Cheap to get data into a public cloud in drips but very expensive in bulk to move.Bandwidth constraint to move data around.Can not assume that the provider of the service has the same idea of how to achieve security and resiliency – how do you audit and inspect.
Department of Agriculture provides computing logistics and administrative services to DOD.FAA provides computing services to other agencies for administrative level (Oklahoma facility).Hosting where there were core skills and capacity and capability.
Governance Skills lost and rediscovered in systems management
Consider moving this up to after slide 9
Important concept -
Federals in Washington haven’t totally gotten the “no office hours” – depends on scope.Intel is always 24x7, but HHS, Agriculture, SSA (aka services organizations).Self-Service functions: Federal bank for bond purchase/redemption.
Data growth issuesData use issues - Transactional vs AnalysisNew challenge – movement to realtime, movement to more data means need innovation in changing how we implement the Store-Analyze pattern.This one changes how they need to think – look at all the underlying “services” that will have to be taken into consideration.Can no longer just tune the DB for one use or the other.Similar to but different from Boyd’s loop: Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (for fighter pilots – 1950) – decision support system.
Increasing prevalence of compute and data intensive parallel algorithms are being driven by real time decision making requirements and limitations to increasing thread speed.Where are you on this chart ?Do you have the infrastructure to enable moving up the chart ?
Db2 example - raj or kurt cotner or carl parrish or RACF people
Internet of things….Result- huge increase of data and data sharingCell Phone as sensorCar as a sensorRoad as a sensorPlane as a sensorAll feeding <something> that digests it….
Weak….Too deep for a general audience ? Not related to mission critical….Operations teams will be interested.Netflixx - what grade of service was paid for / built
Use this as a closing slide…..First few slides here are good ones….when to use ?
Dr. Greg Pfister (retired IBM DE), wrote a book in which he separated workload based on Synchronization (Essentially lock handling and context switches) traffic and “Bulk Data” traffic (essentially cache misses). We can map our workload types onto Pfisters axes. Then by transforming the axes to “fitness analogs” we can map machines. We can then put machines on the fitness axes. Corresponding location on the axes matches machines to workload types. (Temple’s assertion).Loads saturate when something other than the processors causes a bottleneck to throughput. (Cache, Memory, I/O, Network, OS, Application code, etc.) Platforms which saturate less under heavy data traffic are more fit for data centric loadsLoads that contend for shared resource, or cause updates to data in replicated data stores (caches, memories, disk storage) cause contention and coherence delays. These delays are the main source of serialization in other wise multithreaded loads. Also some batch and small interactive applications are written to drive a single thread of work. Platforms which can rapidly process a single thread when it is causing interference in a multithreaded environment are more fit for single threaded work.KEY POINT: here Virtualization drives a need for fitness on both the data centric and single threaded fronts, because it drives additional scheduling of shared resources and it drives cache working sets making the composite load more data centric than its parts.
Make this a build up chart….This chart shows machines on “server fitness” analogs to Pfister’s “traffic” axes. Temple’s assertion is that server location on these axes can be overlaid on workload type positioning on Pfister’s axes yielding a good initial estimation of matching servers to workload types. Keep in mind that a great deal of workload is positioned near the center of the graph which is why local factors have so much impact.
Governance Skills lost and rediscovered in systems management
Smarter Computing for Smarter Government Patterns for Success Tim Durniak, IBM STG CTO for Public Sector TDURNIAK@US.IBM.COM
Why do people believe that they can achieve their vision of the future… …by using just onearchitectural pattern?
Table of Contents A System view of Government and Information Technology Cost vs. Value The Dynamics of Smarter Government What Do You Choose?
The challenge lies in thinking past our boundaries A SYSTEMS MODEL FOR GOVERNMENT & IT
An agency is comprised of people… End User Requirements … performing Agency Functions Agency Process Requirements agency functions… …relying on services… Service Service Service Service Requirements …implemented by software… Software Software Software Software Requirements …deployed on Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Requirements hardware… …housed in a ―Data Center‖ Facilities & Operations datacenter… (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) Requirements …using utilities… POWER NETWORK Utilities Utility Requirements …who provide services to benefit that agency’s constituents.
