OLD MAJOR An old boar whose speech rouses the animals into rebellion. His philosophy is called Animalism. He teaches the animals the song of freedom “Beasts of England.” Snowball He is a young boar who becomes one of the rebellion’s most valuable leaders. He draws complicated plans for the windmill.
Squealer Napoleon Boxer Clover A porker pig who becomes Napoleon’s mouthpiece. He uses his ability to manipulate the animals. A dedicated and hard worker. He keeps believing that hard work solves all problems. He is sort of dimwitted. A motherly horse who tries to take care of Boxer and who silently questions Napoleon’s decisions. A boar, who with Snowball, leads the rebellion against Jones. He systematically takes over the farm and becomes undisputed tyrant.
Benjamin A cynical, pessimistic donkey who continually undercuts the animals’ enthusiasm. Mollie A vain horse who prefers ribbons and sugar over ideas and rebellion. She is eventually lured off the farm. Moses A tame raven who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain
Mr. Jones Mrs. Jones Bluebell Jessie Pincher The often drunk owner of Manor Farm, later expelled by the animals. The farmer’s wife who flees from the farm after the rebellion. The dogs and their puppies raised to be Napoleon’s guard dogs.
Mr. Whymper A solicitor hired by Napoleon to act as an intermediary in Animal Farm’s trading with other farms. The owner of Foxwood, another farm. He eventually sells some of his land to Napoleon. Mr. Pilkington Mr. Frederick An enemy of Pilkington and owner of Pinchfield, another farm. Known for driving hard bargains, he swindles Napoleon He later attacks the farm but is defeated.
The story takes place on a farm somewhere in England. It is told by an all-knowing narrator in third person. The action begins when the oldest pig on the farm, Old Major, calls all the animals to a secret meeting. He tells them of his dream of revolution against the cruel Mr. Jones. His speech gives the animals a new outlook on life. The pigs, being considered the most intelligent, begin to instruct the other animals. They work out the theory of Animalism, run Mr. Jones off the farm, and post seven commandments above the door of the barn. So begins the story.
The Seven Commandments
Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings is a friend.
No animal shall wear clothes.
No animal shall sleep in a bed.
No animal shall drink alcohol.
No animal shall kill another animal.
All animals are equal.
The story ends with a new version of the original slogan and one simple commandment. New Version: Four legs good, two legs better. THE NEW AND FINAL COMMANDMENT “ ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS.”