December 1994, Member States of the Schengen Agreement decided to adopt the irreversible application of the respective implementation agreement with effect on 26 March 1995. Having regard to this decision, Germany exempted VFR flights from the obligation to file a flight plan when leaving or entering Germany. Additional rule. Flights of civil aircraft in accordance with the visual flight rules from and/or to Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland as far as they enter/leave the Federal Republic of Germany via the countries listed above without intermediate stop, are likewise exempted from the obligation to file a flight plan. 3.6.5.1 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions for controlled flights, a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency of the competent ATC unit shall be maintained and, if required, two-way radiocommunication shall be established with this unit by pilots on VFR flights: a) within control zones; b) to controlled aerodromes; c) within controlled airspace during night; 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4) flights of manned free balloons and airships; ascents of unmanned free balloons with a total weight of balloon cover and ballast of more than 0.5 kg as well as ascents of bundled unmanned free balloons and mass ascents of unmanned free balloons.
    • 2 GERMANY SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) d) within those parts of ICAO Class E and G airspace that according to an “HX” designator may change their status to ICAO Class D, E or F without prior notification. Exceptions to a), b) and d) may be granted by the competent authority. 3.6.5.2 Additional provision. If a cruising level other than the one given in the flight plan is assigned to the pilot when departing according to IFR in IMC, in the en-route clearance including the departure route, the pilot shall, in case of radiocommunication failure, after setting the transponder to Mode 3/A Code 7600, maintain the level prescribed in the departure route or the level assigned by ATC for a period of three minutes and then continue to climb to the cruising level indicated in the flight plan. If during the three-minute period the IFR minimum cruising level for the route segment concerned exceeds the level last assigned by ATC, the pilot shall climb to this IFR minimum cruising level. 3.6.5.2.1 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions of 3.6.5.2.1 (especially as laid down under b)), the aircraft concerned shall comply with an established inbound and approach procedure or, if this is not possible for operational reasons, execute an approach procedure based on radio navigation. 3.6.5.2.2 a) This procedure is not applied. b) The German procedure refers to the “current flight plan” (as the previous version of this subparagraph did) and not to the “current flight plan route”. Table 3-1 Class D — VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima: VFR Note.— Control zones are classified as airspace Class D with the following addition: ground visibility 5 km, ceiling 1 500 ft GND, clear of clouds. Class E — VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima. The minimum value has to be 8 km visibility for VFR flights below 3 050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL. Class F — Distance from cloud: 1 500 m horizontally and 300 m (1 000 ft) vertically for all altitudes. Class G — IFR flights not permitted. Note.— For VFR flights, the following weather minima apply: Flight visibility 1.5 km, continuous visual contact to ground or water, clear of clouds. For helicopters, airships and balloons, a flight visibility of 800 m is required. CHAPTER 4 4.1 Additional rule. In addition to the provisions specified in Table 3-1, the following regulations apply: Outside controlled airspace at heights of less than 3 000 ft above ground or water, VFR flights of rotorcraft, airships and balloons shall be conducted so that: 1) the pilot has visual contact with the ground and a flight visibility of at least 800 m; 31/3/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) GERMANY 3 2) the aircraft remains clear of clouds; and 3) timely perception of obstructions is possible. 4.2 VFR flights. VFR flights within control zones require an air traffic control clearance by the competent ATC unit. CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 a) Rules for adherence to specific minimum safe heights for IFR flights over high terrain or in mountainous areas (600 m) have not yet been established. Appendix 1 4.1.1 Series of green flashes — “Return for landing” has the following additional meaning: “Continue approach to land”. 4.2 Additional rule. In addition to the ground signals shown in Figures 1.2 to 1.11, the following signal is used to indicate separate aerodrome traffic circuits for power-driven aircraft and gliders: A double cross of conspicuous colour with an arrow pointing to the right or left displayed in the signal area or at the end of the runway or strip in take-off and landing direction. Meaning: Separate traffic circuits for power-driven aircraft and gliders. After take-off and before landing changes of direction for power-driven aircraft are permitted only in the direction of the arrow, for gliders only in opposite direction. ___________________ 31/3/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) GREECE 1 CHAPTER 3 3.3.1.2 Requirement to submit a flight plan. A flight plan shall be submitted to the appropriate air traffic services, prior to operating: a) any flight or portion thereof to be provided with air traffic control service; b) any flight across international borders; c) any flight across ATHINAI FIR boundaries to facilitate the provision of flight information and alerting of search and rescue services, as well as the coordination with appropriate military units or air traffic services unit, in order to avoid the possible need for interception for the purposes of identification. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) ICELAND 1 CHAPTER 3 3.6.5.2.2 If in instrument meteorological conditions or when conditions are such that it does not appear feasible to complete the flight in accordance with 3.6.5.2.1 (see Note 1) the aircraft shall: a) proceed according to the current flight plan maintaining the cleared level or the minimum safe altitude for the route flown, whichever is higher, to the appropriate designated navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with b) below, hold over this aid until commencement of descent; b) commence descent from the navigation aid specified in a) at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan; c) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid; and d) land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in b) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Note 1. — As evidenced by the meteorological conditions prescribed therein, 3.6.5.2.1 relates to all controlled flights, whereas 3.6.5.2.2 relates only to IFR flights. Note 2. — The provision of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the premise that an aircraft experiencing communication failure will comply with the rules in 3.6.5.2.2. Note 3.— See also 5.1.2 Remarks. The ICAO change to the communication failure procedures states that aircraft experiencing communication failure should maintain their assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan. Based on the above-mentioned change, domestic pressurized aircraft which normally fly at flight levels from 170 to 210 would be starting their descent for landing 20 minutes past the first compulsory reporting point on their route. Unpressurized aircraft fly close to the minimum flight altitudes and would not gain any operational advantage from the change. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) KENYA 1 CHAPTER 3 3.3.1.4 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- All flight plans shall be submitted at least 30 minutes before departure and shall be valid for 60 minutes for IFR flights or 120 minutes for VFR flights. ___________________ 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) LATVIA 1 CHAPTER 3 3.1.5 Towing. No aircraft or other object shall be towed by an aircraft without the permission granted by the appropriate ATS authority. Permission is, however, not required for towing flights of gliders which are performed in accordance with provisions issued by the appropriate ATS authority. In military aviation, the regulations approved by the commander of the Latvian Air Forces shall be observed. In towing, the instructions from the appropriate ATS unit must be observed and depending on the class of airspace, air traffic control clearance must be obtained prior to flights. 3.1.7 Acrobatic flight. No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically so as to constitute a hazard to air traffic. No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically over congested areas of cities, towns, or settlements or over open-air assembly of persons. 3.2.2.7.2 An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all holding positions. An aircraft may, however, proceed without stopping to the clearance limit issued in the air traffic control clearance. 3.2.2.7.3 An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed further in accordance with the air traffic control clearance. 3.3.1.2 b) A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating: b) any IFR flight outside controlled airspace, any VFR en-route flight by night. 3.3.5.1 The following note has been added: Note.— A report of arrival is not necessary after landing at an aerodrome where ATS service is provided if it is evident from radio communication or a light signal that the landing has been observed. 3.3.5.2 The following provisions have been added: CHAPTER 4 4.1 In Table 3-1 of Annex 2, the following flight visibility minima is prescribed in ATC airspace Class G at and below 3 000 ft AMSL: a) Category A and B aeroplanes may be operated in flight visibility down to 3 000 m, provided the circumstances are such that the probability of encounters with other traffic is low, and the IAS is 140 kt (260 km/h) or less. b) Helicopters may be operated in flight visibility down to 1 500 m by day, provided the circumstances are such that the probability of encounters with other traffic is low, and the IAS is 140 kt (260 km/h) or less. 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- The air traffic services unit to whom the arrival report will be given shall be included in the flight plan. In case the arrival report cannot be expected to reach the appropriate ATS unit within 30 minutes from the estimated time of arrival, the time by which the arrival report is expected to be submitted shall be included in the flight plan.
