Q1) In what ways does yourmedia product use, develop orchallenge forms andconventions of real mediaproducts?A2 Media Evaluation 2013By Ferdous Audhali
How to all began..• At the start of the academic year as a newyear13 student, I was told that this year’scoursework would be to create the opening5minutes of a television documentary.Alongside this, the coursework would alsoentail completing two ancillary tasks whichwere to create both a radio trail and a doublepage magazine spread which will be used to‘advertise’ the documentary.
Documentary as an academic topic• It is through this year’s A2 course that I found myselfcorrecting my own misconceptions, by finding myselffully appreciating the deep context of the field of‘documentary’. What I thought was a basic mediaportal for factual information to be shared, I soonfound to be in fact an academic topic that manypeople have written books on..• One of these people we looked at was by Bill Nichols,who is an American film critic/theorist best known forhis pioneering work as founder of the contemporarystudy of ‘documentary film’
Bill Nichols theory of DocumentaryModes (2001)• Nichols identifies six different documentary modes in hisschema: poetic, expository, observational, participatory,reflexive, and performative.-These all seek to distinguish different traits &conventions of various documentary film styles.(Furthermore, through studying Nichols’ work, we realisedthat one single documentary could have a combination ofthese 6 different elements/modes within them)• Myself and my group learnt a substantial amount fromNicholls’ work and thus tried to apply his modes ofdocumentary into our own documentary in order toincrease its validity as a ‘real media product’..
Poetic Mode• Documentaries which take the Poetic mode tend to take a fragmentarystructure (meaning they are quite disconnected and patchy in terms ofhaving a structural pattern. This is done through editing, whereby thecontinuity of the editing is considered not as important compared toother modes of documentary.• Documentaries that take the poetic mode tend to be quite subjective intheir interpretations of its subjects.• It is quite impressionistic in the sense that it stresses mood and tone morethan it displays facts as a form of persuading the viewer.• Before Nichols created this ‘poetic mode’ as one of his modes, earlydocumentary film-makers encouraged by The Soviet montage theory andthe French Impressionist cinema are found to have used these very poetictechniques in their documentaries.
Expository Mode• The expository mode speaks to the viewer directly, with visual titles oraudio via voiceovers and commentary that propose a perspective/view inregards to a specific argument.• It uses rhetoric in order to persuade the viewer into taking the side of theparticular viewpoint portrayed in the documentary. This is usually througheither voice over commentary where the speaker is heard but never seenor interviewed commentary where the speaker is heard and seen.• Where documentary in the poetic mode thrived on a filmmaker’ssubjective visual interpretation of a subject, expositional mode collectsfootage that aims to strengthen the spoken narrative. Cutawaysduring an interview are a particularly good example of this.• This mode tends to be the most popular mode used in many Filmfeatures, news stories and various television programmes as well asmaking up the bulk of most documentary products.
Observational Mode• The techniques of Observational mode pretty much take after the name-they observe lived life. Unlike the subjective content of poeticdocumentary, or the rhetorical style of expositional documentary,observational documentaries tend to simply observe, allowing viewers toreach whatever conclusions they like.• There are some rules for observational documentarians at their purest-there is to be no music, no interviews, no narration and no arrangementof scenes.. everything is natural. (tend not to include voiceovers)• Because of this observation, on most occasions the editing consists of longtakes and few cuts (keeping it as original as possible) And it is because ofthis, that the observational mode is often referred to as ‘fly-on-the-wall’ –hence suggesting that there is very little intervention between the cameraand the focus of the documentary. The camera simply moves with thesubjects playing as a personified ‘eye’ for the viewers to simply observethe action that is occurring.• An example of raw footage which used the observational mode would bethe hit campaign trail with President John F. Kennedy in 1960.
Participatory Mode• This mode is when the film-maker is actually viewable to the viewers(most cases the presenter hosting the documentary) and other times as asocial actor within the film. This gives them the opportunity to freelydiscuss their own perspective in regards to the topic of debate during thedocumentary- in most instances, the film-maker clearly asserts theirmessage.• In contrast the objectivity displayed by the observational mode, filmsusing the participatory mode can become a major channel for thebroadcasting of a film-makers agenda. A good example of a film-makerwho implemented the participatory mode directly in their world would beMichael Moore’s Fahrenheit 911.
