The Variety of TeachingMethod2nd Group:Febrian SururiHusnul Khotimah
DefinitionTeaching method is ways of presentinginstructional materials or conducting instructionalactivities.teaching method to be used depends largely on theinformation or skill that is being taught, and it mayalso be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasmof the students.Teaching method Refers to how you apply your wayof teaching Approaches to your day to dayinstruction in front of your students.
The Variety of Teaching MethodThere are 6 kinds of teaching method :1. The Grammatical Translation Method2. Direct Method3. Audio Lingual Method4. Task-Based Learning5. Communicative Approach6. Total Physical Response
1. The Grammatical Translation Method (GTM)In the Grammar Method students learn the rulesof grammar together with a list of vocabularywords or groups.The words are then used as a phrase or sentencebased on rules that have been studied.In this method, the mastery of the rules ofprecedence than its application. Verbal skills,such as pronunciation, not done.
The Characteristic of GTM Teaching begins with the provision of the rules of grammar, and grammar refers to the framework formal. Vocabulary is taught depends on the selected text so there is no continuity between the group or a vocabulary list from one to another. Memorization and translation is a prominent feature of the activities, that is memorized and translate the vocabulary and grammar rules. Pronunciation is not taught or is restricted to a few aspects only. More emphasis on reading and writing rather than listening and speaking.
2. Direct Method (DM)Includes lots of oral interaction, spontaneoususe of language, no translation between thefirst and second language, and little or noanalysis of grammar rules.The direct method was an answer to thedissatisfaction with the older grammartranslation method, which teaches studentsgrammar and vocabulary through directtranslations and thus focuses on the writtenlanguage.
The Characteristic of DM Teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.E. Having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language) Centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation) Focus on question-answer patterns Teacher-centering
3. Audio Lingual Method (ALM) Audio-Lingual Method is an oral-based approach. It drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns. Conditioning → helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement. The development of language skills is a matter of habit formulation. This method is said to result in rapid acquisition of speaking and listening skills.
The Characteristic of AL Method New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogs. Dialogs– learning through imitation and repetition Grammar is induced from the examples. Drills are used to teach structural patterns Set phrases are memorised with a focus on intonation Focus is on pronunciation Correct responses are positively reinforced immediately Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence.
4. Task-Based Learning (TBL) In TBL learning is promoted by giving students tasks to complete while using the target language (Lindsay and Knight 23). The approach called task based learning is the logical outcome of theories of second language learning associated with the communicative approach. focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language.
TBL Based on three stages:- Pre-task Phase –introduction of topic/task/new words by teacher- Task Cycle -students do the task, students prepare a report to class,report presentation- Language Focus –analysis of new features and practice.The aim is to explore, listen and speak. Based on self-teaching. Grammar explained afterwards. Teacher is advisorand initiator, students are explorers and investigators.
The Characteristic of TBL Activities that involve real communication are essential for language learning Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process(Richards and Rogers 223) This desire to make learning more student-centred is reflected in widespread attempts This method relies heavily on learners’ involvement and their world knowledge.
5. Communicative Approach (CA) Communicative teaching is based on the work of sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary and rules of grammar and pronunciation. Communicative Method is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. The communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices.
The Characteristics of CA Students learn grammar and vocabulary through context. Students learn English in a way that allows them to use the language in real life. English students learn by complete immersion, by studying with native English speakers. There is little or no translation provided. Students must communicate with their teacher and with each other in English only. Lessons always include pair or group work activities. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.
6. Total Physical Response (TPR)Total Physical Response (TPR) is a languageteaching method built around the coordination ofspeech and action; it attempts to teach languagethrough physical (motor) activity.The method relies on the assumption that whenlearning a second or additional language, languageis internalized through a process of codebreakingsimilar to first language development and that theprocess allows for a long period of listening anddeveloping comprehension prior to production.
The Characteristics of TPR Good language learners achieve fluency faster when they are immersed in activities that involve them in situational language use; Good language learners often start their language learning with a period of silence as they watch the effect of language on others; Good language learners show comprehension by successfully accomplishing language-generated tasks; Good language learners focus on overall sentence meaning rather than a sentence’s grammatical parts; Good language learners make faster progress when the language of instruction is consistent (though limited) on a daily basis, and Good language learners make faster progress when the content involves language that is clearly usable or valuable outside the classroom.
ReferencesHarmer, Jeremy. (1991 ). The Practice of English LanguageTeaching. Harlow: Longman HouseHowatt, A.P.R. (1984). A History of English Language Teaching.Oxford: Oxford UP