Due to the high number of slides that would be necessary for all the work samples, I will only present the ones that are underlined.
Hello, my name is ThatyanaBurcl. Through the following slides I will be presenting an extremely interesting and rather controversial topic that entails support from various scientific research studies. Reading the articles that are included in this presentation elevates thought, and even the narrow-minded may find that reason and knowledge makes a lot more sense than remaining alongside of ignorance. I hope most of you can take something constructive out of it, even if you may not agree.
This review paper focuses on the negativeeffects that religiosity has on aggression and the education/intelligenceof native-born and foreign-born residents of the United States; therefore, the questions presented above specifically indicate the factors being examined. These factors are aggression and education/intelligence. Also, the target population being analyzed is U.S. born and foreign residents.
There are 63% of Americans that “Absolutely believe in God” (Paul, 2009). The seven top nations that have a large percentage of atheists and agnostics are Sweden, Japan, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Norway (Paul, 2009). An incredible 82% of Swedish accept evolution; this is unlike the present numbers of Americans (Paul, 2009).
Religiosity involves various influences within culture. In the United States, society is divided on secular views and pious views (Paul, 2009). According to Paul (2009), “Utilizing 25 indicators, the uniquely extensive Successful Societies Scale reveals that population diversity and immigration correlate weakly with 1st worldsocioeconomic conditions, and high levels of income disparity, popular religiosity as measuredby differing levels of belief and activity, and rejection of evolutionary science correlatestrongly negatively with improving conditions” (Abstract section, p. 398). The research found “The uniquely low cumulative PRVSS score for the U.S. of 0.9 demonstrates that it is the least secular nation among those sampled, with Ireland the next most religious. At the other end of the scale some nations approach and exceed a score of 9. For the purposes of this comparative investigation the U.S. is characterized as religious, the rest of the 1st world nations as secular to varying degrees” (Paul, 2009, p. 405).
Here is some information regarding the impacts of it: “In the secular democracies peoplebelong to critical support groups, including the health care club, simply by being citizens,boosting overall general societal health to higher levels. Thus theistic Americans tend to behappier than nonreligious citizens, but the populations of secular western nations are about ashappy as and healthier than the citizens of more religious America. The means by whichcitizens of irreligious democracies are coping without the aid of faith-based clubs has receivedlittle research attention” (Paul, 2009, p. 424).
Those that oppose to views – such as the research of Gregory Paul – carry pious agendas into politics in the U.S. Coulter and O’Reilly are known to cause more than plenty of controversy by cultivating ignorance and fear in simple American minds. Here you’ll read about what comes out of secular-democratic.
Christian terrorism has recently alarmed the American population; the terrorist group, Hutaree, was captured by the FBI before attack plan could unveil.
A study performed by Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath (2007) displayed how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God. This type of research addresses more specifically how religiosity influences aggression. Nevertheless, this is something that history has demonstrated as religious fanatics have engaged in extremely violent acts, such as the events that took place during the Crusades, along with the more current terrorists’ events, like the attack on the Twin Towers.
It is great to consider future innovative research, especially when it comes to exploratory topics (such as the ones that are being reviewed in this presentation). That is why here you can see further ideas involving religiosity and aggression (which is one of the focus factors). By integrating valuable ideas and formulating inquisitive questions it is possible to contribute to change.
According to the Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009), “Evidence pointing to a negative relationship between intelligence and religious beliefs within nations come from four sources. There are (1) negative correlations between intelligence and religious belief; (2) Lower percentages holding religious beliefs among intelligence elites compared with the general population; (3) a decline of religious belief with age among children and adolescents as their cognitive abilities increase; (4) a decline of religious belief during the course of the twentieth century as the intelligence of populations has increased” (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009, p. 12).
Apparently, the Gallup Poll (2009) finds that, “When the results are split up according to education level, a very predictable picture shows up, namely a linear correlation between education level and (dis)belief in evolution” (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Students that has high school level education or less than that believe in evolution is 21%, but this greatly differs from college level students that include 41% that believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). At the college graduate level you can find 53% believe in evolution, however, this increases significantly by 21% at postgraduate level – in which 74% believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009).
Check out this interesting statistics! You may learn something surprising that you didn’t already know. The Gallup polls are among the most consistent numbers and surveys large portions of the American population.
More interesting Gallup polls regarding religiosity in the U.S. According to Newport (2009), “Previous Gallup research shows that the rate of church attendance is fairly constant across educational groups, suggesting that this relationship is not owing to an underlying educational difference but instead reflects a direct influence of religious beliefs on belief in evolution.Younger Americans, who are less likely to be religious than those who are older, are also more likely to believe in evolution. Still, just about half of those aged 18 to 34 say they believe in evolution” (para. 6-7).
THANK YOU FOR REVIEWING MY REVIEW PAPER PRESENTATION!
Personal Statement Human civilization is currently at one of its crossroads, a revolutionary moment in time when humans need psychology to address their flaws. Why now? Well, as it currently stands, there are many issues of alarming concern to scientists worldwide. Issues that are involving the human overpopulation growth, climate change, the endangerment and even extinction of various living organisms along with their habitats, pollution, the diminishing natural resources, the possibility of nuclear/biochemical war, disease and the fear of a massive, international outbreak, and religiosity encouraging more ignorance and harm in the world. Why psychology? Since psychology is the scientific field that seeks out knowledge of what the connections are between mental processes and behavior, it is very valuable in helping humans to understand themselves and others. With guidance, by recognizing their flaws, they will know how to improve upon themselves. It is extremely essential for all sciences to work together in finding solutions to attend to such issues by providing explanations and insight, along with inciting interest of scientific topics throughout the population. The proper education and guidance can help address issues that derive from ignorance.