Reflexive Mode• The Reflexive mode draws specific attention to the constructed nature ofdocumentaries where sometimes the film maker is shown wrestling withthe content of their findings. As well as the fact that most film-makerswho chose to use the Reflexive mode, do so, by being sceptical of the ideaof ‘realism’ captured in documentary film.• An example of a documentary which takes on the Reflexive Mode wouldbe Dziga Vertov’s Man with a Movie Camera where he features footage ofhis brother and wife in the process of shooting footage and editing.• He said that the goal in including these images was, “to aid the audiencein their understanding of the process of construction in film so that theycould develop a sophisticated and critical attitude.” (Ruby 2005)• So overall, it highlights that this specific mode attempts to reveal the artof making a documentary which tries to challenge the audience’s view ofthe topic/text at hand, in a much more objective way.
Performative Mode• The performative mode, the last of Nichols’ 6 modes, is quite oftenconfused with the participatory mode.• .. But the crucial difference lies in the fact that, where the participatorymode has the film-maker in the story and attempts to shed light on truthsthat should already be obvious to everyone, the performative modeengages the film-maker in the actual story- creating a type ofautobiographical description of subjective truths (that may also besignificant to the film-maker himself)• This is personally my favourite mode, as it opens a gateway to enable thefilm-maker to stress their own personal/emotional experience through anoften unconventional method of attempting to connect their ownexperiences to the wider population. Many find that Nichols’ conceptionof performative documentary is the direct opposite of observationaldocumentary.
Modes used in real productsSupersize Me (2004)Morgan Spurlock’s documentary‘Supersize Me’ is an example of thePerformative mode being used, as he wasthe main feature of the film (the film-maker actively engaging in the film) Theperformative mode also enabled him totell his story on his deep/personal hatredof the dominance and irresponsibility ofmost major fast food companies- offeringhim a brilliant chance to air hisperspective/view on the issue.Children Underground (2001)This documentary is an observationaldocumentary shot over a year in thesubways and streets of Romania. Thereis no music, and few editing (long takes)to keep it as original and untouched aspossible. However, there are someinterviews contained (to gain thechildren’s perspectives)Andrew Marr’s History of the World(2012)BBC’s political commentator andBritish journalist created a series ofdocumentaries on the history of theworld. This is an example ofparticipatory mode as he wasphysically visible hosting/narratingthe show and actively presentthroughout some of the scenes.This mode gave him the opportunityto freely discuss his own fascinationon the particular stories fromhistory which he was presenting.In my spare time, I watched numerousdocumentaries, taking notes on variouselements of its codes and conventions.Here are just 3 examples of documentarieswith specific modes that I noted.
Underage Binge Drinking(My product)• After watching a variety of different documentaries from differentchannels and different outlets using different budgets, it helped me cometo grasps with the wide range of modes available and how they areproductively used (more importantly, how they help shape the style andmessage of the documentary)• Therefore, I then used this information to help me when it came toplanning my own documentary with my group later on, where wediscussed what modes would be most suitable to use for our ownproduct.
Continued..• The main mode we utilised was the Expository mode however, ourdocumentary also included some aspects of the Poetic mode aswell..• Expository: The main majority of our documentary took the elements of the expositorymode, ‘the expository mode speaks to the viewer directly’ and this is exactly what ourdocumentary does. It does this through various ways, some of which are: the narrative(voiceover- voice heard but never seen) which addresses the viewers, visual titles andprompts and an overall commentary which proposes a certain perspective/view in regards tothe topic of underage binge drinking (that it is a current rising issue). Furthermore, by usingthe expositional mode, it enabled us to collect footage that aimed to strengthen the spokennarrative (eg. Interviews relevant to the specific sub topic the narration as just introduced) Inour eyes, the expositional mode was deemed to be the most sensible choice as it is generallythe more popular mode choice for most media film features (not only documentaries, butnews stories and various TV programmes)Poetic: We took the idea of ‘subjectivity’ from the poetic mode. This was done through thefact that our documentary was based on/largely influenced by our own personal feelings,tastes, or opinions. Although different views were expressed (when some young peoplethought that ‘’underage binge drinking as a whole, is over rated’) the majority of our opening5minutes was generally swaying to the larger opinion of underage binge drinking being adominant and dismissed issue in society.Moreover, the idea that our documentary is quite impressionistic, is debatable. Simplybecause, although we did tend to exploit the idea of stressing moods and tones more thandisplaying just hard core fact as a form of persuading the viewer, we were quite limited as weare just sixth form students with £0 budget to add a more poetic style increasing thestressing of moods and tones.
