Deer book for peter ferentinos


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This a deer book that I made for my dad when he was in the hospital with a brain problem

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Deer book for peter ferentinos

  1. 1. DietA Deer is a herbivore which means that they only eat vegetation like plants andgrass. Deer mostly eat plants during the spring. When summer comes there arelots of juicy green leaves for the deer to dine on. A deer can also eat mushroomsand herbs can also be good for a deers diet they usually eat these foods in thefall. When winter comes they will eat acorns that have fallen from the trees but itcan be very hard for them in the winter because it is really hard for them to lookfor them. Deer’s will often travel long great distances so that they can find food.Some deer do not survive because they are eating farmer’s crops. The otherspecies of deer like the moose will often eat underwater plants when the plantsare available. Every deer species are all strict plant-eaters. The types of food thata deer will eat are grass, herbs, foliage, nuts, berries, bark, and fungi this is thetype of food that the fallow deer eat to. The deer is willknown as a selective eater.A deer will spend a lot of time browsing for food that is around their area. Themain food that a deer will eat is leaves. Deer are very selective when it comes towhat they want to eat. They spend a long time on a great deal of picking outshoots, leaves, grasses and fruits that can be easy for them to digest. Most peoplecall the deer browsers. The other food that a deer can eat is soft vegetation, twigsand some other vegetation plants and leaves. They are also called grazers becauseit mostly eats grass. A deer’s stomach can have a wide variety of foods they caneat from grass to nuts and to fruit. A deer has small unspecialized stomachs this isby a herbivore standards and high nutrition requirements. Deer can also eatseeds and tree bark all of these things help the deer to grow and to get new pairof antlers every year a deer will have a significant task. The other food that thedeer like to eat is young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, fruit, fungi, and lichens.
  2. 2. Habitat/RangeA deer’s native is in the Mediterranean regions. They can also see in parts in theMiddle East this also introduces in Europe and in parts of north and in SouthAmerica. They can also be seen in South African and in some areas in Australia.Some species of deer can be seen in Asia, Europe. They can also be found onNorth and in South America. The best location to look for deer are in Asia this isthe place where they are originated. Some species of deer like the Chinese waterdeer have tusks instead of them having antlers. The best place to look for mooseand elk are in North America. The deer small species are really solitary and theyrather live in bushes and in trees by themselves. The bigger species will rathergraze on open habitats and congregate so that they can be protected frompredators. The bigger species live on northwest Africa, Eurasia and in theAmericas. A deer’s habitat is on woodlands that are very grassy clearing for themto graze on. The habitats that the deer can be seen are found on lot of differenthabitats like they can be found on forests, rainforests, grasslands and on tundra’s.The White tail deer lives on the deciduous forests, conifer forests, they can beseen in rainforests, in grasslands, in farm land, marshes and they can even beenfound in desert areas. The White-tailed deer can also live in south Canada and inSouth America. When it gets hot in the summer they usually move into inhabitfields and meadows that are being used by clumps. They sometimes live inconiferous forests they live here because so that they can get a lot of shade whenit gets hot outside. When winter comes they usually live in a forest. They live hereduring this time because so that they can be preferring coniferous stands thathave a lot of shelter from a harsh elements. Deer are mostly found in the forestsin Europe, Asia and in North America. Deer can be found in every single continentexcept for Antarctica. The other habitats that the deer can be found on are theTundra and up in the mountains some species of deer can be found up there to.