Process Focus Utility is most Agency Functions Points of influenced in Discontinuity these layers Service Service Service Application Focus Value based Software Software Software Points of thinking Discontinuity requires Integration Hardware Hardware Hardware Platform Focus across the Warranty is layers. most influenced Points of ―Data Center‖ Discontinuity in these layers (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) POWER NETWORK Utilities Operations FocusValue based thinking considers the impacts to the system rather than layers.
Agency Functions Service Service Service Software Software Software Hardware Hardware Hardware ―Data Center‖ (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) POWER NETWORK UtilitiesThe Challenge: Organizational boundaries will obscure the system.
The Challenge: The complexity of the current state obscures the system. Business FunctionsBusiness Functions Business Functions Business Functions Business Functions Business Functions Functions Business Business Functions Business Functions Business Functions Service Service Service Business Functions Business Functionse Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service ServiceService Service Service Service Service Service Se Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Software Software SoftwareSoftware Software Software Software Software Software Software Software SoftwareSoftware Software Software Software SoftwareSoftware Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Software Softwareware Software Software Software Hardware Hardware HardwareHardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardwareare Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, Floor, Closet, ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ Center‖ Desk, Pocket ―Data Center‖ng, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) ―Data Floor, Closet, (Building, Floor,Cloud) Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, or Closet, ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ Desk, Pocket or Cloud)POWERor Cloud) NETWORK (Building, Floor, Closet, (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Clo UtilitiesER (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) NETWORK Utilities NETWORK POWER Utilities POWER NETWORK Utilities POWER NETWORK POWER Utilities NETWORK POWER Utilities NETWORK POWER Utilities POWER NETWORK Utilities NETWORK POWER NETWORK Utilities POWER NETWORK POWER Utilities NETWORK Utilities
Cloud:Helps define and Agency Functionsclarify system edges… Service Service Service …and can be a Software Software Software dramatic change to the Hardware Hardware Hardware flow of work in and across ―Data Center‖ (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) agencies. POWER NETWORK UtilitiesYou can achieve transformative innovation by leveraging the cost cutting cloud focus. Beware: Cloud is not “magic pixie dust” that will solve all ills.
Service delivery is an economic model that requires a balance between three different perspectives that comprise the business model of cloud computing. Service Creator Cloud Consumer Focused on service development Cloud Broker: Focused on effective use of services Focused on connecting the dots • Responsibilities Cloud Auditor: Responsibilities:• Create services to address domain needs Focused on monitoring • Improve effectiveness in day-to-day • Provide support operations • Priorities: • Provide Coordination across organizations • simplify deployment •Priorities: • simplify support • Time to valve • minimize incremental costs Service Catalogue • minimize incremental costs Cloud Provider: Focused on service delivery Responsibilities: •Priorities: • Resources aligned to service needs •leverage existing • Rapid service deployment •transform to new demands • Coordinate service creators & other service •minimize incremental costs providers
Digital Coming of Age: Access Data Sources Business ApplicationMonolithic computing Business Servicesarchitectures replaced Monitor & Manage Applicationby flexible system ofsystems. Middleware Operating System Hypervisor The “Mainframe” is not dead, its been Processor Memory Cache deconstructed and distributed. Network Storage System View
Cloud: Access Data Sources Business ApplicationA way to define Business Servicesrepeatable, Monitor & Managesustainable Applicationdeployment Middlewarepatterns of Operating System …that can leveragesystems… Hypervisor different technologies Processor optimized for the Memory Cache workloads. Network Storage
Avoiding the Strategy of Commons ThinkingCOST VS VALUE
No Avoiding the 800 Pound Gorilla Q1: “What are the most important external forces that will impact your organization over the next 3 to 5 years?” 2010 2012 Budgets 1 1 Budgets People skills 2 2 Technology factors Technology factors 3 3 People skills Macro-economic factors 4 4 Regulatory concerns Market Factors 5 5 Macro-economic factors Socio-economic factors 6 6 Socio-economic factors Regulatory concerns 7 7 Geopolitical factors Globalization 8 8 Globalization Environmental issues 9 9 Environmental issues Geopolitical factors 10 10 Market Factors15 Source IBM 2012 CIO Study : (Global n=1709) (Government n=175)
Cost Based Strategy Take sub- optimal action Short term focus leading to longer term issuesStrategy: Current course and Quick & measurable benefits speed CostsTragedy: Innovative Holistic approach Starves investment for innovation Transformation Current PlanAlternative: Short term decisions Holistic value based Long Term Thinking transformation Time
Value Based Transformation Leveraging cost cutting focus to drive continuous improvement Value is measured in outcomes. Investments are made to generate innovation &new outcomes. Forecast Plan Goals with every investment: Quick Time to Value Reduce Risk to Value Check Do
What happens when you go digitalDYNAMICS OF SMARTER GOVERNMENT
Transformation to Smarter Government Dramatic changes to the status quo within and across the agencies and the IT organizations Focus Area Transformative Actions IT System Capabilities Required Making Shift from paper to digital processes Digital data management Better Create and Maintain accurate data Automated business process management Decisions Add metrics, reporting and analytics Identity and Relationship analytics Visualization Being Add In-Line (streaming) Analytics Data Analytics Proactive Use of predictive models Technical Computing Resources Integrate across agencies Using Move to Citizen Self-Service Mobile and Portal Access Resources Move to shared (common) data Robust Security and Audit Effectively Increase coordination and collaboration Common applications across agenciesResulting Impacts on IT Service Delivery and Infrastructure:•Increased Dependency on IT systems – need resiliency and rapid agility to handle outages•Increased Dynamics & Volatility – need flexibility and elasticity to handle new or unpredictable uses•Increased Variety – need for systems designed for the new landscapes of emerging solutions•Increased Efficiency – need new operational models that generate maximum value from all resources
Increased Dependency on IT SystemsConsequences of automation combined with melding of the back office with the front office PROS: Self Service improves access Automation drives improvements in process Speed of Innovation enabled by new technologies CONS: “Office hours” no longer exist – when do you fix things? The back office has heightened security and access control needs Consumer grade expectations demanding more, quickly
Increased Dynamics and VolatilityAlways existed, adoption of technology and volume of data is accelerating thevariety and pacePredictive Intelligence: Procedural Intelligence:Anticipate necessary action React to what is happening Store ―Sensor‖ Event Policy Analyze Data Process Underlying IT Solution Areas that need change Data Transformation Data Storage Web Based Processes Data Analytics Data Archiving Real Time Analytics Visualization Information Management Identity Management Data Access Database Deployment
Increased VarietyAnalytic insight requires investment in good data plus a variety of skills and infrastructure How can we achieve the best outcome Stochastic Optimization including the effects of variability? Prescriptive How can we achieve the best Optimization outcome? Predictive modeling What will happen next? Analytics Proactive Advantage What will happen if … ? Simulation Predictive What if these trends continue? Forecasting What actions are needed? Alerts What exactly is the problem? Query/drill down Ad hoc reporting How many, how often, where? Reporting Descriptive Standard Reporting What happened? Degree of Complexity Based on: Competing on Analytics, Davenport and Harris, 2007
Increased VarietyGreater insight and efficiencies derived through integration across and between agencies Human resources …could attract and retain top-performing Agency head or employees by understanding drivers behind employee satisfaction and executive branch success? …could see how every tax dollar is spent? Agency Leaders …could gain critical insights to manage and maximize Transportation resources—people, capital department and processes? …could improve traffic flows and reduce emissions? Budgeting and Public Safety …could have insights to stay ahead of finance criminals and terrorists to the scene? …could have real-time insights into program budgets across bureaus, offices or programs to reduce Programs and services spending responsibly? delivery …could predict current and future needs of citizens and design programs accordingly?
Increased VarietyLocation, Location, Location – acceleration of digitization of anything, anywhere, everywhere Administration:Healthcare: Front Office, Back Office,Hospitals, Offices, Ambu Business, Citizens Accesslances, Payor, Patient, Homes, Office Transportation: Highways, Streets, Stations, Buses,Education: Trains, Planes(K-12, Universities)Districts, Schools,Classrooms, Labs, Homes Utilities (Power, Water): Plant, Distribution, Buildings Social Services: Public Safety: Offices, Providers, Field Headquarters, Precinct, Firehouse, Patrol Cars, Workers, NGOs Fire Trucks, Borders, Personnel, Drones
Increased EfficiencyStatus quo can not keep up, automation at all levels is needed and is the governor ofthe system PROS: Datacenter consolidation generates savings Cloud initiatives drive standardization Automation drives rapid time to value CONS: Outages have potential for broader impact Command and control infrastructure complexity increasing Latency in Command and Control inhibits responsiveness
Pfister’s Paradigm and the TrendsSmarter comes from turning data into information and information into wisdom. IT Workloads are determined by: • Amount of Data • Amount of Synchronization Question: How do you perform systems management in response to the volatile synchronicity that results from the crowd sourcing of self-service and mash-ups? Source: Joe Temple (email@example.com) + ‖In Search of Clusters‖ by Greg Pfister
Parallel Hell with clustering and replication Scaled up OLTP and Single Threaded Work “Mixed” Loads SingleHow much syncing?How much sharing? Threaded Contention and Coherence Loads with structure with data updates Query Loads Parallel Parallel Purgatory Nirvana Data Load How much data ? Source: Joe Temple (firstname.lastname@example.org) + ‖In Search of Clusters‖ by Greg Pfister
IBM Systems cover the workload spaceThree Technologies with different operating characteristics zEnterprise: • Lots of I/O, Dense Virtualization • Tight Looped Context Switching • Dedicated componentry • Security from chips up Power Systems: • High Performance • Dense Virtualization Question: • Security What is the fit ? System x: • eX5 memory extensions to x86 • I/O and cache choices PureSystems: • Integrated, managed environment • x86 and Power • V7000 Storage Source: Joe Temple (email@example.com)
zEnterprise Fitness for single threaded workContention and Coherence z/OS® Linux® Choose based on Fit i5/OS™ Linux System x5™ 3850 AIX Enterprise Power Windows Linux Power775™ Windows System x5™ 3950 AIX Linux SC Windows IBM BladeCenter™ AIX Linux PureFlex Fitness for Data Centric Work Saturation
There is variety here… Access Data Sources Business Application Agency Functions Agency Functions Business Services Agency Functions Agency Functions Agency Functions Agency Functions Application Monitor & Manage Service Agency Functions Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service ServiceFunctions Service Service Middleware Agency Software Service Service Software Software Software Software Service Operating System Software Software SoftwareSoftware Software Software Software Software Service Software Software Service Service Software Software Software Hypervisor Software Software Software Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware ProcessorHardware Hardware Memory Hardware Hardware Hardware Cache Software Hardware Hardware Software Software Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware Hardware ―Data Center‖ Hardware Hardware ―Data ―Data Center‖ ―Data Center‖ (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) Center‖ (Building, (Building, Floor, ―DataCenter‖ or Cloud) Hardware ―Data Center‖ HardwareCloset, Desk, Cloud) Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) Hardware Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Pocket (Building, Floor, Closet, (Building, Floor, Cloud) Network POWER POWER (Building, ―Data Desk, Pocket or Closet, Center‖ POWER Floor, NETWORK Pocket or Cloud) NETWORK Desk, Utilities Utilities NETWORK Utilities or Cloud) Desk, Pocket NETWORK (Building, Floor, Closet, POWER Utilities POWER NETWORK NETWORK Utilities Utilities ―Data Center‖ POWER Storage (Building, Floor, Closet, Desk, Pocket or Cloud) Utilities POWER NETWORK POWER NETWORK Utilities …so doesn’t it make sense that there is variety here.
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Thank You !Tim Durniak, IBMSTG CTO for Public SectorTDURNIAK@US.IBM.COM