Other codes & conventions..• Film makers go to great lengths to ensure that their documentaries arevery factual and will generate some sort of public interest.. and someways this is achieved is through 4 key components of documentary, thesebeing: Actuality, Voiceover, Interviews and Reconstruction.• Actuality is a record of real events as they unfold. This in turn, is a keycomponent as documentaries are a way in which viewers are informed ona specific topic, therefore, it is important that documentaries give arealistic perspective which is as accurate as possible (not made up fictionlike one would find in most films with written scripts and storylines)• Voiceover is used as a form of narrative within documentaries, and insome documentaries- is the backbone. Narrative is used to Used indocumentaries so the the filmmaker can speak directly to communicatedirectly with the viewer, a channel in which the film maker can voice theirview of the topic as well as offering certain explanations and opinions.
• Interviews are a common way in which a film maker can strengthen thevalidity of the information they are offering. By filming formal interviewswith experts of a specific field (in order to provide a rationale thatsupports the main theme presented within the documentary), as well asfilming vox pops with members of the general public – it expands theviewpoint and hence strengthens the legitimacy of the information in theeyes of the viewer (making them believe what they are hearing is themajority view point and hence correct leading them to be moreinclined to trust in the opinion put forward by the film maker)On the other hand, interviews can also be used to highlight other issues inregards to the certain topic, eg. Providing a contrasting view, thuschallenging the main viewpoint (giving comprehensive info on the topic)• Reconstructions are sometimes used to portray factual information in amuch more interactive and realistic way- through real life visual scenarios.These scenarios are reproduced (hence the name re-construction) andalthough are artificial re-enactments of a real scene, help put things intomore perspective for the viewers. Sometimes, when more sensitive issuesare being explored, film makers edit using blurs, lighting effects andcolour enhancement within the footage to protect confidentiality of theindividuals or topic.
Extra commentary..• Reasons for mode choices:We decided against using the participatory/performative modes, asalthough I thoroughly enjoyed documentaries which utilised this mode(Supersize me in particular) I really thought that this wasn’t ideal for ourproduct as we didn’t want to include a presenter in the fear that we maymake the documentary look amateur due to bad acting/unprofessionalattributes etc.• Which of the 4 conventions did we make the most of?:We tried to incorporate all 4 conventions however only Actuality,voiceover and interviews were fully used. We were going to reconstructan interview with a student at the college who had their stomach pumpeddue to excessive alcohol intake, however this plan didn’t make the cut.
Documentary styles & influences• Public Affairs Documentary is probably the most influential style that weassimilated in our final product. Reasons for this is due to the fact thatmost public affairs documentaries are shown on Public ServiceBroadcasting channels such as BBC and Channel 4 and examples of thesetypes of documentaries are Panorama and Dispatches. Furthermore,these documentaries can often be ‘polemical’ meaning they drawattention to a perceived wrong (underage drinking) hence has the powerto ultimately leave a significant impact..• Our documentary:Broadcasted on Channel 4Investigating a social issue (Public Affair)Directly based around the public and their lives (..their children)
Direct similarities between our productand a real media product (Supersize Me)Supersize Me was the main documentarythat we used to adapted on some of itskey selling points. Above is a screen shotfrom one of the first scenes of our5minute opening (Alcohol bottles lined upon the floor outside a pub)And to the right is where we got ourinspiration from (a close up shot ofdifferent McDonalds size drinks fromSupersize me)Of course it was only sensible for us tobenefit from the codes and conventionsof real media texts by watching andtaking notes on documentaries andhence implementing some of thetechniques they used into our finalpiece..Our DocumentarySupersize Me
Furthermore, wefilmed and edited thebottles appearing onthe screen one-by-one similarly to howthe fast food drinksappeared on thescreen in supersizeme..