Personal Statement What do human flaws have to do with the important issues concerning scientists today? They are the reason behind these issues. Of course, this is not saying that every person in the planet is a destructive being. There is a minority in the population that inquires and strives to understand what they experience in this reality and how they can live in a constructive, positive manner. However, among the masses there are those that seek guidance and leadership because they want to go on with their own personal concerns, while there are others to carry out “order” and concentrate on the issues on a grand scale. Nevertheless, there are those that have sought for answers in the wrong places and/or end up misguided by their own ignorance. Furthermore, it is wise to recognize that there are also those among the masses that absolutely don’t care either way and may even choose to be destructive. This perspective is what feeds my drive and stimulates the motive for me to pursue such a valuable scientific study. I have always carried in me a special, intriguing passion for knowledge. Particularly through all the observations and lessons I have taken from my experience of being alive in such a mysterious and problem-stricken world, I have found a meaningful perspective that influences my understanding of human nature and the flaws that are seemingly devolving civilization.
Personal Statement I have remained an exemplary student, even though throughout my scholastic career I have juggled a pretty hectic schedule and endured hardships. I chose to initiate my studies by earning an Associates of Arts in Criminal Justice. This is due to the fact that I was very intrigued with what goes on in the system of the United States, what kind of rehabilitation is available to those that enter the system, and what preventative measures are used against crime. Those points were very important to me because I came from such humble beginnings in Peru to a supposed advanced society; a society that, though seemingly structured as a successful melting pot, is stricken with issues dealing with crime, racism, prejudice, religiosity, greed, uncontrollable waste of resources, and very strong identity confusion among the people. I could write whole books on each one of these points with plenty of evidence to support it because as a scientist I wouldn’t do it any other way. Writing and doing research are like pastimes for me. I’m a skeptic and a philosopher of life; I spend a lot of my time asking myself questions about what can be done to address issues such as the ones I previously mentioned and I’m always eager to learn from those who are wise and knowledgeable. After my Associate studies, I continued on with my Baccalaureate in Psychology with a concentration of Criminal Justice included.
Personal Statement My desire is to guide and educate individuals on how psychology can help them understand the various aspects of their human behavior and how it impacts life on a grand scale; therefore, granting them the knowledge to improve the overall human quality of life. I hope to accomplish this by continuing my scholastic path and pursuing graduate studies in psychology. I’m determined on placing my focus in earning a doctoral degree in Ecological Psychology. I also intend to earn a certification in Ecopsychology to have core training in the topics that underline this field. My ultimate goal in pursuing these studies is to become a multi-disciplinary scholar in order to be an effective educator on the topics that pertain to these fields of study. I’m also enthusiastic to partake in the exploratory research conducted within the field of Ecological Psychology that applies biological evolutionary principles; such as in developing efficient methods of educating individuals on the topics that emerged from this study. My goals through research would especially involve structuring the perspective of infants and the role that such perspectives play on human development. I’m not only about preaching about such issues. I actively concern myself with them by keeping updated with the latest developments and formulating my own ideas.
Resume ThatyanaBurcl email@example.com [Additional contact info available upon request]
Objective Desire to become involved in mental health volunteer services, in order to apply and expand my knowledge of psychology, as well as demonstrating productivity of my interpersonal skills and extensive customer service skills. Experience Paramutuel Teller 01/2008 – Present Mardi Gras Racetrack & Gaming Center, Hallandale Beach, FL • Assisting guests throughout casino floor with general slot floor inquiries and functions • Placing wagers for the track and other tracks nationwide (incl. Canada & Australia) • Conducting monetary transactions, handling small to large amounts of cash • Providing guests with information regarding services and events the casino offers
Resume Contract Ambassador 09/2007 – Present EventProStrageties, Inc., South Florida Region • Marketing various products for major companies (e.g., Microsoft) • Increasing awareness of product/service • Branding product/service image • Addressing consumers’ questions and concerns about product/service • Recruiting assistant promoters for events • Knowledgeable on all required protocol and safety procedures Produce Clerk 07/2004 – Present Publix Supermarket, Dania, FL • Assisting customers with all inquiries and orders • Preparing fresh foods, salads and fruit bowls • Maintaining working area organized and sanitary • Recording department’s inventory Teller I 06/2004 – 12/2004 SunTrust Bank, Pembroke Pines, FL • Managed large to small sums of money • Processed various types of monetary transactions accurately • Customer service and product knowledge • Performed tasks of great responsibility by following safety protocols
Resume Cashier 08/2003 – 12/2003 Publix Supermarket, Hollywood, FL • Handled different types of monetary transactions accurately • Assisted customers by providing excellent customer service • Balanced money tray accurately and in timely manner • Organized inventory shelves and work area Waitress 05/2003-08/2003 The Europe Restaurant, Hollywood, FL • Responsible for serving foods and liquors to various customers • Interacted with customers and answer questions on menu items • Handled a full range of side work and cleanup duties Front Service Clerk/Cashier 04/2001-08/2001 Eckerd Drugstore, Hollywood, FL • Performed daily inventory and stock • Dealt with customers’ questions regarding products and services offered • Performed checkout transactions, balanced money tray, and arranged shelves neatly Education Argosy University - Phoenix Campus Baccalaureate Degree - 05/2008-Present Psychology with concentration in Criminal Justice 4.0 GPA
Resume Florida Atlantic University - Davie Campus Baccalaureate Degree - 05/2007-12/2007 Double major in Psychology and Criminal Justice Awarded FAU scholarship for good academic standing Fall 2007 Keiser University - Fort Lauderdale Campus Baccalaureate Degree - 01/2006-05/2006 Criminal Justice Earned Associates of Arts - 01/2004-01/2006 Criminal Justice 3.8 GPA Interests/Skills • Excellent computer usage (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Adobe) • Fluent Spanish & currently learning French • Great communication skills • Excellent research skills • Great at multi-tasking • Diligent • Creative • Writing • Photography Affiliations References Golden Key International Honour Society member & Memorial Regional Hospital volunteer References are available on request.
