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Towards a landscape
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  • 3. 2 TOWARDS A LANDSCAPE THEORY First of all, I am grateful for the invitation to the authorities of the University of Amapá and Dr. Antonio Barros which led to my arrival here in Brazil. 
 I want, if you will allow me to dedicate this conference, first to a friend, Rosa Grena Klias Landscape Architect whose work you can enjoy the Macapaenses in Macapá site is that so lovingly they call : " the nice place. " On the other hand, the memory of a Brazilian who had the honor of knowing personally, a Paulista, a great master of the global landscape: Mr. Roberto Burle Marx, who next year marks the centenary of his birth. 
 It is the central theme of this conference, the historical process of recent decades, in which a discussion has been going around the concept of landscape or landscaping. I am not interested either compile a diverse array of ideas about the landscape is. 
  • 4. Our focus will be to propose some direction in the management of some speculative resources that allow us to address the theoretical question of landscape in a manner appropriate and contextualized, and where possible, in a key strategic regional and local levels. 
 creative intelligence", exactly, that made this author in the introduction to it, in order to promote an understanding of the ways in which is setting a theoretical proposal. 
 This author refers to a notion of theory which involves: 
 The rationale behind this proposal is what we might call the form of insertion in the academic landscape, for reasons that we will make reference, requires the development of content, going beyond the aesthetic conceptions cutting generalized and focused almost exclusivity, in the construction of parks and gardens. 
 3. that can be corroborated or refuted. 
 When issues related to the landscape, become a subject covered by the University, the specificity of the landscape must be able to be recognized. True, the theory and criticism, do not enjoy much prestige within the disciplines projects, but also somehow being recognized, which is the lack of theoretical development, which leads to uncertainties and dependence as far as knowledge and ideology is concerned. Increasingly, recourse to the appointment: "There is nothing more practical than a good theory", which some attributed to Kurt Lewin, others to Chesterton. But whoever it was, said something very true. 
 It is in honor of this, that the way we propose to give light on the issues inherent in the interpretation and intervention in the landscape that we propose is this: "Towards a landscape theory " 
 So, to start and in that sense, it is necessary to provide a simple way which is what is meant by theory and on the other understand what we talked about when we talk about landscaping. 
 To speak of theory, is a matter of agreeing on a notion of what theory is. A few months ago, reviewing the José Antonio Marina work, "Theory of 
 1. a system of hypotheses which support and control each other, 
 2. a conceptual construct that organizes the knowledge of the field in question and finally, 
 Our aim now is to focus in the formulation of hypotheses, as a first step on the path that we intend, "Towards a theory". 
 Furthermore, we approach the idea of landscaping generically as a particular form of intervention in the landscape. This is linked both to the need for some clarifications, in relation to the characteristics of those interventions that make the aforementioned characteristic, and secondly to clarify as best as possible the concepts which contribute to the notion of landscape. 
 In both the inherent characteristics of the intervention methods, correspond to such questions as: 
 a. the construction of meaning and significance in relation to the human habitat; 
 b. the aesthetic dimension, and 
 c. finally a functional technical dimension relative 3
  • 5. to the individual, specifically on the subject and the human scale. 
 When we started the concept of theory adjectives, use of language itself reveals the condition that any theory context dependence. 
 The hierarchy of ideas in the formulation of hypotheses, a process that we understand, does significantly different theoretical approaches. Contextualization of a theory depends, as it can not be otherwise, of the contextual factors that induce a particular kind of hierarchy of statements of hypotheses. It is logical to think then, that factors of local or regional type defines a particular theoretical form. This view opposes the idea of assuming that the shapes of theoretical design are universal. 
 A theory can be practical, mainly for our region, if it functions as a resource of local resistance to globalizing tension, rather than spreading your vehicle. 
 It is known that the regional university culture, a trend has developed based on the dichotomy between theory / practice, while it should not be one without the other. Moreover, someone can be questioned, and would be great for this were: what kind of theory or practice that would kind of go, whether dispensing with the other? 
 So that is finally being consistent with the title of this conference you propose, as lines of work and introduce our way of research. 13 design hypothesis and 13 landscape hypothesis, allowing us to start our journey towards a landscape design theory ... The concept that conforms to such forms of intervention, whether the design concept, on which there has also been a controversy, no less complex than the above mentioned, and therefore it is necessary to approximate an appropriate design concept and sustainable. 
 In conclusion, the landscape theories as we approach the landscape theories and design theory. 
 The landscaping as projective discipline. 
 If we consider the discipline design projects, while the landscaping is in landscape design, we can consider the latter also a discipline of this kind. 
 To our knowledge by virtue of our experience, every discipline projective supports four types of theories: 
 a. ontological 
 b. methodological 
 c. Ethics 
 d. of field or historical
 This typology we propose such theory, enables the management and competition of different scenarios. 
 For our case those inherent in design theory and those that give rise to theories concerning the landscape. 
 Contextual theory, a matter of prioritization. 
 Design hypothesis
 1. The design object is not the object. 
 2. The design is updated solutions to given problems in the interaction between human beings and their habitat. Like art, design, construct the 4
  • 6. notion of living. 
 more effectively and systematically if one considers the dimensions: ontological, methodological, ethical and field. 
 3. The category problem is determining the scope of the intervention design, and simultaneously determined by the design that takes the latter. The design in our context demands a more holistic approach in human-habitat interaction. 
 11. The design is ubiquitous. It is present in all areas of human activity and this means that they can be tackled from the grant of design as a field of knowledge. 
 4. The design object is to improve the quality of life of citizens. 
 12. While the design is updated, an appropriate design methodology requires recognizing the scope of the concept of updating, this inherent to a particular culture, "what the local specificity as far as regards design theory-A design methodology requires tools to recognize and systematize information inherent to update factors, hierarchical, optimize and transform it into projective procedures. 
 5. The design concept has been established in the local imagination is associated with added value and market competitiveness, while consideration is emerging as social action and as a value cultural. 
 6. The design concept according to its etymology is associated with disegno (drawing in that shape), but is also profitable in theory, conceived as design, in the sense of designating (naming) or to fate. 
 13. Rationalization of the weighting of different dimensions of design is critical in an approach to discipline. For example, the ergonomic dimension versus aesthetics 7. The academic approach to education and design in our environment, orbits the professional designer, if maybe I should do about design as practice and discipline of human knowledge possible. 
 Landscape hypothesis 
 1. Landscaping transcends mere aesthetic solution of environmental questions 8. The professionalization of university-level design should be geared towards research and extension must be professional profile. 
 2. The competitive landscape is the expression of man and nature. 
 9. In the design exercise, a condition should prevail legitimately participatory clearly marked by a methodological tendency to focus on user experience. 
 3. The landscape category to interpret and intervene in the habitat of an effective way different from other categories such as: urban area, geographic region, ecosystem, etc.. 
 10. The theoretical approach can be performed 4. A landscaping project involves providing solu- 5
  • 7. tions to problems of interaction with the landscape habitat specificity. 
 tisensory, synergistic homeostatic and synesthetic. 
 5. If there is a cultural identity that is inherent in the territory, and it is through the notion of landscape, that such processes of identity can be understood. 
 13. Human is part of the landscape. There is an inherent right of individuals to landscape and waiting to be conquered. 
 6. The uniqueness of the landscape is that it involves the subject beyond that of the components of the physical environment - biological. 
 7. There is a landscape subject issuer and the landscape is subjective. On the landscape, at the same time, operate across other forms of production of subjectivity, such as media, film, art, etc.
 8. Intervening in the landscape involves not intervene in the physical-biological environment. The landscape is a way of looking. A look culturally constructed. Intervening the landscape may well be looking to intervene 
 9. Conceiving of the landscape as a multidisciplinary attack on the possibility of recognizing the unique landscape of a project or problem. 
 10. The landscaping is inclined to a holistic view of problems of interaction with the habitat. The ways of professionalizing the landscape is a projection of the architecture. 11. Meanwhile, require a shift to an increasingly extensión mode and the assumption of more participatory, synergistic homeostatic and synesthetic.
 12. The landscape is set to key environmental perception, so it depends on your character, mul6