Resources and InstructionalPractices to address students with special needs in the Classroom FELISHA JACKSON ITEC 7530 FEBRUARY 25, 2012
Special Education Special education is the specially designed instruction provided by the school district or other local education agency that meets the unique needs of student as disabled according to federal and state eligibility criteria (Bursuck & Friend, 2009). Students with disabilities also may receive related services, that is, assistance that is required to enable students to benefit from special education ( Bursuck &Friend, 2009). Additionally, students with disabilities are entitled to supplementary aids and services, such as preferential seating, access to computer technology and instructional adjustments that enable them to be educated with their peers who do not have disabilities (Bursuck &Friend, 2009).
Least Restrictive Environment The least restrictive environment is a provision in the federal laws that has governed special education for more than three decades (Cooley, 2007). The least restrictive environment provision guarantees a student’s right to be educated in the setting most like that for peers without disabilities in which the student can be successful with appropriate supports provided (Cooley, 2007).
Inclusive Practice The concept of inclusive practice is found on the belief or philosophy that students with disabilities should be fully integrated into their school learning communities, usually in general education classrooms, and that their instruction should be based on their abilities, not their disabilities (Cooley, 2007). Inclusive practice has three dimensions:1. Physical integration: Placing students in the same classroom as nondisabled peers should be a strong priority, and removing them from that setting should be done only when necessary (C00ley, 2007).
Inclusive Practice 2. Social integration: Relationships should be nurtured between students with disabilities and their classmates and peers as well as adults(Cooley, 2007). 3. Instructional integration: Most students should be taught in the same curriculum used for students without disabilities and helped to succeed by adjusting how teaching and learning are designed and measured (Cooley, 2007). Assistive technology is an important part of the inclusive classroom. An assistive technology device is any piece of equipment that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability(Cooley, 2007).
Resources to address special needs Special Education Resources on the Internet (SERI) at www.seriweb.com. Topics on the site to explore include legal resources, parent resources, medical resources, and specific disability categories. Inclusion.com (http://inclusion.com) is dedicated to the collaborative practices of educators and professionals serving individuals with disabilities. This site includes articles by leaders in the field of inclusive practice.
Resources to address special needs Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) www. Cast.org/tes. This site provides information on the INCLUDE approach. INCLUDE gives teachers a systematic process for accommodating students based on their individual needs and the classroom demands on or expectations of the teacher. National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standards (NIMAS) www.NIMAS.org. NIMAS sets a standard for file formats used in producing textbooks so they can be more easily converted into accessible formats such as Braille and large-print using digital text.
Resources to address special needs The National Center to Improve Practice in Special Education through Technology, Media and Materials www.2.edc.org/ncip. This site has gathered and synthesized information about technology, disabilities, and instructional practices through a broad range of resources. This site also provides opportunities for teachers to exchange information, build knowledge, and practice through collaborative dialogue. National Association of the Deaf www.nad.org. This site provides information on topics related to hearing loss, and serving individuals with these special needs.
Resources to address special needs Council of Educators for Students with Disabilities (www.504idea.org/504resources.html). On this site you can find a wide variety of presentation materials and papers related to Section 504. ADD Warehouse (www.addwarehouse.com). This site features many resources for helping children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and related special needs. You can find books, videos and training programs for classroom use on this site.
Resources to address special needs U.S. Department of Education. “Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices.” www.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/adhad/adhad- resources-pt2.doc. This online document from the federal government has many ideas for accommodating the needs of students with ADHD in the classroom. The Key New Readers Newspaper Project (www.keynews.org). This site provides stories on all different topics at beginning, middle and advanced reading levels.
Resources to address special needs The ProQuest K-12 website, www.proquestk12.com. This site provides lesson plans that include modifications for students with special needs. Graphic organizers, sometimes called concept maps can make your lessons multisensory and are helpful for students with special needs. These two sites: www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic- organizers/printable/6293.html and www.graphic .org provide collections of many ready-to-use graphic organizers.
Resources to address special needs The CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) www.cast.org, has many helpful suggestions for the universal design of learning materials and teaching practices to reduce the need for developing accommodations and modifications for individual students in general education classes. The Instructional Strategies Online Database (ISOD) http://edhd.bgsu.edu/isod. This site provides a wealth of learning strategies for students. ISOD is designed to be searched by content area, grade level, and other key information about strategies such as rationale, material needs, procedures, corresponding standards, and adaptations.
Software Programs that Assist students with planning Compositions Draft Builder (Don Johnston Incorporated) www.donjohnston.com Inspiration (www.inspiration.com/store/main/index.cfm
Talking Word Processers IntelliTalk III (IntelliTools) www.intellitools.com Scansoft Dragon Naturally Speaking (www.nuance.com/natruallyspeaking/standard
References Bursuck, W., & Friend, M. (2009). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. Upper River Saddle River, New Jersey : Pearson Education. Cooley, M. (2007). Teaching kids with mental health and learning disorders in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.