Similarities in Interviews..Here is yet another similarity betweenSupersize Me and our documentary.When interviewing the academic, Spurlockmade sure to position him in his office andin one third of the shot, looking over thedead space..We also followed these codes & conventionsby interviewing Neil in his office and madesure that he looked over the dead space tohis left. We also ensured that the computerscreen displayed one his college initiatives inregards to alcohol awareness and made thecanteen viewable through the windowbehind him, to make the setting relevant tothe topic and to help paint a visual picture ofhis work with young people.Following real media conventions weincluded a caption to highlight importantdetails about the interviewee.Our DocumentarySupersize Me
Similarities in visual aids(Statistics)Not only is this an example of how we displayed a statistic using real media conventions,but also the background image used behind the ‘60%’ statistic is not random- it is veryrelevant to the topic choice (empty alcohol bottles outside a pub etc) we did this becausewe considered the fact that Morgan Spurlock also made the background image relevant inhis documentary, by including obese people who required the use of a wheelchair whendiscussing the health implications of obesity.Our DocumentarySupersize Me
Extra Creative styles..Short documentary on teenage drug use on YoutubeOur DocumentaryTo the left is a snippet that I suggested tothe group in order to add a more creative,unique clip to our opening 5minutes ofthe documentary. I had once been a partof a short film (pictured below) and theprofessional cameraman used extremeclose ups when interviewing the youngpeople about the sensitive topic.I thought this idea would be good to use in ourdocumentary as we too, were interviewing youngpeople on a sensitive topic, and thought that bypreserving their identity (confidentiality) they may bea bit more open and more inclined to give theiropinions rather than hide their true thoughts and giveinaccurate answers due to the fear of socialdesirability.Furthermore, the mosaic thumb nail effect adds tothe variety of frames used. Also it was quite a fiddlytask which required an array of editing effects andchecks (See next slide)
Here is an exampleof how we editedeach of theindividual clips to beblack and white(unless the individualwas speaking)This helped todistinguish whichindividual wasspeaking so that theviewers could matchthe voice with a face-otherwise it wouldbe too confusingTo smooth out the editing,so that the cuts betweeneach of the shots wasn’tjumpy, I used the pen toolto fade out this specific clip,with all the extreme closeups, simultaneously.I also used the pen tool on the audio as well..This was used to smooth out the transitionbetween each persons vocals. The pen was avery useful tool for adjusting the volume ofeach person (trying to get all of the volumes tobe the same so that it sounded professional)as well as fading out the persons voice towardsthe end of their segment so that the movefrom one individual is not abrupt.
Special effectsTo display a statistic, we wanted to followreal documentary codes and conventionsby adding a blur effect on top of a stillimage of the bottles lined up outside thepub. So for this, we inserted a blur videoeffect on top of the specific clip, theninserted a text box to write the percentageand display it on the screen.Another example of a blurredout edit (of students walking inand out of the canteen)For this clip of some students sitting in the canteen (tothe right) the camera panned from one side of thecanteen to the other. However, when we uploadedthis clip for editing, we realised we were not happywith the speed, therefore, using Final Cut features, wesped up the pan (making it faster) as well as reversingit.
Overall, which codes & conventions wereimplemented into our product?By using a large amount of codes and conventions that I have seen featured in many professionaldocumentaries I had watched, I was able to try and implement these into my own documentaryto try and make it appear a lot more professional.So how well did we really keep to the documentary codes and conventions? And if not, how didwe challenge them?• Variation of camera angles• Voice of God; the influence of the narrator onthe audience• Archive Footage• Linear Narrative to make it easy to understand• Credits/Titles to introduce the documentary oran interviewee in an interview• Diegetic/Non Diegetic sound• Audience never hear questions asked• The interviewee never looks into the camera.(Always at interviewer)• Vox Pops: The voice of the community• Rule of thirds• Shot on location• Continuity editing (the predominant style of filmediting and video editing in the post-productionprocess of filmmaking of narrative film andtelevision programs. The purpose of continuityediting is to smooth over the inherentdiscontinuity of the editing process and toestablish a logical coherence between shots)• Montage of clips (usually at the beginning of thenarrative)• Ambient sound of surrounding environment• Experts as evidence• Graphics font and colour doesnt distract fromthe subject.
