Sec 2 constitutional monarchy in england


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Sec 2 constitutional monarchy in england

  1. 1. Sec 2 Constitutional Monarchy in England<br />
  2. 2. ** The Restoration is when the English monarchy was restored during the reign of Charles II<br />**Charles II did his best to Avoid any disagreements with parliament<br />**Charles II tried to establish an alliance between England and France but parliament protested which caused a rivalry between England & France for 150 years to win control of the seas & to gain overseas colonies<br />
  3. 3. **He also looked to increase tolerance for the Catholic religion, but then he was forced by parliament to stop this effort<br />** Charles’s littlest brother, James (a Roman Catholic), would succeed him—this caused the formation of 2 political parties<br />**    Tories- those who believed James had a hereditary right to rule ; Tories normally supported the Anglican church but they would be open to accepting a Roman Catholic King<br />**Whigs- claimed the right to deny the throne to James & did not want a Roman Catholic King <br />
  4. 4. **When Charles II died in 1685, his brother James II accepted the throne & the people of England resisted his rule because he tried to help the Catholics<br />**Parliament invited James’s daughter Mary & her husband, William of Orange, to take the throne in 1688—they were known as William III & Mary II<br />**Glorious Revolution- a bloodless transfer of power in the English Monarchy which was brought about by James’ opponents<br />
  5. 5. Changes in English Government<br />** A famous philosopher, Thomas Hobbes’s, created the book called, Leviathan—Hobbes’s believed that people acted on their own self rights & not the welfare of others<br />**John Locke, another English philosopher, had an opposite view & believed that people had given up some of their rights for the welfare of their country<br />**Parliament followed the ideas of Locke & in 1679, Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act to protect people who had been arrested<br />**In 1689, Parliament created the English Bill of Rights--Parliament would choose who ruled the country & it also restricted what rulers could and could not do<br />**The Toleration Act was passed in 1689—this granted some religious freedom to Dissenters & Protestants, but didn’t protect Roman Catholics or Jews<br />
  6. 6. Parliamentary Rule<br />**The Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement-which kept Catholics from the English throne passed in 1701- the struggle between the monarch & parliament came to an end---parliament won over the monarch<br />**In the 1700s, England was a monarchy but Parliament clearly held the power-- Parliament gained even more importance <br />**The cabinet were those who were the heads of government departments chosen by William III<br />**Parliament claimed the power to declare war <br />**In 1707, the Parliaments of Scotland and England passed the Act of Union—this united England & Scotland into one union-Great Britain<br />
  7. 7. **This union encouraged trade even more & brought great wealth to both England and Scotland<br />**In 1727,King George I of Great Britain was the first ruler of the Hanoverian Dynasty & George II ruled until 1760--the cabinet & prime minister was very important in helping them rule<br />**Walpole increased the importance of the of the cabinet & he is also viewed as Britain’s first effective prime minister, or first minister—he stabilized the British political scene & improved the economy<br />**The Whigs controlled the House of commons from 1721 to 1742 & were led by Walpole<br />**The nation had become a limited constitutional monarchy<br />