    • 2 LATVIA SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) c) Helicopters may be permitted to operate down to a flight visibility of 800 m by day, if the surface is in sight and manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. 4.2 The following note has been added: Note.— For helicopters executing emergency medical aid flights or training for such flights, ground visibility shall be not less than 800 m by day and 3 km by night. 4.3 For VFR flights by night, the following provisions have been added: a) within controlled airspace, the ground visibility shall be at least 8 km (for helicopters not less than 5 km) and the ceiling shall not be lower than 1 500 ft; b) within ATZ airspace, the ground visibility shall be at least 5 km (for helicopters not less than 3 km) the ceiling must not be lower than 1 000 ft and the airfield shall be constantly visible; c) within uncontrolled airspace Class G, the ground visibility shall be at least 8 km (for helicopters not less than 5 km) and the ceiling shall not be lower than 2 000 ft (for helicopters not less than 1 000 ft). 4.4 Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights shall not be operated: a) above FL 195; b) at transonic and supersonic speeds. 4.6 b) Elsewhere than as specified in 4.6 a), at height less than 500 ft above ground or water. The following note has been added: Note. — Executing Aerial Works the helicopters are cleared to fly below these heights in accordance with General Basic Flight Operation Manual requirements. 4.7 VFR flights in level cruising flight: a) within controlled airspace of Class C when operated at and above 3 000 ft from the ground or water shall be conducted at an altitude or at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the column “IFR flights” of the Tables of Cruising Levels; b) within uncontrolled airspace of Glass G when operated at and above 3 500 ft from the ground or water shall be conducted at an altitude or a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the column “VFR flights” of the Tables of Cruising Levels. ___________________ 31/3/05 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) LITHUANIA 1 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- CHAPTER 3 3.9 Table 3-1 The remarks under the table for the VFR flights apply. **a) flight visibility is not less than 3 KM provided the instrument speed is 140 knots or less; b) helicopters are authorized to operate provided the visibility is not less than 1 500 m subject to the manoeuvre speed being such that other aircraft or obstacles can be observed on time and collision avoided; c) hot air balloons are authorized to operate, if the visibility is not less than 2 km. 4.3 VFR flights are performed from sunset until sunrise when the following conditions prevail: VFR flights by night are authorized; if the visibility is not less than 8 km; the horizontal distance to the ceiling of clouds is not less than 300 m. 4.8 b) The minimum requirements for the flight altitude for VFR flights are not applied: 1) 2) outside densely populated areas when simulating an emergency landing, if a pilot instructor supervises the flight of the aircraft; 3) for training in helicopters outside densely populated areas; 4) 4.8 c) for search and rescue and flights to enact legal administration; in special cases with permission granted by the Inspectorate of Civil Aviation. For special VFR flights the following applies: if the ceiling of the clouds is less than 450 m (1 500 ft) over the ground level or the visibility is less, the AATC may issue a permit for a special VFR flight (for aircraft provided the visibility is not less than 3 km, for helicopters provided the visibility is not less than 1 500 m). 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) MAURITIUS 1 CHAPTER 4 4.3 VFR flights shall not be operated between sunset and sunrise. 4.4 a) VFR flights shall not be operated above FL 150; b) unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights are not permitted beyond 20 NM from the shoreline. a) The minimum height restriction applies to all aircraft and is to be at least 1 500 ft over congested areas. For flights over an open-air assembly of more than 1 000 persons, an aircraft may not fly over or within 3 000 ft of the assembly, except with written permission and then not below such height as would enable it to land clear of the assembly in the event of a failure of a power unit. b) The requirement is expressed as not closer than 500 ft to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure — exception is made for any glider when it is hill soaring. 4.6 Unless otherwise indicated in ATC clearances, VFR flights are advised to adopt the table of cruising levels for IFR flights as specified in Appendix 3 to Annex 2. CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 a) There is no mandatory requirement for an aircraft to maintain a minimum flight altitude of 2 000 ft above high terrain or mountainous areas. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.5
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) NEW ZEALAND 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Visibility means the ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. CHAPTER 2 2.1.2 The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is the “appropriate authority” in terms of governance; however, the CAA is not the ATS provider. The Airways Corporation of New Zealand has a statutory monopoly over the provision of area control services, approach control services and flight information services. CHAPTER 3 There is no requirement for aircraft in flight to display anti-collision lights outside the period from sunset to sunrise. 3.2.3.4 There is no requirement for aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome to display anti-collision lights or lights to indicate engines are running outside the period from sunset to sunrise. 3.2.4 Outside controlled airspace, simulated instrument flight is permitted in an aircraft that is not equipped with fully functioning dual controls or pitch, roll, yaw and engine power controls that can be operated from either pilot station if the means of simulating instrument flight can be removed rapidly by the pilot-in-command. 3.3.1.2 Operation in accordance with visual flight rules in controlled airspace is permitted without submitting a flight plan. A flight plan must be submitted for any VFR flight planned to proceed more than 50 NM from shore. A flight plan must be submitted prior to any flight under instrument flight rules. 3.4 Not prescribed in Civil Aviation Rules. 3.5.3 Not prescribed in Civil Aviation Rules. 3.6.5.1 Aircraft operating under visual flight rules in Class E airspace by day are not required to maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch. 3.6.5.2.1 Remark. VFR communications failure procedures are specified in AIP New Zealand. 3.7 Remark. Procedures in the event of unlawful interference are prescribed in AIP New Zealand. 3.8 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.2.3.3 Remark. Intercept procedures are specified in AIP New Zealand. 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 NEW ZEALAND SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) CHAPTER 4 4.1 For Classes C, D and E airspace, the minimum permitted distance from cloud is 2 km horizontally and, within a control zone, 500 ft vertically. The minimum required vertical distance from cloud outside a control zone within Class C, D or E airspace is 1 000 ft. The pilot of a glider, above an altitude of 3 000 ft and above a height of 1 000 ft, but below an altitude of 11 000 ft, shall fly no closer than 500 ft below cloud within Class E or G airspace. 4.4 a) VFR flights may be operated above FL 460, the upper limit of controlled airspace in the Auckland Oceanic and New Zealand FIRs. 4.5 VFR flights may be authorized in RVSM airspace (FL 290 to FL 410) in the New Zealand FIR. APPENDIX 4 2.1 Providing there are no clouds or obscuring phenomenon of more than four-eighths coverage, and the horizontal visibility is greater than 8 km, and authorized entry into the airspace of another State territory is not imminent, then a heavy free balloon may be operated at any altitude below 60 000 ft pressure altitude without authorization. 2.3 Prior authorization is not required; however, CAR 101.109 requires termination of a free balloon flight when/where unauthorized entry into the airspace of another State’s territory is imminent. 5.1.1 Twenty-four hours prior notification required. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ___________________ 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) NORWAY 1 CHAPTER 2 General Additional rule: Air displays. Arrangement of air displays — open to the public — shall be carried out with due regard to the provisions regarding air displays published in BSL D 4-3. 2.2, Note 2 A specific reference is made to “bilag II” (appendix to BSL F1) which contains and at any time will contain elements of the ATS airspace classes implemented in Norwegian FIRs and thus the limitations regarding applicable flight rules. 2.5 No person shall serve as a crew member when under the influence of intoxicating liquor or other stimuli or narcotics or when he or she, as a result of illness or fatigue or for other reason, is unable to perform his or her duties safely. In any event a person is considered to be under the influence of alcohol, as far as the law is concerned, when the alcohol concentration in the blood is in excess of 0.4 per million or the amount of alcohol in the body is large enough to lead to 0.4 per million. Error regarding the extent of alcohol concentration in the blood shall not exclude liability for punishment. A person having served as a crew member shall not, during the first six hours after completing a tour of duty, consume alcohol or other stimuli if he or she knows or suspects that police investigation concerning his or her duties as a crew member is pending, except if a blood test has already been taken or the police authorities have decided that such test is unnecessary. When there is reason to believe that the above regulations have been violated, the police authorities may order a medical examination, which may include a blood test, of the person responsible for the violation. The appropriate department will issue detailed regulations dealing with such examination and matters related thereto. CHAPTER 3 General Additional rule: Glider flying. Glider flying shall be carried out in accordance with the following provisions: a) “Provision regarding the use of gliders”, or if appropriate, “provision regarding the use of motor gliders”. b) “Provision regarding glider flying within controlled airspace, at aerodromes where AFIS is provided and the reporting of glider flying activity”. Flight with manned free balloons The operation of manned free balloons shall be in accordance with “provision regarding flight with manned free balloons”. Take-off An aircraft shall not take off until the pilot-in-command has ascertained that no risk of collision will exist between the aircraft and other aircraft or obstructions. 3.1.2 Additional rule. The exception regarding minimum heights relevant to aircraft taking off or landing is also specifically made applicable to aircraft performing practice approaches (without landing). 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 NORWAY SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 3.1.4 The Civil Aviation Administration may authorize exemptions from the rule. In addition, dropping of provisions and equipment to persons in distress, of ballast in the form of water or fine sand, of water and other extinguishing agents for fire fighting purposes and of fuel from aircraft for reasons of safety, is authorized without special permission. 3.1.7 a) No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically over or near congested areas of cities or settlements, open-air assemblies of persons, trafficked harbours or surface craft. b) No aircraft shall be flown acrobatically within controlled airspace except as authorized by the appropriate air traffic control unit. c) Acrobatic flight shall be conducted in a manner that will not endanger other traffic. d) When performed, acrobatic flight shall be conducted at a height of 600 m or more above the highest obstacle within a radius of 1.5 km horizontally from the aircraft, which at all times during such manoeuvres shall maintain VMC. The Civil Aviation Administration may authorize exemptions from this rule. 3.1.8 c) Additional rule. Subject to operational requirements, the maximum lateral or horizontal distances to be kept by a formation (1 km/100 ft) — corresponding to those in Annex 2 — may, in accordance with BSL F 1-3, para. 3.1.9 b) iv) be increased, provided a clearance has been obtained from the appropriate ATS unit. In such cases, the required separation minimum with respect to other traffic will be increased accordingly. 3.2.3 The provisions regarding lights to be displayed by aircraft are not applicable to gliders and manned free balloons which between sunset and sunrise are required to display lights specified in “Provision regarding operation of aircraft” containing inter alia separate specifications as to exterior lights relevant to gliders and manned free balloons. 3.2.5 c) Additional rule. At aerodromes where AFIS is provided, aircraft approaching for landing or after take-off are permitted to make turns to the right provided other traffic is not endangered, and the AFIS unit has been properly informed. 3.2.6 Unless otherwise prescribed, water operations shall be conducted in accordance with provisions which include “International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea” and special regulations regarding inland water operations in Norway. Additional rule. When a flight plan has been submitted for a flight involving departure from an aerodrome where ATS is not provided, a departure message shall be transmitted to ATS by the most expeditious means. Departure may be brought to the attention of ATS by one of the following means: — by telephone from a person on the ground as arranged between the pilot-in-command and the person involved; — a statement by the pilot-in-command to the ATS that EOBT shall be considered as ATD; — by giving the time, considered to be ATD, to ATS on the telephone immediately prior to taxiing out for take-off. The flight plan will not be activated unless the above procedures have been complied with. 3.3.1.2, Note The corresponding note specifically refers to VFR flights in class D airspace as flights for which limited flight plan information is sufficient if a minor part of the flight is affecting class D airspace. If the intention by any flight is to obtain alerting and rescue service, the submission of a complete flight plan is required. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) NORWAY 3 3.3.1.4 The time limit set for the submission of flight plan information to obtain a clearance is not applicable to VFR flights intending to operate a minor part of the flight within class D airspace. The information shall, however, be submitted in “due time”. 3.3.5.3 Additional rule. If an arrival report is not considered to reach the appropriate ATS unit within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival, item 18 in the flight plan shall contain the latest time at which an arrival report can be expected. 3.6.1.1 In a separate note it is inter alia clarified that the issuance of clearances to VFR flights in class D airspace depends on the amount of traffic in the airspace involved and the ability of the appropriate ATC unit to provide its services in a proper manner. 3.6.5.2 BSL F 1-3 contains a reference to “provision regarding communication procedures” — based on relevant parts of Annex 10, Vol. II. A supplement to the procedures is published in AIP Norway, part RAC. Additional rule. A speed limit of 250 kt IAS is imposed on IFR and VFR flights below FL 100 in classes D, E and G airspace unless exemptions have been made by the Civil Aviation Administration or in isolated cases by the appropriate ATC unit for flights operating in a CTR/TMA. Note.— The speed limit corresponds in general to the standard regarding airspace classification of Annex 11, but as a rule directed to pilots it has been found appropriate to include it in the Norwegian “Rules of the Air”. CHAPTER 4 4.1 In class G airspace at and below 300 m above the terrain, flights at speeds not exceeding 140 kt IAS may operate with a flight visibility of not less than 3 km or not less than 1.5 km when the flight is conducted in an aerodrome traffic circuit and the pilot has the aerodrome in sight. Helicopters may, in the same airspace, operate with a flight visibility of not less than 800 m, provided the speed will allow other aircraft or obstructions to be observed and collision avoided. 