Customer: Saige FerentinosAnimal: PenguinsReport by: Felicia FerentinosPenguins Report________________________________________________________________Penguins are carnivores that means that they only eat meat. The animals thatthey usually prey on are fish and squid. There are some species that will rathereat smaller animals like krill. to help them to find their meal they will have to usetheir good eyesight so that they can locate their prey. They can see really willwhen they are underwater but when they come to the sunlight up in the surface.Then their eyes will start to change their shape so that they can match with thecharging of the light. When they are swimming then they will usually chase theirprey and then they will start to snatch it in their bills. Then after that is over thenthey will start to swallow the prey whole. The penguin also has a backward-pointing spine. This spine really helps the penguin to hold on to slippery foodwhen they are swallowing them. Penguins will spend 75% of their time in waterlooking for food. The penguins that eat in the Antarctic will know to eat krill andsquid. The penguins that eat fish they usually live in areas where it’s warmer.Different species of penguins like to eat different types of food like the Adeliepenguin for example. These penguins like to eat krill. The blacked footed penguinlikes to eat fish so different species has there very own different types of foodthat they enjoy. If there is a penguin that does not have a favorite food than theywill eat whatever kind of food that they can find. The emperor penguin will eatabout 30 pounds of food in one time. Penguins are really good swimmers theycan swim about 15 miles per hour. They can swim so much faster then anyhuman can. They can also be faster then a bottlenose dolphin. Lots of peoplesay that they see lots of people streaking around pools that are in aquarium. Bythem using speed and agility then these birds can swim or dive so that they canover take their prey. The emperor can dive really deep they can dive about 900feet so that they can find big squids so that they can eat it. All species ofpenguins all live in the southern Hemisphere (which means that they only livesouth of the equator). These birds live in different types of climates which are towarm and to cold. There are some penguins that live on predator free lands andthere are some that live on parts of a continent. The Emperor penguin is the onlyone that lives on Antarctica. Penguins do not live at the North Pole. Everypenguin lives in the south of the equator. The places that penguins can be foundare on the South Pole, New Zealand, Southern of Australia, and South Africa andon the coast of South America. There are some Antarctic-dwelling species canswim thousands of miles before they have to reach waters that is hot. Theyusually go to these places doing the winter. The only penguins that live in coldareas are the Adelies and the emperors. These penguins never leave their coldareas for a year long. All of the penguin species live near water icy waters likethe waters on Antarctica or on the tropical Galapagos Islands that is off of thecoast of the Ecuador that is at the south of the equator. These birds have tendedon islands and they also had remote on the landmasses that is relatively free
from any predators that live on land. There are some species will spend 75% oftheir time in the water so that they can look for food so that they can stay alive.Penguins can only be seen in the south half of the world. There are areas somespecies that live in areas that are mild or the area has really hot weather butmost of them live farther south areas these places are the cold places. There aresome species that live on the thick ice that can be around Antarctica. These birdscan not fly so they will be a really easy meal for predators that live on land. Thepenguins that live on islands and on coastlines these places only have a little bitof predators in these lands. There are some penguins that will spend three-fourthof their time in the water then on land. These penguins can even go out for evenmonth without going to the surface. Penguins will only come to the shore whenthey are having babies are to go in the shield their old feathers. There are not alot of penguins that live in the south climates. Like the penguins that live on theGalapagos that is near the equator. These penguins live near there becausethey can survive the cold temperatures and they can also take the cold water thatis being brought to the islands that is by the ocean currents. Penguins can befound on every single continent that is located at the south Hemisphere. Theplaces that are in the southern hemisphere are in the tropical Galapagos Islands(The Galapagos penguins live here). This island is near South America and toAntarctica (The emperor penguin lives in this part of the world). The blue penguinit is also known as fairy penguin is the smallest species of penguin. It can growabout 16 inches tall (, 41 m). They can weigh about 2.2 (1 kg) pounds. Thebiggest penguin of the species is the emperor penguin they can grow about 3.7feet (1.1 m) tall and they can weigh about between 60 to 90 pounds (27-41 kg).The Emperor penguin can also grow about 3.7 feet (1.1 m). They can also weighabout 65 pounds (30ft) that is like a little bit less