  3. 3. Size/WeightA size of a white-tailed deer is 6 to 7.7 5ft (1.8 to 2.4 m). A weight of a white taileddeer is 110 to 300 lbs (50 to 136 kg). The size of a fallow deer is 70 to 96 pounds.Their weight is 40 to 100 kg. A deer’s antlers can grow about 60 to 95cm. Anotherweight for a white - tailed deer is 3 to 3 1/2 feet (0 .9 to 1m) up to the shoulder.The males can weigh about 400 pounds (180). The females are also called doesthey can weigh about 200 pounds (90kg). The other size of a deer are 1.3-8ft (0, 4-2.4).Life spanThe white tailed deer will live about 9 to 12 years. The fallow deer can live about15 years. The White tailed deer can live about 6 to 14 years in captivity. A deercan also live about 30 years to. 1 interesting factDeer’s will start to grow antlers in two years and also in every year in April. Themales are the only species of deer that wears antlers the females and the fawnsdo not have antlers. The antlers will shed and they will regrow in a litter largerand more elaborate in each year. The antlers can be very bony and they arecovered with hairy skins that are called velvet. There are blood vessels in thevelvet their job is to supply the food and the oxygen that will make their bonesgrow. The antlers will be ready to grow in the late August. The velvet is shed andthey are rubbed off and then the antlers will start to die. The deers antlers will
  4. 4. stay on the deer’s head until seven months. The deer is the only mammal in theworld that has antlers on top of its head. A male deer will grow a new set ofantlers in every year. The male deer usually use its antlers to fight their rivalswhen they are looking for a male to mate with. This usually happens during themating season. The male deers horns are usually shed and they will continue toregrow throughout the whole year. It is like a skin of what a snake has. The onlyspecies that has exception annual horns shedding is usually the Chinese deer. 2 interesting factDeer live in a group called a herd they can hold about 25 deer in their herd. Thereare females and the dominant male. That is called a stag. The Male deer main jobis to protect their herd. The males usually fight off other stags that would want totake over the other stags herd. The male usually protects their females from otherstags and also to make sure that the herd is safe to. The deer that grow in NorthAmerica usually reach about 1 meter tall. The deer that are in Africa are not calleddeer they are usually like to be called antelope. The species of deer that do notgrow antlers are the Musk deer and the mouse deer instead of antlers theyusually have very big canine teeth these species of deer use these teeth to battle.The deer that lives in Africa is the red deer and it can also be called the hart thesedeer are the only species of deer that live in Africa. 3 interesting factThis deer is one of the biggest deer species of deer in the world. There are about45 species of deer that live on this planet. The most important part of a deer isthe animals antlers. Only the male deer’s can grow antlers except for thereindeer. The reindeers antlers does not matter what kind of sex they are. The
  5. 5. antlers start to grow in the spring they will start to be boney first and they willalso start to be sprout that is on the top of the deers head. The deer’s antlers arecovered with hairs which are called velvet. Later on in their lives the velvet willstart to die and they will also start to rub off. This leaves the deers hard antlersready for battle with other deer that want to take over the herd. The male deerwill use their antlers to compete fights against other males so that they canprotect the females. When the breeding season is over then the antlers will startto fall off the antlers usually fall off in every year. Then later the males will alwaysgrow a other set of antlers in every year. People call the White-tailed deer afterthe white underside of their tail. These tails are used to show that there is dangernearby. Deer’s have a lot of predators that hunt them. The deer can protectthemselves by running away or hiding from their predators. The deers hooves, antlersand their teeth are used for any last resorts. The predators that can hunt downdeer are the grizzly bear, mountain lions, coyotes, and humans these predators goafter the larger deer species. The small species of deer like the pudu are usuallyhunted by big birds, foxes and the very small wild cats can kill the small species ofdeer. The deer has lots of animals that it has to look out for like bears, wolves andcoyotes can kill a deer for food. Deer always have to be careful so that they canstay safe from their predators. Deer always use their sense of hearing, smellingand sight for any danger that is somewhere nearby. When they do sense thatthere is danger they will usually quickly leave the location the will leave the areaby leaping, running, or maybe walking. Deer can be prey to lots of different meateating animals they can be killed by a tiger and some other big mammals thatmight want to scavenge from any deer that just got killed some other animal. Alot of deer species can be very fast and very large to. There can be probably ofdifferent names for a male and a female deer it depends on the species. The maledeer are called a buck. But the other species of deer like the elk, moose, reindeerthat are males are usually called bulls. The male red deer is called stag. Thefemale deer’s are called does. The other species of deer like the moose, elk andthe reindeer that are females are called cows. Thefemale red deer are calledhinds. The smallest deer in the world is the pudu deer this deer is usually found inwarms areas like in the forest in South America. This deer can only stand forabout one foot tall and this deers weight is 15 pounds. The biggest deer is the