4.2 A ground visibility and ceiling of 5 km/450 m is required at the aerodrome when flights are to operate in accordance with the visual flight rules within any part of the control zone unless a clearance to operate as a special VFR flight has been obtained. Additional rule. A clearance to operate as a special VFR flight if the ground visibility or the flight visibility is less than 3 km may not be obtained except as follows: — — 4.3 Aeroplanes at speeds not exceeding 140 kt IAS which intend to conduct the whole flight within the control zone or to enter the control zone and land within the control zone may be cleared to operate as special VFR flights provided the ground visibility and the flight visibility are not less than 1.5 km. Helicopters at speeds that will allow the pilot to observe obstructions and avoid collision may be cleared to operate as special VFR flights provided the ground visibility and flight visibility are not less than 800 m. During the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight all flights within controlled airspace shall be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules. Special authorization to operate in accordance with the visual flight rules may, however, be obtained from the Civil Aviation Administration or from the appropriate ATC unit. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 4 NORWAY 4.4 SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) a) The level above which flights in general are not allowed to operate in accordance with the visual flight rules is FL 195. b) The corresponding provision contains a note which, since supersonic flight over Norwegian territory is generally prohibited, limits the applicability of the rule to cases when permission to conduct such flights exceptionally has been granted. Additional rule. For flights authorized to operate as VFR flights above FL 195, the requirements for flight visibility and distances from clouds are 8 km and 1.5 km horizontally/300 m vertically (applicable if class A airspace is affected). 4.6 The corresponding rule additionally provides for exceptions from the minimum levels to be flown when flights are conducted by helicopters in accordance with the “provisions regarding commercial air transport with helicopters”. The notification with respect to 3.1.2 is also applicable to 4.5. b) 4.8 Gliders performing slope soaring are authorized to operate down to a level of not less than 50 m above ground or water provided this will not constitute a violation of the rule corresponding to Annex 2, 3.1.1. a) The corresponding paragraph refers to and will at any time only refer to airspace classes established in Norwegian FIRs as promulgated in AIP Norway or by NOTAM. Additional rules A clearance to operate as a VFR flight in class D airspace established as a TMA, outside the published hours of service of the ATC unit normally providing service within the airspace, may be obtained from the appropriate ACC which may make exemptions from the provisions corresponding to Annex 2, 3.6, and specify conditions to be complied with. No clearance is required to operate as a VFR flight in class D airspace established as a CTR outside the published hours of service of the ATC unit responsible for providing service in the CTR. Flights are, however, in such period required to maintain a listening watch on the control frequency. Should communication indicate that the control unit is functioning (hours of service may have been extended), the provisions corresponding to Annex 2, 3.6 apply. Flights are, however, not permitted to use (take off or land at) state-owned controlled aerodromes unless ATC is provided, and not to operate within a control zone between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight without having obtained a clearance. When in class D airspace (CTR/TMA) procedures in the form of “VFR Routes Light Aircraft” (aircraft with a maximum take-off mass not exceeding 3 000 kg) or “VFR Routes Helicopter” have been promulgated in AIP Norway or in AIP SUP, such procedures shall be used for flight planning purposes by flights into and out from the aerodrome and, when convenient, if transiting the airspace. The clearance being issued will normally only specify reporting point(s) to identify the route. The procedures, including altitude limitations, holding points/procedures and light signals in case of communication failure (flashing green to indicate that the aerodrome traffic circuit should be entered) shall, however, be complied with. CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 The corresponding rule states that when no minimum flight altitude has been established, the aircraft shall: — not be flown below 300 m above the highest obstacle within a radius of 10 NM from the estimated position of the aircraft when the height of the obstacle does not exceed 1 850 m above MSL; — not be flown below 600 m above the highest obstacle within a radius of 10 NM from the estimated position of the aircraft when the height of the obstacle exceeds 1 850 m above MSL. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) NORWAY 5 Additional rule. The notification with respect to 3.1.2 is also applicable to 5.1.2. Additional rule. ATC service in a TMA, outside the published hours of service of the ATC unit normally providing service in the airspace, will be provided by the appropriate ACC. Appendix 1 4.2 Visual ground signals in 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.2.5.2 and 4.2.8 are not included in Norwegian rules. 4.2.5.1 A note related to the corresponding paragraph limits the use of a landing-T to aerodromes where ATC is provided on a 24-hour basis and to aerodromes not providing ATC on a 24-hour basis when the use of the aerodrome outside the hours of service of the ATC unit is prohibited. Additional appendix In an additional appendix to the “Rules of the Air”, elements of the air traffic services airspace classes A, D, E and G have been included, basically extracted from relevant parts of Annex 11 (2.6 and Appendix 4). Differences and information relevant to the various classes are as follows: Class A: Class A airspace will change character when authorizations to operate as VFR flights above FL 195 (Annex 2, 4.4 a) refers) affect class A airspace. Information regarding such authorization is promulgated in AIP Norway or by NOTAM. Class D and E: Class D and E airspace will change character in the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight as flights, authorized to operate in accordance with the visual flight rules during that period in class D and E airspace, are separated from IFR flights. Class D: The services provided to VFR flights in class D airspace are stated to be “Air traffic control service and traffic information about IFR and VFR flights”. “Traffic avoidance advice” is, however, not provided to IFR or VFR flights. Class G: IFR flights in class G airspace are not required to establish two-way radio communication with ATS except that communication shall be established with the appropriate AFIS unit when operating within a traffic information zone (TIZ) or a traffic information area (TIA) (airspace where AFIS is provided). VFR flights operating within TIZ or TIA are required to establish two-way radio communication with the appropriate AFIS unit. A separate provision regarding the establishment of radio communication for flights operating in TIZ and TIA has been established (AIP Norway, part RAC refers). 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) OMAN 1 CHAPTER 3 3.3.1 Flight plans: Operators of flights in Oman who do not need to file a flight plan are required to “Book Out” by notifying the ATSU concerned of: a) b) c) aircraft call sign (and registration, if different); ETD; and destination. CHAPTER 4 No VFR flights above FL 150. 4.6 a) VFR flights: VFR flights need not file a flight plan to comply with the requirement of paragraph 3.6.1.1, unless such a requirement already exists elsewhere, but must comply with ATC instructions in all other respects. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.4 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) PAPUA NEW GUINEA 1 CHAPTER 3 3.2.2.7.1 Right-of-way and collision avoidance procedures for aircraft on the ground are not specifically prescribed in Papua New Guinea (PNG) legislation. 3.2.2.7.3 Not specifically addressed in PNG procedures or legislation. 3.2.3.3 PNG legislation does not call up such a requirement. 3.2.3.5 PNG legislation or procedures do not address this situation; however CAR 185(3) requires lights not to be dazzling. 3.5.3 PNG procedures do not address this requirement. 3.6.1.3 Not specifically addressed in PNG procedures. 3.6.2.2.1 Not addressed in PNG procedures. 3.6.3.1.1 Not specifically addressed in PNG procedures. 3.8.1 Not addressed in PNG procedures. 3.8.2 Not addressed in PNG procedures. 3.9 The altitude, airspace classes and distance from cloud/visibility criteria in PNG differ to a significant degree from Annex 2, Table 3-1 criteria. CHAPTER 4 4.1 See comment for 3.9 above. 