General Camera shots & editingArchive FootageWe included about 20seconds of found footage whichbrought to life the underage binge drinking culture,helping visualise theissue a bit clearer.Variation of camera anglesA variety of camera shots and angles are essentialconventions of documentaries- and without this of course,the documentary would look very amateur indeed.Shot on locationSeeing as we were investigating teens (underage drinkers)in our documentary, it would have been rather strange tonot have shot the interviews in their ‘natural habit’meaning their school or their areas where they like to hangaround. Due to our restrictions of using college camerasand property, we thought it was best and most sensible toshoot the majority of the 5minutes onthe college campus with the studentsthemselves.Continuity editingOur opening 5minutes of the documentary followed a simplecontinuous structure. There was no inherent discontinuity ofthe editing so as to establish some sort of logical orderbetween each of the shots.Montage of clips (usually at the beginning of the narrative)The topic of the documentary was introduced via short quickpreviews of the clips-to-come in the rest of documentary(including clips from different interviews and the bottleslined up in front of the pub.Extreme Close upsPanMedium ShotLong Shot Close up
NarrativeVoice of God narrative(the influence of the narrator on the audience)Our narration/voice over was authoritative andanonymous, making it known as ‘’the voice of God’’approach. This is when the voiceover is a separate audiotrack, isolated from the audio of the video, and recordedseparately in a studio/room (free of any ambientbackground noise or room echo/bounce)Our voiceover was scripted well before the making of thedocumentary, as we made a storyboard and used this towrite out a detailed narration of the 5minutes. This wasthen recorded separately at a later stage then placedwhere appropriate once the editing process began. (Thenarration not only tells the story and creates the flow forthe direction in which the documentary is going, but it alsogives detailed and accurate figures/statistics providingdeeper background information on the topic)Linear narrativeA linear narrative is a structured narrative over the film(voice over) it follows a linear sequence, therefore,from start finish.We started off by introducing the topic of thedocumentary:“It is clear that there is a strong binge drinkingculture within our society, but worryingly it iseffecting our young people greatly”Then introduced the main chunk of the documentary:“We went into a local sixth form to ask them of theiropinions’’Followed by segments of introductions for eachinterview:“Neil Attewell is a Student Development officer andtherefore works closely with young people, what’shis opinion?”VoiceoverVoiceover
Audio/SoundDiegetic/Non Diegetic soundDiegetic Sound: Diegetic sound is the sound which is madevisible to the audience on the screen therefore originatingfrom the source within the documentary. This could beboth on and off the screen.Examples of diegetic sound in my documentary, would bethe voices of those being interviewed both vox pops ofstudents and professional interviews alike. As well as thesound of the students in the background of the canteen orthe noise of the cars and hustle and bustle of the high-street in the background of the interviews.Non Diegetic Sound: Non-Diegetic sound isartificial/inserted sound, therefore it does not originatefrom the source within the video (not visible on thescreen) It is sound represented from a source outside ofthe direct action within the documentary.Examples of non diegetic sound in my documentary wouldbe the commentary sound of the voiceover and the musicthat was inserted over the video sound track (not too loudor overpowering so that it steers interest from the talking)Audience never hear questions askedThroughout the whole documentary, we knew that ifwe had included our voices in the middle of the bustlingcollege canteen or busy high street asking the public thequestion of ‘how many units they thought were in thevodka bottle’ then this would not be following thecodes and conventions of documentary. It would havesounded extremely amateur and out of place,therefore, when editing, we ensured that we deletedthe unnecessary parts.Ambient sound of surrounding environment‘Ambience’ is the natural background sound/atmosphere.Of course this was included throughout our documentaryeg. student chitter chatter within the college – naturalenvironment left unedited to allow realism.Vox pops
InterviewsThe interviewee never looksinto the camera(Always at interviewer)As can be seen in the screenshotimage of one of the interviewstaken from our documentary, theinterviewee is not looking at thecamera, but rather looking straightat the interviewer asking him thequestion. This eliminates the deadspace to his left.Credits/Titles to introduce the documentary or aninterviewee in an interviewHere is an example of how we used this convention in ourdocumentary. Listed below the interviewee is his name, anddetails about what he does and why he is relevant to thedocumentary topic (giving viewers necessary information)Experts as evidenceThere is no way that adocumentary could avoidinterviewing experts within thefield of the topic in question. In ourdocumentary, we interviewed arepresentative from a local alcoholawareness charity who work onraising the profile of the serioushealth implications of recreationaldrugs such as alcohol, and alsointerviewed Neil who works withyoung people.Graphics font and colourdoesnt distract from the subjectThe text font