  6. 6. moose it can grow about seven feet tall and it can weight about 2,000 pounds.The deers foot has two toes on it. Every toe on the deer is protected by a veryhard covering which is called a hoof. The hooves help the deer by pushing theground so that they can run fast to get away from danger. When the deer isrunning on its tiptoes it can run about 40 miles per hour and it can leap about 20feet. The deer can also use their hooves to fight off their enemies. On the deershooves can be very sharp and with one single kick from them can really hurt aattacker that it is trying to kill it. The deer family is the only animal group that hasantlers on their heads. An antler is really hard bones that can grow on top of adeers head. Mostly all of the males have antlers. There are some species offemale deer that do have antlers like the reindeer they have antlers. Antlers cancome in many different shapes. Some deers antlers are round and they are flat.The other antler shapes can be thin and they can be pointed. The reason whydeer’s have antlers because so that they can protect them from predators thatmight want to eat them. They also use their antlers to fight off other deer to. Adeers ears can be soft and tender the antlers are covered with thin layer of skinwhich is called velvet. The velvet can be very soft and it can be fuzzy. When theantlers are done growing then the velvet will dry up. Then the deer will scrape itoff against a tree or in a bush. The antlers on the deer can grow very big everyyear. But first the deers antlers has to be short and straight. When the deergrows older then the antlers will grow longer they can even form branches.ReproducingA female deer which is called a doe will normally give birth to one or two fawns.Fawns are usually born in the spring. Lots of fawns are all covered with whitespots. This will help them to hide in very tall grass. When the fawn reaches a weekor two weeks old. Then the fawn will start to follow its mother where ever shewill go. Fawns will follow their mother anywhere. Their mothers will continue toprotect them until they are at least a full year old. When that time has come then
  7. 7. the fawn will almost be as tall as their mother. Lots of fawns will start to lose theirspots when the young male deer will start to grow their first set of antlers. TheWhite tailed deer will also have three fawns to. They only give birth to only one ata time. A White tailed deer fawns gestation period is due to May or in June. Theirgestation period can also be for seven months. These fawns have a reddish-browncoat that can help them to blend in with their surrounding. This coat also hasspots on them. A fawn can usually be born in May or in June. A female and maledeer will start to mate in 6 or in 10 months then later on they will have a newbaby deer that is born. Lots of baby deer are called fawns. But other species ofdeer like the moose, elk, caribou and the reindeer babies are usually called calves.The first moment that the fawn in born then it will start o wobble and it will startto fall when it stands up. But pretty soon the deer will start to run and jump alonewith its mother. The baby deer will stay really close to its mother so that it can beprotected by predators that might want to kill it and eat it. That they will learnwhen they are out on their own. Their mother will teach them how to get foodand how to stay safe when danger is near. The fawn will learn by just watchingher. When the fawn is old enough to take care of its self then they will leave theirmother and they will find their own place in the wild. The deers mating seasonwill start during October and January. The mother will give birth through 7months. Female deer usually have one or three fawns. It is so lucky that the doesprotect their fawns by a lack of scent so that other predators will not be able tosmell them. A white tailed deer’s mating season will usually start in the late fall.Fawns will start to be born in the spring. A doe will only have one fawn at a time.If the doe has another time around of giving birth she might even have twins. TheWhite tailed deer mating season is called the rutting season. The rutting seasonwill usually take place in the fall. The biggest and the strongest buck in the herdcan only mate with the females. They will usually mate with 4 or 20 females in theherd. During mating the bucks will start to lose a quarter of their weight. Buckswill usually fight off the other males so that the males can have the change tomate with them. The younger males do not usually fight bigger males. Theyounger bucks always know which one is stronger. If a male deer is ready to matehe will usually scrape a spot on the ground with their antlers. The deers hoovesare created by a special scent. The males will leave the scrape on the scent on the
  8. 8. ground. When the female is ready to mate she will usually leave her scent on thesame scrape ground on the same one as the males are. If the both males want thesame doe they would have to fight for her. When they are fighting they will pushand stab with each other with their antlers. Sometimes these fights can causedeaths to. If the bucks starve to death then their antlers will lock on each otherantler. Most often the both end up giving up. Baby fawns are usually born duringMay or in the early June. A mother will only give birth to a single fawn at a timewhen the female is one year old. The female will be able to breed in a very youngage and they have to increase very fast because of the white tailed deerpopulation. When it is time for the female to give birth she likes to be alone whenshe is raising her baby. The mother will find a very quiet place for her to givebirth. A female will chase away another yearling or a one year old fawn. Bucks arealways so busy eating leaves and tree buds. After the males are done mating withthe females they usually do not help the females take care or raise the fawns.When fall comes that is the time of year when young bucks will start to grow theirantlers so that they can fight when the mating season comes back again. When anewborn fawn is born they have a scent on them. This scent can be an easy targetfor predators. After they are born their mother will lick the scent away so thatpredators will not be able to find them. After they are born a fawn can only standabout a half an hour standing up on its legs. Then they will start to drink theirmother’s milk. The mother’s milk is called colostrum. The colostrums will help thefawn grow and faster and stronger. When it is time for the mother to feed thefawn she will hide it so that she will be able to feed her young. Baby fawns havewhite spots on them so that they can hide in the grass or in a brush. Sometimesfemale deer can have twins. The mother will start to separate the both fawnswhen the mother leaves so that she can get food. By them hiding then predatorswill have a hard time finding them and so that they can escape from the animalthat is about to eat them. But usually when they are getting attack by anotheranimal then they will make a loud bleat. The mother will may respond to thefawns cries in 2 ways. The first way is that the mother can fight off the predatorand the second thing is the mother will try to get the predator to chase herinstead of her baby. During the summer time this is the time when the femalesare raising their fawns and they will start to get more weight during the summer.