4.3 PNG does not permit night VFR in Port Moresby FIR. 4.5 Not addressed in PNG. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) POLAND 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Advisory airspace. Not applied. Advisory route. Not applied Air traffic advisory service. Not applied. CHAPTER 3 3.1.10 Aerodromes, on which landing is not planned, should be avoided by VFR flights in the distance: a) not transgressing the areas of aerodrome traffic for active military aerodromes; b) not transgressing the CTRs (TMAs) for active controlled aerodromes; c) not less than 5 km from the ARPs for active uncontrolled civil aerodromes, --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- unless the permission for a shorter distance is granted by the appropriate air traffic services unit or appropriate aerodrome flight control units. 3.2.2 Additional rule. The aircraft which do not perform the common task (during approaching, overtaking, flying behind other aircraft) should give the way, maintaining the minimum distance of: a) with the speed of both aircraft up to 463 km/h — not less than 500 m; b) with the speed of one or two aircraft over 463/h — not less than 2 000 m; c) in respect of transport aircraft — not less than 5 000 m. 3.2.2.3 Additional rule. When a pilot-in-command, obligated to give way to another aircraft, is unable to maintain safe horizontal distance, then the aircraft that has the other aircraft on its left should decrease the cruising level and the aircraft that has the other aircraft on its right should increase the cruising level in such a manner as to provide a safe difference between their cruising levels while passing by. When the change of cruising level is not possible (clouds, flight at the minimum safe altitude or other restrictions), the pilot-in-command should perform a safe manoeuvre of avoidance. 3.2.5 Additional rule. e) Land or take-off considering available length of runway. 3.3.1.2 Additional rule. Note.— Before each flight by civil aircraft which will be performed within Polish airspace or outside its boundaries, the appropriate information should be submitted to the air traffic service unit. 3.5 Additional rule. Note.— Local Mean Time (LMT) shall be used in domestic air traffic other than controlled. CHAPTER 4 4.2 Additional rules. 1. All aircraft, except helicopters, intended to perform VFR flight or performing VFR flight cannot take off nor land at airfields and aerodromes other than controlled if: 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 POLAND SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) a) the cloud base of the lowest clouds covering more than half the sky is lower than 150 m above; and/or b) ground visibility is less than 1.5 km. 2. Restrictions to the rule mentioned in 1 above for helicopters are as follows: the cloud base of the lowest clouds covering more than half the sky is not lower than 50 m above terrain; and/or b) ground visibility is not less than 1 km. 3. Requirements given in 1 and 2 of this rule do not apply in case of landings if safe continuation of the flight is not possible. 4.7 1. VFR flights within ATS routes should be performed at flight levels corresponding to the true track specified in the table of cruising levels for IFR flights in Appendix 3, point b) of Annex 2. The correlation of cruising levels to true tracks should not be applied if such exception is specified in AIP-Poland or if it is specified in the clearances issued by air traffic services units. Remark: Tracks specified in Appendix 3 b) of Annex 2 are considered, in Polish airspace, as true tracks. 2. Additional rule. VFR flights operated on ATS routes and in flights outside the controlled airspace above 900 m AGL shall be conducted at cruising levels correlated with true track, as specified in the table of IFR cruising levels contained in Appendix 3, point b) of Annex 2, unless the appropriate air traffic services unit managing the airspace states otherwise. 3. VFR flights at night. Flight operations in uncontrolled air traffic during the night may be performed also as VFR flights assuming the rules shown in AIP-Poland. 4. Flights performed on the motor hang-glider and hang-glider. Additional rule. Crew members performing flights on the hang-gliders and the motor hang-gliders are obliged to observe the rules contained in AIP-Poland as follows: a) Organization and performance of flights within the airspace of the frontier district (6 km inside the country from the border line) may take place only after obtaining the permission from the appropriate air traffic services unit. Information about planned flights should be submitted to this unit at least the day before planned flights with the following details: 1) 2) the date and duration of flights and registration marks of the hang-gliders to be used; 3) number of participants, name of the person managing the flights and that person’s ID documents; 4) b) place of flights (specifying the place of take-off, the place of landing, the route and heights); the flight organizer’s name and address. Hang-glider flights planned: 1) within the areas of aerodrome and landing fields (within the take-off and landing zones); and 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- a)
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 2) POLAND 3 within the rest of Polish airspace excluding the frontier district, at heights above 100 m AGL; --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- should be notified to the appropriate ATS unit not later than two hours before commencement of flights in order to obtain permission for their performance. 5. There is no requirement to inform the appropriate ATS unit about hang-glider flights planned at heights from 0 to 100 m AGL within the airspace beyond the frontier district and the areas of aerodromes/landing fields (take-off/landing zones). Note.— On request of hang-glider users, the appropriate ATS unit shall inform them about the air traffic within the airspace used for their flights. 6. Flights of flying models of aircraft, rockets, etc. Additional rule. Flights of flying models of aircraft, rockets, etc., within the frontier district may be performed only after obtaining the permission of the appropriate ATS unit. Information about planned flights should be submitted to this unit at least the day before intended flights. Application for permission should contain: a) type of flying device; b) flight site (specifying the site of take-offs, landings and flight heights); c) date and time duration of flights; d) the organizer’s name and address. 7. Flights of flying models of aircraft, rockets, etc., planned: a) within the areas of aerodromes/airfields (within take-off and landing zones); and b) within the rest of airspace beyond the frontier district, at heights above 50 m AGL, should be notified to the appropriate ATS unit not later than two hours before commencement of flights in order to obtain permission for their performance. 8. There is no requirement to inform the appropriate ATS unit about flights of flying models of aircraft, rocket, etc., planned at heights from 0 to 50 m AGL within the airspace beyond the frontier district and the areas of aerodromes/landing fields (take-off/landing zones). Note.— On request, the appropriate ATS unit shall inform about the air traffic within the airspace used for flights of flying models of aircraft, rockets. etc. CHAPTER 5 5.1 Additional rules. IFR flights operating within ATS routes should be performed at one of the cruising levels selected from the table of cruising levels for IFR flights in Appendix 3, point b) of Annex 2, unless the aircraft is ascending or descending according to clearance by the ATS unit. The correlation of cruising levels to true track should not be applied if such exception is specified in AIP-Poland or it is specified in clearances given by air traffic services units. Horizontal IFR flights operating outside the controlled airspace and aerodrome traffic zones should be performed at cruising levels selected from the table of cruising levels for IFR flights in Appendix 3, point b) of Annex 2, unless the appropriate air traffic services unit managing the airspace states otherwise. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 4 POLAND SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) APPENDIX 1 4.1 Additional pyrotechnic signal. Different rule. Meaning Signal Aircraft on the ground Single green rocket Cleared to land Cleared for taxi and take-off Two or more green rockets 5.1 Note 1 Aircraft in flight For all aircraft command to land Clear the runway Additional rule. c) In exceptional cases, the signalman may take other positions in relation to the aircraft than specified in this rule in sub-sections a) and b), if it is recognized that it will be more advantageous for the safety of taxiing. If the taxiing is performed close to an obstruction, the signalman should take a position to see the wing of the aircraft and the passing obstruction, and the signalman must also be visible to the pilot-in-command and the second pilot. Note 2 1. The signalman is responsible for the correctness of signals shown. The pilot-in-command is responsible for the correctness of the aircraft manoeuvring operations. 2. If, for the safety of taxiing, it is necessary to follow the aircraft by more than one signalman, then the signals will be shown by two or more signalmen. 3. When more than one signalman takes part in following the manoeuvring of the aircraft, then the one who stands in the field of view of the pilot-in-command to the left of the endways axis of the aircraft is managing the whole ground traffic. 4. When the aircraft’s manoeuvres are combined with the passage between obstructions, then the aircraft should be followed by two signalmen. Each of them should observe one wing and the passed obstruction. 5. In cases where leading the aircraft by a signalman between obstructions is not sufficiently safe, the aircraft should be towed or the obstruction should be removed. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) RUSSIAN FEDERATION 1 CHAPTER 3 3.2.2.2 When aircraft are on intersecting paths, the pilot-in-command observing the other aircraft on the same level and to the left must descend, and the pilot-in-command observing the other aircraft to the right must climb, so that the difference in altitude will ensure safe separation between them. During this divergence manoeuvre, the pilots-in-command must not lose sight of one another. 3.2.5 c) Execute all turns in accordance with the established approach or departure procedures in the absence of other instructions. 3.6.2.4 If weather conditions deteriorate below VMC, the pilot-in-command must: — return to the departure aerodrome or land at the nearest alternate aerodrome if not rated for IFR flight; — continue under SVFR if the purpose of the flight, the training of the pilot-in-command and the facilities available along the route do not pose an obstacle to this procedure; — continue under IFR if the pilot-in-command and the aircraft are rated for such operations. When switching to SVFR or IFR flight, the pilot-in-command must coordinate his/her actions and flight level (altitude) with the ATC unit responsible for maintaining the required separation between aircraft and, if necessary, must agree on clearance of the lowest safe flight level and the conditions of entry into an adjacent ATC region. If a communications failure occurs during VFR or SVFR flight, the pilot-in-command must: — continue on under VFR (SVFR) to the destination aerodrome at the assigned altitude (level); — if it is impossible to continue the flight to the destination aerodrome under VFR or SVFR, continue to an alternate aerodrome at which weather conditions permit a VFR (SVFR) landing. 3.6.5.2.2 If it is decided to continue on to the destination aerodrome under IFR, remain at the level assigned upon departure, begin the descent for the approach after overflying the outer marker no earlier than the estimated time of arrival, and follow the special approach procedure. The landing should be completed no later than 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival. Fly to an alternate aerodrome at the level assigned upon departure or at an altitude designated for flight without communications (4 200, 4 500 or 7 200, 7 500 m). CHAPTER 4 4.2 Entry into or manoeuvring within the aerodrome zone shall take place only if authorized by the ATC unit. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 3.6.5.2.1
    • 2 RUSSIAN FEDERATION SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Terrain TAS (km/hr) VFR minima Height of cloud base above highest point of terrain, m. Visibility, m Vertical distance from cloud base, m. 150 300 300 2 000 3 000 5 000 50 100 100 In the take-off and landing area Level and hilly Mountainous 300 or less 301-350 550 or less In the approach area, on airways, local air routes and established routes Level and hilly Mountainous (hts. to 2 000 m) Mountainous (hts. of 2 000 m or above) 4.6 300 or less 301-350 350 or less 150 300 400 2 000 5 000 5 000 50 100 100 350 or less 700 10 000 100 VFR flight over a populated area may take place at a height that will, in the case of mechanical failure, permit the aircraft to land beyond the populated area or at the nearest aerodrome. If weather conditions make it impossible to maintain the appropriate altitude, the pilot-in-command must fly around the populated area, generally on the right-hand side if no other detour procedure has been established. CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 Except during take-off and landing, IFR flights shall be flown at a level which is not below the minimum safe level. 5.3 All Russian airspace is controlled. Flights over Russian territory shall be conducted in accordance with the rules applicable to flight in controlled airspace. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) RUSSIAN FEDERATION 3 Level (m) Level (m) True course angle 180-359 True course angle 360-179 17 100 15 100 13 100 11 600 10 600 9 600 8 600 7 800 7 200 6 600 6 000 5 400 4 800 4 200 3 600 3 000 2 400 1 800 1 200 16 100 14 100 12 100 11 100 10 100 9 100 8 100 7 500 6 900 6 300 5 700 5 100 4 500 3 900 3 300 2 700 2 100 1 500 900 Appendix 1 1.1 e) Not applied. 1.2.1 b) Not applied. 4.1 Not applied. 4.2 Not applied, except for paragraphs 4.2.5.1 and 4.2.5.2. Appendix 3 Established vertical separation: 1. altitudes from 900 m to 8 100 m: 300 m; 2. altitudes from 8 100 m to 12 100 m.: 500 m; 3. altitudes above 12 100 m, as well as between aircraft flying at supersonic speed and other aircraft: 1 000m. Vertical Separation Level (m) Level (m) True course angle 180-359 True course angle 360-179 17 100 15 100 13 100 11 600 10 600 16 100 14 100 12 100 11 100 10 100 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 4 RUSSIAN FEDERATION 9 600 8 600 7 800 7 200 6 600 6 000 5 400 4 800 4 200 3 600 3 000 2 400 1 800 1 200 SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 9 100 8 100 7 500 6 900 6 300 5 700 5 100 4 500 3 900 3 300 2 700 2 100 1 500 900 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) SLOVAKIA 1 CHAPTER 3 3.2.5 Additional provision. When approaching an aerodrome where AFIS is provided, the pilot of an aircraft equipped with a radio shall, on appropriate frequency (assigned for a particular aerodrome or, if no frequency is assigned, on a frequency published for general aviation flights), report: a) b) c) d) e) when entering the aerodrome information zone – aircraft position; intended position for joining into an aerodrome traffic circuit; additional information (if required); final; and runway vacation. When departing from an aerodrome where AFIS is provided, the pilot shall report: a) b) c) d) e) f) when the aircraft is ready for taxi; when the aircraft is reaching the holding point; runway lining up; take-off; leaving the aerodrome traffic circuit; and leaving the aerodrome information zone. 3.6.5.2.2 a) The pilot, having acknowledged a clearance to climb to a level other than the one specified in the current flight plan for en-route phase (intermediate clearance), in case of two-way communication failure, shall, after reaching the last assigned and acknowledged level or minimum flight altitude, if higher, maintain this level for a period of three minutes and then climb to a cruising level according to the current flight plan; if no cruising level was assigned in the current flight plan, the pilot shall, after this period of time, climb to a cruising level in accordance with the filed flight plan. Note.— If a time or geographical limit relating to levels was specified in the flight clearance, the pilot shall proceed in accordance with the clearance. CHAPTER 4 4.7 Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the Aviation Authority of the Slovak Republic, VFR flights in level cruising flight, except for gliders, hang gliders, paragliders and manned balloons, when operated above 5 000 ft (1 500 m) MSL or 1 000 ft (300 m) from the ground or water, if higher, as 5 000 ft MSL, shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Pilots shall use the above information to prevent a potential collision.