and colour is completelyneutral and does not distract theattention away from the interview,rather settles in nicely in the frame.Vox Pops: The voice of the communityVox Pops are a common convention of documentary as it isan easy way of directly interacting with the public andgaining their perspective on the particular topic.We took this on board went out to the local high street to ask adults how manyunits they thought were in the vodka bottle so as to compare their answers withthe answers of the students in the sixth form college.Rule of thirdsA basic convention of films anddocumentary is the rule of thirds, which isused to discourage placement of thesubject to be in the centre of the frame,but rather centred to the side (where thebody is lined up with a vertical linerepresenting 1/3rdof the screen and theeyes are in line with a horizontal line)
Radio Trials• Before looking into drafting our radio trial, we listened to several differentreal radio trials (real media texts) The job of such radio trials is to ensurethey grab the attention of the listeners, persuading them to watch thedocumentary or programme that is being advertisedOne of the examples we looked at was BBC RADIO FIVE LIVE’sbroadcasting of the Formula 1 Grand Prix.• The basic codes and conventions welearnt from listening to radio trials like thiswas that they included a main narration(voice over), clips from the real product andmusic – all to be played together at the same time. Therefore, it was aboutbalancing it properly and ensuring that the voiceover was never drowned out bythe music or the clips. This is how a radio trial would sound good and thereforeappealing to the listeners (making them intrigued in what is being said andhopefully wanting to ensure they watch the documentary being advertised)
Our Radio Trial• Following the common codes and conventions of the radio trials that we had previously analysed,our radio trial included all three main components: Voice over, Clips from the documentary andBackground Music.• Voiceover:The first words that were said in our radio trial was:‘’Underage Binge Drinking..’’ (getting our documentary topic/name straight out there)Followed by a rhetorical question:‘’..is it getting too much to handle?’’ (to grab attention)• Background Music:The background music we included was upbeat and lively (but not too domineering so as to divertthe attention away from what was being said in the informative voice over) The music choice wasdown to the fact that the topic was about young people, therefore we thought we’d make themusic relevant to the topic of reckless underage binge drinking• Clips from documentary:The inserted clips from the documentary were not only relevant, but also provided a variety (givingthe radio trial more of a chance to relate to the wide array of listeners) The clips included theinterviews with adults (such as Neil) as well as young people (from the extreme close ups)• Furthermore, our radio trial included persuasive words which pulled in listeners interest andattention such as ‘’hot topic’’ ‘’controversial issue’’ also, we included interesting & relevantstatistics ‘’did you know that 30,000 hospital injuries are caused by alcohol? “ And mostimportantly, it included details of the time, date and channel for the screening of the
Creating the trial on Garage Band• Here is a link to our radio trial:• https://soundcloud.com/a2columnc12/underage-binge-drinking-radioAll 3 core elements of the radio trialarranged in specific order in orderfor the radio trial to flow and makesense (takes it structured)..and the green lines are fortoggling with the music soundlevels (the music was insertedfrom a large selection GarageBand offered)This is how we adjusted the sound levels(using the pen tool). The blue lines arefor toggling with the imported clips(eg. the voiceover and the clipsfrom the documentary)
Magazine Double Page SpreadHere is the main introduction to the article and it is colouredand in bold. Ours wasn’t coloured, however it was put inbold.This is considered to be the main image of the spread, and Ilike it as it is not a common convention to have the mainimage to spread horizontally across the page, it tends to bevertically in most instances. Therefore, it could be here thatwe have challenged the majority.The grab lines are a common convention as it gives a quickinsight into what the rest of the article entails.Although the top horizontal third of the spread is consideredthe main image, it is also conventional to include anotherA nice striped border to separatethe main image from the mainbody of text.A website for moreinformation on thechannel or thedocumentary.Main body of text in simple plainfont, and in neat columns.Page numbers havebeen creatively editedinto a wine/cocktailglass (relevance todocumentary topic)
Did our Magazine follow commoncodes & conventions?• I feel out of the 3 tasks, I personally feel that our magazine was theweakest and the radio trial was the strongest. One of the reasons for thisis due to the fact that we stuck very firmly to the codes and conventionsof real radio trials in comparison to how much we stuck to the codes andconventions of magazine publishing.• Furthermore, our magazine wasn’t exported out properly, leaving a fewunnecessary boxes being left on the final piece which unfortunatelyreduced the legitimacy of our final product (making it look amateur) Also,we challenged too many of the codes and conventions, leaving ourmagazine looking a bit too unlike most magazines such as ‘The RadioTimes’ where double page spreads are used to advert documentaries.• However, from this I have learnt a great deal!