then a half then an size of anadult human. The size of a penguin can be big as 45 in (115 cm). They canweigh about 88 lbs (40 kg). The emperor penguin can be big as four feet tall andthey can weigh about 65 to 85 pounds that is like the same size as human child.The little blue penguin can be big as 14 to 16 inches tall and they can weighabout two pounds. Some penguins can be big as two feet (.6m) tall and they canweigh about ten pounds (5 kg.)The emperor penguins are really special becauseof their size which is 4 feet (1.2 m) tall and they can weigh about 100 pounds (45kg). The emperor penguin is known to be the biggest penguin in the world it canstand about 112 cm (44in) tall. The smallest penguin of the species is the fairypenguin and they can stand about 41 cm (16 in). The emperor penguin canweigh about 27-41 kg (60-90 lbs). The fairy penguin is known to be the lightest ofall the penguins and they weigh about 1 kg (2.2 lbs). The emperor penguin canstand about 4 foot to the height. The height of the little blue penguin is 16 incheshigh. The emperor penguin can be about 4 feet and the fairy penguin can reachabout 16 inches. These birds can grow about 16-45 in (40 -115 cm). TheEmperor penguins normal size can be about 45 inches (115 centimeters in alength). The Emperor penguin can also grow about 88 pounds and 40 inches tall.The fairy penguin also known as the little blue penguin can be big as 16 to 17inches tall and they can weigh about only 2 pounds. There are most species ofpenguin that can live about 10 to 15 years. The Emperor penguin can live about
25 years. When they are in the wild then they can live about 15 to 20 years.When they are in the wild. They can live for a long time when they are incaptivity. Penguins will made to live in the cold. To keep them warm they havereally warm coats that are called feathers. The feathers that are out are usuallythe feathers that are tight together. These feathers are covered with really specialoil that the penguin will make inside of its body. Penguins will also preen theirfeathers they can do this by running their bills along them so that they can cleanthem and that will spread the oil. The oil that the feathers have usually keeps thepenguins waterproof and windproof. Under these outer feathers these birds havea layer of warm, fluffy feathers that are called down. Under their skin they havereally thick layer of fat. This fat will keep these animals warm too. But there aresometimes when the penguins gets too hot. When that happens then they willstart to fluff up their feathers so that the warm air will escape from the penguinsbody. Penguins are black and while because their coat helps to avoid predatorsthat might want to eat them. Under the white belly is a difficult to distinguish fromthe waters reflective surface. The penguins black back help it to camouflage inthe murky depths below. Penguins will usually preen their feathers meticulouslyso that they can maintain insulation and to waterproof a gland so that their tailswill get oil into their feathers. This can help the bird to spread thoroughly whenthey are preening their feathers. Penguins are warm-blooded animals just like us.The body temperature for a penguin is 100 F. Our normal temperature is 98.6 F.These birds can stay warm by the layer of insulation that can be located undertheir skin. They have a really special fat that is called bubbler. This is coveringtheir skin with their feathers that is called down and they also have a really tightpacked layer that is out sight of their feathers this also helps them to stay warmto. The penguin’s feathers do not stay forever. Lots of bird species have replacedtheir feathers by molting, which in other words shedding the old feathers after theold feathers are gone then they will start to be replaced with new feathers. Tomolt the penguins need to be in really icy sea areas. They will only molt for justone time. During this time this can take like a month to do. Then they will have tostay out of the water. Penguins spend a lot of their time worrying about thetemperature because they are warm-blooded animals just like humans are. Theother body temperature of a penguin is 100 degrees F. Penguins often need tostay warm in their really cold habitats. Another way for penguins to stay warm isby them huddled to each other shoulders with their wings that is against theirbody so that they can both keep each other warm. Penguins can keep 5,000penguins together so that they can keep them warm. The Galapagos penguinhas a really different problem because these birds live in tropical weather thatcan be way to hot for them. To help these penguins to stay cool then they willhave to spread out their wings and fluff out their feathers this can help thesepenguins to stay the penguin is one of the birds who do not fly. But they arereally good jumpers they can jump over a meter. When these birds are not in thewater then the penguins will start to stand on their fat little legs. They may lookreally awkward when they are walking. The reason why these animals waddlebecause they have really small feet that are to far apart from their bodies. Whenthe penguin gets really tried from waddling then they will start to plop down on