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) General SWEDEN 1 The differences promulgated in AIP Sweden, GEN 1-7, will continue to exist. CHAPTER 3 3.1.8 Not applied. 3.2.1 Additional provision. Aircraft shall not be flown in formation except by pre-arrangement. 3.6.5.2.2 a) Not applied. CHAPTER 4 4.5 Not applied. Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 290 may be granted within temporarily reserved areas. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) SWITZERLAND 1 CHAPTER 3 Table 3-1 VMC visibility: reduced visibility and distance to clouds in airspace Class G GND to 2 000 ft (600 m) AGL. No IFR permitted in airspace Class G. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) UNITED KINGDOM 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Acrobatic flight. The United Kingdom uses the term “aerobatic manoeuvres”. Aerodrome control service. For aircraft in the air, the service is limited to aircraft flying in or in the vicinity of the aerodrome traffic zone by visual reference to the surface. Approach control service. For aircraft in the air, the service is limited to aircraft flying in or in the vicinity of the aerodrome traffic zone by visual reference to the surface. Cloud ceiling. In relation to an aerodrome means the vertical distance from the elevation of the aerodrome to the lowest part of any cloud visible from the aerodrome which is sufficient to obscure more than one half of the sky so visible. Controlled aerodrome. The United Kingdom does not use this term but lists in the AIP those aerodromes at which air traffic control service is provided. Flight crew. Those members of the crew of the aircraft who respectively undertake to act as pilot, flight navigator, flight engineer and flight radiotelephony operator of the aircraft. Manoeuvring area. The part of an aerodrome provided for the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the movement of aircraft on the surface, excluding the apron and any part of the aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft. Pilot-in-command. In relation to an aircraft, means a person who for the time being is in charge of the piloting of the aircraft without being under the direction of any other pilot in the aircraft. Runway. An area, whether or not paved, which is provided for the take-off and landing run of aircraft. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Special VFR flight. A flight at any time in a control zone which is Class A airspace or in any other control zone in IMC or at night in respect of which the appropriate air traffic control unit has given permission for the flight to be made in accordance with special instructions given by that unit instead of in accordance with the instrument flight rules and in the course of which the aircraft complies with any instructions given by that unit and remains clear of cloud in sight of the surface. CHAPTER 3 3.3.1.2 b) Flight plans are not required for aircraft flying within Advisory Airspace unless they intend to participate in the Advisory Service. c) A flight plan may be filed for any flight. For a flight of more than 10 miles from the coast or over sparsely populated or mountainous areas, particularly if the aircraft is not equipped with radio, it is advisable to file a flight plan to facilitate the provision of alerting and search and rescue. 3.3.5.3 3.3.5.4 The United Kingdom requires a pilot flying to a destination without an ATS or AFS facility, prior to departure, to notify a responsible person at the destination of the flight’s ETA. The responsible person will inform the Parent ATSU if the aircraft fails to arrive within 30 minutes of the ETA. In the event that a pilot is unable to find a responsible person at the destination, the pilot may request his or her Parent ATSU to act in this capacity. Should this occur, the pilot is required to inform the Parent ATSU within 30 minutes of arrival at destination. 3.6.5.2.2 Additional procedures appropriate to specific circumstances are detailed in the United Kingdom AIP ENR 1.1.3 General Flight Procedures section. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 2 UNITED KINGDOM SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) Further detailed procedures for individual major aerodromes may differ from the basic procedure and are notified in the United Kingdom AIP Aerodrome (AD2) sections. 3.9 Class A airspace. The United Kingdom has not yet notified VMC minima for Class A airspace introduced in Annex 2 on 4 November 1999. However, comparable VMC minima are specified for certain applications in Class A airspace (UK AIP ENR 1-4-1). Class B airspace. The United Kingdom has not yet implemented the distance from cloud requirements introduced in Annex 2 on 4 November 1999. Class C, D and E airspace. In addition to the minima specified in Table 3-1, the VFR flight is allowed by aircraft, other than helicopters, at or below 3 000 ft AMSL at a speed of 140 kt or less, which remain clear of cloud and in sight of the surface and in a flight visibility of at least 5 km. Helicopters may fly under VFR in Class C, D or E airspace at or below 3 000 ft AMSL provided that they remain clear of cloud and in sight of the surface. Class F and G airspace. The VMC minima at and below FL 100 applies down to the surface (instead of down to 3 000 ft AMSL) with the minima at and below 3 000 ft as an alternative. The proviso “or 300 m above terrain whichever is higher” does not apply in the United Kingdom. For the purposes of an aeroplane taking off from or approaching to land at an aerodrome with Class B, C or D airspace, the visibility, if any, communicated to the commander of an aeroplane by the appropriate air traffic control unit shall be taken to be the flight visibility for the time being. CHAPTER 4 4.1 See details above for 3.9. 4.2 The United Kingdom does not permit VFR flights in certain control zones as notified in the UK AIP as Class A airspace. 4.3 VFR flight is not permitted at night. (Night as defined in the United Kingdom legislation.) 4.4 a) VFR flight is permitted above FL 200 except in certain areas as notified in the UK AIP as Class A airspace. 4.5 VFR flight by General Air Traffic (as defined in UK AIP GEN 1-7-30 Table 1.7.2) is not permitted at and above FL 290. VFR flight by Operational Air Traffic (as defined in UK AIP GEN 1-7-30 Table 1.7.2) is permitted and will be provided with 2 000 ft vertical separation. 4.6 a) Minimum height over congested areas is 1 500 ft. b) There is no minimum height above the surface, but aircraft must maintain a minimum distance of 500 ft from persons, vessels, vehicles and structures. The minimum heights apply to all flights whether under VFR or IFR and in all meteorological conditions. 4.7 It is not mandatory in the United Kingdom for VFR flights to adopt any particular cruising level system. However, when operating above transition altitude, they are recommended to conform to the cruising level system prescribed in the United Kingdom for IFR flights. In those parts of controlled airspace where VFR flight is permitted, such flights are not required to adopt any particular cruising level system. 12/12/02 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) UNITED KINGDOM 3 CHAPTER 5 5.1.2 a) The United Kingdom has no statutory requirements relating specifically to minimum IFR altitude when operating over high terrain or mountainous areas. b) The United Kingdom regulations require that an aircraft operating under IFR shall not fly at a height less than 1 000 ft (300 m) above the highest fixed obstacle within distance of 5 NM (9.25 km) of the aircraft unless the aircraft is flying on a route so notified or is operating at or below 3 000 ft AMSL and remains clear of cloud and in sight of the surface. In addition to the minimum height requirements in respect of obstacles, the minimum height over congested areas is 1 500 ft. 5.3.1 IFR flights operating in level cruising flight above 3 000 ft AMSL outside controlled airspace or above the appropriate transition altitude in the United Kingdom will use Table I if flying below 24 500 ft or Table II if flying above 24 500 ft. The altimeter shall be set to a pressure of 1013.2 hectopascals. These levels do not apply if flying in conformity with ATC instructions or in accordance with notified holding procedures in relation to an aerodrome. Table I — Flights at levels below 24 500 ft Magnetic track Cruising level less than 090 090 but less than 180 180 but less than 270 270 but less than 360 Odd thousands of feet Odd thousands of feet plus 500 ft Even thousands of feet Even thousands of feet plus 500 ft Table II — Flights at levels above 24 500 ft Cruising level less than 180 25 000 ft 27 000 ft 29 000 ft 33 000 ft and above at intervals of 4 000 ft 180 but less than 360 --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Magnetic track 26 000 ft 28 000 ft 31 000 ft 35 000 ft and above at intervals of 4 000 ft Appendix 1 3 These visual warning signals are not used in the United Kingdom. 4.2 At land aerodromes, ground signals may be displayed for the guidance of air traffic. Such signals will normally be displayed in the Signals Area or on the Signals Mast, and as near as possible to the control tower. The signals which may be displayed and the interpretation of the signals are shown in Rules 42 to 46 of the Rules of the Air Regulations 1996. The signals are in accordance with ICAO Annex 2, Appendix A with the exception of those detailed below which either differ from or supplement those in Annex 2. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • 4 UNITED KINGDOM SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 4.2.5.1 Directions for landing or take-off. A white disc displayed alongside the cross-arm of the T and in line with the shaft of the T signifies that the direction of landing and take-off do not necessarily coincide. This may also be signified by a black ball suspended from a mast. 4.2.5.2 Black numerals in two-figure groups and, where parallel runways are provided, the letters L (left) LC (left centre), C (centre), RC (right centre) and R (right), placed against a yellow background, indicate the direction for take-off or the runway in use. 4.2.6 Right hand circuit. A red and yellow striped arrow. This may also be indicated by a rectangular green flag flown from a mast. 4.2.8 Glider flights in operation. In addition to the double white cross, two red balls suspended from a mast one above the other signify that glider flying is in progress at the aerodrome. A yellow cross indicates the tow-rope dropping area. The following additional signals are used in the United Kingdom. Landing area for light aircraft. A white letter L indicates a part of the manoeuvring area which shall be used only for the taking-off and landing of light aircraft. A red letter L displayed on the standard dumb-bell signifies that light aircraft are permitted to take-off and land either on a runway or on the area designated above. Helicopter operations. When helicopters are required to take off and land only within a designated area, a white letter H is displayed in the Signals Area and a white letter H indicates the area to be used by helicopters. Boundary markers a) unserviceable portions of paved runway, taxiway or apron: markers with alternate orange and white stripes; b) unserviceable portions of unpaved manoeuvring area: orange and white markers alternating with flags coloured orange and white. (One or more white crosses indicate that the area is unserviceable.) c) aerodrome boundary, where not otherwise evident: orange and white markers; d) boundary of an unpaved runway or of a stopway where not otherwise evident: white flat rectangular markers. Additional ground signals. The following ground signals, not provided for in air navigation legislation, may be displayed at military aerodromes and at other aerodromes not normally available for civil aircraft in general. Unserviceable areas. A yellow and black solid of triangular section will be displayed on areas which are unserviceable owing to bad ground or to the presence of stationary vehicles, working parties or other obstacles. Landing dangerous. A white cross displayed at the end of a runway shall indicate that runway is non-useable. The aerodrome may be used for storage purposes. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Aerodrome control in operation. A checkered flag or board containing 12 equal squares, coloured red and yellow alternately, signifies that aircraft may move on the manoeuvring area and apron only in accordance with the permission of the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome.
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) UNITED KINGDOM 5 Emergency use only. A white cross and a single white bar displayed on a runway at a disused aerodrome indicates that the runway is fit for emergency use. Runways so marked are not safeguarded and may be temporarily obstructed. Land in emergency only. Two vertical yellow bars on a red square on the Signals Area indicate that the landing areas are serviceable but the normal safety facilities are not available. Aircraft should land in emergency only. Variable circuit. If the direction of the circuit is variable, a red flag will be flown from the Signals Mast when a left hand circuit is in operation and a green flag when a right hand circuit is in operation. Light aircraft. A red L shall indicate that light aircraft may land on a special grass area which is delimited by white corner markings; taxiing of light aircraft on grass is permitted. Appendix 3 See difference for 5.3.1 above. Appendix 4 The United Kingdom requires permission to be obtained for operators of unmanned balloons and details restrictions on the release of large numbers of small balloons, but not to the extent of Appendix 4. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Attachment A 2.3 f) Not all United Kingdom interception aircraft and interception control units have the capability to communicate on 121.5 MHz. Where an intercept control unit does not have such a capability, use would be made of direct communications between that unit and another air traffic control unit which did have a 121.5 MHz capability. This would ensure that the establishment of communications on 121.5 MHz was not jeopardized. 12/12/02 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
    • SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) VANUATU 1 CHAPTER 1 Definitions Air traffic control service. A service provided for the purposes of: a) preventing collisions 1) between aircraft; and 2) between aircraft and obstructions on any manoeuvring area; and b) expediting and maintaining a safe and efficient flow of air traffic. Air traffic service. Includes: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) any aerodrome control service; any area control service; any approach control service; any flight information service; any aerodrome flight information service; any alerting service; and any other air traffic service considered by the Director to be necessary or desirable for the safe and efficient operation of the civil aviation system. Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the surface movement of aircraft associated with take-off and landing but does not include areas set aside for loading, unloading, or maintenance of aircraft. Pilot-in-command. In relation to any aircraft, means the pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft. Traffic avoidance advice. Vanuatu does not include the words “specifying manoeuvres”. Visibility. The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. CHAPTER 2 2.5 In addition, a pilot is not permitted to transport any passenger who is obviously under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug, except a medical patient under proper medical care, or in the case of an emergency. g CHAPTER 3 3.1.8 Aircraft shall not be flown in formation; however, a reduction of separation between aircraft required by military necessity or other extraordinary circumstances, may be accepted on specific request (in some recorded form) addressed to the Director, Civil Aviation Authority, having jurisdiction over the aircraft concerned. 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Controlled airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights, and to VFR flights, in accordance with the airspace classification.
    • 2 VANUATU SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 2 (NINTH EDITION) 3.3.1.2 A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating any flight or portion thereof in the Port Vila Sector of the Nadi FIR. --`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- In Item 15, intended altitudes shall be stated for VFR flights. 3.6.2.4 c) In controlled airspace, special VFR flights are subject to approval by ATS and shall be conducted: — with a flight visibility of not less than 1 500 m; and — clear of cloud and in sight of the ground or water. CHAPTER 4 4.6 a) An aircraft will not operate over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 1 500 ft above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft. 4.9 In VFR flight outside controlled airspace, the pilot-in-command is under strict obligation to inform the flight information service of all changes of cruising altitude or other changes of current flight. In the case of an emergency, the pilot-in-command shall inform the flight information service as soon as possible after changes have been made. Outside controlled airspace, the pilot-in-command of a VFR flight will inform ATS when taxiing, departing the aerodrome, arriving in the circuit and landing completed on any uncontrolled aerodrome. CHAPTER 5 5.3.1 When in IFR outside controlled airspace, the pilot-in-command is under strict obligation to inform ATS of any change of cruising level or any other change to current flight plan. In the case of an emergency, the pilot-in-command will notify ATS as soon as possible after changes have been made. 5.3.2 Outside controlled airspace, any IFR flight will report taxiing, departing the aerodrome, arriving in the circuit and landing completed on any uncontrolled aerodrome. Any flight departing an aerodrome will maintain VMC and remain outside controlled airspace until radio contact has been established (either directly or by relay) with ATS and appropriate traffic information or a clearance to join controlled airspace has been delivered. APPENDIX 1 4.1 Pyrotechnics are not used in Vanuatu. 4.2 There are no visual ground signals used in Vanuatu. ___________________ 31/3/05 Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization Provided by IHS under license with ICAO No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale