Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposion
IRIS 2014

#Folksonomies:
the next step forward to transparency?
Federico Costa...
<index>
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies
</FirstPart>

<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management
<...
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

3
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

Folksonomies are today the most advanced tool to achieve transparency on the
Int...
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

(1) Preliminary notions of semantic web

World Wide Web -> Semantic Web

Unstruc...
Semantic web & folksonomies

<FirstPart>
(1) Preliminary notions of semantic web

On the internet
(Facebook, Twitter,
Inst...
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

(2) define folksonomies and describe their main features
FOLKSONOMIES = semantic...
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

(2) define folksonomies and describe their main features

Empirical features of
...
<FirstPart>

Semantic web & folksonomies

(3) understand their implications

KEY FEATURE:
In folksonomies an implicit agre...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & legal
information management

10
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

In folksonomies individual activity (tagging) performed separat...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

(1) legal information management and its key issues

Legal info...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

(2) evaluate the impact of folksonomies on legal information ma...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

(3) theoretical implications
FEATURES::
(1) the possible combin...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

(3) theoretical implications

KEY
FEATURE:
Folksonomies
develop...
<SecondPart>

Folksonomies & Legal information management

(3) theoretical implications
Bottom up

Top down

Decentralized...
<ThirdPart>

Folksonomies, law &
transparency

17
<ThirdPart>

Folksonomies, law & transparency

Having introduced how folksonomies work and how they can be applied to lega...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>
(1) theoretical background

Transparency can be claimed as the synthesis of ...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>
(1) theoretical background

From an ontological and epistemological perspect...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>
(1) theoretical background

In philosophy of law, «opacity» of legal system ...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>
(1) theoretical background

Transparency concerns a model of legal system in...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>
(2) transparency and legal informatics

(1) Transparency is the
goal of maxi...
<ThirdPart>

Folksonomies, law & transparency

(3) perspectives of folksonomies and transparency
There are two perspective...
<ThirdPart>

Folksonomies, law & transparency

(3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency
From an empirical point of...
<ThirdPart>

Folksonomies, law & transparency

(3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency
From an epistemological pe...
Folksonomies, law & transparency

<ThirdPart>

(3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency
In terms of philosophy of ...
<Conclusion>

Folksonomies! Transparency?

28
<Conclusion>

Folksonomies! Transparency?

(3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency
(1) Can a tag be considered as...
<Conclusion>

X

</Conclusion>

Folksonomies! Transparency?

?

X

30
Many #thanks for your #time,
#patience & #attention

Federico Costantini
Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche
Università deg...
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#Folksonomies: the next step forward to transparency?

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<firstpart> Semantic web & folksonomies </firstpart>
<secondpart> Folksonomies & Legal information management </secondpart>
<thirdpart> Folksonomies, law & transparency </thirdpart>
<conclusion> Folksonomies! Transparency? </conclusion>

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#Folksonomies: the next step forward to transparency?

  1. 1. Internationales Rechtsinformatik Symposion IRIS 2014 #Folksonomies: the next step forward to transparency? Federico Costantini Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Università degli Studi di Udine [name].[surname]@uniud.it Freitag, 21. Februar 2014 Rechtswissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Salzburg Churfürststraße 1 5010 Salzburg Rechtsinformation IV Vorsitz / Chaired by Christine Kirchberger 14:00 - 15:30 Hörsaal 208
  2. 2. <index> <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies </FirstPart> <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management </SecondPart> <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency </ThirdPart> <Conclusion> Folksonomies! Transparency? </Conclusion> </index> 2
  3. 3. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies 3
  4. 4. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies Folksonomies are today the most advanced tool to achieve transparency on the Internet. They can be fruitfully used in legal information management. To support this assumption, firstly I wish to: (1) provide some preliminary notions of semantic web (2) define folksonomies and describe their main features (3) understand their practical implications 4
  5. 5. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies (1) Preliminary notions of semantic web World Wide Web -> Semantic Web Unstructured Data -> Metadata NOTE: (1) Metadata are description of the URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) (2) Metadata are associated to URI by users according to their own preferences (3) Collective tagging systems are tools to easily associate metadata to resources. Berners-Lee, Tim, Tim Bray, Dan Connolly, Paul Cotton, Roy Fielding, Mario Jeckle, Chris Lilley, et al. "Architecture of the World Wide Web." Geneva: W3C, 2004. Halpin, Harry. Social semantics. The search for meaning on the Web. Semantic Web and Beyond. New York: Springer, 2013. 5
  6. 6. Semantic web & folksonomies <FirstPart> (1) Preliminary notions of semantic web On the internet (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) At home («salt», «p epper») At work («invoices», «bank account», «payments») Tagging is a #natural activity By tagging we: (1) describe the contents of an object (2) label the item freely (3) use any lexical expression, even belonging to natural language (4) allocate many tags to an object (5) assign the same tag to different objects (6) share or recommend our 6 choices and preferences
  7. 7. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies (2) define folksonomies and describe their main features FOLKSONOMIES = semantic patterns resulting from the use of tags. They consist of sets of associations among three elements: (1) the users (people who actually place the tagging), (2) the tags themselves, and (3) the resources being tagged. Folksonomy = Folk + Taxonomy Vander Wal, Thomas, You down with folksonomy. http://www.vanderwal.net/random/entrysel.php?blog=1529 (2004). Hotho, Andreas/Jäschke, Robert/Schmitz, Christoph/Stumme, Gerd, Information retrieval in folksonomies: Search and ranking. In: Sure Y, Domingue J (Hrsg.), The semantic web: research and applications, 4011, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, S. 411-426 (2006). 7
  8. 8. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies (2) define folksonomies and describe their main features Empirical features of folksonomies (1) Immediacy. It’s easy to tag objects (2) Spontaneity. Nobody is forced, but people do it (3) Language. Describing reality is a «linguistic game» Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell, 1953. Vander Wal, Thomas, Explaining and showing broad and narrow folksonomies. http://www.vanderwal.net/random/entrysel.php?blog=1635 (2005). 8
  9. 9. <FirstPart> Semantic web & folksonomies (3) understand their implications KEY FEATURE: In folksonomies an implicit agreement typically arises among users in the choice of tags, thus creating a stable and consistent core of meaning which may be suitable as a classification scheme for the resources. HUMANS TAG, MACHINES COLLECT Folksonomies -> “human computation systems”: «intelligent systems that organize humans to carry out the process of computation» Law, Edith, and Luis von Ahn. Human Computation. Synthesis Lectures on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. edited by Ronald J. Brachmann, William W. Cohen and Thomas Dietterich San Rafael: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2011. </FirstPart> 9
  10. 10. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & legal information management 10
  11. 11. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management In folksonomies individual activity (tagging) performed separately is aggregated by a system in a consistent pattern which can be analyzed to gain information about the whole community of users. In order to consider how this tool can be applied to legal information management, we should: (1) clarify briefly how legal data are processed by automatic systems and what are the issues (2) evaluate how folksonomies can be introduced in this context and if they could be useful to reduce/solve the difficulties (3) understand what are the theoretical implications of this scenario 11
  12. 12. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management (1) legal information management and its key issues Legal information retrieval Legal artificial reasoning Bottom up approach Top down approach From legal terms to legal concepts From conceptual representation to document classification KEY ISSUES Openness Knowledge Define the boundaries of the domain Define the rules Define inferential patterns Apply rules to legal documents Process retrieved data Adapt rules to changing environment COMMON ISSUE sharing information among different systems Palmirani, Monica, Tommaso Ognibene, and Luca Cervone. "Legal rules, text, and ontologies over time." In RuleML2012@ECAI Challenge, at the 6th International Symposium on Rules, edited by Hassan Aït-Kaci, YuhJong Hu, Grzegorz J. Nalepa, Monica Palmirani and Dumitru Roman, 61-78. Montpellier: CEUR-WS, 2012. 12
  13. 13. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management (2) evaluate the impact of folksonomies on legal information management Legal information retrieval Legal artificial reasoning Openness of legal domain Adaptation of legal ontology Folksonomies Legal information retrieval Sharing information Legal artificial reasoning Openness of legal domain Interaction among different systems Adaptation of legal ontology to the domain -> different methods to integrate bottom-up population with top-down standardization Dotsika, Fefie. "Uniting formal and informal descriptive power. Reconciling ontologies with folksonomies. International Journal 13 of Information Management 29, no. 5 (Oct 2009): 407-415.
  14. 14. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management (3) theoretical implications FEATURES:: (1) the possible combinations of tags is virtually infinite (2) metadata may refer not only to the resources, but also to the way they interact with their environment (3) the descriptions may refer to the individual attitude towards the resources IMPLICATIONS: (1) Legal information retrieval -> widen legal domain Analyze different documents, not properly belonging to the theory of the sources of law (mainly: literature, judicial sentences and administrative rulings (2) Legal artificial reasoning -> shape semantic connections Ontologies can be improved and modified according to the links among tagged texts (3) Multilayering (legal domain <-> legal folksonomies <-> legal ontologies) Tags can create a intermediate level of interaction among systems ( -> fuzzy logic?) 14
  15. 15. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management (3) theoretical implications KEY FEATURE: Folksonomies develop “lattice” structures (“decentralized” pattern) Decentralized «lattice» structure from http://www.csc.ncsu.edu/faculty/healey/tweet_viz/tweet_app/ 15
  16. 16. <SecondPart> Folksonomies & Legal information management (3) theoretical implications Bottom up Top down Decentralized network Human brain Human interactions Computer network Legal informatics Baran, Paul. "On Distributed Communications Networks." In RAND Corporation papers: RAND, 1962. </SecondPart> 16
  17. 17. <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency 17
  18. 18. <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency Having introduced how folksonomies work and how they can be applied to legal information management, now we can tackle the issues arising with transparency. In ordet to it, we should: (1) define transparency from a theoretical perspective (2) deepen the meaning of transparency in Legal informatics (3) describe the resulting perspective 18
  19. 19. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (1) theoretical background Transparency can be claimed as the synthesis of theroetical quarrels or perspectives at different levels: Ontology • Natural Order • Modern System Epistemology Philosophy of law Legal information management • Experience • Knowledge • Sources of law (legal domain) • Legal concepts (Legal ontology) • Legal information retrieval • Legal artificial reasoning 19
  20. 20. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (1) theoretical background From an ontological and epistemological perspective, transparency is not a quality of the «system» in itself, but a specific view of it SCEPTICISM Perspectivism (nichilism) Natural Order (Reality) Transparency Opacity Modern System (Rationality) SCIENTISM Philosophy of Information 20
  21. 21. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (1) theoretical background In philosophy of law, «opacity» of legal system tend to be overruled by a formalistic perspective. German Civil Code (legal concepts) Legal ontology French Civil Code (sources of law) Legal domain Natural Law («Ordo juris») 21
  22. 22. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (1) theoretical background Transparency concerns a model of legal system in which structure and function are unified in a perpetuous process of codification of reality X Ordo juris (Nature) Legal ontology (legal concepts) X Legal System (Rationality) Transparency (codification) Knowledge (as a process) Legal domain (sources of law) Autopoiesis of the system Openness of the system Experience (as a process) 22
  23. 23. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (2) transparency and legal informatics (1) Transparency is the goal of maximum efficiency and effectiveness of legal information’s processes (2) Transparency means that it should be considered as a substitute of reality (3) Transparency means that everything (also individuals and ethics) are elements of the whole process Legal system Institutions NO BARRIERS Ethics Individuals 23
  24. 24. <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency (3) perspectives of folksonomies and transparency There are two perspectives on the relationship between folksnomies and Transparency: (1) empirical (2) theoretical 24
  25. 25. <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency (3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency From an empirical point of view, folksonomies are a common tool already in use. ES: in Italy: Linee guida per i siti web delle pubbliche amministrazioni 29 luglio 2011, pag. 20 «tassonomie create dagli utenti (folksonomie)» Background: - Decreto Legislativo 7 marzo 2005, n. 82, Codice dell'amministrazione digitale. (GU n.112 del 16-5-2005 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 93 ) - Art. 4, Direttiva 26 novembre 2009 n. 8 Ministro per la pubblica amministrazione e l’innovazione 25
  26. 26. <ThirdPart> Folksonomies, law & transparency (3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency From an epistemological perspective, folksonomies could be considered as a syntesis between «perspectivism» and «philosophy of information» Philosophy of Information «What is tagged must be real!» Perspectivism «what I tag is always true!» 26
  27. 27. Folksonomies, law & transparency <ThirdPart> (3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency In terms of philosophy of law, folksonomies could be considered as a context of metadata representing the sharing of «codification» processes performed by users Citizens Academics Institutions </ThirdPart> Lawmakers Judges Students Lawyers 27
  28. 28. <Conclusion> Folksonomies! Transparency? 28
  29. 29. <Conclusion> Folksonomies! Transparency? (3) main issues of folksonomies and transparency (1) Can a tag be considered as a piece of «knowledge» (justified true belief)? -> tagging is a kind of emotional activity… (2) Is tagging related to a legal competence? -> We should separate experts / non experts to make it affordable (3) Is tagging dependent by a technical skill? -> Not every jurist can interact with computers, and applications are not easy to use (4) Could tagging be really useful in legal information management? -> how could folksonomies interact with Legal information retrieval or artificial reasoning systems? (technical question) (5) Are legal folksonomies dangerous for citizens? -> freedom of expression + privacy -> freedom to tag? (6) Are folksonomies at least useful for building a “self digital legal environment” -> Can users finally organize their own legal material classifying heterogeneous texts and documents? 29
  30. 30. <Conclusion> X </Conclusion> Folksonomies! Transparency? ? X 30
  31. 31. Many #thanks for your #time, #patience & #attention Federico Costantini Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Università degli Studi di Udine [name].[surname]@uniud.it 31

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