  9. 9. They have learned to use less of their mother’s milk so that they can becomemore independent. Fawns like to play very strong. The male fawns will play bykicking, leaping and chasing their mother. Their mothers also teach their fawnshow to hide that is the most important skill for a deer. Fawns will start to losetheir spots in the late summer. After the fawns spots have disappeared then theywill be covered with a brownish gray color. A female deer will be pregnant for200-300 days. A female deer can have as much as 1 or 2 fawns. Survival StatusFor thousands of years some deer species have been killed to make deer meat,milk and for their skins. Today they are currently being farmed for their meatrather then killing the animal. In New Zealand there have been 3,000 deer farmsacross only two islands. Deer are not really endangered but people are killing thedeer for their meat and their habitats are the biggest threat to these animals.People are starting to push deer into smaller areas in forests that can beinhabited by bigger mammals. The future for the deer seems to be bright for thismammal. In some locations that predators are being wiped out. People havestepped in to help keep the deer population in balance. This will help them fromhunger. But for the less fortunate species people are working in preserve naturalareas in these places the deer needs a lot of room to live and find food. In aroundthe world their are 29 species and subspecies of deer that are starting to beconsidered endangered, threatened or the animal is vulnerable. These beautifulmammals will be a lot happier with the help of their habitats. In the past deerused to have a lot of space to live on and to eat. But now today deer have toshare their land with humans. People have taken over their land by replacingnature areas with towns and cities. To make sure that the deer are saved thepeople have plan aother nature ground that building and machines are notallowed anywhere near these areas so that the deer can live happy and so that
  10. 10. they can stay safe. If we cooperating with the deer and their land, we would haveto make sure that there will be a lot of deer for people to see. In the year if 1900the White tailed deer population use to be only 500, 000 and now today there areabout 18 million white tailed deer in the United States and in Canada. This hasincrease the White tailed deer population this can also be done to the reductionof their natural predators and some of mild winters White tailed deer nationalpredator are wolves. There is a big problem in the United States and in Canadapeople are killing wolves because so that they can protect their livestock. If thereare not a lot of wolves living in the wild these are the predators that can easily killa White tailed deer. Wolves are not killing a lot of sick deer if there is not enoughwolves to hunt deer then this will cause a disease will start to spread throughoutthe herds . If the White Tailed deer does not have an enough predators then thedeer population will quickly start to grow very fast. This will be problem becausethen the deer will not find enough food that they will need to stay alive. If thiscontinues then the deer will not be able to find food and they will start to starveto death and they will not find a lot of cold northern winters. All deer hunters aretrying to help the white tailed deer by hunting them so that they can balance theirpopulation this usually happens in the fall. The supplies that hunters use are freshmeat. They are doing this so that deer does not suffer from starvation whenwinter comes alone. Many people believe that the deer population will grow ifthey just let nature takes its course. Sometimes during a long cold northernwinter people often put out food outside for the deer to eat. This can help bysaving them from the winter cold. But this can till cause a problem for next winterbecause their will be not enough food for the deer to eat. People sometimesbelieve that the numbers of their national predators should let them be increase.That is if they are left alone then nature can recover its balance again. We mustdo something to help to save these amazing animals. These animals need all thehelp that they can get. Deer have the right to continue living on this planet. Theyare doing their part in nature and we should find a place in nature to. This is reallya big planet that is felled with wonders and discoveries that are waiting to befound. We have to make this planet safe for us and other creatures that we shareit with. This is our beautiful home it deserves to have a second change to live forthe next generation on this planet. That we share it with. This is our beautiful
  11. 11. home it deserves to have a second change to live for the next generation on thisplanet. The is a rally big, bright and beautiful future if we find a way to protect ourplanet that are world will be a safe place to live in. This is our world, and ourhome will be a happy and clean place to live on. We have to make room for otherliving creatures to. God made animals for a reason just like he made us. That iswhat I know about deer. If we all work together we can save the deer and otheranimals that live on this planet to. Together we can make a difference in ourbeautiful planet that we all share.