their bellies if only the ground is icy. This is called tobogganing. in other wordsthis is also called sliding on their bellies. Sliding is so much easier then wadding.Penguins are really different birds because they have black and white feathersand they can also walk funny. But most unlike any other birds they can not fly inthe air. Penguins spend most of their time in the water because that is the placewhere their food is located in is in the ocean. When they are in the water thenthey will dive and they will also flap their wings. It kind a looks like they are flyingbut in the water. A penguin is shaped like a torpedo. They were made to swimreally fast they can swim about 15 miles per hour. The penguin’s body isstreamlined and that is how they are design for swimming. These birds can usetheir wings as flippers so that they can swim though the ocean. The penguinswebbed feet acts like paddles this helps them to float when they are on thesurface and it also helps with rudders for when they are steering when thesebirds are underwater. These birds have really heavy bones their bones help themto stay under the water when they are swimming. When these birds are in thewater then these birds can be sleek and they can also be really fast to. To helpthem with their swimming penguins will use their powerful wings as flippers.When they are moving with their wings in the water it kind a looks like they areflying in the water. The feet on a penguin have webs on their skin that is betweentheir toes. The penguins webbed feet and their tails help them to steer when theyare swimming. There are times when penguins will also leap out of the waterwhen they are swimming. This skill is called proposing. People call this becauseporpoise will also do this skill too. There are some species of penguin that willoften swim like that. There are some species that will only do that when they feellike they are in danger. There are sometimes use this to get out of the water fast.To do this they will have to swim really fast and then they will have to shootthemselves right out of the water and into the ice or onto rocks. Penguins are areally good food source for lots of different marine mammals like the leopardseal. These animals can hunt these birds by going under the ice flows and thenthey will wait for their prey to come to them. The other predators that thepenguins face are sea lions and killer whales. Penguins can not do anythingwithout any protection. They can protect themselves by using their white belliesto help them to camouflage with the snow and with the sunlight so that they canmake it harder for the predator to find them. These birds can be hunted withdifferent types of birds. Some of the birds that hunt them are the Australian seaeagle and the Skua. On the back of the penguin they have a black color feathersthat can help them to blend in into the darkness of the water of the ocean. Thiscomes in handy because then it will be really hard to see them from above.Penguins also have land predators to and those predators are ferrets, cats,snakes, lizards, foxes and rats. Penguins face lots of deadly predators likesharks, sea lions and killer whales these animals really enjoy eating penguins.But the worst ocean predator that the penguins face is a really deadly animal thatis called the leopard seal. These seals can swim really fast and they can catchany penguin that is not careful. There are some species of animals who like toeat penguin eggs and their young to. These predators are snakes, lizards, foxes,and seabirds like the skuas. When the mating season comes then they will go to
a special nesting area that can be located on the shore. The area where thepenguin mates make a nest and raising their chick these areas are calledrookery. When penguins are ready to have babies then the male penguin willstart to stand with his back arched and his wings stretched. Then he will make areally loud call and struts this can help them to attract a female. When the maleand female have found each other then they will start to bond with each otherthey can do this by touching their necks and slapping each other on the back oftheir flippers. They can also sing to each other so that they can learn have toknow each others voices. When they do find a mate then they will usually staytogether for about a year or until they have chicks. Penguins usually come to thesurface so that they can mate and so that they can have their babies. There aremost penguins that will lay their eggs on a simple nest that is made out of theirfeathers, grass, or even pile of rocks. The African, Humboldt, Magellanic,Galapagos and the little blue penguin are the only species that will lay their eggsin burrows. These penguins will use their beaks to dig up a burrow. Penguinsalways return to the same nesting area. Penguins will usually lay only one or twoeggs. Both of the parents are both keeping the eggs warm. They will take turnsfor looking after the eggs. They will continue to look after them until 2 months.Penguins will usually keep their eggs during the incubation period. When it istime for the eggs to hatch then it will start to chip its way out of the egg shell theycan do this by using their egg tooth that is located on the end of the babies beak.Penguins often have babies in colonies. The males and the females both taketurns on taking care of the one or two eggs that are usually laid per season.When the eggs parents are out looking