Reflection Through my scholastic undergrad journey, I’ve been able to advance my cognitive abilities by further expanding on:
Major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, applications, and historical trends in psychology
Professional Work SamplesFor Advance General Psychology PSY492
Cognitive Abilities: Research Methods Work Samples of Critical Thinking & Information Literacy
Research Skills: Advance General Psychology Work Sample of Topic Proposal for Review Paper
Communication Skills: Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples of Topic Papers of Various Kinds
Ethics & Diversity Awareness: Advance General Psychology and Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples of Topic Papers
Knowledge of Psychology Foundations: Advance General Psychology Work Samples of Various Topics
Knowledge of Applied Psychology:Counseling Theories, Psychology & CJ, Substance Abuse Treatment in CJ Work Samples of Various Types
Interpersonal Effectiveness: Substance Abuse Treatment in CJ Work Samples of Various Types of Effective Communication
Cognitive Abilities Research Methods Work Samples of Critical Thinking & Information Literacy
Research Methods Work Samples Psychology utilizes the scientific method (just as all physical sciences) to formulate explanations as to why and how human and other animal behaviors take place and it makes it possible to predict how and why a behavior/behaviors will occur during specific situations (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, and Zechmeister, 2009). What makes up psychology at large is observation (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, and Zechmeister, 2009). Just as astronomers observe and study the stars and planets, and marine biologists observe and study marine life and the sea; psychologists observe and study all animal behavior (for the most part, human behavior). Physics, being a fascinating and highly complex physical science, also applies its functions through observation of atoms and molecules. Overall, all physical sciences came to be from observation; observation of the Earth and its inhabitants, natural phenomena, and the universe. Having understanding of the scientific method motivates more knowledge because each inquiry and skeptic and even speculating thought brings to light more drive towards understanding the world and life. Research methods while being a challenging and very interesting subject of study, it also offers the opportunity to part take in the quest for knowledge. This is not done merely by memorizing and practicing educating one’s self on a scientific subject such as psychology, but by asking questions about the inner workings and searching for answers or explanations that bring about the understanding of a topic. Psychological research applies the same elements of scientific research to its studies (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). It is essential to provide us with further understanding of the workings of the human mind in its natural state and how it’s influenced by experience and nurture (Argosy, 2009). It also provides insight of society, culture, norms, values, and conflicts of existence. For example, Feng (2007) wrote an article about what a psychology experiment had revealed: “Fifty years after psychologist Kenneth Clark conducted the doll test that was used to help make the case for desegregation in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education, a 17-year-old filmmaker redid the social experiment and learned that not much has changed” (para. 1). This psychological study demonstrated something interesting about American society and how its history has affected the behavior of African-Americans living in modern times.
Research Methods Work Samples The most important part of the scientific method is the ability to make predictions based on a hypothesis (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). In many ways, this is an easier task for students of the natural sciences rather than for those of us studying psychology. For example, a physicist can make precise measurements in his observations and form a hypothesis that predicts the results of future tests. In contrast, the complexities of human behavior make us unpredictable, and therefore forming a working hypothesis can be much more difficult. This is probably among the main challenges that psychologists face when demonstrating that psychology is as much a science as the other natural sciences. The following is the questions formulated during Module One and the way that the questions evolved ever since will serve as an example for the challenge of formulating a proper hypothesis: “What are the effects of religious beliefs on human procreation? Does religion affect overpopulation growth?” Originally when these questions were proposed, there were a lot of things in mind that hadn’t been straightened out. Take for instance how these questions were thought out with the aim for the hypothesis to have a tremendous purpose for exploratory and explanatory research to be conducted, along with the environmental urgency to acknowledge human overpopulation and how a general societal structure such as religion contradicts progressive views and advancement in civilization. This is the rationale for undertaking such study (Argosy, 2010). Soon after, the question was changed in order to place more specific focus on the aspects that were in mind all along: How does religiosity negatively affect environmental-mindfulness? Does the negative effect cause lack of concern for human overpopulation? Does religiosity directly influence views contradicting concern for human overpopulation? My question evolved in such manner because I learned that in order to formulate a proper and interesting hypothesis, I had to be more specific and clear of what exactly is the topic that I want to focus on, which would make the background of my research questions cohesive (Argosy, 2010). I also learned to be cautious regarding generalizability and validity, which are essential factors to consider when conducting research (Argosy, 2010). I sharpened my research skills by compiling works to support of my own research; this also educated me on the topics that apply to my hypothesis even further (Argosy, 2010). Since the topics I’ve chosen are rather controversial, having a balanced point of view lies within the boundaries of what the evidence from the research can provide (Argosy, 2010). One of the most important things I’ve learned is that the development of a research study has important guidelines and standards to abide by, such as APA ethical guidelines involving procedures and APA format, citing, and references (Argosy, 2010). For example, being knowledgeable of APA plagiarism standards and research consent forms are very critical when it comes to conducting research studies (Argosy, 2010). Also, APA structuring and formatting is very crucial; say for example when constructing the sections (introduction, method, results, discussion, references) of a research paper, and to avoid plagiarism by utilizing proper citation (Argosy, 2010).
Research Methods Work Samples References Argosy University. (2010). PSY302: Research Methods: Module 1. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Argosy University. (2010). PSY302: Research Methods: Module 2. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Argosy University. (2010). PSY302: Research Methods: Module 3. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Argosy University. (2010). PSY302: Research Methods: Module 8. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Feng. (2007). Why black girls still prefer black dolls. Retrieved on September 10, 2009, from http://www.diversityinc.com/ public/1301.cfm Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B., & Zechmeister, J.S. (2009). Research methods in psychology. (8th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Communication Skills Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples of Topic Papers of Various Kinds
Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples As stated by Argosy U. (2010), “In the U.S., less than 1 percent of murderers are executed,” which is a statistic that demonstrates moral confusion (p. 1). Overall, those that are in favor of the death penalty believe that life imprisonment may not be sufficient punishment to establish it as a strong deterrence against crime (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). Some believe that executions serve the victims’ families and society justice by making sure that the condemned receive the most severe punishment; which is the “retributive nature” that can be found in U.S. society (Argosy U., 2010). Nevertheless there are also claims that the lives those lost causes (such as serial killers) should not be sustained with tax payers’ money (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). Those that are against the death penalty support their stance by claiming that executions have never worked as deterrence (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). They have also argued that there seems to be some racial and economic disparities with the demographics of those being executed and that it is possible that wrongfully convicted people could be executed (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). In my opinion both the supporter and opponent sides have established interesting viewpoints on the topic that I can agree and disagree with. I’m in favor of not wasting resources on people that don’t desire to live a different way other than by hurting and killing innocent bystanders and in turn hurting themselves. Some probably desire to die instead of live in a pool of blood. I don’t particularly favor that such punishment serves the victims’ families justice along with society but I do think that it removes the threat that a killer is on society. While I wouldn’t want wrongfully convicted people being executed, I seemed to initially be leaning slightly more towards the supporting side. I believe the following is all relevant to supporting my point of the moral confusion going on within the nation. Views on the death penalty could have started with its extreme controversy in the United States ever since the state of Pennsylvania was one of the first to have applied the death penalty only for first-degree murder in 1794 (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). The controversial subject seemed to have taken off from there and it evolved its context over time. Eventually about fifty years following Pennsylvania’s move on the death penalty, Michigan stepped up to the plate on defying controversy by abolishing it in 1846 (“Capital Punishment,” 2010). However, the mentality of society in the U.S. hasn’t changed that much since because according to Argosy U. (2010), “Since 1990, only Congo, Iran, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Nigeria, and the United States have executed juveniles” (p. 1). It appears that one of the only ways that the U.S. can be set aside from such an interesting grouping of nations is by the more expensive methods they utilize when carrying out executions. As Argosy U. (2010) stated, “Hanging and shooting are the most widely used forms of execution. Beheading is also used. Only the United States uses the electric chair, gas chamber, and lethal injection” (p. 1).
Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples My interviewee’s views are leaning more towards the opposition of the death penalty (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). This is due to their belief in life-imprisonment being a sufficiently strict and severe enough punishment, instead of execution (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). In many cases, he argues, a life sentence can be an even harsher sentence than the death penalty, depending on the individual (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). In addition, he believes it is not as economically efficient as it is often seen, due to the expensive means of execution (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). He also stands against the possible execution of wrongfully convicted individuals (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). My interviewee agrees that there is moral confusion going on in this nation when it comes to discussing this topic (R. Halkewycz, personal communication, February 19, 2010). Now, I believe I have shifted my perspective from leaning slightly more towards the supporting side to being clearly undecided on the topic. It is certainly understandable why such a topic can cause confusion to stir up. The context of the topic itself is quite sensitive and it is obvious that it will remain very controversial.
References Argosy University. (2010). PSY423: Psychology and Criminal Justice: Module 6. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Capital Punishment. (2010, February 19). In Answers. The Q & A Community. Retrieved on February 19, 2010, from http://www.answers.com/topic/capital-punishment Halkewycz, R. (2010, February 19). Personal Interview.
Ethics & Diversity Awareness Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples of Topic Papers
Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples The ten types of psychological applications on the Internet that were established by Azy Barak (1999) are, as he stated, “not be considered final or closed; it is intended for presently valid descriptive purposes only” (p. 232). Therefore, it is important to keep an open mind about all the ways in which each application has both drawbacks and payoffs. Sociological and psychological research, general psychology resources and information, live counseling services by video conferencing and online chat, individual advice and counseling through online boards and email, live/delayed group therapy through online discussion, individual therapy sessions by email, psychological measures and evaluations, specific details of psychological services, guidance on choosing therapy, and guidance on helping one’s self are all the applications of psychology available over the Net (Barak, 1999). For the purposes of this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the application of sociological and psychological research will be discussed thoroughly in regards to social media. The Internet is a valuable tool for all types of research. For psychological and sociological research the Internet is a gateway of communicating with the world in order to learn about all different types of individuals and how they communicate with each other, along with obtaining knowledge of information from various studies. People worldwide can participate in studies and professionals can perform research and conduct lab experiments over the Internet (Barak, 1999). Some of the advantages of it are that, not only does it have convenient utilization, but the Internet also saves psychology professionals resources; while expanding or ridding off the limits of communication with people worldwide (Barak, 1999). Some of the disadvantages, however, are that those who chose to partake in answering the questions of a survey in the Internet may not be representative of the population desired by the researcher for a particular study (Barak, 1999). Computer-mediated interactions take place through the social environment of cyberspace and, therefore, present other advantages for psychology professionals conducting social and psychological research (Barak and Suler, 2008). Take for instance the way that researchers are able to examine the interactions that occur in social networking sites, such as MySpace and Facebook, along with more specific sites, such as dating and relationship sites like Harmony.com and Chemistry.com (Barak and Suler, 2008). Research of subculture groups and different types of rituals can also be conducted through the Internet (Barak, 1999). The Net even assists with cutting-edge, innovative research conducted within the branch of evolutionary psychology. Take as an example the website by the Evolutionary Psychology Lab director at Florida Atlantic University, Todd K. Shackelford, where he conducts online studies in topics, such as Emotions in Intimate Relationships and Sexual Dimorphism in Stature, and presents educational material to students (Shackelford, 2006).
Psychology & Criminal Justice Work Samples More disadvantages for social and psychological research are described within the Standard 8 of the APA ethical codes, which deals particularly with “Research and Publication” (American Psychological Association, 2010). Take for instance how plagiarism, which is when someone obtains credit for someone else’s work, can occur over Net (American Psychological Association, 2010). Works on social and psychological research could also be in danger of being duplicated (American Psychological Association, 2010). Ethical code requires for psychology professionals to maintain people’s privacy, however, this is a difficult tasks due to the utilization of unsecured sites operating (Barak, 1999). It is also a problem for ethical standards when unaccredited individuals practice psychology over the Net (Barak, 1999). Overall, applying ethical standards can be a challenging task when conducting online research.
References American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved on March 06, 2010, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/ code/index.aspx Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8, 231-245. Barak, A., and Suler, J. (2008). Reflections on the psychology and social science of cyberspace [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://myeclassonline.com Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Evolutionary psychology lab. Retrieved on March 06, 2010, from http://www.toddkshackelford.com/ index.html
Knowledge of Psychology Foundations Advance General Psychology Work Samples of Various Topics
Advance General PsychologyWork Samples A patient with a split-brain has undergone the split-brain operation that involves cutting the corpus callosum, which is the largest commissure that joins the neocortex areas on each side of the brain (Carlson, 2007). Through the corpus collosum information exchanges from the right to left cerebral hemispheres of the brain; the left controls the right side of the body and the right controls the left side (Carlson, 2007). The patient that has had this type of surgical brain procedure is unable to name the object in their left visual field because his/her cerebral hemispheres are now functioning independently of each other, therefore, his/her motor, sensory, and memory functions are no longer interconnected (Carlson, 2007). Furthermore, patients in this situation are able to recognize and hold with their left hand a picture due to the control coming from the right side of the brain, but are unable to communicate what their right side of the brain perceives (Carlson, 2007). Usually patients unable to live a normal life due to very severe epilepsy have undergone the split-brain operation, in order to decrease the frequency of their epileptic seizures (Carlson, 2007). According to Carlson (2007), "The right hemisphere of an epileptic person with a split brain appears able to understand verbal instructions reasonable well, but it is totally incapable of producing speech" (p. 6-7). After a procedure like this one, patients experience plenty of difficulties. As Carlson (2007) also states, “For example, patients may find themselves putting down a book held in the left hand, even if they have been reading it with great interest. This conflict occurs because the right hemisphere, which controls the left hand, cannot read and therefore finds the book boring” (p. 7). Since the hemispheres of a split-brain patient are still functional, just not functioning interlinked, patients can exercise these brain functions independently by viewing images and practicing in stimulating their verbal control system (Carlson, 2007). Patients with uncontrollable epilepsy suffer and the split-brain operation helps them function better (Carlson, 2007). I wouldn’t say that these types of studies are unethical because not only are they helpful with the scientific information they can provide, but they also are done with the consent of patients. Consent forms are necessary to meet the APA ethical standards that apply to conducting research studies (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Researchers conducting such studies are aware that the Institutional Review Board (IRB) will verify that consent was granted by the participants involved in the research to make sure everything is in accordance with APA regulations (Argosy, 2010). It is extremely important that any potential risks are acknowledged in consent forms, so that participants are aware and can decide whether they want to proceed (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Of course, precautions are taken in order to deal with the measured potential risks (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Nevertheless, this helps protect ethical standards of experimentation on humans.
Advance General PsychologyWork Samples References Argosy University. (2010). PSY302: Research Methods: Module 2. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com Carlson, N.R. (2007). Physiology of behavior. 9th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B., & Zechmeister, J.S. (2009). Research methods in psychology. 8th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Out of these innovative, revolutionary minds, in the beginning of the 20th century Ivan Pavlov was the one who conducted research that eventually led to behaviorism (Schultz and Schultz, 2008). His physiological experiment involving the ringing bell while presenting the food to dogs which resulted in the dogs salivating, directed Pavlov towards the investigation and explanation of classical conditioning (Morris and Maisto, 2003). Nevertheless, Pavlov’s digestion research coincidentally led to further revolutionary thought in psychology through the analysis of the mental processes regarding learning behavior (Morris and Maisto, 2003). Learning - “the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior” - was explored further through behaviorism (Morris and Maisto, 2003, p. 165). The official founder of behaviorism, John B. Watson, conducted research inspired by the Russian physiologist and psychologist, Pavlov; he also believed in the state of tabula rasa (John Locke’s perspective), which describes infants as “blank slates” (DeHart, Sroufe, and Cooper, 2004). According to Morris and Maisto (2003), “Watson came to believe that all mental experiences - thinking, feeling, awareness of self - are nothing more than physiological changes in response to accumulated experiences of conditioning” (p. 15). His controversial “little Albert” experiment supported Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory by demonstrating how fear is learned (which also led to understanding phobias) and provided clear examples of stimulus generalization and discrimination (DeHart, Sroufe, and Cooper, 2004).
Advance General PsychologyWork Samples In 1953, which was thirty-three years following Watson’s published works, B.F. Skinner conducted extraordinary research to further evolve behaviorism theory into radical behaviorism; as Watson, he also believed in only analyzing behavior that can be observed and measured (Shaffer, 2009). As Shaffer (2009) has stated in various educational text, “Clearly, early learning theorists such as Watson and Skinner favored the mechanistic worldview, for they saw human beings as passively shaped by environmental events and they analyzed human behavior response by response” (p. 97). Through Skinner’s operant-learning theory how habits develop in humans and other animals (Shaffer, 2005). Through his research, Skinner observed (with the help of his assistant pigeons and rats) how animals, including humans, tend to repeat behaviors that have beneficial results, while avoiding behaviors that tend to have aversive results (Shaffer, 2005). The observations Skinner made led to thorough explanations about the way that reinforces and punishments influence behaviors through the process of learning what behaviors are beneficial and which are disadvantageous (Shaffer, 2005). In his famous experiments involving pigeons and rats, he reinforced behaviors that involved finding their way through a set path and pressing buttons, by providing the subjects pellets of food as a reward for learning the behaviors (Schaffer, 2005). Reinforces and punishments can be applied to the learning process of children and adults (Shaffer, 2005). Take for instance how teenagers learn what behaviors are convenient to get what they want out of their parent(s). Also, how employees (that want to keep their jobs) receiving bad reviews and getting their salary reduced because of their inefficiency can affect their behavior by improving it; this is the result of learning that slacking has negative (adverse) consequences. Though Skinner had strict views relying entirely on external stimuli producing behaviors, without acknowledging any cognitive processes, it is evident that he inspired ground-breaking research, such as Bandura’sbobo doll studies (Shaffer, 2005). Out of the three behaviorists discussed above, B.F. Skinner offers the most compelling argument for the use of behaviorism when teaching a new subject to an adult and to a child. His compelling concepts and research will continue to inspire studies, such as the one lead by Lisa Berlin at the Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University in 2009; which produced evidence about spanking being detrimental to children (Landau, 2009). Skinner has made incredible contributions to the field of modern psychology; his theories can not only be applied to the understanding of life, but specifically provide insight into a way of learning and about the direct mechanisms that influence it. All the information reviewed is the reason why the conclusion of this argument is that learning theorist, B.F. Skinner, provided the most applicable theories to teaching new behaviors to both children and adults.
Advance General PsychologyWork Samples References DeHart, G.B., Sroufe, L.A., and Cooper, R.G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course. 5thedition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Landau, L. (2009). Spanking detrimental to children, study says. Retrieved on March 22, 2010, from http://www.cnn.com/2009/ HEALTH/09/16/spanking.children.parenting/index.html Morris, C.G., and Maisto, A.A. (2003). Understanding psychology. 6th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Hall. Schultz, D.P., and Schultz, S.E. (2008). A history of modern psychology. 9th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Shaffer, D.R. (2005). Social and personality development. 5th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Shaffer, D.R. (2008). Social and personality development. 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Interpersonal Effectiveness Substance Abuse Treatment in CJ Work Samples of Various Types of Effective Communication
Substance Abuse Treatment in CJWork Samples Since Michael has difficulty adjusting to the prison environment, mainly due to the stories he hears from other inmates about the violent crimes they committed, as his counselor I could reassure him that if he is ever physically, emotionally, and/or economically abused it is my ethical duty to call attention to such matters (Argosy U., 2010). It is important for him to be informed that ethical standards mandate that if he is being neglected and/or exploited it cannot remain confidential for his own protection (Argosy U., 2010). It would be best to explain these types of circumstances, dealing with breaching confidentiality, by addressing all the ways that it can benefit offenders like him (Argosy U., 2010). I would also encourage him to write letters to his family to let them know how he feels about the advice they once gave him regarding the use of substances (Argosy U., 2010). If he had a realization of the consequences of his substance abuse, it would help him to receive support from his family by letting them know how he plans on improving and staying out of trouble (Argosy U., 2010). Based upon the information that is known about Michael’s family, I would advise him that if he keeps participating and making improvements in the program that I would write a letter to his family as well (Argosy U., 2010). Family support during treatment can be an essential factor in determining a successful outcome (Argosy U., 2010). I would also motivate his wish of finishing college by promoting participation in other educational programs offered in prison; along with encouraging him to engage in self-teaching and preparation for what will be awaiting in the outside (Argosy U., 2010). It would be helpful to let Michael know what my observations of him are, while displaying genuine concern for well-being (Argosy U., 2010). By informing him of the effects of depression, he could be more vigilant to his own state of mind (Argosy U., 2010). The effectiveness of Michael’s substance abuse therapy would rely on all the various planned measures discussed above; that is why implementation of such measures is crucial!
References Argosy University. (2010). PSY494: Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Module 3. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com
Substance Abuse Treatment in CJWork Samples Handout: Things To Keep In Mind In Our Professional Relationships With Inmates It is vital to keep in mind how countertransference can affect a counselor’s emotional reaction to the therapy he/she is conducting and their reaction may lead them to act inappropriately (Corey, 2009). One must consider all the hazards that derive from becoming emotionally involved with the offenders. Such actions damage the therapeutic relationship that one works hard to build and the goals of the therapy become lost. All this seriously interferes with the overall wellbeing of the clients, which in this case are the offenders trying to be rehabilitated (Corey, 2009). Being that the job of a substance abuse counselor requires rehabilitating offenders, it is very important to remain objective about the purpose of their treatment. In order to avoid becoming emotionally involved and to maintain rationality with emotions, one must be able to identify the presence of countertransference. As a counselor, one must understand their own needs and conflicts (Corey, 2009). When encountering a client that one feels they can closely relate to and the client’s issues remind him/her of their own conflicts, he/she needs to reassess the situation and be wary of the countertransference that could potentially ruin the therapeutic process (Corey, 2009). Also, to avoid any negative affects resulting from countertransference one should utilize their own reactions to gain insight of their client; furthermore, the therapeutic relationship can benefit greatly from being able to relate strongly to the client’s issues (Corey, 2009). However, objectivity is the key to producing effective results from countertransference; as a substance abuse counselor, one encounters situations that deal with offenders struggling with dependence/addiction issues and emotional ties to a counselor would not only confuse the offender, but could worsen their dependence on substances (Corey, 2009). It is extremely essential to keep in mind that negative effects of countertransference can result in irrational, unprofessional, and ethical behaviors; such as in the case of a counselor becoming romantically involved with a client. If such situation occurs then it is obvious that the objectivity of the treatment has been completely lost (Corey, 2009).
Substance Abuse Treatment in CJWork Samples Nevertheless, if countertransference is bound to interfere with the therapy somehow, even after all efforts and considerations made, then for the client’s wellbeing he/she should be referred to another therapist (Corey, 2009). Although, it is extremely important that one maintain professionalism and referring a client to another therapist may seem like one is giving up on the client; ultimately, it is all about what is most beneficially and ethical when dealing with the client’s needs (Corey, 2009). If a counselor becomes emotionally involved with an offender, he/she should take the following steps to ensure the client’s wellbeing and act accordingly by upholding ethical standards and professionalism:
Stop emotions right on their track and reassess the entire situation.
Come up with the best strategy to de-escalate the situation and re-establishing boundaries.
The purpose of the treatment should be thoroughly acknowledge and discussed.
Review ethical standards and procedures to avoid ambiguous methods of managing the situation.
Turning to a professional peer for guidance is always helpful because he/she can provide great insight based on experience.
Informed the client about referring him/her to another counselor for their own wellbeing, while remaining objective and recognizing unethical, unprofessional behavior.
Reference Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. 8th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Example Demonstrating Critical Thinking: Review Paper Negative Effects of Religiosity on Aggression and the Education/Intelligence Of Native-Born and Foreign-Born Residents of the United States ThatyanaBurcl Argosy University - Psychology Dept. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSY492 March 23, 2010
Review Paper Formulated Questions The hypotheses that have been previously proposed are : How does religiosity negatively affect aggression in native-born and foreign-born residents of the United States? What are the negative effects of religiosity on the education and intelligence of United States? What is the correlation between levels of aggression and intelligence levels in pious believers?
Review Paper Focus Points Examining U.S. Society The purpose of this review paper is to analyze the negative effects of religiosity on the psychology of people living in a modern, developed country, such as the United States. The International Social Survey Program (ISSP) included various comparisons of the U.S. along with other progressive, modern nations – such as Sweden, Japan, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Norway (Paul, 2009). What Research Provides In order to explore such questions and other issues related to religiosity, various studies have drawn out comparisons between the U.S. and other developed nations in relation to how religiosity affects various aspects of life within what is supposed to be a modern, progressive nation. The factors, again, are aggression and education/intelligence.
Reflecting on the purpose for review paper The essential research questions examine various aspects that could definitely use improvement in American society. Though, the U.S. is a modern nation, it is lacking in progressive standings. This nation is failing to keep up with other truly progressive nations due to its high rate of crime and violence, political unrest, prejudice/racists citizens, wasteful culture, and addiction to capitalism. The main objectives of the research hypotheses would be to demonstrate the negative influences of religiosity in the factors that contribute to the country’s downfall.
Gregory Paul’s Research Study Among the various studies performed, researcher Gregory Paul’s (2009) findings demonstrated evidence, through the Successful Societies Scale, to explain the correlation that secularism has with the progress of nations and how religiosity has negative effects on socioeconomic structure and societal dysfunction. This type of study (which included the United States) strongly supports the view that religiosity has a negative overall impact on various crucial requirements of a ‘civilized’ population. Gregory Paul’s (2009) argument lies in that the actual production of a valid study comparing cross-nationally social and economic conditions based on a wide-range set of factors is very essential. The researcher found the urgency of this matter to be very critical since the United States’ policies seem to be leaning towards being more influenced by the secular-progressive process; which in turn has led to a divide among the people and controversies attacking atheists and non-religious believers (Paul, 2009). His knowledge and research most certainly leads in a very convincing manner to its hypothesis. This is due to the fact that it addresses its purpose clearly and emphasizes its focus on the nature of the topics being examined.
Opposition of Paul’s Research The research article by Gregory Paul expands its credibility by reviewing both sides of the debate. The side involving secular and religious supporters mentions how popular literature holding religion at high-esteems has been produced by supporters like Coulter and O’Reilly (Paul, 2009). A strong focus in their text and other publicized religious beliefs lies in tearing down the economical and social standing of progressive, liberal nations with secular views (Paul, 2009). The article explains how the moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis is based on religious worship leading to prosperous economic and social standing, wealth and prosperity (Paul, 2009). However, the opposite side carries the prevailing argument, which states the secular-democratic socioeconomic hypothesis as, the more secular a democracy, the closer it is to equating to the best social and economic conditions nationwide (Paul, 2009). In order to further the investigation of previous hypotheses, the focal points of this research are based on “origin, mental basis, popularity, and societal efficacy of mass religion versus secularism” (Paul, 2009).
What Else Can Be Derived From This Interesting Research Study Further development of such a study can be accomplished by asking questions that would compare the U.S. to other extremely religious nations that differ in the commanding religion. More specifically, take for instance, a question comparing the effects of Christianity on American society to the effects of the Muslim religion on Iranian society.
The Research of Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath Researchers Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath (2007) conducted their studies based on how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God. The studies displayed how believers of God and the Bible have increased aggression due to the fact that it is allowed through the scriptures of their God (Bushman, Ridge, Das, Key, and Busath, 2007). This type of research addresses more specifically how religiosity influences aggression. The researchers’ argument is clearly regarding the negative effects religion can have on the religious; leading to negative events that jeopardize the well-being of everyone. The researchers were inspired to focus on this topic due to the lacking information regarding the influences of literature on aggression and violence.
What Else Can come From this Type of research Further development can be accomplished in this area of study by asking questions involving how the rivalry of religious groups results in violence. For example, more precise questions could investigate how participants react to aggression found in another religion such as an American Catholic’s reaction to aggressive passages from the Koran and a Muslim American’s reaction to aggressive passages from the Bible. Such questions could address more specifically how religiosity influences aggression; which would lead to scientifically demonstrating the dreadful consequences that religion creates.
The Research By Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg The studies performed by Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009) were based on the negative correlations between religion and education along with levels of intelligence; which explained that the more religious individuals are, the less likely that they’ll be keen for knowledge. The objective of their main argument involved displaying the kind of negative effects religiosity can have on important human aspects, such as intelligence (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009). Their arguments clearly stand by secular views equating to higher intelligence and pious views equating to lower intelligence (Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg, 2009). According to Lynn, Harvey, and Nyborg (2009), “Evidence is reviewed pointing to a negative relationship between intelligence and religious belief in the United States and Europe” (Abstract section).
What The Gallup Poll Displays The Gallup poll’s (2009) prevailing argument displayed a clear divide in the United States among those who believe in evolution and those who do not believe in evolution; which turned out to be that many still don’t believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Nevertheless, the argument supports that progress is being made regarding Americans’ views of science because 39% of Americans now believe in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Other objectives that the argument of the Gallup poll carried included that the younger individuals are, the more they tend to believe in evolution; also, the more often people attend church, the less they are likely to believe in evolution and the more likely they are to completely disbelieve in evolution (Van Bockstaele, 2009). Consequently, all these findings have focused on the improvements that remain to be made.
This pie chart demonstrates that among surveyed Americans 39% of them believe in evolution. While that is the largest group, it is still evident and significant that many people in the U.S. – which is supposed to be a progressive nation - don’t even want to consider it as a topic of discussion or are completely against it (Van Bockstaele, 2009). “Do You, personally, believe in the theory of evolution, Do you not believe in evolution, or don’t have an opinion either way?” (Newport, 2009)
Unbelievable! Not Surprising… “Only 4 in 10 Believe in Evolution” (Newport, 2009, headline). GALLUP POLL – BY FRANK NEWPORT GALLUP POLL – BY FRANK NEWPORT
References Bushman, B., Ridge, R., Das, E., Key, C., and Busath, G. (2007). When God sanctions killing: Effect of scriptural violence on aggression. Psychological Science, 18, 204-207. Lynn, R., Harvey, J., and Nyborg, H. (2009). Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Science Direct, 37 (1), 11-15.doi: 10.1016/ j.intell.2008.03.004 Newport, F. (2009). Gallup poll: On Darwin’s birthday, only 4 in 10 believe in evolution. Retrieved April19, 2010, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/114544/Darwin-Birthday- Believe-Evolution.aspx Paul, G. (2009). The chronic dependence of popular religiosity upon dysfunctional psychosociologicalconditions. Evolutionary Psychology Journal, 7 (3), 398-441. Retrieved from http://www.epjournal.net/filestore/EP07398441_c.pdf Van Bockstaele, B.B. (2009). Gallup poll: Many people still do not believe in evolution. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/267117
My Future in Learning I expect to engage in controversial, yet innovative, research, and to pioneer my own unique concepts. I recognize that the scholastic path I have chosen will not only be challenging, but also requires extensive training and dedication. However, I know my drive and passion to see psychological evolution in the making will lead towards improvements in human civilization and help preserve what is left of life and nature on this wondrous planet!
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