for food then the guarded parent willwatch over the egg. They can do this by putting the egg in between the top of itsfeet and thick skin that can hang from their belly so that they can keep the eggwarm. There are most penguins that can build a nest like the other bird speciesand they will usually lay two eggs in a year. The Emperor and king penguin cancarry their eggs between their feet. When it is time for the eggs to hatch then themother and the father will take turns on looking after the baby or looking for food.They can carry their chicks by using their toes. When the weather starts to getcold then the eggs and the chicks will be covered with flap of skin that can helpkeep them warm even when the temperature drops from 80 degrees below zero(Fahrenheit). When it is time for them to mate then the penguins will go on theshore so that they can make their nests. There are so many different types ofspecies have there own different ways on making nests and finding a good placeto make a nest. There are some species that make really big nests locations andthat is called rookeries. There are some of these nests in really snowy ice lands.There are other penguins that can build a nest on rocky cliffs. In the rookeryevery female can lay her egg in many cases. There are some species that canmake their nests out of stones or grass. Only the Emperor and king penguin arethe only penguins that can only lay one egg and these are the only species thatdont make nests at all. There is a other way that these penguins can keep theireggs warm and protected. They can balance the egg on their feet. They can dothis by using their thick folded featherless skin so that they can cover the egg sothat it can stay warm. The male emperor penguin will continue to keep the egg
warm until about a week or for a while because the female went out into theocean so that she can get food. When it is almost time for the egg to hatch thenthe female will come back to the breeding grounds and she will take the fathersplace so that he can finally go out to find something to eat. When the eggs areabout to be hatched then the baby chick will start to break through the egg shell.They have to open it without any help from their parents. To open the shell theywill use a really special egg tooth this can help them to chip and to peck their wayout of the shell. It may take about 3 days for the baby to active break free fromthe egg. When they first come out of the egg. They do not look like their parents.That is because they are covered with soft, fluffy down. To help keep them warmthen the chick will be have to go under their parents feathers. These babies caneat food that is stored inside of their parents. The chick will be able to find thefood by sticking their heads deep inside of the parent’s mouths. Sometimes whenthe parents are out in the ocean looking for food then the chick will usually staytogether in a nursery. In a really big rookery of penguins they will have to findeach other and they will also have to find their chicks to. To find each otherpenguins will usually call each other and they will have to know each others call.These sounds can be heard from thousands of birds. Baby penguins can growreally fast. That is the time when they will start to learn how to waddle. They willalso start to lose their fluffy down and then they will start to grow their adultfeathers. The feathers that will start to grow into waterproof feathers, when thishappens then the younger will start to go into the ocean so that they will canlearn how to swim. After they learn how to swim then that will be the time whenthey will start to look out for themselves and to start to look for food for their own.When a new penguin has come out of the egg then the parents will help the chickto stay warm. Each parent will take turns on staying with the baby and then theother parent will go out to the ocean to find food. The chicks that are lot older willstay in a kindergarten group when their parents are feeding. That will leave thesechicks in a group that will need lots of protection from predators and from thecold. Baby penguins have really fluffy feathers that can trap heat and that canalso help them to keep themselves warm. When they start to get older then thefeathers will start to be replaced by adult feathers. This will take about seven toten weeks. The feathers that they are going to get are waterproof that means thatthese feathers do not dry when they come out of the water. Even the chick’sfeathers are not waterproof like the adult feathers so that means that thesepenguin chicks are not allow to go in the water until they have grown their adultfeathers. The moment that the egg is laid. A female penguin will lay about one ortwo eggs at a time. Then after the eggs are in place then the female will go outinto the sea so that she can look for food in the mean time the male will watchover the egg until she comes back. When the female does return to the breedinggrounds (Which will normally take about two weeks for the female to come backto the nest). When the female does come back then it will be the males turn tolook for food so that he can leave the female alone with the baby. When the babyis out of the egg then they will start to make a contact call to their parents whenthey go out to hunt. When the chick is strong enough to take care of their selvesthen both of the parents will start to move up into the sea in the same time. In the
meantime when they do get older then they will start to stay in a group alone withother chicks in the family. (it sort of looks like a daycare for baby penguin chicks).When the parents come back to the family then they will start to make contactcalls so that they can call to their baby. The penguin breeding season starts inthe spring and in the summer. The king and emperor are the only penguins in thespecies that can only lay just one egg but the other species can lay more thentwo eggs. Scientists are saying that they maybe as 100 million penguins that arestill alive in the world today. Lots of penguin species life in remote areas. Thegood news is that these birds are not being hunted or tapped this bird is beingprotected by laws. The only big problem for penguins is that their ocean habitat isgetting destroyed. There are some species that starting to competing withhumans because they are taking away their fish and even pollution is starting tobe a really big problem for these birds that are living in the remote areas. In orderto save the penguin we have to do something to save our oceans. The reasonwhy it is so hard for penguins to find food all of because of pollution is wipingaway their homes. There are some penguin species that are doing really well butthere are other species that are not doing so well. Like the Galapagos penguinsare endangered just like any other ocean animals they all are facing lots ofdifferent threats. The reason why these animals are in trouble because of oilspills and people are throwing trash into the ocean. This is bad because whenpeople throw their trash in the ocean then when an animal wants to eat then thegarbage will be on their food and then when an animal eats it then it will get sickand die. They are also being threatened in the water and even on land becauseof Global warming. There are some species losing their nesting areas becausepeople are taking over their lands. But the good news is that people andgovernment all over the world are working on plans to help save these beautifulpenguins. In the early times when sailors did not know that they have beenknown to eat penguins but they did not like the taste really good. Penguins wereendangered because sailors will kill them so that they can make meat so thatthey can eat them during very long ocean voyages. Sailors have also beenknown to eat penguin eggs to. Sailors can also sometimes gather thousands ofpenguins in one colony. In the year of 1800s. People have been killing penguinsfor bubbler people will use this to make boiled so that they can make oil out of it.These birds do not get killed like this anymore. But there is a much biggerproblem for the penguins and that is their habitats because people are takingover these birds homes. They are clearing up their land so that they can makeroom for homes and farms. This has caused lot of problems for the penguinshomes because then their will be no room for the penguins to lay their eggs. Thedomestic animals like cats, dogs, and cattle will sometimes attack penguins.These animals also have destroyed their nests. People are disturbing penguinswhen they are at sea looking for food. Another big problem for these birds is thathuman population is growing and that means that they are taking a lot of thepenguins food which are fish, squid and krill and all the other food that they eat.These birds are also getting trapped by fishing nets. These nets will also kill themto. These birds are also in trouble because of tankers they are a problembecause they are the ones that are causing oil spills. Penguins have to go in the
polluted water if they do not go in the water then they will starve. If the penguindoes go in the water then they will be covered with oil. That is bad because thosewaters are poison so if a penguin goes into the water then they will start to getcold and they will also die. That is because their feathers can not insulate themas much. There are people that are causing lots of problems for these birds andthere are other people that are trying to fix these problems. In some areas of theworld they are starting to replace plants so that they can help their nesting sites.People are also making protected areas for penguins. The tanker spill is beingtaking care of to because there are volunteers are rushing to help rescue thepenguins that are being covered with oil. Scientists were trying to figure this outlike international penguin conference are starting to share the new things thatthey have learned about penguins and they are trying to find ways so that thesebirds can be safe from humans. The penguin is a cute, tottering and they alsohave really good looking black- white colored feathers. We have learned thatthese beautiful birds are on this planet for a reason. Just like we are. They aretaking their place in the circle of life. We must find away to save these birds fromextinction. Remember penguins are people to. Remember think before you dostuff because you just might hurt someone else. This is not just our planet it isalso their planet to. Together we can save the penguin and other endangeredbirds that are out there. Remember these animals can not live without you. Thatis what I know about penguins.